Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 117

DC-SIM

User Guide

KBC Advanced Technologies, PLC

Ownership of KBC Intellectual Property Rights


Software
KBC Advanced Technologies plc (KBC) is the owner of and has vested in the copyright and all other
intellectual property rights of a similar nature relating to its software, which includes, but is not limited to,
KBCs computer programs, user manuals and all associated documentation, whether in printed or
electronic form (the Software), which is supplied by KBC or its subsidiaries to their respective customers.
No copying or reproduction of the Software shall be permitted without the prior written consent of KBC,
save to the extent permitted by law.
Trademarks
Profimatics, Petro-SIM, DC-SIM, HCR-SIM, VGOHTR-SIM, RHDS-SIM, DHTR-SIM
NHTR-SIM REF- SIM and FCC-SIM are trademarks (KBC Trademark) of KBC Advanced
Technologies, plc, all rights reserved.
The Licensee undertakes not to alter, obscure, remove, conceal, or otherwise interfere with KBC
Trademarks or any indications of the source of the Software which may be placed on the Software or its
packaging or any part thereof, or use, permit any party to use or authorize the use in any way whatsoever
of trademarks that are similar or that may be confused with KBC Trademarks. Microsoft Office, Microsoft
Windows, Windows XP, Excel and Visual Basic are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
SentinelPro is a trademark of Sentinel Technologies, Inc. All other company names, products or name
brands are trademarks of their respective holders.
Use
The Licensee shall follow all instructions given to it by KBC from time to time in relation to the use of
copyright, the KBC Trademarks, and all similar property rights in the Software. All rights in respect of
KBC's Trademarks and all rights in respect of the copyright of the Software are reserved.

Copyright KBC Advanced Technologies, plc 2008. All rights reserved.

Registered Office:
KBC Process Technology Ltd.
KBC House
42-50 Hersham Road
Walton-on-Thames
Surrey KT12 1RZ
United Kingdom

Websites:
www.Petro-SIM.com
www.kbcat.com

Contents
Introduction
Overview................................................................................................................................ 1-3
Delayed Coker Refinery Unit................................................................................................. 1-4
Technical Help and Feedback ................................................................................................ 1-6
A Guide to Problem Solving.................................................................................... 1-6
Help and Error Messages......................................................................................... 1-6
Feedback.................................................................................................................. 1-6
Installing DC -SIM
PC System Requirements....................................................................................................... 2-3
Microsoft References............................................................................................... 2-3
Installation.............................................................................................................................. 2-4
Security Key and License File ................................................................................. 2-4
DC-SIM Model Installation ..................................................................................... 2-4
What Is Installed ...................................................................................................... 2-5
Starting the Program .............................................................................................................. 2-6
Starting DC-SIM...................................................................................................... 2-7
Security Settings and Macros .................................................................................. 2-9
Testing the Program Execution.............................................................................. 2-10
Problems When Running the Application ............................................................. 2-10
Updating Workbook Files..................................................................................... 2-11
Switching Between Versions ................................................................................. 2-12
DC-SIM Model
How DC-SIM Works ............................................................................................................. 3-3
Test Run Data for Model Calibration..................................................................................... 3-2
Drum Dimension Input Data.................................................................................................. 3-3
Calibration Input Data............................................................................................................ 3-5
How the Calibration Case Works......................................................................................... 3-10
Calibration Case Checklist..................................................................................... 3-11
Configuration Guidelines..................................................................................................... 3-12
Zero Natural Recycle Configuration: Once Through............................................ 3-12
Calibration as a Once Through Unit........................................................ 3-12
Prediction of Once Through Unit Performance Using a Calibrated
Conventional Recycle Unit...................................................................... 3-14
Definition of Combined Feed Ratio (CFR)............................................................ 3-16
Conventional Recycle Coker ................................................................... 3-16
Once Through Coker ............................................................................... 3-16
Velocity Gas Oil .................................................................................................... 3-16
DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Contents 1

DC-SIM Calibration Guidelines........................................................................................... 3-19


Predict Input Data ................................................................................................................ 3-21
Quench................................................................................................................... 3-21
Velocity Gas Oil .................................................................................................... 3-23
Product Cutpoints Target ....................................................................................... 3-23
Coke Inventory ...................................................................................................... 3-23
How the Predict Case Works ............................................................................................... 3-26
Predict Case Checklist ........................................................................................... 3-26
Product Properties ................................................................................................................ 3-27
Sulfur ..................................................................................................................... 3-27
Nitrogen ................................................................................................................. 3-27
Aniline Point .......................................................................................................... 3-27
Naphtha RON and MON ....................................................................................... 3-27
Diesel Cloud Point, Pour Point and Flash Point .................................................... 3-27
Bromine Number ................................................................................................... 3-28
Naphtha PONA ...................................................................................................... 3-28
Viscosity @ 50 C ................................................................................................... 3-28
Other Properties ..................................................................................................... 3-28
Coke Volatile Matter (VCM)................................................................................. 3-28
Coke Ash Content.................................................................................................. 3-28
Coke HGI............................................................................................................... 3-29
How the Optimizer Works ................................................................................................... 3-30
Optimizer Run Checklist........................................................................................ 3-30
Using the Spreadsheet Interface
Microsoft Excel...................................................................................................................... 4-3
Model Workbook and Model Workbook Template ............................................................... 4-4
Getting Started ....................................................................................................................... 4-5
Model Workbook ................................................................................................................... 4-6
Grouping Feature ..................................................................................................... 4-6
Comments ................................................................................................................ 4-7
DC-SIM Menu ......................................................................................................... 4-8
DC-SIM Options Item.............................................................................................. 4-8
Navigation Item ....................................................................................................... 4-9
Run Item .................................................................................................................. 4-9
Copy Case Data Item ............................................................................................. 4-10
Clear Case Data Item ............................................................................................. 4-10
Text Files Item ....................................................................................................... 4-10
Available Results Item........................................................................................... 4-11
Import Case Data Item ........................................................................................... 4-11
Export Case Data Item ........................................................................................... 4-11
Open Sample Workbook........................................................................................ 4-11
Transfer Workbook Data ....................................................................................... 4-12
Design Worksheet ................................................................................................................ 4-15
Calibration Input Worksheet ................................................................................................ 4-17
Run Button............................................................................................................. 4-18
Import Button......................................................................................................... 4-18
Copy Button........................................................................................................... 4-19
Clear Button........................................................................................................... 4-20
Predict Input Worksheet....................................................................................................... 4-21
Run Button............................................................................................................. 4-22
Setup Button .......................................................................................................... 4-22

Copy Button........................................................................................................... 4-23


Import Button ........................................................................................................ 4-23
Clear Button........................................................................................................... 4-23
Optimizer Input Worksheet.................................................................................................. 4-24
Run Button............................................................................................................. 4-25
Setup Button .......................................................................................................... 4-25
VGen: LP Vector Generation Tool ........................................................................ 4-26
Result Worksheets................................................................................................................ 4-27
Comparison Worksheet........................................................................................................ 4-29
CaseGen................................................................................................................. 4-29
Summary Worksheet............................................................................................................ 4-31
Charts ................................................................................................................................... 4-32
Charts Worksheet................................................................................................... 4-33
Charts - 2 Worksheet ............................................................................................. 4-35
Worksheet Comments and Model Help ............................................................................... 4-36
Saving Files and DC-SIM Exit ............................................................................................ 4-37
Data Flow............................................................................................................................. 4-38

Troubleshooting
Toubleshooting ...................................................................................................................... 5-3
Model Failure .......................................................................................................... 5-3
Worksheet Problem ................................................................................................. 5-3
Gateway Failure....................................................................................................... 5-5
Appendix A: Calibration Factors
Initialization Factors ............................................................................................................. A-3
DCSIM V2006 Tuning Factors............................................................................................. A-4
DC-SIM V2006 Calibration Factors ..................................................................................... A-7

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Contents 3

Introduction
Overview................................................................................................................................ 1-3
Delayed Coker Refinery Unit................................................................................................. 1-4
Technical Help and Feedback ................................................................................................ 1-6
A Guide to Problem Solving.................................................................................... 1-6
Help and Error Messages......................................................................................... 1-6
Feedback.................................................................................................................. 1-6

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Introduction - 1 1

Overview
This user guide is for the KBC Profimatics DC-SIM V2006 model for
simulating delayed coker units.
The guide has five chapters and one appendix.
Chapter 1 Introducing DC-SIM
Chapter 2 Installing DC-SIM
Chapter 3 DC-SIM Data Requirements
Chapter 4 Using the Spreadsheet Interface
Appendix A Calibration Factors
It guides you through the mechanics of setting up and using the model on
a personal computer.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Introduction - 1 3

