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2014

516.0
517.3
43
21.02. 2014 . 1
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: , 2014. 138 .
ISBN 978-617-638-251-5
.
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516.0
517.3
6.050101 " "
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, E-mail:
v.belovodskiy@gmail.com

ISBN 978-617-638-251-5

.., 2014


................................................................................................................. 5
1. , , ................................................ 6
1.1. ...................................................................................................... 6
1.2. ................................................................................. 10
1.3. ...................................................... 11
2. , , ............................................... 16
2.1. .................................................................................................... 16
2.2. , ......................................................... 17
2.3. Matlab ...................................................... 19
2.4. ................................................................................. 21
3. ........ 26
3.1. ............................................................................................. 26
3.2. ............................................................................................ 28
3.3. ................................................................................................... 29
3.4. , ........................................... 34
3.5. Matlab .............................. 36
4. , .. 38
4.1. -.......................................................................... 38
4.2. , ................................... 39
4.3. ................................................................................. 41
5. , , .............. 47
5.1. .................................................................................................... 47
5.2. ................................................................ 49
5.3. ..................................... 50
5.4. ................................................................................. 51
6. , .......................................................... 56
6.1. .................................................................................................... 56
6.2. ...................... 57
6.3. ................................................................................. 58
7. .
............................................................................ 64
7.1. .......................................... 64
7.2. ..................................................... 66
7.3. ........................................................................ 67
7.4. ................................................................................. 70
8. ................................................................ 76
8.1. ................................................................. 76
8.2. ................................................................ 78
8.3. ................................................................................ 79
8.4. .............................................................. 82
8.5. ......................................................................................................... 86
9. ..................................................... 88
3

................................................................... 88
9.1. .............................................................................. 88
9.2. ................................................................................... 92
9.3. ....................................................................................... 97
9.4. ............................................................................... 100
10. , ................. 105
10.1. .......................................................................... 105
10.2. .............................................................................. 106
10.3. ................................................................... 114
10.4. .............................................................................. 119
10.5. ............................................................................. 120
11. .
.................................................................................... 124
11.1. .... 124
11.2. ................................................ 126
............................................................................................ 135
.................................................................................................. 138


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6.050101 " " "
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, 32
, 2-4 .
,
,
,
.
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
Matlab
.

1. , ,
III .
(The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art , Chinese
scholars), XIX .

.
1.1.

j1 , j 2 , , jn .
, .. ,, j n > j n + m , ,
j n , j n + m . inv ( j1 ,, j n )
j1 ,, j n . , , inv (1,2,3) = 0,
inv (3,2,1) = 3.
n ,
, n n

a11

a12

...

a 21

a22

... a 2 n

a1n

...
a n1

...
an 2

... ...
... a3 n

(1)

( 1)

inv ( j1 , j2 ,... jn )

j1 ,... jn =1
jk jm

a1 j1 a2 j2 ...anjn

(2)

, , ,
.
a11, a22, ann, (1)
, a1n, a2n 1, a3n 2, , a1n .
(2), n- n! , ,
n ,
. , ,

1 = a11 = (1)inv (1) a11 = (1)0 a11 = a 11 ,


6

2 =

a11 a12
inv(1,2)
inv(2,1)
= (1)
a11a22 + (1)
a12a21 = a11a22 a12a21,
a21 a22

..
.
, 3-

a11 a12
= a21 a22
a31 a32

a13
a23 = (1)inv (1,2,3) a11a22 a33 + (1)inv (1,3,2) a11a23a32 +
a33

+ ( 1)

inv ( 2,1,3)

a12 a 21a33 + ( 1) inv ( 2,3,1) a12 a 23 a31 +

+ ( 1)

inv (3,1,2 )

a13 a 21a32 + ( 1)

inv (3,2,1)

(3)

a13 a 22 a31 =

= a11a22 a33 a11a23 a32 a12 a21a33 + a12 a 23 a31 +


+ a13 a 21 a32 a13 a 22 a31 .

, ,
:
"+"
""

,
, (3)
"+", , "".
,
,
.
aij. i- j-
. (n-1).
aij Mij.
Aij = (1)i+j Mij,
aij
,
7

: ( )
. , ,
a 11 A11 + a 12 A 12 + + a 1 n A 1 n = a 21 A 21 + a 22 A 22 + + a 2 n A 2 n =
a
= 11 A 11 + a 21 A 21 ++ a n 1 A n 1 = a 12 A 12 + a 22 A 22 + a n 2 A n 2 == ,

, ,
n

a A = a A
j =1

ij

ij

i =1

ij

ij

=.

(4)

,
n- n (n 1),
, , .
1. .
i

, , 1
j

i2
,
j2

, i1, i2
j1, j2. ,
i +i + j + j
, ( 1) 1 2 1 2 ,
i

1
j1
i1
j1

i2
.
j2

i2
.
j 2

i
1
j1 , j2 =1 j1
n

j1 < j2

i2 i1
A
j2 j1

i2

j2 ,

(5)

. ,
i1, i2 , .
.

(4)

i1 i2 ... ik

j1 j2 ... jk

. 4- .

a11 a12
a
a
= 21 22
a31 a32
a41 a42

a13
a23
a33
a43

a14
a24
a34 .
a44

, , , i1=1, i2=2, (5) ,

=
+

a11

a12

a21 a22
a12
a 22

a33
a 43

a34 a11 a13


a 44 - a21 a23

a13 a31 a34 a12

a 23 a 41 a 44 a 22

a 32
a 42

a14 a31

a 24 a 41

a 34
a11 a14 a32
+

a 44
a21 a24 a 42
a33 a13
+
a43 a 23

a14
a 24

a33
+
a43

a31

a32

a 41

a 42

(6)


. ,
(6), 12
( 123 ), (6 )
, .. 36+6+5=47 .
( (4))
75 . 3-
(174 = 68 ), ij (4 )
(3 ).
, (2), 95 (
4! = 24 , 243 = 72 23
).
2. Matlab ,
, .
, , ;
..
det(A). , ,
1 2 3
= 4 5 6.
7 8 9

:
>> A = [1 2 3;4 5 6;7 8 9];
>> det(A)
Enter
ans =
0
>>

1.2.


.
1. ( ) 0,
0.
(2), ..
.
2. ( )
.
.
3. (
), .

.
4. ( ) ,
.
, (2),
, , (
). ,
= .

= 0.
5. ( )
,
,
, , .
, (2)
, , .
6. , (
) ( ).
4 5

( ).
7. - ( )
( ) 0.
, ,
( ).
8. ,
.
10


, .., ,
, (n 1) . n(n 1)/2
. ,
,
.
.
, ,
. , ,
, , .
, , ,
. , 4- ,
37 .
, , 1 . 1.1.
1.3.

.
1.

246

427 327

= 1014

543 443 .

342 721 621

. 1.
41
= 6 169

427 327
543 443 .

57 721 621
2.

41 100 327
= 6 169 100 443 .
57 100 621
3.

41
= 6 100 169

1 327
1 443 .
57 1 621
11

4.

41

1 327

600 128 0 116 .


57 1 621
5.

41

1 327

= 600 4 32 0 29 .
57 1 621
6. , 41
0

1 327

= 2400 32

29 .
98 1 621

7.
0
= 2400 2 16

1 327
0

29 .
49 1 621

8.
0

1 327

= 4800 16

29 .
49 1 621

9.
0
= 4800 49 16

1 327
0

1 1

29 .
6

10. , 327

12

= 4800 49 16

0 29 .
1 0 6

11.
= 480049(1)(166+29),

= 10 2 4948125 = 10 2 4912(4125) =
= 104496 = 294105.
: = 294105.
2. 204, 527 255 17. ,

2 0 4
= 5 2 7
2 5 5
17.
. ,
100 , 10.

2 0 204
= 5 2 527

2 5 255
17, ,
17 .
3.

3 1 1 1
1 3 1 1
1 1 3 1.
1 1 1 3

13

. 1.

2 0 0 2
0 2 0 2
0 0 2 2 .
1 1 1 3

2.

1 0 0 1
= 2 2 2

0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1 .
1 1 1 3

3.

=8

1 0 0 1
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1 .
0 1 1 4

4.

1
0
=8
0
0

0
1
0
0

0 1
0 1
1 1 .
1 5

5.

1 0 0 1
=8

6.
,

0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1 .
0 0 0 6

14

=86=48.

: =48.

1. .
2. .
3. .
4.
.
5. .
6. .
7. .

1.

x 1

x3

x2 + x + 1

: 1.

246

427 327

2. 1014 543 443


342 721 621

: 294105.

15

3 1 1 1
1 3 1 1

3. 1 1 3 1
1 1 1 3
: 48.

2. , ,
,
, (The Nine Chapters on the
Mathematical Art , Chinese scholars,III . ..), "",
mter , ,
,
1850 .
2.1.

, ,
m n , m n.
: dim A = m n .
m n :

a11

a 21
= ...

a
m1

a12

...

a 22
...

...
...

am 2

...

a1 n

a2n
... ,

a mn

()
... [...] ,

( )

: A = aij

A = aij

mn

A = aij .
mn

mn

m = n, , ,
. 11, 22,
, a1n , a2n1 ,...,an1 , .
.
1. ,
, .. dim A = dim B , ..
aij =bij.
2. , .
0.
3. 1,
0, .

16

E. , ,
1 0 0

1 0

E =
, , E = 0 1 0 ..
0
1

0 0 1

4.
, .. aij = aji,
. , ,
a b

A =
, , A = b d e .
b a

5.
, .. aii = aii,
.
i = j ,
, aii = aii, aii = 0. ,
,
0

0 c .
b c 0

, A = a

2.2.

.
1. ().
. ()
() . , ,
A = (aij )m,n , B = (bij )m,n . A B = C = ( cij )m,n , cij = aij bij .

2. . A = (aij )m, n

( )

, .. A = aij

m, n

3. .
T
, A ,
T
. , A = aij m,n , A = B = (bij )n,m ,

( )

bij = a ji .
, ,

1 2 3
,
A =
4 5 6

17

T = 2
3

5.
6

,
. dim A = m n , dim AT = n m .
4. . AB AB
, .
, , .. A,
, .. B. , ,
dimA = mk, dimB = kn. , C ,
.. C = AB. dimC = mn cij C
i - A k

j - B, .. cij = ailblj = ai1b1 j + ai 2b2 j + ... + aikbkj .


