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10.8.

Durante el vertido hacia un molde de arena, el metal fundido se vierte al bebedero con un gasto
constante durante el tiempo que toma llenar el molde. Al final del vertido, el bebedero se llena y hay una
cantidad despreciable de metal en el embudo. El bebedero mide 6.0 in de largo. El rea de la seccin
transversal en la parte superior es de 0.8 in2, y en la base es de 0.6 in2. El rea de la seccin transversal
del vaciadero que lleva al bebedero tambin es de 0.6 in2 y tiene 8.0 in de largo antes de llegar a la
cavidad de un molde cuyo volumen es de 65 in3. El volumen de la mazarota que se ubica a lo largo del
vaciadero cerca de la cavidad del molde es de 25 in3. Toma un total de 3.0 s para que se llene todo el
molde (incluidos la cavidad, mazarota, vaciadero y bebedero). Esto es ms que el tiempo terico que se
requiere, lo que indica una prdida de velocidad debida a la friccin en el bebedero y el vaciadero.
Encuentre a) la velocidad terica y gasto en la base del bebedero, b) el volumen total del molde, c) la
velocidad real y gasto en la base del bebedero y d) la prdida de altura piezomtrica en el sistema de paso
debido a la friccin.

10.20. Van a compararse los tiempos totales de solidificacin de tres formas de fundido: 1) una esfera con
dimetro de 10 cm, 2) un cilindro con dimetro de 10 cm y la misma medida de longitud y 3) un cubo con
lado de 10 cm. En los tres casos va a emplearse la misma aleacin para la fundicin. a) Determine los
tiempos relativos de solidificacin para cada forma. b) Con base en los resultados del inciso a diga, cul
elemento geomtrico sera la mejor mazarota? c) Si la constante del molde es de 3.5 min/cm2 en la regla
de Chvorinov, calcule el tiempo total de solidificacin para cada fundido.

10.23. Va a disearse una mazarota de forma esfrica para un molde de fundicin con arena. El fundido es
una placa rectangular con longitud de 200 mm, ancho de 100 mm y espesor de 18 mm. Si se sabe que el
tiempo total de solidificacin del fundido en s es de 3.5 min, determine el dimetro de la mazarota de
modo que a ste le tome 25% ms tiempo para solidificarse.

10.24. Se va a disear una mazarota cilndrica para un molde de fundicin con arena. La longitud del
cilindro va a ser 1.25 veces su dimetro. El fundido es una placa cuadrada con lado de 10 in y espesor de
0.75 in. Si el metal es hierro colado y la constante del molde es de 16.0 min/in2 en la regla de Chvorinov,
determine las dimensiones de la mazarota de modo que le tome 30% ms tiempo solidificarse.

11.8. Una operacin de fundicin centrfuga real se lleva a cabo en forma horizontal para fabricar
secciones de tubo de cobre de dimetro grande. Los tubos tienen una longitud de 1.0 m, dimetro de 0.25
m y espesor de pared de 15 mm.
a) Si la velocidad de rotacin del tubo es de 700 rev/min, determine el factor G sobre el metal derretido. b)
La velocidad de rotacin es suficiente para evitar la lluvia? c) Qu volumen de metal fundido debe
verterse en el molde para hacer el fundido, si se toman en cuenta las prdidas por solidificacin y la
contraccin despus de la solidificacin?

11.13. Se emplea un proceso de fundicin centrfuga real vertical para hacer secciones de tubo con longitud de 10.0 in
y dimetro exterior de 6.0 in. El dimetro interior del tubo es de 5.5 in en la parte superior y 5.0 in en la inferior. A
qu velocidad debe girar el tubo durante la operacin a fin de que se cumplan las especificaciones