Delayed Coker Refinery Unit


Delayed coking is an established and widely used bottoms upgrading
process. It uses severe thermal cracking in a low space velocity vessel in
which the feedstock is allowed to soak at high temperature. The
combination of time and temperature promotes thermal cracking
reactions. A key design parameter of the delayed coking process is how
to delay the formation of coke in the charge furnace and to concentrate
the thermal reactions in the coke drum in such a way as to maximize
liquid product conversion.
The feed to delayed cokers is traditionally a vacuum residue, but
petrochemical byproduct tars and catalytic cracker decanted or clarified
oil can also be processed. Delayed coking rejects carbon from the
residual oil leaving cracked products that are somewhat more enriched in
hydrogen and significantly lower in average molecular weight. However,
because the feedstock is highly hydrogen deficient to begin with, and
some of that hydrogen is lost to H2S or gas, the raw coker liquid
products tend to be olefinic and aromatic. Coker products are typically
treated chemically to be stabilized or sent to hydroprocessing units to
further increase the hydrogen content. Cokers are often built in
conjunction with Fluid Catalytic Crackers (FCCUs), which are sized and
designed to handle the converted coker products.
Traditional delayed coke comes in at least two quality grades (anode or
fuel), and several recognizable compositional forms (needle, sponge, or
shot), each with a different end use, market value, physical property set,
and handling requirements. The coke type is largely predetermined by
the properties of the feedstock. For example, the coke produced by
nonresidual stocks is more crystalline and less amorphous than typical
vacuum resid feed coke. Coker operations have only a limited or
marginal effect on what type of coke is produced.
DC-SIM focuses on predicting the yield and property shifts from changes
in process conditions and from changes in feedstock within a class of
feeds. DC SIM is not designed to predict behavior of coke quality across
different classes of feeds. However, it can directionally indicate where
certain key properties, like sulfur, nitrogen and metals, are likely to go
with an entirely different feedstock.
DC-SIM is based on a standard representation of a typical fuel or anode
grade delayed coker unit as shown in the following figure.

1 - 4 Introducting DC-SIM

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Overhead Cooling

Quench
H2S, gas,
butanes

Coker
Fractionator
Coker Naphtha
Light Coker Gas Oil
Up to three
different feeds
at different
locations above
tower bottom.

1
Vapor Line

Heavy Coker Gas Oil

Coke
Drum

Heavy Gas Oil


Pumparound

Feed
Up to three feeds to
tower bottom

DC-SIM User Guide

Coke
Drum

KBC Proprietary

Steam

Coking
Furnace

Introduction - 1 5

Technical Help and Feedback


A Guide to Problem Solving
The SIM Series of models provides assistance in a variety of ways.
This document includes information on the DC SIM V2006
model covering Excel interface topics, as well as specific DCSIM model operation.
Excel Comments on each worksheet provide valuable
information on the cell in which they are located.
Model help and error messages are reported in the DC SIM
message log.
If you need additional assistance in using the process modeling software,
please contact your KBC modeling specialist.

Help and Error Messages


Help and error messages are available to provide guidance. The error
messages are reported in the DCMSG.OUT file. To view these
messages:
1.

Select DC-SIM on the toolbar.

2.

Click Text Files to open the View Text Files view.

3.

Select Messages

4.

Select OK to exit.

Error messages are numbered for easier identification, and provide hints
on error cause or correction guidelines, where appropriate.

Feedback
KBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. is constantly upgrading and
enhancing its software. Your feedback is important to this process.
You can contact KBC directly through your modeling specialist or local
account representative. Alternately, you can contact KBC Profimatics
Software Support (email: software@kbcat.com) or through your regional
office.

1 - 6 Introducting DC-SIM

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Installing DC-SIM
PC System Requirements....................................................................................................... 2-3
Microsoft References............................................................................................... 2-3
Installation.............................................................................................................................. 2-4
Security Key and License File ................................................................................. 2-4
DC-SIM Model Installation ..................................................................................... 2-4
What Is Installed ...................................................................................................... 2-5
Starting the Program .............................................................................................................. 2-6
Starting DC-SIM...................................................................................................... 2-7
Security Settings and Macros .................................................................................. 2-9
Testing the Program Execution.............................................................................. 2-10
Problems When Running the Application ............................................................. 2-10
Updating Workbook Files..................................................................................... 2-11
Switching Between Versions ................................................................................. 2-12

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Installing DC-SIM 2- 1

PC System Requirements
Minimum system configurations required to run DC-SIM are
Microsoft Excel 2003 or 2007.
Intel Pentium processor or better
Microsoft Windows XP, 2003 or VISTA
CD-ROM drive to load the installation CD; the installation files
can also be downloaded from www.Petro-SIM.com.
USB port to attach a software security key or connection to
appropriate network server.

Microsoft References
The software package provided by KBC uses many Microsoft products to
perform user interface, file editing and file management tasks. This
approach was taken to make the model as open and universally portable
as possible. However, it is your responsibility to have and maintain valid
licenses for any Microsoft application needed to operate this model.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Installing DC-SIM 2- 3

Installation
Security Key and License File
The SIM model uses a software license file system to grant access to the
program. The license file validates access rights to specific KBC
software and lets you proceed with the installation of the program.
If you have a stand-alone system, you will also have a security key
(dongle.) This is a hardware device that contains a custom
microprocessor, non-volatile memory, and other support circuitry
manufactured by Sentinel Technologies. For the stand-alone model to
run, the security key must be connected to the USB port of your
computer.
Alternatively, your computer can connect to a network server that
controls program access.
Installation of the license file and security is described in separate
documentation. If you do not have this documentation, contact KBC by
emailing software@kbcat.com. If you are a registered user, you can also
download the instructions from KBCs website, www.Petro-SIM.com.

The parallel port dongle used with Version 96 to Version 2003.2 is not
compatible with this version of the model. That dongle can be used only
to run those older versions.

DC-SIM Model Installation


The model is loaded using Install Shield, which creates program folders
and loads program files into those folders. Install Shield guides you
through the installation process.
Program Folder or Directory Selection: The default program folder or
directory into which Install Shield places its files is \Program Files\KBC
Profimatics\SIM Suite 3.2\Profsim. It can be placed either as the root
directory or as the subdirectory of a user-defined directory. It can also be
placed on any of your local drives. The only restriction is that the DCSIM directory must be a subdirectory of PROFSIM.
Note: Administration rights are required to perform the installation. If
you do not have Administration rights on your PC, please contact your IT
department.

2 - 4 Installing DC-SIM

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

What Is Installed
The files programs loaded onto the PC hard disk during the model
installation are listed in the following table.
Program Folders

Description

\Program Files\KBC Profimatics\SIM Suite 3.2\Profsim

Version Definition
\SIMSUITE.INI
DCSIM Executable
\DCSIM.EXE
SIM Interface Executable
\KBCProfSIMGATEWAY.DLL
\KBC_Gatewau.EXE

..\Profsim\DCSIM

Variables mapping table


\DCMAP.xls

..\Profsim\DCDATA

Model Workbook Template


\DCSIMV2006MASTER_GATEWAY.XLS
Example Case Data
\DCSIMV2006_EXAMPLE.XLS
Example Case Test Data
\*.DAT

\Program Files\Common Files\KBC

License File
LICENSE.KBCLIC

\Documents and Settings\UserName\Application


Data\KBC\SIM Suite 3.2\fccsim

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Output files generated by model

Installing DC-SIM 2- 5

Starting the Program


After DC-SIM has been installed, we recommend that you start the
program and run the example problem to test it.
You can start the program in several ways. You can:

Use the Start bar

Open the gateway workbook file

Create a shortcut for your desktop.

To open the program using the Start bar, select KBC Profimatics, then
SIM Suite 3.2, then DC-SIM. (Note you may have fewer program
options than shown.)

The Gateway executable is called KBC_Gateway.exe and is located in


the \Program Files\KBC Profimatics\SIM Suite 3.2\ProfSim directory.
To start the program from the Gateway executable, point to this file, then
double-click on KBC_Gateway.exe directly from Windows Explorer.
You can set up a shortcut to the Gateway executable using standard
Microsoft methods.

2 - 6 Installing DC-SIM

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Starting DC-SIM
If you start DC-SIM from the Start bar, you will get the following view:

When you start DC-SIM through the Gateway executable, the KBC
Profimatics Simulation window appears. Select DC-SIM from the pulldown if you need to change from another SIM model.

The Available Versions selection will display Sim Suite 3.2 If you
have earlier versions installed, a pull-down menu appears to allow you to
select earlier one of them.
DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Installing DC-SIM 2- 7

Select New Case, Open Case, or Sample Files.

New Case opens the master workbook, typically used to create a


new case.

Open Case opens a browser set to My Documents to view an


existing case.

Sample Files takes you to the DC data folder to select the


sample file installed with the program.

For the Open Case and Sample file options, a dialogue box opens so you can
select the desired workbook file:

Selecting the Master file loads the same file as selecting New Case from the
Gateway View.
After selecting a model, a dialog box will typically be displayed.

.
This dialogue box refers to the macros in the applications. To continue with
the start up, select Enable Macros.

2 - 8 Installing DC-SIM

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Security Settings and Macros


The Gateway contains macro files that are used to run the program.
Depending upon your security settings in Excel, you may get a warning
message regarding macros.
If your security message is set to Medium (which is the most
typical) you will see the message shown above
If your Excel security is set to Low, you will not get a message.
If your security setting is High, you will get the following
message:

Change the security setting to Medium to use DC-SIM.


To set or change your Excel security:
1.

Open the Tools menu.

2.

Select Macros and then select Security.

When the Security window opens, select the setting you want.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Installing DC-SIM 2- 9

Testing the Program Execution


To test the running of the program, go to the DC-SIM menu, and select
Run Calibration, as shown.