, :

l =1

1

A = (1 2 3), B = 2 ,
3

dim A = 1 3 , dim B = 3 1 . dim( AB ) = 1 1


A B = (1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3) = (14) ,

dim( BA) = 3 3
1 2 3

B A = 4 5 6 .
7 8 9

5. . B A,
AB=BA=E, E . A,
A1.
.
dim A = n n , det A
A. ,
det A 0 , .. A ,
A11 A12

1 A21 A22
1
A =
det A ... ...

A A
n1 n2

18

... A1n

... A2n
,
... ...

... Ann

Aij aij A. (Aij)n,n,


, c
.
,
a11

a12
.
a22

A =

a21

det A =

a11 a12
= a11a22 a12a21
a21 a22

A11 = (1) a22 = a22 , A12 = (1) a21 = a21 ,


1+2

1+1

2+1
A21 = (1) a12 = a22 , A22 = (1)

2+2

a11 = a22 .

a22 a21
a11 a12
1
1

.
a11a22 a12a21 a12 a11 a11a22 a12a21 a21 a22
T

A1 =

. ,
-, . . 3.3.
,
:
1. A + B = B + A , .
2. A(B C) = AB AC , .
3. ( AB)C = A(BC) , .
4. ( A B) = A B ,
.
5. ( + )A = A + A , ,
.
6. AB BA , ..
. , ., , .
7. A 0 = A , ..
.
8. AE = EA = A , ..
.
9. det(AB) = det A det B , A B .
2.3.

Matlab


1 2 3
. , , A =
.
4 5 6

19

A = [1 2 3; 4 5 6] .

:
1. : A'.
2. , : AB.
3. : AB.
4. : det(A).
5. : inv ( A ) .
.
>> A=[3 1 1;2 1 2;1 2 3];
>> B=[1 1 -1;2 -1 1;1 0 1];
>> A
A=
3 1 1
2 1 2
1 2 3
>> B
B=
1 1 -1
2 -1 1
1 0 1
>> A'
ans =
3 2 1
1 1 2
1 2 3
>> A+B
ans =
4 2 0
4 0 3
2 2 4
>> A*B
ans =
6 2 -1
6 1 1
8 -1 4
>> det(A)
ans =
-4
>> inv(A)
ans =
0.2500 0.2500 -0.2500
1.0000 -2.0000 1.0000
-0.7500 1.2500 -0.2500
>>

20

2.4.

1.
n

1 1

.
0 1

. . :
1 1
,
0 1
1 1 1 1 1

=
n = 2 P2 =
0 1 0 1 0
1 2 1
n = 3 P3 = P2 P1 =

0 1 0

n = 1 P1 =

2
,
1
1 1
=
1 0

1
Pn =
0

3
.
1
n
.
1

1
Pn +1 = Pn P1 =
0

n 1 1 1

=
1 0 1 0

n + 1
.
1

.. .
n

1 1
1
=
0 1
0

n
.
1

2. ,
.
.

a
A =
c

b
,
d

. , , A 2 = E ,
a

b a

d c

b 1
=
d 0

21

a 2 + bc

ac + dc

ab + bd
bc + d 2

1
=

0
.
1

,
a 2 + bc

ab + bd

ac + dc
bc + d 2

=1
=0
=0

=1

a 2 + bc = 1

b ( a + d ) = 0
.

c ( a + d ) = 0
bc + d 2 = 1

1. a + d = 0 .

a 2 + bc = 1

bc + d 2 = 1

, d = a,
a 2 + bc = 1 .

..,
d = a
d = a
d = a

1 a2 .
2
2
bc = 1 a
a + bc = 1
c =
b

. , ,

a
A = 1 a2

b
a 1 .
a

a = 1 , b . ,

22

1
A =
0

b
1
A =
m 1
c

0
,
m 1

b .
2. a + d 0 .
b=c=0
a 2 = 1
.
2
d = 1

, d a , a = 1 , d = 1 . ,
1
A =
0

0
.
1

,
b
a
1 0
1 0
.
, A =
: A = 1 a 2 a , A =
0 1
c m 1

3.
2

A= 1
1

2 3

1 0 .
2 1

.
1. .

2
det A = 1
1

2
1
2

3
0
0 = 0
1
1

6
1
2

5
6
1 = ( 1) ( 1) 3 +1
1
1

5
1

= 1.

, A'.

A11 = ( 1)1+1

23

1 0
= 1,
2 1

A12 = ( 1)1+ 2

= 1,
1 1
1 1
A13 = ( 1) 1+ 3
= 1,
1 2
2 3
A21 = ( 1) 2 +1
= 4,
2 1
2 3
A22 = ( 1) 2 + 2
= 5,
1 1
2 2
A23 = ( 1) 2 + 3
= 6,
1 2
2 3
A31 = ( 1) 3 +1
= 3,
1 0
2 3
A32 = ( 1) 3 + 2
= 3,
1 0
2 2
A33 = ( 1) 3 + 3
= 4.
1 1

A = 4
3

1
5
3

6 .
4

3. :

A 1 =

1
A T = 1
det A
1

4
5
6

3
4

1 4 3

A = 1 5 3 .
1 6 4

4. , AA1.

24

2 3 1 4 3
2

A A 1 = 1 1 0 1 5 3 =
1 2 1 1 6
4

2 + 2 3 8 10 + 18 6 6 + 12 1


= 11+ 0
4+5+0
3 + 3 + 0 = 0
1+ 2 1
4 10 + 6
3 6 + 4 0

0
1
0

0 .
1

4 3

5 3 .
1 6 4

: A1 = 1

1. ,
.
2. ,
.
3. .
4. .

3 1
2 1 1

, B = 2 1 . AB BA.
3 0 1
1 0

1. A =

9 3 4
9 3

:
,
7 2 3 .
10 3 2 1 1

cos
sin

2. det A , A =
: 1.

sin
.
cos
n

1 2 3

2 .
0 0 1

3. A1 , A = 0 1
1 2 7

: 0 1 2 .
0 0 1

25

3.


. , ,
,
(1810.).
1750 ., .

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1
a x + a x + ... + a x = b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2
,

...

an1 x1 + an 2 x2 + ... + ann xn = bn

(1)

Ax = b ,

(11)

A = (aij ) nn ,
b = (b1 , b2 ,..., bn )T

x = ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn )T

.
3.1

.
= detA , aij,
, xk ,
k-
. k- ,

, ..
xk =

xk

xk ,

, k = 1,..., n .

26

(1) A11 ,
a11 A , A21 , ..,
An1 . ,
,
(a11 A11 + ... + an1 An1 ) x1 + (a12 A11 + a22 A21 + ... + an 2 An1 ) x2 + ... +
...(a1n A11 + a2 n A21 + ... + ann An1 ) xn = b1 A11 + b2 A21 + ... + bn An1

(2)

x1 (2)
, (.
7, .1.2),
x1 .
, (2)

x1 = x1 ,
x1 =

x1

, , , ..
A12 , A22 ,..., An 2 ,

A , ,
x2 =

x2

.., .
, ,
(1) , .. detA 0.
.
2 x1 x2 + 2 x3 = 4

x1 + x2 + 2 x3 = 1
4 x + x + 4 x = 2
2
3
1

.
1. .
,

27

(3)

2 1 2
= 1

2 = 2 1 4 1 2 4 + 1 1 2 2 1 4 2 2 1 + 1 1 4 = 6 .

2. .
4 1 2
x1 = 1 1 2 = 16 + 4 2 + 4 + 8 4 = 6,
2

2 4 2
x2 = 1 1 2 = 8 32 4 + 8 + 8 + 16 = 12,
4 2 4
2 1 4
x3 = 1

1 = 4 + 4 4 + 16 + 2 2 = 12 = 12.

3. .
x1 =

x1

x
x
12
12
6
= 2 , x3 = 3 =
= 2 .
= 1 , x2 = 2 =

6
6

4. .
1- : 21 2 + 2(2)=4
2- : 1+1+2+2(2) = 1
3- : 41+2+4(2) = 2

: ( x1 , 2 , 3 ) = (1,2,2) .
3.2.

(11) .
, detA0. A A1.
(11) A1, , ,
:

A1 ( Ax) = A1 b
( A1 A) x = A1b

Ex = A 1b .. x = A1b .
. ,
, , , detA0.

28

. (3).
.

4
2 1 2

b = 1 , A = 1 1 2 , detA = 6 0.
2
4 1 4

A1 .

A11 = 2,

A12 = 4,

A13 = 3,

A21 = 6,

A22 = 0,

A23 = 6,

A31 = 4,

A32 = 2,

A33 = 3.

:
4 3
1/ 3 1 2 / 3
2

A 1 = 1 / 6 6
0 6 = 2 / 3 0
1/ 3 .
1/ 2
4 2 3
1 1 / 2

,
1 / 3 1 2 / 3 4 1

x = 2 / 3 0 1 / 3 1 = 2
1/ 2
1 1 / 2 2 2

: x1 = 1, x1 = 2, x1 = 2
3.3.

, ,
. , ,
(1) , ,

x2 + a13
x3 + ... + a1n xn = b1
x1 + a12

+
x
a
x3 + ... + a2 n xn = b2
2
23

...

xn = bn

29

,
. , xn = bn ,
, xn1 .. ..,
,
.

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 = b1

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a23 x3 = b2 ,


a x + a x + a x = b
33 3
3
31 1 32 2

, , .
1. a11 ,
x 1 + a 12' x 2 + a 13' x 3 = b1'

a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 + a 23 x 3 = b 2
a x + a x + a x = b
32 2
33 3
3
31 1

2. ,
a21, , a31. ..,
:
2 . := 2 . 1. 21
,
3 . := 3 . 1. 31

x1 + a 12 x 2 + a 13 x 3 = b1
x 2 + a 23
x 3 = b 2
a 22
x 2 + a 33
x 3 = b 3
a 32

3. ,
.
,
2 . :=

2 .

22

3 . = 3 . 2 . 32

30

x 1 + a 12 x 2 + a 13 x 3 = b1
x 3 = b 2
x 2 + a 23

33 x 3 = b 3

3.
3 . :=

3 .

33

.
1.
0
,
, .
2. .
,
.
,
0 = bk ,

bk 0 . ,

,

0 = 0.
.

3. , , ,
, , ,
, , .

.

x1 + a 12 x 2 + a 13 x 3 = b1
x 2 + a 23
x 3 = b 2 .
a 22
x 2 + a 33
x 3 = b 3
a 32

31

+ a 13 x 3 = b1

x1 +

x 3 = b 2
x 2 + a 23
x 3 = b 3
33

,
x
1

x2

= b1
= b 2
x 3 = b 3

, ,
-.
4. -
. , ,
2 3
2

A = 1 1 0
1 2 1

( 3 . 2.4)
2

2 3 1 0 0

1 0 0 1 0 .
1 2 1 0 0 1

(A E ) = 1

,
.
,
E, A1, ..
1 0 0 1 4 3

1 0 1 5 3 .
0 0 1 1 6
4

(A E ) ... (E A ) = 0
1

,
, , AX = E, ..
,
.

