Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

AIM

TO SHOW THE WORKING

CAPACITOR CHARGE
OSCILLATOR

INTRODUCTION:
The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the
capacitor charge storage and to consider the operation
of sound . Both of these things are basic and therefore
very important for under standing of electronics circuits.

WORKING
CAPACITOR CHARGE OSCILLATOR WORKING

This project demonstrates how an oscillator


can be made to operate a long time by the energy stored
in a capacitor .
After the key is pressed the circuit continues t
oscillator for few seconds . one reason for such a long
time is that the oscillator has a very short duty cycle
the duty complete one cycle , this circuit , like most
pulse & blocking oscillators conducts for less than half
of the total time the circuit . the R-1&R2 resistors
initially supplies base has current to the PNP to begin
oscillations , but once oscillations begun it provides
discharge path for the 0.01 if capacitor during the
transistor OFF times . during the ON times the
capacitor is charged and the Transistor held on by the
induced voltage from the transformer base winding R-6
discharge the current at T-3 base as the sound at

transformer second is low an ear phone provided in can


be used to listen the sound of this audio oscillator .
The working of circuit is quite simple . the key
switch provides current to store in C-7 bigger value _)
and when key is released you still hear the sound at ear
phone because of c-1 discharge through oscillator circuit
.
For experiment by with other capacitor given in
the kit and compare the time.

COMPONENTS USED
SPEAKER

TWO WAY SWITCH

CAPACITOR- 1000 MICROFARAD

CELL CONTAINER

RESISTANCE -10K OHM

CAPACITORS
It is an electronic component whose function to accumulate charges and then
Release it . To understand they are placed near to each other without touching. If
battery connected to these plates the plate positive pole to one and the negatives
pole to the other , electrons from the battery will be attracted from the plate connect
to the positive terminal of the battery. If the battery is then disconnected, one plate will
be left with an excess of electrons , the other with a shortage and a potential or
voltage difference will exists between them. These plates will be acting as
capacitors .
Capacitor are of two type (1) fixed type like ceramic , polyester
electrolytic capacitors these name refer to the material they are made of aluminum
foil . Variable type-like gang condenser in radio or trimmer. In fixed type capacitors ,
it has two leads and its value is written over its body and variable type has three
leads. Unit of measurement of a capacitor is farad , denoted by the symbol F. It is a
very big units of capacitance . Small unit capacitor are pico farad denoted by pf .
Above all , in case of electronic capacitors , its two terminals are marked as ( -) and
(+) so check it using while capacitors in the circuit in right direction . Mistake can
destroy the capacitor or entire circuit in operation.

TRANSISTOR
The name` transistor `is derived from transfer resistor indicating a
solid state semiconductor device . In addition to conductor and insulators ,
There is a third class of material that exhibits proportion of both. Under
some condition , it acts an insulator and under other conditions it is
conductor . This phenomenon is called semi conduction and

allows a

variable control over electron flow . So, the transistor is semiconductor


device used in electronics for amplification or switching . A transistor
has three terminals One is the collector , one is the base and other is the
emitter ( each lead must be connected in the circuit correctly and only
then the transistor will function ). Electrons are emitted via one terminal
and collected on another terminal , While the third terminal acts as a
control element. Each transistor has a number marked on its body .Every
number has its own specifications.

There are mainly two types of transistors (i) NPN (ii) PNP.
NPN Transistors- When a positive voltage is applied to the base, The
transistor begins to conduct by allowing current to flow through the
collector to emitter circuit. The relatively small current flowing through
the base circuit allows a much greater current to pass through the
emitter/collector circuit . The phenomenon is called current gain and it is
measured in beta.

PNP Transistor It

also does exactly the same thing as

above except that it has a negative voltage on its collector and a


positive voltage on its emitter.

CONCLUSION
Both charging and discharging of the
capacitor ,the current starts with its maximum value I0 and
falls of exponentially . However ,the discharging current is
negative ,that is ,opposite to the charging, current .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS


2. BASIC ELECTRINICS: D. C. KULSHRESHTHA.
1. ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS MANUAL: PARSAI
2.

A. B. C. OF PHYSICS: XII

Оценить