When the program runs, it searches for the license file and security key
attached to your computers port or your network server. A successful
execution returns you to a Results worksheet. If unsuccessful, you will
get an error message.

Problems When Running the Application


If the dongle is not attached or the license file not found, this message
appears:

After you press the Enter key, you return to the program.
2 - 10 Installing DC-SIM

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

A message appears asking you to load the results. This opens a message
stating that the results are not available:

If you get this message, first check that the dongle is connected to the
USB port or the license file is in the correct folder. If the program still
does not run properly, follow the procedure in the Security Key
Installation manual to identify the problem. If DC-SIM still does not
work, contact KBC additional assistance.

Updating Workbook Files


A workbook from one version of DC-SIM cannot directly be used in
another version because new version features are contained in the
workbook. However, tools are available to transfer the date in a
workbook from earlier to later version of DC-SIM.
To transfer workbook data from a v3.x version workbook to newer v3.x
workbook, use the Export/Import data functions as follows:
1.

Open the older v3.x workbook and export the data to a data file
using the Export Case Data function.

2.

Close the older v3.x workbook and open the newer v3.x master
workbook.

3.

Import the data file using the Import Case Data function.

If the transfer is from v2.x to a v3.x DC-SIM data workbook, use the
Transfer Workbook Data function described in the DC-SIM Menu
section.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Installing DC-SIM 2- 11

Switching Between Versions


You do not need to uninstall earlier versions of SIM Suite to use the
current release. When you install a new version, it will be the default.
If you wish to switch between versions, you must launch the appropriate
gateway and use the appropriate workbook file.
There are two ways to switch between different available versions.
1. Using the Available Versions toggle: Launch the V3.2 version of
DC-SIM. From the Available Versions pull-down, select the version you
want to use.

2. Using the RegisterGatewayDll.bat file


Open Windows Explorer. Go to \Program Files\KBC Profimatics\Sim
Suite x.x\Profsim and double-click on the file registerGatewayDll.bat

Launch the SIM model from the appropriate path on the Start bar

2 - 12 Installing DC-SIM

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

DC-SIM Model
How DC-SIM Works ............................................................................................................. 3-3
Test Run Data for Model Calibration..................................................................................... 3-2
Drum Dimension Input Data.................................................................................................. 3-3
Calibration Input Data............................................................................................................ 3-5
How the Calibration Case Works......................................................................................... 3-10
Calibration Case Checklist..................................................................................... 3-11
Configuration Guidelines..................................................................................................... 3-12
Zero Natural Recycle Configuration: Once Through............................................ 3-12
Calibration as a Once Through Unit........................................................ 3-12
Prediction of Once Through Unit Performance Using a Calibrated
Conventional Recycle Unit...................................................................... 3-14
Definition of Combined Feed Ratio (CFR)............................................................ 3-16
Conventional Recycle Coker ................................................................... 3-16
Once Through Coker ............................................................................... 3-16
Velocity Gas Oil .................................................................................................... 3-16
DC-SIM Calibration Guidelines .......................................................................................... 3-19
Predict Input Data ................................................................................................................ 3-21
Quench................................................................................................................... 3-21
Velocity Gas Oil .................................................................................................... 3-23
Product Cutpoints Target ....................................................................................... 3-23
Coke Inventory ...................................................................................................... 3-23
How the Predict Case Works ............................................................................................... 3-26
Predict Case Checklist ........................................................................................... 3-26
Product Properties ................................................................................................................ 3-27
Sulfur ..................................................................................................................... 3-27
Nitrogen ................................................................................................................. 3-27
Aniline Point.......................................................................................................... 3-27
Naphtha RON and MON ....................................................................................... 3-27
Diesel Cloud Point, Pour Point and Flash Point .................................................... 3-27
Bromine Number ................................................................................................... 3-28
Naphtha PONA...................................................................................................... 3-28
Viscosity @ 50 C................................................................................................... 3-28
Other Properties ..................................................................................................... 3-28
Coke Volatile Matter (VCM)................................................................................. 3-28
Coke Ash Content.................................................................................................. 3-28
Coke HGI............................................................................................................... 3-29
How the Optimizer Works ................................................................................................... 3-30
DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 1

Optimizer Run Checklist........................................................................................ 3-30

3 - 2 DC-SIM Model

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

How DC-SIM Works


DC-SIM is a generalized kinetic model that is calibrated to an actual unit
to model its behavior. Following this calibration, the model can be used
to predict unit behavior. The model can also predict the specific
optimum for a given unit. DC-SIM executes in 3 modes:
Calibration mode
Predict mode
Optimization mode
The model is calibrated by execution of a calibration case. In this mode
plant data from a delayed coker unit test run is entered into the
Calibration Input worksheet. The model forces a fit between the
theoretical model and the real-world unit, automatically calculating a
series of parameters called Calibration factors. Kinetic rate constants for
the key reactions of cracking and polymerization are calculated during
the Calibration procedure.
Once the model is calibrated, it can be run in Predict mode. This mode
lets you predict model behavior. Calibration factors determined from the
Calibration cases are used as inputs for the Predict mode. For Predict
cases independent variables such as feed rates and qualities and unit
operating conditions should be entered. You can vary any of a number of
process variables, including:
Feed rates (including adding a new feed or feeds)
Feed qualities
Combined feed ratio (furnace feed/fresh feed)
Furnace outlet temperature
Drum pressure
Product fractionation cut-points
Given these inputs, the model predicts how the unit will behave. Results
include:
Yields
Product properties
Drum fill time
Quench rates

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 1

Test Run Data for Model Calibration


The suggested general procedure for gathering and organizing calibration
data for a delayed coker is based on the following.
The best interval of time for establishing a mass balance is one
complete drum cycle. This is from drum swing to the next drum
swing, normally a period of between twelve to twenty-four
hours, depending on local operating procedures.
The model is calibrated as a steady state operation taken at the
mid-point of the drum cycle. The coke inventory is set to 50%
of the final inventory or just 50% of maximum if the final
outage is not available.
The mass balance is closed around the fractionator tower and
includes all residue feeds, light slops, external quenches, and the
recovered products from these feeds. It should not include any
internal slops, blowdown oils or quench which is taken from
tower product streams. Any rich oils or commingled naphthas,
light ends, or gases that pass through the coker tower overhead
or gas plant should be backed out of the balance.
The measured flows should be averaged and validated on a
consistent basis.
If the crude slate that generated the coker feed is known and
laboratory data is incomplete or unavailable, residue feed
distillations and properties can be generated using a Crude
Assay Library tool such as KBCs Crude Assay Management
System (CAMS).
Light ends and naphtha should be adjusted for C4- in naphtha
and C5+ in butane. DC-SIM is calibrated using the mass flows
of the gases, light ends and liquid product streams. If necessary,
the lightest liquid stream gravity should be adjusted for the
C4/C5 transfers. However, if the amount of C4- in the naphtha
remains about the same in most operations, this C4- adjustment
may be skipped. DC-SIM assumes the reported C4- yields do
not include the amount included in the naphtha.
Coke yield is calculated by DC-SIM as the difference between
the sum of the feed weights and the sum of the product weights.

3 - 2 DC-SIM Model

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Drum Dimension Input Data


DC-SIM processes certain drum dimensions so the coke inventory can be
translated to an outage value.

The premises of the model are:


Outage is measured from the top head flange.
The total volume of the drum includes:

DC-SIM User Guide

The bottom cone

The cylindrical portion

The top head volume to the flange.

Drum outages are estimated subtracting out the top head volume
and referencing coke level in the drum to the top tangent line
(with appropriate offsets and adjustments).
Coke inventory is tracked in the model in terms of percent of
maximum volume where maximum volume is defined by the
coke level at minimum outage. Knowing the volume of coke in
inventory, the weight accumulation rate of new coke, the run
time interval, and the density of the coke, it is possible to profile
the accumulation of coke and the outage level through a drum
cycle.
The model assumes a uniform diameter over the entire vertical
range of the drum cylinder (from top tangent line to bottom
tangent line). The bottom cone area is represented as a virtual
cylinder having the same diameter as the main drum and the
actual volume of the cone area to the bottom head. This should
be kept in mind when analyzing outage estimates in the first few
percent of the drum cycle.
Many cokers consist of multiple trains, or cells, made up of a
furnace and drum pair running in parallel looping from and back
to a single fractionator. In these cases we aggregate the drums
KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 3

into a conceptual drum made up of the individual drums stacked


on top of each other and a combined furnace. The drum
diameter is kept the same as the physical diameter of the drums
(which assumes they are all the same). This allows for outage
and coke accumulation calculations, which are a simple multiple
of the number of cells.

3 - 4 DC-SIM Model

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Calibration Input Data

Green, c = Required; White, blank = optional


Note: Input data will be shown as screen captures from the
actual model.
The units shown are British/USA; you can select metric units on the
Design worksheet.
The operating conditions entered represent the average conditions in
effect consistent with the material and property balance data.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 5

c = Required;
c* = Conditional on presence of stream selection on design
worksheet;
blank = Optional

3 - 6 DC-SIM Model

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

The coker unit product yields are entered as mass flow or weight percent.

c = Required;
c* = Conditional on presence of stream selection on design
worksheet;
blank = Optional
The initialization factors can normally be left blank initially. The two
Distribution Factors and the Converge Tolerance Initial Factors can be
used during Calibration in accordance with DC-SIM Calibration
Guidelines.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 7

Liquid Stream properties are shown below. Even though product sulfur,
nitrogen and metals are not required input, that information is used to
calculate their distribution in the Predict cases.