32

. (3).
. ,
x1 + x2 + 2 x3 = 1

2 x1 x2 + 2 x3 = 4 .
4 x + x + 4 x = 2
3
1 2

.
1. , : ..
2 . := 2 . 1. 2
3 . := 3 . 1. 4.

x1 + x2 + 2 x3 = 1

3 x2 2 x3 = 2

3 x2 4 x3 = 2

2. , . ..
2 .
3
3 . := 3 . 2 . ( 3)
2 . :=

x + x + 2 x = 1
3
1 2

2
2
x2 + x3 = .

3
3

2 x3 = 4

3- x3 = 2
2- x2 = 2
1- x1 = 1 .

33

. 2 2- (3)
.
3.4.


, .
. n
(n+1) n.
n! , n
.
nn!1 , (n+1)(nn!1) .
n ,
Cr (n) = n (n + 1)!1 .

(4)

. :
1. det A . (nn!1) .
2. n2 (n1). n2((n 1)(nn!1))
.
3. n2 det A.

4. A1 b. n2(2n 1)
.
,
Matrix(n) = n 2 n!+2 n 2 n 1 .

(5)

. .
n(2n 1) , ,
(n 1)(2(n 1) 1) .., , , 1 (2 1 1)
. ,

n(2n 1) + (n 1)(2(n 1) 1) + ... + 1 (2 1 1) =

= 2 n 2 + (n 1) + ... + 1 (n + (n 1) + ... + 1) =
=2

n(n + 1)(2n + 1) n(n + 1) n(n + 1)(4n 3)

=
2
6
6

. ,
12 + 2 2 + ... + n 2 =

n( n + 1)( 2n + 1)
.
6

34

.
xn 1 (n 1)- 21 ,
xn 2 (n 2)-, 22, .. x1, 2(n 1)
. , n(n 1) .
,
G ( n) =

n ( 4n 2 + 9n 7)
6

(6)

.
.
n , Cr (n)/Matrix(n) ,
Matrix(n)/G(n), .
[9] ,
n n +1/2
n O n , ,
e
O (n3 ) . , n Cr (n),
Matrix(n)>>G(n), ,
(4), (5), (6) 1.

1.

1
2
3
4
5

1
11
71
479
3599

1
13
68
411
3044


1
9
28
62
115

. ,

. ,
,
. , ,
, n .
:
, (n 1) (2(n 1) + 1) ,
a11 ;
, (n 2) (2(n 2 ) + 1) ,
a22 ;

35

.., , (n 1) , 1(2 1 + 1) ,
.
ann
,

n:

(n 1)(2(n 1) + 1) + (n 2)(2(n 2) + 1) + ... + 1(2 1 + 1) + (n 1) =


2
2
= 2((n 1) + (n 2 ) + ... + 12 ) + (n 1) + (n 2 ) + ... + 1 + n 1 =

= 2

(n 1)n(2(n 1) + 1) + n(n 1) + n 1 = n 2(n 1)2 + (n 1) 3(n 1) + 6 1 =

n((n 1)(2n + 2 ) + 6 )
n(n 2 + 2 ) n 3 + 2n 3 (n 1)(n 2 + n + 3)
=
1 =
1
=
.
6
3
3
3
6

, ,

Cr ' ( n) =

(n 2 1)( n 2 + n + 3)
+n,
3

O(n4) (4).
3.5.

Matlab

Matlab,
,
. , (11)
, ,
B. ,
AX=B,
,
.
,
\, ..
X=A\B.
, (3) :
>>A=[2 1 2; 1 1 2; 4 1 4];

36

>>b=[4; 1; 2];
>>x=A\b
x=
1
2
2

, det A = 0 , .

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .

1.
x + y + 2 z = 1

2 x y + 2 z = 4
4 x + y + 4 z = 2

, .
: ( x, y, z ) = (1,2,2) .
2. X
2 5
4 6

X =
.
1 3
2 1
2

23
.
8

37

4. ,

, - , , - , -
,

.
XIX .
4.1.

.
, rankA,
,
, () .
, .
, , :

1 2 3

= 4 5 6 .

7 8 9

det A= 0 , rankA < 3 . , ,


.

1 2
4 5

= 5 8 = 3 0 .

, rankA = 2 .
, , = (1 0 2) .
, 1 = 1 0 ,
, rankA = 1 .
, , ,
, ( ) -
( ) ( ).
. , ,
,
, , ,

38

, ( ),
.
,

Ax = b,

(1)

T
x = ( x1 , x2 ,K, xn ) , b = (b1 , b2 ,K, bn ) ,
. B , A
, , , b, .
.
.
1. rankA = n , (1) ;
2. rankA = rankB < n , (1)
;
3. rankA rankB , (1) .
,
-.
, (1) ,
rankA = rankB .
. Matlab rank ( A)
A,
.

4.2

, ,
, ,
. rankA = rankB , ..

. , ,
. rankA < n , , , . .
n n
Ax = 0,

(2)

.. A rankA = m < n . ,
(2)

39

x1 + a1, 2 x 2 + K + a1,m x m + a1,m +1 x m+1 + K + a1,n x n = 0

x 2 + K + a 2 ,m x m + a 2,m+1 x m +1 + K + a 2 ,m x n = 0

x m + a m ,m +1 x m +1 + K + a m ,n x n = 0

, ,
rankA = n ,
.
, xm +1 ,K , xn
x1 , K , x m .

x1 = b1m +1 x m +1 + K + b1n x n

.
x = b
mm +1 x m +1 + K + bmn x m .
m

, ,

x m+1 = x m+1 , .., xn = xn ,



x1
b1n
b1m +1

K
K

x
b

b
m = xm +1 mm +1 + K + xn mn .
xm +1
0
1

K
K

1
0
x

xm +1 ,K, x n ,
c1 ,K , cn m , ,
(2), e1 ,K , en m .
. ,

x = c1e1 + K + cn men m ,
40

(3)

c1 ,K, cn m . (3)
(2).
1.
, .
2. (n m ) (3)
.
4.3.

1.
2 1 11 2

1 0 4 1
A=
.
11 4 56 5

2 1 5 6

.
1.
1 .:= 1 . 22 .
3 .:= 3 . 112 .
4 .:= 4 . 22 .

3
4
0 1

1
0
4

A A1 =
.
0 4 12 16

0 1 3 4

2. 3-
3
4
0 1

4 1
1 0
A1 A2 =
0 1
3
4 .

0 1 3 4

3. :
3 .:=3 . 1 .,
4 .:=4 . + 1 .
41

1
A2 A3 =
0

0 4 1
0 0 0

0 0 0

1 3

4. 1- 2-
0 4 1

4
0

0 0 0

0
A3 A4 =
0

1 3
0 0

5. , 1-, 2- 1-,
2-
1 0
0,
0 1


0. , rankA = 2 .
: rankA = 2 .
2.
x + y + z = 1

x + y + z =
x + y + z = 2

.
. -.
1.

A = 1
1

1.
1
1

det A = 3 + 1 + 1 = 3 3 + 2 .
42

0.

3 3 + 2 = 0,
3 2 + 2 = 0,
( 1)(2 + 2) = 0,
( 1) 2 ( + 2) = 0.

, 1, 2 = 1 , 3 = 2 .
2. 1, 2 , det A 0 . , , rankA = 3
.
3. = 1 ,
1 1 1

rankA = rank 1 1 1 = 1.
1 1 1

.
1 1 1 1

rankB = rank 1 1 1 1 = 1.
1 1 1 1

,
rankA = rankB < 3 ,

, ,
.
2. = 2 .

1
2 1

rankA = rank 1 2 1 = 2,
1
1 2

2 1 1 1

rankB = rank 1 2 1 2 =
1 1 2 4

43

..
1 1 1
2 1 2 0
1 2 4

= 3.

, rankA rankB , ,
.
: 1,2 ,
= 1 , = 2 .
3.
x1 + x 2 + x3 + x 4 + x5 = 0
3x + 2 x + x + x 3x = 0
2
3
4
5
1

x 2 + 2 x3 + 2 x 4 + 6 x5 = 0

5 x1 + 4 x 2 + 3x3 + 3x 4 x5 = 0,

.
. .
1. 2- 3-
x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 0

x2 + 2 x3 + 2 x4 + 6 x5 = 0

3
x
+
1 2 x2 + x3 + x4 3 x5 = 0
5 x1 + 4 x2 + 3 x3 + 3 x4 x5 = 0.

2.
3 .:=3 . 31 .
4 .:=4 . 51 .

x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 0

x2 + 2 x3 + 2 x4 + 6 x5 = 0

x2 2 x3 2 x4 6 x5 = 0

x2 2 x3 2 x4 6 x5 = 0.

3.
1 .:=1 . 2 .
3 .:=3 . + 2 .
4 .:=4 . + 2 .

44

x3 x4 5 x5 = 0
x1

+
x
2 x3 + 2 x4 + 6 x5 = 0
2

0=0

0 = 0.

4. 3- 4- , ,
x1 , x2 .
x1 = x3 + x4 + 5 x5

x2 = 2 x3 2 x4 6 x5

5.

x1 = x3 + x4 + 5 x5
x2 = 2 x3 2 x4 6 x5

x3 = x3
x =
x4
4
x =
x5 ,
5
x1
1
1
5




x
2
2

2



6
x3 = x3 1 + x4 0 + x5 0 .




x4
0
1
0
0
0
1
x



5

x3 , x 4 , x5 .
1, 2, 3. ,
x1
1
1
5




x

2
2
2


6
x3 = c1 1 + c2 0 + c3 0 ,




x4
0
1
0
0
0
1
x



5

. e1 = (1, 2,1, 0, 0) , e2 = (1, 2, 0,1, 0) , e3 = (5, 6, 0, 0,1)


.
45

: x = c1e1 + c2e2 + c3e3 .



1. .
.
2. -.
3. ,
.

1. ,
. .
: .
2.
x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 + 4 x4 = 0
x + x + 2 x + 3x = 0
1
2
3
4
.

x1 + 5 x2 + x3 + 2 x4 = 0
x1 + 5 x2 + 5 x3 + 2 x 4 = 0

: x1 = x2 = x3 = x4 = 0 .