10.8 During pouring into a sand mold, the molten metal can be poured into the downsprue at a constant flow rate during the time it
takes to fill the mold. At the end of pouring the sprue is filled and there is negligible metal in the pouring cup. The downsprue is 6.0 in
long. Its cross-sectional area at the top = 0.8 in2 and at the base = 0.6 in2. The cross-sectional area of the runner leading from the
sprue also = 0.6 in2, and it is 8.0 in long before leading into the mold cavity, whose volume = 65 in3. The volume of the riser located
along the runner near the mold cavity = 25 in3. It takes a total of 3.0 sec to fill the entire mold (including cavity, riser, runner, and
sprue. This is more than the theoretical time required, indicating a loss of velocity due to friction in the sprue and runner. Find (a) the
theoretical velocity and flow rate at the base of the downsprue; (b) the total volume of the mold; (c) the actual velocity and flow rate at
the base of the sprue; and (d) the loss of head in the gating system due to friction.
Solution: (a) Velocity v = (2 x 32.2 x 12 x 6.0)0.5 = 68.1 in/sec
Flow rate Q = 68.1 x 0.60 = 40.8 in3/sec
(b) Total V = 65.0 + 25.0 + 0.5(0.8 + 0.6)(6.0) + 0.6(8.0) = 99.0 in3
(c) Actual flow rate Q = 99.0/3 = 33.0 in3/sec
Actual velocity v = 33.0/0.6 = 55.0 in/sec
(d) v = (2 x 32.2 x 12 x h)0.5 = 27.8 h0.5 = 55.0 in/sec.
h0.5 = 55.0/27.8 = 1.978
h = 1.9782 = 3.914 in
Head loss = 6.0 - 3.914 = 2.086 in

10.20 The total solidification times of three casting shapes are to be compared: (1) a sphere with diameter = 10 cm, (2) a cylinder with
diameter and length both = 10 cm, and (3) a cube with each side = 10 cm. The same casting alloy is used in the three cases. (a)
Determine the relative solidification times for each geometry. (b) Based on the results of part (a), which geometric element would
make the best riser? (c) If the mold constant = 3.5 min/cm2 in Chvorinov's Rule, compute the total solidification time for each casting.
Solution: For ease of computation, make the substitution 10 cm = 1 decimeter (1 dm)
(a) Chvorinovs Rule: TTS = Cm(V/A)2
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Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 3/e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2007
(1) Sphere volume V = D3/6 = (1)3/6 = /6 dm3
Sphere surface area A = D2 = (1)2 = dm2
V/A = (/6)/ = 1/6 = 0.1667 dm
Chvorinovs Rule TTS = (0.1667)2Cm = 0.02778Cm
(2) Cylinder volume V = D2H/4 = (1)2(1)/4 = /4 = 0.25 dm3
Cylinder area A = 2D2/4 + DL = 2(1)2/4 + (1)(1) = /2 + = 1.5 dm2
V/A = 0.25/1.5 = 0.1667 dm
Chvorinovs Rule TTS = (0.1667)2Cm = 0.02778Cm
(3) Cube: V = L3 = (1)3 = 1.0 dm3
Cube area = 6L2 = 6(1)2 = 6.0 dm2
V/A = 1.0/6.0 = 0.1667 dm
Chvorinovs Rule TTS = (0.1667)2Cm = 0.02778Cm
(b) All three shapes are equivalent as risers.
(c) If Cm = 3.5 min/cm2 = 350 min/dm2, then TTS = 0.02778(350) = 9.723 min. Note, however, that
the volumes of the three geometries are different: (1) sphere V = 0.524 dm3 = 524 cm3, cylinder V
= 0.25 = 0.7854 dm3 = 785.4 cm3, and (3) cube V = 1.0 dm3 = 1000cm3. Accordingly, we might revise our answer to part (b) and
choose the sphere on the basis that it wastes less metal than the other shapes.

10.23 A riser in the shape of a sphere is to be designed for a sand casting mold. The casting is a rectangular plate, with
length = 200 mm, width = 100 mm, and thickness = 18 mm. If the total solidification time of the casting itself is known to
be 3.5 min, determine the diameter of the riser so that it will take 25% longer for the riser to solidify.