Each cell has a spinner to


choose the Distillation Method

Naphtha Calib RON


required if Predict
RON desired.
During calibration, this
value is compared against
calculated value to get
Calibration Factor.

Need to calculate
Olefin. Required for
Naphtha range for
PONA prediction.
c = Required;

c* = Conditional on presence of stream selection on design


worksheet;
blank = Optional

Each cell has a spinner to


choose the Distillation Method
During calibration, this
value is compared against
calculated value to get
Calibration Factor.

Used to calculated
Olefin content

c = Required;
c* = Conditional on presence of stream selection on design
worksheet;
blank = Optional
3 - 8 DC-SIM Model

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Economic prices and costs can be assigned for a net profit calculation.
All economic entries are optional.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 9

How the Calibration Case Works


The general sequence of Calibration Case calculations is:
1.

Feeds are identified and broken up into volatile oil


pseudocomponents and a non-volatile back-end defined as the
weight % concarbon residue.

2.

The mass yield and gravity data are interpreted to establish the
calibration basis for product streams. This sets the weight and
volume targets against which the reaction equations are
calibrated.

3.

The liquid product TBP distillations are interpreted to calculate


volume-weighted cutpoints. Distillation overlaps and offsets are
calculated and stored as Calibration factors. The cutpoints are
stored as Calibration references.

4.

Sulfur and nitrogen are balanced based on distributions to gas,


liquid products, and coke.

5.

The fractionation tower is initialized to provide an initial


estimate of the furnace feed composition.

6.

The furnace, drum and quench operations are simulated and


iterated until the weight yield of gas, liquid products, and coke
is converged at the measured process conditions by
manipulating the yield and distribution Calibration factors.

7.

The fractionator tower is re-calculated with the equilibrium


drum vapor to separate the heavy gas oil and lighter from the
recycle. The furnace feed is recalculated and step 6 repeated
until all sections are converged.

8.

Having established the back-end of heavy gas oil in step 7, the


front-end cutpoint is manipulated until the heavy gas oil weight
is converged with the measured calibration weight within the
rigorous fractionation procedure. The tower is resolved and all
steps from step 6 are repeated.

9.

The remaining tower liquid streams are distributed by weight


using a simple column TBP procedure.

10. Each of the liquid stream volumes are adjusted to the measured
target volume by adjusting the K-Factors of the
pseudocomponents until both the weights and volumes agree.
The K-Factor shift from feed to products is recalculated and the
model resolved from step 6 again.
11. The converged model then compares estimated properties
against the measured inputs and calculates property Calibration
factors, or saves the Calibration gross property values as points
of reference.

3 - 10 DC-SIM Model

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Calibration Case Checklist


While calibrating the model, check the following:

DC-SIM User Guide

1.

Retrieve an existing Calibration Case to load into the


Calibration Input Worksheet or enter the required data
manually.

2.

Check that the model configuration and static data on the


Design Worksheet are correct and consistent with the
Calibration Input Worksheet data.

3.

Run the model using the Run button on the Calibration Input
Worksheet or the DC-SIM menu.

4.

If the model fails, an error message appears above the case that
failed on the Calibration Result worksheet. You are prompted
to go to the Message Log Report. The cause of the failure is
listed at the bottom of the file and will provide information for
you to correct the problem. After correcting, run the model
again.

5.

If the model runs successfully, then the Model Messages should


be checked to ensure there are no abnormal warnings. The
results will be loaded into the Calibration Result Worksheet.

6.

View output files using the Text Files selection on the DC-SIM
menu.

7.

Review the Summary Worksheet to check Calibration Case data


quality.

8.

Review the Charts 2 Worksheet to inspect the feed and


product breakups and distillations.

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 11

Configuration Guidelines
Zero Natural Recycle Configuration: Once Through
Conventional coker technology mixes the bubble tower bottom with
fresh feeds to add recycle to the furnace. While this recycle helps the
resid flow through furnace, it also contributes to additional coke yields.
In recent years, a different coker configuration has been implemented at
some refinery. The fresh feeds are no longer mixed with the tower
bottom. Depending on the resid quality, distillates such LGO or HGO
are mixed in just before furnace inlet to provide the dilution needed. To
differentiate this zero natural recycle technology from the conventional
recycle mode, this alternative is labeled as Once Through Configuration.
Selection of the Once Through Configuration removes the fresh feeds
from the tower bottom. The fresh feeds are sent directly to the furnace
bypassing the fractionator bottom. In this configuration, there is no
natural recycle where the feed is not picking up any recycle from the
tower bottom tray. It is still feasible to send Distillate recycle by taking a
tower product stream (such as LGO or HGO) and mixing that with the
fresh feed just before furnace inlet using the Velocity Gas Oil slot. The
Once Through Configuration can be applied in two types of situations:
Calibration as a Once Through Unit
Prediction of Once Through Unit performance using a
calibrated Conventional Recycle Unit

Calibration as a Once Through Unit


A standard Calibration run can be performed by specifying the Once
Through option in the Configuration menu on the Design sheet.

In the Once Through configuration, only fresh feeds 1 to 3 are available


as furnace feed. Feeds 4 and 5 are not applicable in this mode.
3 - 12 DC-SIM Model

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

In addition to the product streams present in the conventional recycle


coker, a sixth product, Flash Zone Gas Oil (FZGO), is produced from the
tower bottom.
For the Velocity Gas Oil option, it is also possible to use FZGO as part of
the velocity gas oil. This can be done is two ways.
FZGO (Flash Zone Gas Oil) used as velocity gas

OR
Both HGO and FZGO mixed together to be used as velocity gas

Refer to Velocity Gas Oil for the flow rates of the new Velocity Gas Oil.
When HGO + FZGO mixture is used, both Recycle Gas Oil Volume Rate
and Recycle FZGO Oil Volume Rate are required (Calibration or Predict
input worksheet rows 235 through 238.)

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 13

In DC-SIM V2006, a special Once Through configuration where there is


no net HGO product stream can be simulated by setting the HGO yields
to be .0001 wt% on the Calibration Input worksheet. The Converge
Tolerance Initial Factor in row 291 should be specified as 0.005 or less in
order to converge on the near zero yields target used for HGO. If the
default kinetics can not converge on the yields profile you want, you can
enable the special modified kinetics by setting the Cracking Rate Factor
(row 458 of Calibration Input) to 1.01.
Before running the model, you should also set the Once Through flag for
the selected case. (Calibration Input worksheet row 490; Predict Input
worksheet rows 345.)

Predict runs of the Once Through configuration can be done either as


Primed Predict or Cold Predict.

Prediction of Once Through Unit Performance Using a


Calibrated Conventional Recycle Unit
You can calibrate as a conventional recycle unit, and then switch to a
Once Through configuration for Predict mode. This allows a
conventional recycle coker to simulate coker performance, if the tower
bottom is modified to separate the fresh feeds from the tower bottom
liquids.
To simulate the Once Through configuration, perform the calibration of
the Conventional Recycle base case with Open Wash Zone configuration.
As described above in the section about the new Open Wash Zone
configuration, this allows simulation of extra low recycle operation. By
setting the CFR to 1.001 in the Predict mode, the operation is now a
3 - 14 DC-SIM Model

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Once Through operation. The yields, including coke yields, would now
reflect what one would get in Once Through operation. There is one
missing piece of information in this type of simulation. The program is
going to predict a combined HGO and FZGO product stream since the
configuration is kept as Conventional Recycle. You can use a flowsheet
such as Petro-SIM to simulate the coker fractionator. By recombining
the products predicted by DC-SIM into a column feed stream, you can
get the individual product separation expected. Using this technique, the
HGO and FZGO products can be obtained as separate product streams.
By using the approach described above (i.e. running at CFR of 1.001),
you can identify the benefits of converting from a conventional recycle
unit to Once Through operation.
DC-SIM is not configured to perform conventional recycle Predict from
the Once Through Calibrated case.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 15

Definition of Combined Feed Ratio (CFR)


Various definitions of combined feed ratio (CFR) are used by the model.

Conventional Recycle Coker


Type

Definition

CFR

(Tower Bottoms Volume + Velocity Gas Oil) / Sum of


Feeds 1 to 5.

CFR Natural
(CFRN)

Tower Bottoms Volume / Sum of Feeds 1 to 5.

CFR Distillate
(CFRD)

(Sum of Feeds 1 to 5 + Velocity Gas Oil) / Sum of Feeds


1 to 5.

Once Through Coker


Type

Definition

CFR

(Sum of Feeds 1 to 3 + Velocity Gas Oil) / Sum of Feeds


1 to 3.

CFR Natural
(CFRN)

(Sum of Feeds 1 to 3 + FZGO recycle as Velocity Gas


Oil) / Sum of Feeds 1 to 3.