46

5. , ,


. ,
, XVII (, ),
(1888).
.
5.1.
.

K , , K
, , /, 0,
K. , , ,
,
, [0, 1] .
, , , 0 1K, ..
= K = 0, /, ( 0) K .
a, b, c
, , L
K, :
1. ,
, K, ..
, bL K ab, aL;
2. , , ,

a =a = a;
3. a L
( a ) , a a = a ( a ) = .
, ,
, ..

a b = b a ,

(a b) c = a (b c),
(a b) = a b ,
( + )a = a a,

47

0a = ,
1a = a,
1a = a.
. ,
:
1.

P = {pn} = ax2 +bx+c, a,b, cR, a 0 ,


p1(x) p2(x) p1 ( x )
, ..

p1(x) p2(x) = p1(x) + p2 (x) = (a1 + a2)x2 + (b1 +b2)x + c1 + c2 ;


p1 ( x) = a1 x 2 + b1 x + c1 .
2.

P = {p(x)} = ax2 + bx+ c, a, b, c R, ,


p1(x) p2 (x) p1 ( x )
.
3.

P ={p(x)} = ax2 +bx+ c, a,b,cR ,

:
p1(x) p2 (x) = p1(x) p2 (x) ,

p1 ( x ) = a1 x 2 + b1 x + c1 .
:

1.
.. p ( x ) = ax 2 + bx + c , q( x) = ax2 bx c P ,
p( x) q( x) = p( x) + q( x) = 0 P .
2. ,
.. .
3. P ,
.. p(x) = x2 q(x) = x2 P, p(x)q(x) = p(x)q(x) =
=x2 2x2 = 2x4P.

48

5.2.

a1, a2 ..., an L

, 1a1 2 a2 ... n an

i K , 1 = 2 = ... = n = 0 .
. , ,
, , "+",
.
1. a1, a2,, an . ,
,
.
.
, ,
1a1 + 2a2 ... + n an = 0
, , n 0 .

n an = 1a1 2 a2 ... n 1an 1


, n,

an =

a 2 a ... n 1 an 1 ,
n 1 n 2
n

.
e1, e2,, en
L, n .
, , ,
.
{ei} x
e1, e2,, en, x . , 1,
, ..
:

x = x1e1 + ... + xnen .

(1)

, .. , ..
x1,..., xn :

49

x = x1e1 + .. + xn en ,

(2)

(1) (2) ,

( x1 x1)e1 + ... + ( xn xn )en = 0 .


,
x1 = x1,..., xn = xn .

e1, e2,, en,

, x1,,xn ,
x1 = (x1,,xn)T.
x e1, e2,, en.

. ,
"" , ..
x y = ( x1 + y1 ,..., xn + yn ) ,
T

x = (x1,...,xn ) .
T

.
L
, .
.
5.3.

{ei } {ei}, ,
x = {xi } x = {xi} , .
.
,
ek = 1k e1 + 2 k e2 + ... + nk en , k = 1, n

{ek } {ei }.
11 12

T = 21 22
... ...

n1 n 2

50

... 1n

... 2n
,
... ...

... nn

, ,
. :

x = xk ek = xk ( ik ei ) = xk ik ei = xi ei = x .
k
k
i
i k
i

(. 5.2) ,

k ik

= xi ,

.. i- {ek } i-
T x = ( x1,..., xn )T . ..
Tx = x .

(3)

x = T 1x

(4)

(3), (4)
. , T1 , ..
det T 0 , , {ek } .
5.4.
1. ,
X1 = (2, 1, 3, 1) , X 2 = ( 1, 1, 3, 1) ,
X 3 = (4, 5, 3, 1) , X 4 = (1, 5, 3, 1) .

.
.

X = 1 X1 + 2 X 2 + 3 X 3 + 4 X 4 ,
kK .
.
1. .
X1, X2, X3, X4,

51

2 1 4 1

1
5
5
1
A=
,
3 3 3 3

1 1 1 1

( ) .
,
0 1 2 3

1. := 1. + 2 4.
0 2 4 6
A 2. := 2. + 4. =
2. := 2. 2 1. =
0 0 0 0

3. := 3. + 3 4.
1 1 1 1

0 1 2 3

0 1 2 3
0 0 0 0
.
=
=
0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

..
0 1
0,
1 1

, rankA = 2 {X1 , X 2 , X 3 , X 4 } 2.
2. , X2, X3
X1, X4. ,
.
: 2. X1, X4
.
2.

e1 = (1,0,0,0) , e2 = (0,1,0,0) , e3 = (0,0,1,0) , e4 = (0,0,0,1)


e1 = (1,1,0,0) , e2 = (1,0,1,0) , e3 = (1,0,0,1) , e4 = (1,1,1,1) .


.
1. .
ek

{ek } ,

52

1
T =
0

1
0
1
0

1
0
0
1

1
.
1

2. .
T
T
X = (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) {ek } , X = ( x1, x2 , x3 , x4 )
{ek } . (3), (4) TX = X ,

x1 = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4
x2 = x1 + x4

x3 = x2 + x4
x4 = x3 + x4 .

xk ,
1
1
1
1
x1 + x2 x3 x4
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
'
x2 = x1 x2 + x3 x4
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
x3' = x1 x2 x3 + x4
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
'
x4 = x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 .
2
2
2
2
x1' =

.
3. "" e1,,e4
x12 + x22 x32 x42 = 1 .
e1 = (1,1,1,1) , e2 = (1,1,1,1) ,
e3 = (1,1,1,1) , e4 = (1,1,1,1) .

ek {ek } .
.
1. .
T
X = ( x1, x2 , x3 , x4 ) ,
X T AX = 1 ,

53

(5)

0
A=
0

0
.
0 1 0

0 0 1
0
1

0
0

2. .
, :
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
T =
.
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

TX = X .

(6)

3. {ek }.
(6) (5),
(TX )T A(TX ) = 1 ,

X T T T A T X = 1 ,

1
1 1
1 1

1 1 1 1 0
(x1x2 x3 x4 )
1 1 1 1 0

1 1 1 1 0

1
1 x1
0 1 1

0
0 1 1 1 1 x2
= 1,
1 0 1 1 1 1 x3

0 1 1 1 1 1 x4

1
0
0

0
0
( x1 x 2 x3 x 4 )
4

0
0

4
0

, ,

54

0 x1

4 x 2
=1,
0 x 3

0 x 4

8 x1x3 + 8 x2 x4 = 1 .

: 8x1x3 + 8x2 x4 = 1 .
. , Matlab
1 rank(A),
2, inv(T),
3
T'AT.

1. .
2. .
3.
.
4. .
5. .
6.
.

1. ,
. .
: 4, :
1 0
0 1
0 0
0 0
e1 =
, e2 =
, e3 =
, e4 =
.
0 0
0 0
1 0
0 1

2.

2,sin x,sin 2 x,cos 2 x (, +) .

: .

3. X = (1,9,18) {ek' } ,
10
{ek } e1' = e1 + e2 + 10e3 , e2' = e1 e2 , e3' = e1 + e2 + e3 .

: X' = (9, 72, 72).

55

6. ,

, "operor" , ,
y = kx
.

.
6.1.

Ln n K,
e1, e2,,en . , Ln A% ,
~
xLn x = Ax ,
x,
~
~
~
A(x + y ) = A x + A y , , K , x, y Ln .
~

A .
,
{e k } ..
% = a e + a e + ... + a e
e1 = Ae
1
11 1
21 2
n1 n
% = a e + a e + ... + a e
e = Ae
2

12 1

22 2

n2 n

......................................................
% = a e + a e + ... + a e
e = Ae
n

1n 1

2n 2

(1)

nn n

% = a e.
ek = Ae
ik i
k
i

A , ..
a11 a12 ... a1n

a
a
... a2 n
A = 21 22
.
.
.
.
.

an1 an 2 ... ann

A% . ,
, .

56

, x = ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) .

% .
x = Ax

% = A% x e = = x Ae
x = Ax
k % k = {(1)} =
k k
k

k

= xk aik ei =
= aik xk ei .
k
i

i k

, ,
xi = aik xk ,
k

.. i - i -
. ..
x = Ax ,

(2)

.. A% Ln .
,
, ,
.
,
, :
% + Bx
% ;
1. ( A% + B% ) x = Ax
~ ~
~ ~
2. A B x = A B x ;
% );
3. ( A% ) x = ( Ax

( )

A + B , AB , A .
6.2.

(1), .
.
{e k } A% A , {e k } ,
A , ( 1). x , x
{e k } {e k } , ,
y , y .

57

1.
y = Ax
y = Ax
.
Tx = x
Ty = y

(3)

, (3) ,
Ty = ATx

y = Ax

y = T 1 ATx
.

y = Ax

A = T 1 AT ,

(4)


.
6.3.

1.
R 3 = {( x, y, z ) , x, y, z R} x 3z = 0 .

58

.
1. ,

2. 1
OM , OM , MM . ,
OM = OM + MM .

.. MM n , MM = tn .
OM = OM + tn

OM = x + t 1, y + t 0, z t 3 .

2. t.
.. M P ,
x + t 3( z t 3) = 0

( x 3z ) + 4t = 0 .

t=

3z x
.
4

59


3z x
3z x
.
OM = x +
, y, z 3
4
4

,
3x + 3z
z + 3x
M
, y,
.
4
4

2. A% , , A .
3
3
x + 0 y +
z
4
4

~
M = A M = AM =
y
=
3
1
x + 0 y + z

4
4

3
4
0
3
4

0
1
0

3
x
4
0 y .
1 z

4

A=

3
4
0
3
4

0
1
0

4
0 .
1

4. ..

~
~
~
A(x + y ) = A(x + y ) =
= Ax + Ay = A x + A y ,

A .
~

2. A 1.
:
.
% = 0 .
x L : Ax
, L, ,
.

1. .
, ,

Ax = 0 ,

60

(5)

A=

3
4
0

0
1

3
4

4
0 .

.. det A = 0 , (5) .
.
3
3
z=0
x+
.
4
4
y = 0

y = 0 , z = 3x . .. {( x, y, z )} = C (1,0, 3 ).
2. .
.. A%
P : x 3 z = 0 ,
P , ..
( 3 z , y, z ) , , z R .
~
: A = {C (1,0, 3 )}, A% = {( 31 , C2 , 1 )} , 1 , C2 R .