Solution: Casting volume V = LWt = 200(100)(18) = 360,000 mm3


Casting area A = 2(200 x 100 + 200 x 18 + 100 x 18) = 50,800 mm2
V/A = 360,000/50,800 = 7.0866
Casting TTS = Cm(7.0866)2 = 3.50 min
Cm = 3.5/(7.0866)2 = 0.0697 min/mm2
Riser volume V = D3/6 = 0.5236D3
Riser area A = D2 = 3.1416D2
V/A = 0.5236D3/3.1416D2 = 0.1667D
TTS = 1.25(3.5) = 4.375 min = 0.0697(0.1667D)2 = 0.001936D2
D2 = 4.375/0.001936 = 2259.7 mm2
D = 47.5 mm
10.24 A cylindrical riser is to be designed for a sand casting mold. The length of the cylinder is to be 1.25 times its
diameter. The casting is a square plate, each side = 10 in and thickness = 0.75 inch. If the metal is cast iron, and the mold
constant = 16.0 min/in2 in Chvorinov's Rule, determine the dimensions of the riser so that it will take 30% longer for the
riser to solidify.
Solution: Casting volume V = tL2 = 0.75(10.0)2 = 75 in3
Casting area A = 2L2 + 4Lt = 2(10.0)2 + 4(10.0)(0.75) = 230.0 in2
V/A = 75/230 = 0.3261 Casting TTS = 16(0.3261)2 = 1.70 min
Riser TTS = 1.30(1.70) = 2.21 min
Riser volume V = D2H/4 = 0.25D2(1.25D) = 0.3125D3
Riser area A = 2D2/4 + DH = 0.5D2 + 1.25D2 = 1.75D2
V/A = 0.3125D3/1.75D2 = 0.1786D
Riser TTS = 16.0(0.1786D)2 = 16.0(0.03189)D2 = 0.5102D2 = 2.21 min
D2 = 2.21/0.5102 = 4.3316
D = (4.3316)0.5 = 2.081 in
H = 1.25(2.081) = 2.602 in.
11.8 True centrifugal casting operation is performed horizontally to make large diameter copper tube sections. The tubes
have a length = 1.0 m, diameter = 0.25 m, and wall thickness = 15 mm. (a) If the rotational speed of the pipe = 700
rev/min, determine the G-factor on the molten metal. (b) Is the rotational speed sufficient to avoid "rain?" (c) What
volume of molten metal must be poured into the mold to make the casting if solidification shrinkage and contraction after
solidification are considered?
Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 3/e (published by Wiley) MPGroover 2007

Solution: (a) GF = v2/Rg g = 9.8 m/s2


v = RN/30 = (.125)(700)/30 = 9.163 m/s
GF = (9.163)2/(0.125 x 9.8) = 68.54
(b) G-factor is sufficient for a successful casting operation.
(c) Volume of final product after solidification and cooling is
V = (0.252 - (0.25-.03)2) x 1.0/4 = 0.25(0.252 - 0.222) = 0.011074 m3

From Table 12.1, solidification shrinkage = 4.9% and solid thermal contraction = 7.5% for
copper. Taking these factors into account,
Volume of molten metal V = 0.011074/(1 - 0.049)(1 - 0.075) = 0.01259 m3
A vertical true centrifugal casting process is used to make tube sections with length = 10.0 in and
outside diameter = 6.0 in. The inside diameter of the tube = 5.5 in at the top and 5.0 in at the bottom.
At what speed must the tube be rotated during the operation in order to achieve these specifications?

Solution: Use Eq. (11.6) to make the computation of N: N = (30/)(2gL/(Rt2-Rb2).5


L = 10 in = 0.8333 ft
Rt = 5.5/2 = 2.75 in = 0.22917 ft
Rb = 5.0/2 = 2.50 in = 0.20833 ft
N = (30/)(2 x 32.2 x .8333/(0.229172 - 0.208332).5 = 9.5493(5888).5 = 732.7 rev/min