CFR Distillate
(CFRD)

(Sum of Feeds 1 to 3 + Distillate Velocity Gas Oil (nonFZGO)) / Sum of Feeds 1 to 3.

Velocity Gas Oil


Velocity gas oil is defined as a stream that is added to the furnace feed to
increase the velocity in the furnace. This stream can be either external to
the unit or a recycled oil within the coker system.
It is expected that where a fractionator stream is recycled for use as drum
quench, that same stream will be used as furnace Velocity Gas Oil.
Although you can configure the model to put, for instance, heavy coker
gas oil into the drum overhead and light coker gas oil into the furnace
feed, this configuration has not been validated and the results may be
unreliable.
The velocity gas oil can be formulated with several schemes:
Flow Control
You can specify a fixed volume of velocity gas oil. For external
feeds, the volume is entered as the feed rate for Feed Number 7
in the Feedstock section of the Input worksheet.

For recycled feeds the volume is specified in the Operating


Conditions section under Furnace as Recycle Gas Oil Volume
Rate.
Ratio Control in Predict Cases
At the bottom of the Furnace section on the Predict Input
worksheet is a target entry that lets you specify a volume
percentage of total furnace feed. If this is left blank, the model

3 - 16 DC-SIM Model

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

uses the flows specified above. If it contains a value, it


overrides either the external Feed Number 7 rate or the recycle
volume rate, whichever is active.
Ratio Control Defaults
There is a complex system of defaults, allowing quick setup of
Predict case studies and optimization runs. The scheme logic is
shown below.
This lets you set up a Calibration Case and go directly to a
Predict case study without any additional set-up of inputs or
controls on gas oil to furnace feed.
When calibrating with either recycle or external gas oil to the
furnace, the model saves the percent of total furnace feed (based
on the CFR as defined above) as a Calibration Factor.
If you go directly to a Predict Back case without any other
inputs, the calibration volume will be passed through and used
in the Predict series until it is changed.
If you expect to change the fresh feed rate and want to maintain
the furnace feed gas oil ratio, enter a zero (0) into the Predict
Input Recycle Gas Oil Volume Rate. It will then follow the
default logic and use the calibration ratio to set gas oil volume.
You can change this ratio by putting any sensible number into
the % Furn Feed Target cell.
The model determines the mode of operation (external or
recycle) from the selector list box on the design sheet.

A consequence of this scheme is that if you set recycle feed rate and the
% target to zero, the model will default to the calibration ratio. There is
no way to turn the recycled Velocity Gas Oil completely off with this
scheme.
External feed can be shut off by simply setting the Feed Number 7 rate to
zero.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 17

The default logic for setting Velocity Gas Oil rate and ratio is shown in
the following diagram.
Create XKUP (108)
= 100*VelGO/
(CFR*Feeds 1-5)

VelGO = Calibration Volume Rate


of Gas Oil to Furnace Feed

Yes

Calibration
Case?
Yes

No

No Input?
Yes

Set % Target =
XKUP (108)

No

Set Recycle GO
from Target

Recycle On?
Yes
No
Yes

Target > 0?

No

Recycle On?

No

Set Feed #7 from


Target

Use User Inputs


for Feed #7 or
Recycle GO

3 - 18 DC-SIM Model

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

DC-SIM Calibration Guidelines


The following guidelines apply to typical delayed coker units. However
for special feeds or unit operations, the guidelines may not all apply:
If the model does not solve:

Check all temperature and pressure profile numbers.

Check that the amount of quench is consistent with the


recycle rate (CFR). Too much quench relative to CFR can
cause the wash zone to become infeasible.

Check that the feed distillation is reasonable and that the KFactor is consistent with the products. When the data is
uncertain make sure that the feed 50% point is set to yield a
K-Factor approximately equal to (or slightly greater than)
the K-Factor of the heavy gas oil stream.

The Converge Tolerance Initial Factor on row 291 of


Calibration Input can be used to loosen or tighten the target
convergence errors on the internal iteration loops.

When the model solves:

DC-SIM User Guide

Check the H2S and NH3 yields on Calibration Result. If it


is off, use the Distribution Factors on Calibration Input
rows 287-288 to adjust and re-run Calibration

Check the Coking Calibration factor XKUP(03). It should


be approximately 1.0. The normal range is 0.6 to 1.2.
Values at the extremes of this range or outside of it indicate
an unusual coking pattern relative to the ConCarbon of the
feed. If the number is low, the input ConCarbon value of
the feed may be high (relatively more coke from
ConCarbon means that the coke from polymerization
requirement to close the coke balance is less). If it is high,
the ConCarbon may be low. Also, any error in recovered
product yields shows up in coke yield and that, in turn, can
impact this Calibration factor.

Look at the Heat of Cracking Calibration factor


XKUP(102). It should be approximately 15 to 25. Above
that range indicates that the drum delta temperature is low
for the amount of cracking going on in the drum. Low
values indicate the opposite. This may create a problem in
Predict runs.

Check the overall cracking profile (found at the bottom of


the Summary sheet and the fraction of volatile oil cracked
in the furnace (found in the Operating Conditions Furnace
section of the Calibration Results sheet). There should be a
reasonable balance between the various cracking modes.
There is no typical profile, but a rough guideline is that the
KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 19

fraction cracked in the furnace should be between 0.05 and


0.25. The tuning factor, Furnace Cracking T Factor, can be
used to shift some of the cracking from furnace to the drum.

Check the Notional Depth of Drum Liquid Holdup found


on the Operating Conditions Drum section of the
Calibration Results should be a reasonable number. Again,
there is no typical number, but it usually falls between 1-4
feet (0.3 to 1.3 meters).

Check the Tower Temperature Profile for reasonableness.


Check that Calibration factors XKUP(118) and (119).
XKUP(118) are completely data driven and indicate the
measured difference between the front end of the heavy gas
oil distillation and the heavy gas oil process temperature.
The bigger this number is the worse the fractionation or the
more suspect one or more of the data points. XKUP(119) is
a measure of the internal adjustments needed to be made by
the model to bring the pseudocomponent bubble points into
balance with the measured temperatures. As this number
grows, it indicates that the model has to make a larger
correction. As the value exceeds 50, it indicates possible
problems with the process data or yield data.

Check the K-Factor profile for reasonableness. Typically,


the K-Factor of the light and heavy gas oil will be
approximately the same as the feed, the distillate will be
somewhat lower, and the light naphtha will trend upward.
A typical profile of product K-Factor vs. TBP (in deg F)
looks like:
1 2.5
12
1 1 .5
11
1 0.5
10
9.5
9

3 - 20 DC-SIM Model

500

KBC Proprietary

1000

1500

2000

DC-SIM User Guide

Predict Input Data


Predict cases require many of the same inputs as the Calibration case for
feed and operating conditions. Yield information is not required, since it
will be calculated by the program.

Quench
When external source quench is encountered in the Predict mode, DCSIM always requires the presence of a Temperature Control Quench
stream to adjust the amount of quench needed to achieve the drum vapor
quenched delta temperature target. If only external Flow Control Quench
is used during Calibration, DC-SIM assumes the same quality external
quench will be used to satisfy the Temperature Control Quench during
Predict, unless you specify a separate external Temperature Control
quench stream (row 200 on Predict Input worksheet).
When calibrated with only external Flow Control quench in Predict
mode, reduce the Predict Input Flow Control quench input (Predict Input
row 176) by at least 10% from the Calibration value. This amount is
then used as the initial value for the Predict Input Temperature Control
quench (Predict Input row 200). In this situation, both the Flow Control
and Temp Control quench streams are the same external quench stream.
This gives the model flexibility of adjusting the total external quench
flow needed to meet the specified Predict drum vapor quenched delta
temperature target. This approach is required in situations when less
total quench flow is needed to meet the delta temperature target. This
can happen when the drum vapor quench delta enthalpy requirement is
less than that used during Calibration due to either lower delta
temperature target or less drum vapor enthalpy. The total external
quench flow is reported on line 471 of the Results worksheet.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 21

When LGO or HGO is used as recycle quench, the amount required is


calculated by the model in the Predict cases.
The quench target can be specified in two ways. In the Quench Targets
section, on row 253, there is a Quench Delta T Override Selector. When
this is set to 0, the Quench Delta T Override Value on row 254 is used by
the model as the quench delta T target for the drum vapor. When the
Quench Delta T Override Selector is set to 1, then the Drum Vapor Inlet
Temperature to Fractionator is used as the target for how much the drum
vapor should be quenched.

3 - 22 DC-SIM Model

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Velocity Gas Oil


In the Furnace section, the recycle Velocity Gas Oil (for example, LGO
or HGO used as velocity gas oil) can be specified in several different
schemes. A detailed discussion of how velocity gas oil are handled in the
Predict cases can be found in the Velocity Gas Oil section.

Product Cutpoints Target


For the naphtha range products (product streams 1 to 3), use D86 values
for cutpoint specification by entering a new value in the Alternative Cut
Point Spec section. Any value entered here will override the value in the
corresponding TBP cutpoint.

Coke Inventory
In the Predict mode, DC-SIM can be set up to predict a history of coke
buildup in the drum during a cycle. There are two approaches to keeping
track of coke inventory.
DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 23

In the first method, you specify a Run Time Interval in row 247.