3. A A {ek },
~

e1 = e1 e2 + e3
e2 = e1 + e2
e3 = e1 + 2e2 + e3 ,

{ek }
0 1 1

A = 1 0 1 .
1 1 1

.
1. T.
(. 5)
1 1 1

T = 1 1
2 .
1
0 1

61

2. (4), A {ek }.
detT = 1,

T 1 =

1 1 1 1 + 1
1

1
2 1 = 3 2 + 1 .
3
1

1 1 0 +1 +1 0

1 1 1 0 1

A = T 1 AT = 3 2 1 1 0
1 1 0 1 1

3 4 7

= 3 7 15 .
0 2
5

3 4

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 2 =
1 1 0 1

: A = 3 7 15 .
2

4. x = ( x1 , x2 , x3 ) , Ax = ( x2 x3 , x1 , x1 + x3 ) , Bx = ( x2 ,2 x3 , x1 ) .
~ ~ ~
B (2 A + B ) x .
.
1. A% , %

0 1 1
x2 x3

% = Ax = x
A
=
Ax
,

1
1 0 0
1 0 1
x +x

1 3
x2
0 1 0
% = Bx = 2 x , B = 0 0 2 .
Bx
3

x
1 0 0
1

2. B% (2 A% + B% ) x .

62

B% (2 A% + B% ) x = B (2 A + B) x = 2 B ( Ax) + B ( Bx) =
0 1 0 x2 x3 0 1 0 x2 2 x1 + 2 x3


.
= 2 0 0 2 x1 + 0 0 2 2 x3 = 6 x1 + 4 x3
1 0 0 x + x 1 0 0 x 3x 2 x
3

1 3
1 2

:
2 x1 + 2 x3

B% (2 A% + B% ) x = 6 x1 + 4 x3 .
3x 2 x
3
2


1. .
2. .
3.
.

1. A A% ,
(1,0,1), (1,1,3), (0,1,3) (3,4,2), (3,7,2),
(1,5,1), .
: , A%
.
2,5 0,5 0,5

A
=
:
2, 0 1, 0 2, 0 .
1,5 0,5 0,5

2. A' A% {ek' } , {ek }



2 1 0

A = 1 0 1 .
1 1 1

'
, e1' = e1 + e3 , e2 = e1 e2 , e3' = e1 + 2e2 e3 .

1 2 5

: A' = 2 1 6 .
1

63

7.
.

,
. , (XVIII .)
, ,
,
. XIX .
,
.
7.1.
A% ,
x 0 ,

% = x .
Ax

(1)

x, , ,
.
:
x, y , ,
, , 0 , x + y
, .
,
% = x Ay
% = y,
Ax

, A% ,
% + Ay
% = ( x) + ( y ) = ( x + y ) .
A% ( x + y ) = Ax

, A A% ,
.
, (1)

Ax = x,

64


( A E)x = 0 .

(2)

.. x 0 , , -,
det( A E ) = 0 .

(3)

(3)
n-
, n - A , ,
,
A% . (3)
1 , 2 ,..., n , , = k
(2) ,
A% .
, , .
.

A% , .
. 1 ,..., m ,
x1 ,..., xm , .. Axk = k xk
( A k E ) xk = 0 . ,
1 ,..., m :
1 x1 + ... + m xm = 0 .

, m 0 .
, , (4)
( A 1E ),..., ( A m 1E ) ,

(4)

( A 1E ) xm = (m 1 ) xm ,

( A m 1 E ) xm = (m m 1 ) xm ,

m (m 1 )...(m m1 ) xm = 0 .
.. m 0, xm 0 , , ,
0, . .. (4) x1 ,..., xn ,
.
65

. Matlab
A eig ( A) .
: v = eig(A)
v, [vect , D] = eig ( A) ,
D,
vect. :
>> A=[3 4;5 2]
A=
3 4
5 2
>> v=eig(A)
v=
7
-2
>> [vect,D]=eig(A)
vect =
0.7071 -0.6247
0.7071 0.7809
D=
7 0
0 -2
>>

7.2.
Ln n, e1 ,..., en , A
A% ,
1 ,..., n . e1,..., en
.
A A% .
T {ek } {ek } . ,
,
A = T 1 AT ,

, ..
% = e ,
Ae
k
n k

A = diag (1 ,..., n ) .

,
A = diag (1 ,..., n ) = T 1 AT ,

66

.. , ,
.
7.3.
, ,
, , .
, r. ,

rank ( A E ) = n r ,

(5)

n ,
, r
(2) r
. , ,
,

r,
, ..
1

A =

0
O

, (5) , ..
k = rank ( A E ) > n r , (2)
,
.
, , ,

, .

, , ,
,

67

1 0 0
1 0

0 1 0 ..

0 1
0 0 1
0
0 0

0 0 0


. , ,
, , .. ,
,
. ,
.
. , , r=4,
rank ( A E ) = n 3 . , (2)
, ,
,
. ,

0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 1 .

0 0 0

..,
( A k E ) .
,
., , [1].
: Matlab
[T, J] = jordan(A), T
, J .
.
1.
>> A=[1 2 0; 0 2 0 ;-2 -2 -1]
A=
1 2 0
0 2 0
-2 -2 -1
>> [T,J]=jordan(A)
T=
0 -3 2
0 0 1
-1 3 -2
J=

68

1
0
0
>>

0
1
0

0
0
2


.
2.
>> A=[2 8 6; 4 10 6;4 8 4]
A=
2 8 6
4 10 6
4 8 4
>> [T,J]=jordan(A)
T=
2.0000 0.5000 1.5000
2.0000 2.0000
0
-2.0000 3.0000 1.0000
J=
0 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2
>>

1,2,3 = 0,2,2
= 2 2 rank ( A E ) = 2 ,
.
3.
>> A=[3 0 8; 3 1 6; 2 0 5]
A=
3 0 8
3 1 6
2 0 5
>> [T,J]=jordan(A)
T=
4 1 2
3 0 0
-2 1 1
J=
1 1 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
>>

1,2,3 = 1 , rank ( A E ) = 1 ,
( A E ) x = 0
,
. , ""
2.

69

7.4.
1.

0 2 1

A = 2 0 3 .
1 3 0

. 1. .

1
3 =0.

,
3 + 14 = 0 .

,
( 2 + 14) = 0

1 = 0, 2,3 = i 14 .
2. , 1 = 0 .
(2) = 1 ,
0 2 1 x


2 0 3 y = 0 .
1 3 0 z

, ,
2y + z = 0

+3z = 0 .
2 x
x 3 y
=0

,
3
1

z, z, z ,
2

{( x, y, z)} =

70

{( x, y, z )} = {c( 32 , 12 ,1)} ,
c .
3. , 2 = i 14 . (2),

i 14 x + 2 y + z = 0

2 x i 14 y + 3z = 0 .

x 3 y i 14 z = 0

, x ,

x + 3 y + i 14 z = 0

(i 14 6) y (3 + 2i 14) z = 0 .

(2 + 3i 14) y + 13z = 0

x + 3 y + i 14 z = 0

3 + 2 i 14
z = 0.
y+
6 i 14

13
z=0
y
2 + 3i 14

x + 3 y + i 14 z = 0

2 3i 14
z =0.
y
10

2 3i 14
z=0
y
10

71

2 3i 14
z,
10
6 + i 14
z.
x=
10

y=

,
6 + i 14 2 3i 14
,
,1 .
10
10

{( x, y, z )} = C

4.

3 = i 14 .

6 + i 14 2 + 3i 14
,
,1 .
10
10

{( x, y, z )} = C

:
:

0,

i 14 ,

i 14 .

3 1 6 + i 14 2 3i 14 6 + i 14 2 + 3i 14
C , ,1 , C
,
,1 , C
,
,1
10
10
10
10
2 2

2. A,
Am, m N .
. A.
x0:

Ax = x.
Amx.
Am x = 1
AA
...3
A x = A( A...( A x)...) = m x .
2
m

,
Am x = m x ,

.. m Am.

72

: 1 ,..., n A, 1m ,..., nm
Am.
3. :
1
4 6 0
1 1 1

0
) A = 3 5 0 ; ) A = 3 3 3 ; ) A =

0
3 6 1
2 2 2

2
1
0
0

3
2
1
0

3
.
2

. a)
1. .
4
3
3

5
0 = 0.
6
1

( 1) 2 ( + 2) = 0,
1,2 = 1, 3 = 2.
2. = 1 r=2. rank (A E ) .

3 6 0

A E = 3 6 0 .
3 6 0

rank (A E ) = 1 . ,
n rank (A E ) = 3 1 = 2 = r .


1 0 0

J = 0 1 0 .
0 0 2

)
1. A.

73

1
3
2

1
3
2

1
3 = 0.
2

3 = 0 ,
..

1,2,3 = 0
2. = 0 r = 3, k = rank (A E ) = 1 . ..,
n k = 2 .

0 0 0

J = 0 0 1 .
0 0 0

)
1. ,
( 1) 4 = 0 .

1,2,3,4 = 1 .
2. = 1 r = 4. k = rank ( A E ) = 3 .
n k = 4 3 = 1 .
r (n k ) = 4 1 = 3 .

1

0
J =
0

1 0 0

1 1 0
0 1 1

0 0 1

1
1 0 0
0 0 0

0
: ) J = 0 1 0 , ) J = 0 0 1 , ) J =

0
0 0 2
0 0 0

74

1
1
0
0

0
1
1
0

0
.
1

1.
.
2.
.
3. ,
. , .
4. .

1.

2 1

)
; )
1 2

0 0 1

0 1 0 ; )
1 0 0

2 1 2

5 3 3 .
1 0 2

:
) 1 = 1, 2 = 3; X 1 = c1 (1,1), X 2 = c2 (1,1) .
) 1 = 1, 2,3 = 1; X 1 = c1 (1,0, 1), X 2,3 = c2 (1,0,1) + c3 (0, 1,0)

) 1,2,3 = 1 . X 1 = c1 (1, 1,1), X 2 = c2 (1,1, 1)


2.
1. .
1 0 0

0 0 1

1.
0 1

1 0

: )
; ) 0 1 0 ; ) 0 1
0 3

75

8.

. 1773 .
, .
1846 . .
, ,
, .
8.1.
.
a AB , A , B
.
a .
, , , .
. ,
, .
, ,
. a b , ,
. ,
,
, , , .
.

.
AB Ox . A1 B1
A B Ox. A1B1 .
AB Ox, Ox AB ,
A1B1 , A1B1 Ox A1B1 ,
"", , ..

Ox AB =

AB , A1B1

Ox

AB , A1B1

Ox

,
[0, ] ,
Ox AB = AB cos .

76

xA, xB A, B
Ox ,

Ox AB = xB xA .
, , ..
,
, ..
(a b) = a b ,

( a) = a .


ax, ay, az a . ,
, ,
. ..
.

a = (a x , a y , a z ) . , ,
a b = (ax bx , a y by , az bz ) a = ( ax , a y , az ) .