The model calculates the amount of coke made in that time interval
starting at the Calibration case or first Cold Predict case drum coke level
conditions. Each Predict case is a separate run that is not affected by the
other Predict cases in the stack.

3 - 24 DC-SIM Model

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

In the second method, you set up a series of Predict cases and set the
Coke Inventory Sequence in Feature Selections section to 1.

Each of the Predict cases will calculate the amount of coke made in the
specified Run Time Interval (row 247) starting with the existing drum
coke inventory established in the previous Predict case. In this manner,
the drum coke inventory history during a cycle can be viewed on the
Predict Results worksheet.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 25

How the Predict Case Works


The Predict Case works as follows:
1.

Feeds are identified and broken up the same as in the


Calibration case.

2.

The fractionator is initialized at the specified recycle (CFR) and


product distillation cutpoints. If no distillation cutpoints are
supplied, the model will default to the calibration reference.

3.

The furnace, drum, and quench sections are solved based on the
Calibration factors, independent variables, and any quench
temperature targets.

4.

The fractionator tower is re-calculated with the equilibrium


drum vapor as in the Calibration case. The furnace feed is
recalculated and step 3 repeated until all sections are converged.

5.

The converged model then estimates properties for the liquid


product streams and sulfur, nitrogen, and metals distributions
across all products based on Calibration factors.

Predict Case Checklist


Before running a model Predict Case, check the following items:

3 - 26 DC-SIM Model

1.

Select the Predict Input worksheet.

2.

Select the run mode, primed or cold. If running a primed mode


case, select a Calibration case to start the model from. If
running a cold Predict, make sure that a Calibration factor set
has been copied into the Predict case column from the
Calibration Result Worksheet. If necessary, set the quench
temperature target mode and setpoint.

3.

If desired, set product stream cutpoints.

4.

Set other independent variables. If running a cold Predict, all


required data must have a value. In a primed case, no
independent variable entries are required. Any blank entries
will cause the model to use the value supplied in the Calibration
case.
Change tuning factors and other selection items as desired.

5.

Run the model using the Run button.

6.

If the model does not run because of a fatal error, the error will
be reported. All messages are stored in the Message Log. The
information provided in the message should be enough to
troubleshoot the problem. Once the problem has been fixed,
rerun the program.

7.

When the model runs successfully, please view Messages to


ensure that there are no serious non-fatal run errors.

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Product Properties
The product properties in Calibration cases are based either on your input
or correlations. When user-supplied product properties are available
from Calibration runs, this information is taken into account during
Predict runs to adjust calculated product properties from correlations.

Sulfur
In a Calibration case, you enter the sulfur content of feed and product
streams.
The distribution of sulfur to liquid products is based on a correlation
between sulfur concentration and API gravity of the streams, calibrated
to the measured sulfur distribution.

Nitrogen
Nitrogen is distributed using the same procedure as sulfur.

Aniline Point
Aniline points are calculated and compared to the measured input in the
Calibration case.
The Calibration factor for aniline point is represented by an additive
correction term, which is applied to the calculated value in Predict runs.

Naphtha RON and MON


Octanes (RON and MON) are predicted for the coker naphtha range
products. RON and MON predictions require plant measured RON and
MON values to be specified during Calibration. The calibrated value is
then adjusted during Predict mode to reflect changes in cracked product
properties.

Diesel Cloud Point, Pour Point and Flash Point


Cloud Point, Pour Point and Flash Point properties are calculated for gas
oil and diesel range products. These properties are calculated using API
procedures, and are based on the product stream average boiling point
and specific gravity. The flash point procedure requires the stream D86
10% point to be > 150 F. If Cloud Point, Pour Point or Flash Point data
is available in the Calibration run, Calibration factors are calculated
comparing the laboratory data to calculated values. These Calibration
factors are then applied to the calculated values in the Predict runs.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 27

Bromine Number
Bromine numbers are input to the model and saved as reference
calibration data. In Predict runs, the reference Bromine Numbers are
adjusted for feed K-Factor and product stream cutpoint to estimate the
Predict case value. Olefins Content is calculated from the Bromine
Number for each stream. Calibration Bromine value is required for
Naphtha range products in order to predict PONA.

Naphtha PONA
PONA properties for naphtha range products are predicted from coker
naphtha data, using the TBP midpoints, bromine number and API.

Viscosity @ 50 C
The viscosities at 50 C are calculated for the liquid product streams

Other Properties
Olefins content, refractive index, cetane index, and molecular weight are
estimated by defined correlations, based on various forms of distillation
and gravity.

Coke Volatile Matter (VCM)


The VCM of the coke is based on the amount of liquid holdup in the
drum. Liquid holdup is affected by changes in operating conditions,
primarily drum temperature and cycle length, coke VCM responds
accordingly.

Coke Ash Content


Since a significant portion of the ash in coke consists of metals, the ash
content of coke is assumed to be proportional to the metal content. An
ash/metals weight ratio is calculated from the data you supply in the
Calibration case. This factor is used to estimate ash content in
subsequent Predict cases.

3 - 28 DC-SIM Model

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Coke HGI
The Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) property for coke is estimated
in DC-SIM. HGI is a measurement of the propensity of the coke to break
into fines, which may cause problems during coke cutting calcinations or
other final use. This coke hardness is likely to be related to the level of
asphaltenes in the coker feed. Feed alphaltenes level is not routinely
measured in the refinery. However, the coke sulfur is usually
proportional to the asphaltene level. DC-SIM calculates the HGI using a
correlation to coke sulfur. If the coke HGI is specified in calibration
input, this lab HGI value is compared to the calculated value from
correlation to obtain a Calibration factor. If no calibration HGI is
specified, this Calibration factor is set to 1. In the Predict mode, the
newly calculated coke HGI from correlation is adjusted by this
Calibration factor to arrive at the predicted coke HGI.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 29

How the Optimizer Works


The Optimizer works as follows:
The Optimizer maximizes or minimizes a variable you select
producing the Objective Function. Profit, product yield, or fresh
feeds are examples of variables that can be maximized or
minimized.
Up to eight constraints with minimum/maximum limits can be
defined. These are typically furnace duty and a fractionator
tower constraint.
Up to nine manipulated (independent) variables with
minimum/maximum limits can be defined. The Optimizer
manipulates these to maximize/minimize the desired function
while staying inside constraint limits. Typically, these include
furnace coil outlet temperature, feed rate, recycle rate (CFR),
etc. Enter maximum step sizes for each manipulated variable.
These keep the Optimizer from moving too far in one step.
The Optimizer starts by running the selected Predict case. This
is the initial case for the Optimization run. If the initial case is
outside of constraint limits, the Optimizer will force the model
to be inside of the constraint limits. If the initial case is too far
outside of the constraint limits, the model will abort.
The Optimizer maximizes/minimizes the objective by moving
the manipulated variables. Each move will be limited by
maximum step sizes.
The Optimizer stops when the objective moves by less than
0.1% (default value) from case to case.

Optimizer Run Checklist


An Optimizer run is a series of Predict cases. This checklist highlights
items specific to the optimizer. Before running the model optimizer,
check the following items.

3 - 30 DC-SIM Model

1.

Select the Optimizer Input Worksheet.

2.

Check that the model contains the results of an earlier Predict


Case run. Processing of the optimization case does not start
until the Calibration Case used to prime the Predict Cases and
all the Predict Cases with a non-blank Run Status are run.
Select an optimizer starting point by using the Reference Case
Number spinner. By setting up the Predict Cases appropriately,
you control the initial starting point of the optimizer.

3.

Choose Maximize or Minimize mode on the Setup dialog box


using the Minimization Option selection.

4.

Use default tolerances that are displayed on the Settings dialog


box. Typically, no inputs are required for tolerances.
KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

5.

Select up to nine independent variables. The Optimizer will


manipulate these to maximize or minimize the Objective
Function.

6.

Select the variable that will be maximized or minimized (the


Objective Function) with an x.

7.

Use a non-x, non-blank character to select up to eight


constraints with minimum and maximum limits on the
dependents variable list.

8.

Execute the Optimizer using the Run button on the worksheet.

9.

If the model does not run because of a fatal error, the error will
be reported in the Optimizer Log or the Message Log. The
message should provide enough information for you to fix the
problem. Once the problem is fixed, run the program again.