,
:
1. , .. ax, ay, az;
2. a
, .. cos, cos, cos, , , ,
.
,
ax = a cos , a y = a cos , az = a cos , ,
.
3. A( xA , y A , z A )
B( xB , yB , zB ) .

ax = xB xA , a y = yB y A , az = zB z A
, , .
,
, ..

a = ax 2 + a y 2 + az 2 ,

77

.. ,
ax, ay, az.
.

i, j , k ,
Ox, Oy, Oz , .
.
a = a x , a y , a z

a = axi + a y j + az k .

8.2.
a b ,

( )

a b , a, b a, b ,

. ..
a b = a b cos ,

(1)

= a b , [0; ] .
, b cos = a b , a cos = b a , (1)

a b = a a b = b b a .

(2)


:
1. a b = b a ;
2. a (b + c ) = a b + a c ;
3.
(a b ) = (a ) b = a (b ) .

4. a b a b =0.

, a b . = , s = 0 , ,
2

a b = a b cos = 0 . a b = a b cos = 0 .

78

1. s =0. = , , a b .
2

2. a b = 0, .. a b ,

, ,
, .
, :
, .
( ) .
, b ,
, a
, a b ,
b
a .
(a b ) . a =( a1, , 2 , 3 ),

b = ( b1, , b2 , b3 ).

a = a1 i + 2 j + 3 k ,
b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k .
,
i i = j j = k k = 1,
i j = i k = jk = 0,

a b = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3 .

,
.
8.3.
a b , a b ,
[a, b] [ab] , , :

1. c a , c b ;

2. c = a b sin , = a b .

79

3. ,
a b
.
a b
1.

1.
:

1. a b =

( b a ),

2. a ( b + c ) = a b + a c ,
3. ( a b )= ( a ) b = a ( b ),
.
4. a b = 0 a || b .

a b = 0 a b =

.
,

= 0 a b sin = 0 sin = 0 a = 0 b = 0 . = 0 ,

80

. , a b , a b = 0
, a b = 0 .
a b = 0 ( 2).
a

2. a b

b , ,
a b b
. ..

mom0 b = a b .

a b

( 3). | a b |=

a b sin , = a b .

, ,
a b ,
, ..

3. a b
S = a b sin = a b .
1
2

, S = a b .

81

a b . a = (a1 , a2 , a3 ) ,
b = (b1 , b2 , b3 ) i , j, k .
a b = (a1 i + a2 j + a3 k ) (b1 i + b2 j + b3 k ) =
=

, i i = 0, i j = k , i k = j ,

j i = k , j j = 0, j k = i

k i = j , k j = i, k k = 0

= (a2b3 a3b2 )i (a1b3 a3b1 ) j + (a1b1 a2b1 )k =

i
j
= a1 a2
b1

k
a3 .
b3

b2

, a b
,
, , a
, b .
. ,

a b , a = 3 p + 2 p q , b = 2 p q , | p |= 4, | q |= 3, = p q =

.
S= | a b |.

3
.
4

S= |( 3 p + 2 q ) (2 p q )|= |3 p 2 p 3 p q + 2 q 2 p 2 q q |
= .. p p = q q = 0, p q = q p = 7| p q |=

3
=7| p || q |sin p q = 743 sin =

= 743

2
= S = 42 2
2

: S = 42 2 ..
8.4.
a , b , c
. ..,
( a b ) c .

, , . ,

82

( a b ) c = ( b a )c,

( a b ) c = c ( a b ).
( a b ) c ( 4).

4.
,

|( a b ) c |=| a b || c |s .
| c |s = h,

(3)

c a b . (3)
, , a , b , c ,
.

, , ( , ),
2

,
, ..

V = |( a b ) c |.
, , ,

83

V . =

1
|( a b ) c |.
6

.
,
.
, a , b , c , , ,

V =0, , , 0. ,
. ,
.
.
a = ( a 1 , a 2 , a 3 ), b =( b1 , b 2 , b 3 ), c = ( c 1 , c 2 , c 3 ).

( a b ) c = a1 a 2 a3 c =
b1
a2

b2

a3
a
i 1
b3
b1

a2
b2

a3
a
c1 1
b3
b1

a3
a1
j +
b3
b1

b2

b3

a2
k )( c 1 i + c 2 j + c 3 k )=
b2

a3
a
c2 + 1
b3
b1

c1
a2
c 3 = a1
b2
b1

c2

c3

a2
b2

a3 .
b3

, , ,
a1

a2

a3

( a b ) c = b1 b2 b3 .
c1

c2

c3

, , .
, ,

( a b ) c =( b c ) a = ( c a ) b .
,
a, b, c , ,
a b c . ,
, ,

84

,
. ..

a b c= b c a = c a b .
,
.
. 1 (1,1,2),
2 (2,1,2), 3 (1,1,4), 4 (6,3,8) 4
1 2 3 .
.

A1 A 2 = (1 ; 2 ; 0

)
A1 A3 = (0 ; 2 ; 2 )
A1 A 4 = (5 ; 2 ; 6 ) .
V 1 2 3 4

V=

1
A1 A2 A1 A3 A1 A4 ,
6

..
1 2 0
1
1
0 2 2 = 12 + 20 + 0 0 + 4 + 0 =6.
6
6
5 2 6

V=

S 1 2 3 .

S=

i j k
1
1
1 2 0 = A1 A2 A1 A3 ,
2
2
0 2 2

..

S=

1
1
4i + 2k 2 j =
2
2

(4)2 + (2)2 + (2)2 =

85

6.

1
3

V = S A4 ,
A4 , 4 .
,
A4 =

3V 18 6
=
=3 6 .
S
6 6

: V= 6, A4 = 3 6 .
8.5.
Matlab a b , a b (a b) c
dot (a, b) , cross (a, b)
dot (cross (a, b), c) , norm(a ) .
.
>> a=[-1 -1 6]
a=
-1 -1 6
>> b=[-1 1 4]
b=
-1 1 4
>> c=[3 3 2]
c=
3 3 2
>> norm(a)
ans =
6.1644
>> dot(a,b)
ans =
24
>> cross(a,b)
ans =
-10 -2 -2
>> dot(cross(a,b),c)
ns =
-40
>>

1.
.
2. ,
.

86

3.
.
4. ,
.
5. ,
.
6.
.
7. ,
.
8. ,
.
9.
.

1.

x = (15, 20, 1)

p = (0, 2,1) , q = (0,1, 1) , r = (5, 3, 2) .

.
, , x = p + q + r .
: ( , , ) = (6,1,3) .
2
3

2. a b = . (3a 2b)(a + 2b) ,


a = 3, b = 4 .

: 61 .

3. A(1, 1, 2), B (5, 6, 2), C (1,3,1) ABC .


, B .
: 297 / 17
4. , A(1, 2, 1), B (0,1,5), C (1, 2,1), D(2,1,3)
.
. AB, AC , AD .

87

9. .

,
.
,
,
. ,
1637 . . ,
. XVIII
.
9.1.

1. .
.
.
,
M 0 ( x0 , y0 , z 0 ) n = ( A, B, C ). n
.
, (x, y, z),
( 5).

5.

0 = ( x x0 , y y 0 , z z 0 ) P 0 n . ,

0 n = 0 .

88

A(x x0)+B(y y0) + C(z z0) = 0.

(1)

n = ( A, B, C ) .
(1) .
. (1),

Ax + By + Cz (Ax0 + By0 + Cz0) = 0


D = (Ax0 + By0 + Cz0),

Ax + By + Cz + D =0,

(2)

.
, . ,
. ,
,
.
0 (x0,y0,z0), 1 (x1,y1,z1), 2 (x2,y2,z2).
(x,y,z), (
6).

6.
0 = ( x x0 , y y0 , z z0 ) ,

0.
0 2 = ( x2 x0 , y2 y0 , z2 z0 ) .

0 1 = ( x1 x0 , y1 y0 , z1 z0 )

89

x x0

y y0

z z0

x1 x0

y1 y0

z1 z0 = 0.

x2 x0

y2 y0

z 2 z0

(3)

(3) .
. (3) 0,
, 0, 1, 2 .

, 01.
2. .
1: A1x+ B1y+ C1z+ D1=0
2: A2x+ B2y+ C2z+ D2=0,
l
.
,
, , ,

, .. , 0, .
2
n1 , n2 P1, P2
. , l,
( 7).

7.

= n1 , n2 .

90

= =

cos = cos cos = cos

cos = cos =

n1 n2
,
n1 n2

..

= arccos

n1 n 2
n1 n 2

n1 = ( A1 , B1 , C1 ) , n2 = ( A2 , B2 , C 2 ) .
1. P1||P2 , n1 n2 , .

A1 B1 C1
=
=
.
A2 B2 C 2

, .

2. P1 P2 , = n1 n2 = 0 , .. A1A2+B1B2+C1C2=0.
2


.
3. . 0(x0,y0,z0)
d P: Ax + Bx + Cz + D = 0.
d ,
0 . (x,y,z), (
8) . ,

d = n MM 0 .
,
d=

MM 0 n
n

A( x0 x ) + B ( y0 y ) + C ( z 0 z )
A2 + B 2 + C 2

, , , Ax + By + Cz = D,

d =

Ax 0 + By 0 + Cz 0 + D
A2 + B 2 + C 2

91

8.
9.2.
1. . .
.
M0(x0, y0, z0)
s = ( m , n , p ) , .
M(x, y, z), l.
M 0 M s .
,

x x0 y y 0 z z 0
=
=
.
m
n
p

(4)


.
. , (4),
t.
x x0
y y0
z z0
= t;
= t;
= t.
m
n
p

= x0 + mt

y = y0 + mt.
z = z + mt
0

92

(5)

(5) ,
t +.
, .
M0(x0,y0,z0) M1(x1,y1,z1) , M(x,y,z),
. , , , s = M 0 M ,
(4),

x x0
y y0
z z0
=
=
.
x1 x0 y1 y0 z1 z0

(6)

. (4), (5), (6)



A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0

A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0.

(7)

. , ,

,
.
2. . l1 l2 , ..
l1 I l2 ,
( 9), .. 0,

. l1, l2

, l1
l2 , l2

l1, .. = l1 , l2 , l 2 || l 2 l2 I l1 ( 9).

9.

93

, , s1 , s2 l1 ,
, .
( 10).
l2 ,

10. s1 , s2

= s1 , s2 .