10. If the model runs successfully, scan the messages in the


Optimizer Log to ensure there are no serious non-fatal run
errors. The independent and dependent variable results from the
final Optimization run are displayed in the Optimized Value
column on the Optimizer Input Worksheet
To be thorough, also review the Predict Case checklist.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM Model 3- 31

Using the Spreadsheet


Interface
Microsoft Excel...................................................................................................................... 4-3
Model Workbook and Model Workbook Template ............................................................... 4-4
Getting Started ....................................................................................................................... 4-5
Model Workbook ................................................................................................................... 4-6
Grouping Feature ..................................................................................................... 4-6
Comments................................................................................................................ 4-7
DC-SIM Menu ......................................................................................................... 4-8
DC-SIM Options Item ............................................................................................. 4-8
Navigation Item ....................................................................................................... 4-9
Run Item .................................................................................................................. 4-9
Copy Case Data Item ............................................................................................. 4-10
Clear Case Data Item ............................................................................................. 4-10
Text Files Item....................................................................................................... 4-10
Available Results Item........................................................................................... 4-11
Import Case Data Item........................................................................................... 4-11
Export Case Data Item........................................................................................... 4-11
Open Sample Workbook........................................................................................ 4-11
Transfer Workbook Data ....................................................................................... 4-12
Design Worksheet ................................................................................................................ 4-15
Calibration Input Worksheet ................................................................................................ 4-17
Run Button............................................................................................................. 4-18
Import Button ........................................................................................................ 4-18
Copy Button........................................................................................................... 4-19
Clear Button........................................................................................................... 4-20
Predict Input Worksheet....................................................................................................... 4-21
Run Button............................................................................................................. 4-22
Setup Button .......................................................................................................... 4-22
Copy Button........................................................................................................... 4-23
Import Button ........................................................................................................ 4-23
Clear Button........................................................................................................... 4-23
Optimizer Input Worksheet.................................................................................................. 4-24
Run Button............................................................................................................. 4-25
DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 1

Setup Button .......................................................................................................... 4-25


VGen: LP Vector Generation Tool ........................................................................ 4-26
Result Worksheets................................................................................................................ 4-27
Comparison Worksheet........................................................................................................ 4-29
CaseGen................................................................................................................. 4-29
Summary Worksheet............................................................................................................ 4-31
Charts ................................................................................................................................... 4-32
Charts Worksheet................................................................................................... 4-33
Charts - 2 Worksheet ............................................................................................. 4-35
Worksheet Comments and Model Help ............................................................................... 4-36
Saving Files and DC-SIM Exit............................................................................................. 4-37
Data Flow..............................................................................................................................4.38

4 - 2 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Microsoft Excel
The spreadsheet environment provides one of the most flexible, powerful
and easy-to-use engineering application interfaces available.
Microsoft Excel includes Visual Basic, a sophisticated high level
programming language. Visual Basic has been used extensively to
enhance Excels functionality to support the specific tasks needed to
operate DC-SIM.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 3

Model Workbook and Model Workbook Template


The Model Workbook file is where you enter model input data, executing
the model in Calibration, Predict or Optimization Modes, or viewing the
results. An example Workbook file is included.
A Model Workbook Template is loaded on your PC at installation time,
and is named DCSIMV2006Master_Gateway.xls. The default location is
the \Program Files\KBC Profimatics\Sim Suite 3.2\Profsim\Dcdata\
directory. The template file is the base format for all DC-SIM Excel
files. It is write-protected.
The template file is write-protected and should not be altered or overwritten. If this happens, DC-SIM must be reinstalled.
The DC-SM Workbook is created by taking the template file and using it
for a specific coker unit, and then saving the new file.
Never delete or insert rows or columns into the worksheets. All the
worksheets have hidden columns and rows that may be corrupted if
columns or rows are inserted or deleted. In addition, the interface code in
some cases relies on data being in specific locations which could also be
corrupted. The result would be unreliable model runs.
Be careful when copying or moving data around the worksheets. It is
safer and more convenient to use the Copy function provided with the
interface. For manual copying we recommend using the Paste Special
Values function, to avoid unintended propagation of formulas and
formats.

4 - 4 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Getting Started
Once DC-SIM has been installed, start the program. The following entry
window opens.

Select the SIM Suite 3.2 if that version is not shown on the screen.
Select either New Case, Open Case, or Sample Files.

New Case Button


The New Case button opens the master workbook. Rename the master
file using the File SaveAs command to create your new case.

Open Case and Sample Files Buttons


Click either the Open Case button or the Sample Files button to open a
dialog box where you select a SIM workbook or the template file.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 5

Model Workbook
An example problem and a template file are provided with the
installation of DC-SIM. You may also have a DC-SIM Workbook for
your unit created by KBC.
These workbooks consist of the following worksheets:
Design
Calibration Input
Calibration Result
Predict Input
Predict Result
Opt Input
Opt Result
Comparison
Summary
Charts
Charts 2

Grouping Feature
Many of the sheets in the workbook contain a large number of rows. To
make these long files manageable, the DC-SIM worksheets make
extensive use of the Grouping feature provided with Excel.

4 - 6 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Grouping allows sections of worksheet rows and columns to be


combined and hidden from view. The plus and minus signs on the left of
the worksheets are used to unhide (+) or hide (-) the rows.
At the top of the column of + and - are the grouping levels. Clicking on
Level 1 hides all the rows. Clicking on Level 2 or Level 3 reveals all the
rows in that level. Additionally, individual model cases are grouped in
sets of ten.
The worksheets using this feature must be unprotected to use the
hide/unhide capabilities. They must also have the row and column
headings enabled (choose Tools Options and select the View tab), to
see the master grouping levels at the upper left-hand corner of the sheet.
For more information, refer to the Excel documentation.

Comments
The DC-SIM worksheets provided also use Excel comments to give you
valuable information.
Comments appear as red triangles on the upper right of an individual cell.
To view the text of the comment, put the cursor over the red triangle.
When you move your cursor away from the red triangle, the comment
box disappears.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 7

DC-SIM Menu
When starting a modeling session, a new menu is created called
DC-SIM. It is attached to the standard Excel menu bar.

Some of the menu functions are also made available by clicking buttons
on the worksheet. Each menu item for the DC-SIM is described below.

DC-SIM Options Item


This menu lets you turn on or off a prompt that appears after cases are
run but before they are written to a Results sheet. When checked, this
option prompts you to write the cases into Excel or to cancel this action.
The default is Off.

4 - 8 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Navigation Item
The Navigation function lets you navigate among all the worksheets.
This could be used instead of directly selecting the Excel Worksheet
Tabs. The Navigation secondary menu lists all the available worksheets
in the Model Workbook.

Run Item
The Run function lets you run any of the model modes. It has the same
function as the Run Button provided on each of the Input worksheets.
The Run secondary menu lists the three model modes: Calibration,
Predict and Optimization.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 9

Copy Case Data Item


The Copy Case Data copies certain values from on sheet to another or
from one column to another. Its function has the same functionality as
the Copy button on Input and Results sheets. (Refer to Calibration
Input Worksheet for more details).

Clear Case Data Item


The Clear Case Data function clears certain cells. It has the same
function as the Clear Button on Input sheets. (Refer to Calibration
Input Worksheet for more details). The Clear option can also be used
to perform the clear function on Result worksheets.

Text Files Item


The Text Files function displays a dialog box that gives you access to all
the output files produced by DC-SIM. The reports are stored in the
default directory and are opened, by default, with Microsofts WordPad,
or a text editor you specify (see the section on Case Manager Settings).

4 - 10 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

The advantage of opening the reports with this menu item is that the
reports are automatically formatted with page breaks, etc., and for
printing in Portrait orientation instead of Landscape. Print Zoom lets
you control the size of the report pages printed on each page from Excel.
Opening with WordPad is a bit faster and may be better when you only
intend to browse rather than print.

Available Results Item


The Available Results function is specific to the Charts sheets and has
the same function as the Available Results button. (Refer to Charts
for more details).

Import Case Data Item


The Import Case Data function brings information from files in .DAT
format into Excel. It has the same function as the Import button on the
Calibration Input and Predict Input sheets. (Refer to Calibration Input
Worksheet for more details).

Export Case Data Item


The Export Case Data function creates a DAT text file under the userspecified name that includes all required input data needed to recreate the
current worksheet when that DAT file is imported into another
workbook. Only the information from the Calibration Input and Predict
Input worksheets that have the Run Case selection specified are
included on this DAT file. The information from the Optimizer Input
worksheet is also included in this exported DAT file.

Open Sample Workbook


This will open a selection menu to let you access a sample workbook.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 11

Transfer Workbook Data


This function copies data from v2.x to v3.x versions of the DC-SIM data
workbook. This function does not support the transfer of data between
v3.x workbooks. To transfer data between v3.x workbooks, use the
Export/Import data functions.
With the new model workbook template, use Transfer Workbook Data to
start the transfer function.
The function opens a dialog box for you to select the file you want to
load.
After you have selected a file with data to transfer, you will be prompted
for what to transfer. The default is the All option to transfer formulas,
values and comments. Select the option and then click the OK button to
continue.

The status bar will update as the utility steps through each of the input
sheets to be updated and the program will display a message when the
process is complete.

4 - 12 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Import from Petro-SIM


This function imports a Calibration, Prediction, or Monitoring case from
a Petro-SIM case.

Export Calibration to Petro-SIM


This function exports calibration data from the stand-alone into PetroSIM. This function is detailed in the Petro-SIM documentation.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 13

About DC-SIM
This menu item displays the detailed version numbers for each of the
main components of the SIM model.

DC-SIM Help
Selecting this menu item opens the on-line help, where you can browse
information from the user and technology manuals and perform searches
on key words or phrases.

4 - 14 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Design Worksheet
The Design worksheet is used to configure unit specific information
needed by the model. The schematic is used to set up the unit and model
data that applies to all worksheets:
Coker unit data included on the diagram consists of:
Coker Configuration (recycle vs. once through)
Quench Configuration
HGO Tower Draw Stage
Feed Injection Points
Velocity Gas Oil Feed Option
Liquid Products Stream Options
Also included are selections controlling information in the model
worksheet:
Model Title
Engineering Units
Mol. Wt. Method
Note that these setup data are global to the Model Workbook. Each
workbook is specific for a given process unit configuration. If a different
configuration is required, set up a new Model Workbook.