= = .

cos = cos = cos ,


..
cos = cos ,

arccos =

s1 s2
s1 s2

= arccos

s1 s2
s1 s2

. l1 || l2 , s1 || s2 . l1 l2 , s1 s2 .
3. .
0 l ( 11).
, 1,

94

. = 0 1 ,


.. = l, P . , 0, .

11.
0 n = ( A, B, C )
, n S ,
.
( 12):

12. n s

95


sin = cos sin = cos
,
sin = |cos|,

ns

sin =

n s

= arcsin

1.

l P ,

ns
n s

n s . ,

.
2. l P l P , n s , , n s = 0 .
.
4. .
.
l s 0
( 13).

13.

96

M l MM 0 .
d, .. ,
0,
2

d = MM 0 ( s MM 0 ) 2 .

9.3.
1. . ,
,
. 9.2, ,
, 0. ,

,
.
. . 9.2,
l M0(x0, y0)
s = (m, n ) ( 14).

14.
(4), ,
x x0 y y0
=
.
m
n

(8)

.
l, M0(x0, y0)
k ( 15).

97

15.
, , , s = (1, k )
(8)
x x0 y y 0
=
1
k

, y,

y = k(x x0) + y0,

(9)

y = kx + b,

(10)

b = y0 kx0
, .. Oy, b = y0
x0 = 0.
, 2 .
M0(x0,y0) M1(x1,y1), .
s = ( x1 x0 , y1 y0 ) (8)
x x0
y y0
=
.
x1 x0 y1 y0

(11)

.
. (8)-(11)

98

Ax + By + C = 0,

(12)

.
A, B, C ,
, , ,
. , Oy
(10) .
. ,
, (A, B) , ..
.
2. . l1 l2
( 16).

16.
0,

, ,

. , , s1 = (1, k1 )

s 2 = (1, k 2 ) , (. . 9.2)

cos =

1 + k1k 2
1 + k12 1 + k 22

(13)

. l1 l2 , cos = 0 k1k2 = 1. l1 l 2 , s 1 s 2 ,
, k1 = k2.
3. . l:
y=kx+b M0(x0, y0) ( 17). d
, . 9.1.

99

17.
, M ( x, y ) l ,
l, n = ( k ,1) = k (1, 1 k ) .

d = n MM 0 ,
..
d=

MM 0 n
n

( x x0 ) k + ( y y0 ) 1
1+ k2

, , M l ,
d=

y0 kx0 b
1+ k2

9.4.
1. 0 (1,0,1), 1 (1,2,0), 2 (2,0,1), 3 (0,1,3) .
0 1, 2, 3.
. .
0123,
0 ,
. .
1. 123.
(3) ,

100

x +1

y2

z 0

2 + 1 0 2 1 0 = 0
0 +1 1 2 3 0

, ,

7 x + 2 y + 3 z 11 = 0.
2. d.
n = (7, 2, 3) , . 9.1.3,
0 (1,0,1)
7 1 + 2 0 + 3 1 11
d=
,
( 7 )2 + 22 + 32
..

d=

15
.
62

15
.
62
2.
: d =

x +1 y 3 z
=
=
0
1
2

x + y 3 z + 10 = 0
:
1. .
x = 1 + 0t
y = 3 + 1t

z = 0 + 2t
2. .

1 + 3 + t 3 2t + 10 = 0 ,

101


t=

12
5

, .
3. .
x = 1, y = 3 +

: 1,

12 27
12 24
, z = 2 =
=
.
5
5
5
5

27 24
, .
5 5

3. B(1,3), C(3,3). l ,

B, = BC.
4

. ,
, , ( 18).

18. 3

1. kBC BC.
BC. (8)

x +1 y 3
=
,
3 +1 3 3

3x + 2 y 3 = 0

102


k BC =

3
.
2

2. k ( ) l.
(13)

1 + k BC k

cos 45o =

2
1 + k BC
1+ k 2

2
=
2

3
1 k
2
,
9
1+ 1+ k 2
4

2
13 1 + k 2 = 2 3k .
2

5k 2 24 k 5 = 0 ,
,

k1 = 5 , k2 =

1
5

3. . (9)

y = 5x + 8

1
14
y = x+ .
5
5

1
14
: y = 5 x + 8 , y = x + .
5
5

103

1. .
2. ,
.
3. ,
.
4. .
5. .
6. .
7.
.
8. .
9. .
10.
.

1. , M1 (3,4, 5)
a1 = (3,1, 1), a2 = (1, 2,1) .
.
n = a1 a2 .
: x + 4 y + 7 z + 16 = 0 .

2., D

2 x + 3 y z + D = 0

3x 2 y + 2 z 6 = 0
: 1) Ox ; 2) Oy ; 3) Oz .
. , ,
, .
: 1) D = 4;
2) D = 9;
3) D = 3 .
3. P ( 6, 4) 4 x 5 y + 3 = 0 .
.
, P.
: (2, 1) .

104

10. ,


. XVI-XVII ,
, , XVIII-
,
.
,
.
, ,
.
10.1.
,
,
, .

a11 x 2 + 2a12 xy + a22 y 2 + 2 a13 x + 2a23 y + a33 = 0 ,

(1)

, ,

(x

a11

y 1) a21
a
31

a12
a22
a32

a13

a23
a33

x

y = 0 ,
1

a11 x 2 + a22 y 2 + a33 z 2 + 2a12 xy + 2a13 xz + 2a23 yz + 2a14 x + 2a24 y + 2 a34 z + a44 = 0 ,

(11)

(2)

(x

a11

a
z 1) 21
a31

a41

a12

a13

a22

a23

a32

a33

a42

a43

a14

a24
a34

a44

x

y = 0
,
z

1

(21)

a ij = a ji .
(1), , ,

,

105

. , , .
, [3]. , ,
. ,
, ,
, , ,
. ,
.
10.2.
, .. , (1)
, ,
,
, ,
. .
, .
.
1. . ,
,
, .
.
F1, F2, , F1F2 = 2, ,
.

F1

F2
19.

MF1 + MF2= 2a,

(3)

a .
.

106

(x,y)

c
0

F1

F2

20.
(3)
( x + c ) 2 + y 2 + ( x c ) 2 + y 2 = 2a .

,
:

( ( x + c) + y ) = (2a
2

( x c) 2 + y 2 ,

x/ 2 + 2cx + c/ 2 + y/ 2 = 4a 2 4a ( x c) 2 + y 2 + x/ 2 2cx + c/ 2 + y/ 2 ,

(a

( x c) 2 + y 2

) = (a
2

cx ,

a 2 x 2 + a 2c 2 + a 2 y 2 = a 4 + c 2 x 2 ,
a 2 c2 x 2 + a 2 y 2 = a 4 a 2c 2 .

, , 2a > 2c ,
,
b2 = a2 c2 ,

b 2 x 2 + a 2 y 2 = a 2b 2 .

, , a 2 b 2 ,
x2 y2
+
= 1,
a2 b2

107

(4)

.
-, , ,
.
y,
,
y = b 1

x2
.
a2

, x a x [0, a] , ,
1. x = 0 y = b ;
2. x 0 ;

3. x = a y = b0 = 0.
,

x [0, a]

y
b

-a

-b
21.
, ,
, .
y

A
-a

B
0
C

a
-b

22.

108

A, B, C, D , AB, CD,
. :
x2 y 2
a 2 + b 2 = 1,
2
b = a 2 c 2 ,

b < a,
F (c, 0),
1
F2 (c, 0) .

. y, .. F1(0, c),
F2(0, c),
x2 y 2
+
= 1,
b2 a2

, -, b 2 = a 2 c 2 .
2. .
, , .
M 0 ( x0 , y0 ) , M ( x, y) ,
.

(M 0 M )2 = R 2 ,
R ,

( x x 0 )2 + ( y y 0 )2 = R 2 ,

(5)

.
(5) x = x x0 , y = y y 0 , .., ,
,
R 2 ,

x2 y2
+
= 1 . ,
R2 R2

.
3. .
,
, , .
F1 , F2 , , F1F2 = 2c , M
. , ,
MF1 MF2 = 2a ,

109

(6)

F1

F2
23.

,
, . , , Ox
F1 F2 , Oy F1F2 , (6)
y
(x,y)

c
F1

c
0
F2
24.

( x + c)

+ y2

( x c)

+ y 2 = 2a .

,
b 2 = c 2 a 2 , c > a , ..
,
x2 y2

= 1,
a2 b2

110

(7)

. ,
.
y.
y = b

x2
a2
b
1 , y = x 1 2 ,
2
a
a
x

x a . , , x a . :
x = a , y = 0 . (a,0) .
a2
.
x2
, , x +
b
b
y = x y = x , , ,
a
a

x ,

.
,

y=xb/a
-c
F1

c
a

F2

x
y= xb/a

25.
0y .
:

1.

x2 y2

=1
a 2 b2

2. F1, 2 ( c,0 ) 0 x
3. F1F2 = 2c
4. b 2 = c 2 a 2
. 0y
F1, 2 (0,c ) ,

x2 y2
+
= 1,
b2 a 2

111

. , , -,
b2 = c2 a 2 ,

x=

b
y
a

" ".
y
x= yb/a

x=yb/a

F
a

a
c F1

26.
(,
, ) .
4. .
, ,
, .
l, , F1
p, , , ..
MN = MF1

p
F1

27.

112

, ,
.
y

p/2

p/2
F1

28.
2

x+

p
p

= x + y2 .
2
2

, ,

y 2 = 2 px ,

(8)

.
. x.
y,
y = 2 px ,

,
x = 0 y = 0, ,
;
x y , + .
( 29).
. F1 Ox ,
x=

p
( p > 0) ,
2
y 2 = 2 px .

113

F1
p/2

29.
y,
x 2 = 2 py x 2 = 2 py ,

(y=

p
2

y=

p
,
2

). .

( ,
).
10.3.
. ,
(2), ( 21 ) ,
. ,
.
1. .
x2 y2 z2
+
+
= 1 , a, b, c > 0
a2 b2 c2

(9)

: x a , y b , z c . a = b = c ,
(9) .
z = 0 ,

x2 y2
+
= 1.
a2 b2

z.
z = z0 , z = z1 ,

114


( 30).

30.
.
2. .
x2 y2 z2
+

= 1 .
a 2 b2 c2

1.
x2 y2 z2
+

= 1,
a2 b2 c2

z = z 0
x2 y2
z2
+ 2 = 1+ 2 ,
2
a
b
c

31.

115

2.
x2 y2 z2
+

= 1 ,
a 2 b2 c2

, , z c . z = z 0

.
32.
3. .
x2 y2

= z,
a 2 b2

.. .
1.
x2 y2
+
= z.
a 2 b2

z 0 .
,

.
33.
116

2.
x2 y2

= z.
a2 b2

, z > 0 , z < 0 ,
z = z 0 .

.
34.
4. .
x2 y2 z2
+

=0
a2 b2 c2

.
35.
.

117

5. .
. :
.

x2 y2
+
= 1.
a2 b2

( 36).

.
36.

x2 y2

= 1.
a 2 b2

.
37.
118

y 2 = 2 px

.
38.
10.4.

.


. ,
:
x = x cos y sin
y = x sin + y cos ,

, x, y
(1)
x 2 + a 22
y 2 + 2a1 x + 2a 2 y + a 0 = 0 .
a11

,
. , , ..

x = x +

a1
a
() y = y + 2 ,

a11
a 22

119


x 2 + a 22
y 2 = a 0
a11

x 2 = 2a 2 y ),
y 2 = 2a1x ( a11
a 22

,
,
.
,
,
. ,
, , ..
.
, .. ,
(1), (11) ,
, , (11)
11
= 21

12
22

13
23

31

32

33

11
21

12
.
22

, (1), (11)
:
, > 0, 0 ;
, < 0, 0 ;
, = 0, 0 .

, , [2].
[4].
10.5.
1. C (1; 1) ,
5 x 12 y 9 = 0 .

120

.
C
. ,
R=

ax0 + by0 + c
a 2 + b2

5 1 12(1) 9
52 + 122

8
13


( x 1) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 =

: ( x 1) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 =

64
.
169

64
.
169

2. ,
, ,
1) 5 2;
2) 10 , 2c = 8 ;
3
5

3) 2c = 6 , = .
.
c
a

= . 0 < < 1 ,
> 1 . , .. = 1 = 0
, , , = 1
.
.
1) a = 5 , b = 2 ,

x2 y 2
+
=1.
25 4

2) a = 10, c = 4 ,
b 2 = a 2 c 2 = 100 16 = 84 ,


x2
y2
+
=1.
100 84
c
a

3
5

5
3

3) c = 3, = = . , a = c = 5 ,
b = a 2 c 2 = 25 9 = 4 .

121

x2 y 2
+
=1.
25 16

: 1)

x2 y 2
x2
y2
x2 y 2
+
= 1 ; 2)
+
= 1 ; 3)
+
=1.
25 4
100 84
25 16

3. ,
,
3
4

4
5

y = x 12 .
.
. ,
(4) (7), x =

a2
a
= .
c

: r
( ) , d
, ..
. [3].
.

r
= .
d

b
a

y = x
,
2

b 3
= .
a 4

a2
. ,
c

b 3
a = 4

2
64
a
,
2 =
c
5

2
2
2
b = c a

a 2 = 64, b 2 = 36 . ,
x2 y2

= 1.
64 36

x2 y2

= 1.
64 36

4. ,
1
2

, p = .

122

.
, ,
y 2 = 2 px . , y 2 = x .
: y 2 = x .

1. ,
.
2. , .
3. ,
.
4. ,
.

5.
.

1. ,
: 2 x + y 5 = 0 2 x + y + 15 = 0 , A(2,1) .
: ( x + 2) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 20 .
2. ,
x 2 + 5 y 2 = 20 ,
.
: 16 ..
3. ,

x2 y 2

= 1 9 x + 2 y 24 = 0 .
4
9

: 12 ..
4. M y 2 = 12 x ,
6 .
.
.
: 6 .

123

11.
.

, ,
.
.

, "" ,
-, XVII , -
, , .
" " XVIII .
.
11.1.

1. .
. M
( 39) , r M
, , ,
. (r, )
M. ,
r0, < < + .

39.
, Ox, ,
( 40),
:

= r cos,

= r sin,

,
r = 2 + y 2 , tg =

124

y
,
x

, x y,
.

40.

r = r()
.
= 1,, = n, M1, M2,, Mn
r1, r2,,rn , . ,
,
= i+1 i ( 41).

41. ""
2. .

:
x = x(t )
,

y = y (t )

t , . ,
,

125

x = R cos t

,
y = R sin t
t [0, 2 ] ,
Ox. , 9
.
11.2.
1. (, III . ..).
, V
, , ,
( 42).

42.
. l
,
M, .

r = Vt, = t
,
t,

r = a,
a = V/, . 43
, Matlab.

>> phi=0:0.01:6*pi;
>> r=2*phi;
>> polar(phi,r)
>>

a 2.

126

43. , Matlab
2. ( , 1501 .).
, ,
.
, R,
Ox, M
, t 44 .
, , AM M0A,
,

x = R(t sin t ) , y = R (1 cos t ) .

44.
45 Matlab.
, R = 2, ,

127

45. Matlab
>> t=0:0.01:6*pi;
>> x=2*(t-sin(t));
>> y=2*(1-cos(t));
>> plot(x,y)

3. ( , 1694 .).
,
,
, .
F1F2 , M ( 46).

1
MF1 MF 2 = ( F1 F2 ) 2 .
2

46.
.
(x+a)2 + y2 (x a)2 + y2 = a2

128

, ,
,
( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 = 2a 2 ( x 2 y 2 ).

, 4-
. , ,
r 4 = 2a 2 r 2 cos 2 ,

, ,
r 2 = 2a 2 cos 2 .


( cos2 > 0 ). Matlab

>> phi=0:0.01:4*pi;
>> r=sqrt(2*cos(2*phi));
>> polar(phi,r)
Warning: Imaginary parts of complex X and/or Y arguments ignored
> In polar at 181.

a . ,
polar(phi,r)
r,
, .

47.
4. ( , 1705 .).
, a,
.

129

,
( 48),
M M0
t .

48.
, Ox O1x' BO1 A = AOM 0 = t,
M0A MA AO1 M = AOM 0 = t. O1
xoy O1 (2a cos t ,2a sin t ) , M
x'O1y', M (a cos(2t ), a sin(2t )) M (a cos 2t ,a sin 2t ) . ,
OM = OO1 + O1 M , M xOy
x = a( 2 cos t cos 2t )
,

y = a(2 sin t sin 2t )


xOy.
,
, M0 ( 49).
M x1M0y1
x1 = a (2 cos t cos 2t 1)
.

y1 = a (2 sin t sin 2t )

,
, t,

130

x1 = 2a cos t (1 cos t )
.

y1 = 2a sin t (1 cos t )

t ( 48, 49) , x12 + y12 = r ,


r = 2a(1 cos ) . ,
Matlab, 50.

49.

>> phi=0:0.01:4*pi;
>> r=2*(1-cos(phi));
>> polar(phi,r)

a .

50.

131

5. ( , 1838 .).
, ,

.
a
4

a, .
t, 51 ,
M0 M,
O'1 . O'1
3
3

a cost, a sint . AM 0 , AM
4
4

51.
AO1M = 4t . X O1M = 3t , M
a
a
X O1Y ( cos 3t ,
sin 3t ). , ,
4
4

OM = OO1 + O1M , M XOY

x = 4 (3cos t + cos 3t )
.

y = a (3sin t sin 3t )

, ,
t,

x = a cos3 t , y = a sin 3 t ,

132

,
t,
x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3 .

52 , Matlab
, :
>> t=0:0.01:2*pi;
>> x=(cos(t)).^3;
>> y=(sin(t)).^3;
>> x1=-1.2:0.01:1.2;
>> y1=x1-x1;
>> plot(x,y,x1,y1,'k',y1,x1,'k')

a ,

x1, y1 .

52.

1. : , .
2. , .
3. : , , .
4. : , , .
5. : , , .
6. : , , .
7. : , , .
133

1.
,
.
M 1 (0,5), M 2 (3,0), M 3 ( 3,1), M 4 ( 2, 2), M 5 (1, 3) .

.
: M 1 (5, / 2), M 2 (3, ), M 3 (2, / 6), M 4 (2, 3 / 4), M 5 (2, / 3) .

2. OAB O ,
A(5, / 4), B(4, / 12) . .
: 5 ..
3.

x2 y 2
+
= 1 . ,
25 16

,
, : ) ; )
.
: ) r =

16
16
; ) r =
.
5 3cos
5 + 3cos

134

, 19, 27
, 111
, 132

, 67-68
, 68

, 47
, 78

, 120
, 6

, 34, 47, 76-86


, 76
, 76
, 88
, 64-65

, 47-48
, 76

, 109
, 111
, 17

, 129
, 84
, 117

, 16
, 17
, 16
, 167
, 19
, 16
, 19
, 65
, 56-57
, 19
, 16
, 39
, 17
, 19

, 109
, 115-116
, 115
, 116

, 6
, 6
, 6
, 112, 122

, 128
, 49
, 56
, 106

135

, 28-29
, 106

(), 29
, 115
-, 32-34
, 76

- ,90
- ,18
- ,92-93
,33

,122
,55

-,42-43
- ,56

- ,102-103
- ,108,111

, 78, 93
, 77

, 56
, 30
, 18
, 41
, 43
, 109
, 6

, 26
, 26
, 78
, 109

, 113
, 117
, 117
, 116

, 124
, 124
, 124

, 26
, 8
, 7
, 76, 78

,88
,17
,73
,140-141
,128

-,42-43
,17-18
,33
,43


- ,101-102
- ,106
- ,105,110-111

- ,100-101
- ,99-100
- , 100

136


, 99,110
, 92-93

, 93
, 92, 97
, 97

, 109
, 106
,
, 73
, 74
, 40
Matlab
ross, 86
det, 9
dot, 86
eig, 66
inv, 20
norm, 86
plot, 128, 133
polar, 126
rank, 38

, 109
, 127
, 118-119
- , 118
- , 118
- , 118-119

, 47

, 121
, 106
, 114

, 40
, 40

, 60

, 65
, 65

137


1. .., .., ..
. . ., " ", 1971.
256 c.
2. .. . ., "", 1968. 176 .
3. .. . ., "", 1975.
272 .
4. ., .
. ., "" 1970. 720 .
5. .., .. . .,
"", 1968. 440 .
6. .. ( ).
: , 1983. 206 .
7. Cleve B. Moler. Numerical Computing with Matlab. Society for Industrial and
Applied Mathematics, 2004, 348p. http://www.mathworld.com/moler/
chapters.html.
8. .., .., .. Matlab 7: ,
. .: -, 2008. 752 .
9. .. .
.II. ., "", 1966. 807 c.

138

25.02.2014. 60x841/16
.-. . 8,3. .-. . 8,14
. 100 . . 0092


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