Below the schematic, you can input unit specific stream names. These
stream labels are used throughout the workbook. Further down on the
Design worksheet are the required additional unit data inputs
representing the unit static coke drum dimensional data.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 15

Configuration options are for display only.

4 - 16 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Calibration Input Worksheet


The Calibration Input worksheet is used to enter test run data and run the
calibration cases. Each column represents one case. The worksheet can
handle up to 53 calibration cases.
Load Results Option

Optional case title. Text is


appended to the Model
Title defined on the Design
Worksheet.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Enter a non-blank
character in the run
case row to process a
Calibration Case

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 17

Run Button
Run executes the model in Calibration mode. The calibration cases
processed are those that have a non-blank character in the Run Case row
(Row 3).
At the start of model execution, a DOS box opens to display processing
information. This box automatically closes after model execution has
been completed. A message box prompts you to start loading the model
results.
While the DOS box is open, the model run can be aborted by terminating
the operation in any valid manner (i.e., Ctrl-Break).
The drop-down box located to the right of the Run button lets you select
whether to clear the whole Calibration Result worksheet (Reset All
Results) or only the columns corresponding to the cases solved (Spot
Load Results), after selecting the Run button.

Import Button
You can import text-based input files into the Model Workbook for files
that have been stored in the correct text format. The text file extension
must be *.DAT and is typically created by the Export function.
Import initially opens a file input dialog box that lets you select the textinput file that is to be loaded. The selected text-input file is opened with
Excel and a dialog box is displayed showing the Calibration cases
(identified with 0) or Predict cases (identified with non-zero number) in
text-input file that could be loaded.

To load a single case, select the case to be loaded and its destination case
number (i.e., column). Once the Load is initiated, the interface prompts
you to confirm:

4 - 18 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

This is a reiteration of the selection you made and needs to be confirmed


by you.

You must confirm the overwriting of the Design and Stream Titles data.
The other option is to use Load All to import all the cases in the .DAT
file.

Copy Button
Copy lets you copy existing case data to other case columns in either the
Calibration or Predict Input worksheets. This lets you transfer data to
other case columns for the purpose of:
Adjusting existing calibration or predict case data or altering
tuning constants.
Creating cross predicts i.e., creating a predict run using a
calibration data set.
Predicting using a specific calibration factor set.
Predicting using an average calibration factor set.
Workbook data copy options include:
0 Calibration Inputs to Calibration Inputs
1 Calibration Inputs to Predict Inputs
2 Calibration Factors to Predict Factors
3 Average Calibration Factors to Predict
4 Predict Case to Predict Case

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 19

If you select Case at Cursor Position, do not select a case number.


The case where the cursor is positioned is selected for copying.

Clear Button
The Clear function lets you clear data from any number of columns.

CAUTION:
Be certain of what you are clearing. You cannot recover the data if you
inadvertently clear the wrong column.

4 - 20 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Predict Input Worksheet


The Predict Input worksheet is the main worksheet used to run Predict
cases and is also used to enter data for Optimization cases. Each column
represents one case. The worksheet can handle up to 53 Predict cases.
Spinner to select Primed case
Set up Run Case

Load Results Option

Optional Case Title

Non blank character


to process case

The Predict case can be run in either a Primed or Cold predict mode. A
Primed case is run stacked behind a Calibration case, which is run to
initialize the model. The Cold Predict mode runs just the Predict case,
but requires a complete set of input data and Calibration Factors. The

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 21

Setup button above the Copy button lets you select either Primed
Predict or Cold Predict.
In a Primed case, or any case beyond the first case in either mode, any
blank entries will cause the model to use the value supplied in the
previous selected case.
The drop-down menu located to the right of the Setup button lets you
select one of the calibration cases as the Primed case. The selected
Calibration case data is displayed in column J of the worksheet.
The drop-down menu located under the Factors selection options lets you
select whether to clear the entire Predict Result worksheet (Reset All
Results) or only the columns corresponding to the cases just run before
loading the new results (Spot Load Results).

Run Button
The Run function executes the model in Predict mode. The Predict
cases processed are those that have a non-blank character in the Run
Case row.

Setup Button
The Setup function lets you select various modes of running the model in
the Predict mode.

Primed Predict can be run with these sets of calibration factors:


Base calibration factors generated during the calibration run just
before running the predict case(s).
Set of Average calibration factors from all the calibration cases
present on the Calibration Results worksheet.
Set of Selected Average calibration factors calculated only from
the calibration cases selected for averaging on the Calibration
Results worksheet.
When running Cold Predict, the Base calibration factors are the
calibration factors present in the first Cold Predict case on the Predict
Input worksheet. The Average and Selected Average options are the
same as that used for Primed Predict. When using Average or Selected
4 - 22 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Average options in Cold Predict, it is not necessary to copy the


calibration factors into the first Cold Predict case.

Copy Button
The Copy function lets you copy existing case data to other case
columns in the Calibration Input worksheet or the Predict Input
worksheet. The function is identical to that described in the Calibration
Input Worksheet section.

Import Button
The Import function lets you import previously saved calibration and
predict case data from a *.DAT file. The function is identical to that
described in the Calibration Input Worksheet section.

Clear Button
The Clear function lets you clear data from any number of columns.
The function is identical to that described in the Calibration Input
Worksheet section.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 23

Optimizer Input Worksheet


The Optimizer Input worksheet is used to configure an optimization run
which consists of perturbing a series of independent variables to
maximize an objective function. The Optimization run is based on what
is selected in the Predict Input sheet, plus additional information on the
optimization sheet.
The available independent and dependent variables are presented on the
worksheet.

Select the initial starting


point for the Optimizer.
This is always an
existing Predict case.
Enter a nonblank character to
select an independent variable

Displays the current


value of the selected
reference Predict case
and the Optimizer values
from the solution.

For each selected independent variable, provide the minimum value,


maximum value, and move limit. Select one dependant variable to be
maximized or minimized.

4 - 24 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Enter an x to select the


objective function. The
model chooses the first
occurrence.

Enter a nonblank character to


select an independent variable

For each selected dependent variable, (i.e., constraint) you must add a
minimum or maximum value.
The Optimizer can handle up to nine independent variables and nine
dependent variables including the objective function. The selected
variables and ranges are included in the DAT file when Export Case Data
is performed.

Run Button
The Run function executes the model in Optimizer mode.
Note that the cases processed before the start of the Optimizer include the
Calibration case used to prime the Predict case and all the Predict cases
with the Run Case status ON up to and including the Primed Predict case.
To save time, you may want to create a Cold Predict case specific to the
optimization and turn off all other Predict cases.

Setup Button
The Setup function displays a dialog box where you can change the
Optimizer tolerances or configure the Optimizer reporting options.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 25

To switch the Optimizer to the Minimize Objective Function mode,


check Minimization Option.
To use the Optimizer as the LP Vector Generation Tool, check the
Vector Generation Tool option.

VGen: LP Vector Generation Tool


On the Optimizer Input worksheet, there is also a utility tool useful for
generating vectors for LP models. This tool uses the perturbation
information specified on the Optimizer Input worksheet to impose step
changes to the model and reports the results in a customized table.
Specify this customized table using the same procedure as that described
for CaseGen on the Comparison Worksheet section. Refer to CaseGen
for more information. The step changes are identified using the same set
up procedure for selecting the independent variables and the perturbation
step sizes on the Optimizer Input worksheet.

To run the VGen, check the Vector Generation Tool option in the
Settings, then click the Run button.

4 - 26 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Result Worksheets
There are corresponding Result worksheets for each of the model modes.

For consistency, all Result worksheets present the same data in the same
format.
On the Calibration Result worksheet, the calibration factors can be
averaged and the standard deviations calculated. You select the
Calibration cases to be included in this averaging by entering non-blank
characters in cells on row 4 to the right of the title, Select Calibration
Factors for Average.

Average and standard


deviations for the selected
Calibration Factors

The averaged Calibration factors and standard deviations are located in


columns BG through BI at the right end of the calibration factor section.
DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 27

To use the Average Calibration Factors in Predict cases, use the Setup
button on the Predict Input worksheet to choose whether to use Average
All or Average (Selected).
The Result worksheets for the Predict and Optimize modes are the same
as the Calibration Result except:
The Predict and Optimize Result worksheets do not have the
calibration factor averaging section.
The Predict Result worksheet contains indices and text material
used by the Optimizer Input and various dialog boxes.
The Optimizer Result worksheet does not contain output for
calibration factors since they are the same for all optimization
passes.

4 - 28 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Comparison Worksheet
The Comparison worksheet lets you compare two cases from any of the
three Result worksheets. The absolute delta and percent delta for the
case data are calculated automatically and displayed in columns G and H
respectively. Empty cells means the two cases have exactly the same
value for that variable.

Select case
number from
chosen worksheet

Select results worksheet

CaseGen
A utility tool is available on the Comparison worksheet to create
customized comparison table. Select the results to be included in the
customized table by entering a number in the index column (column M)
on the right side of the worksheet. Using sequence such as 5, 10, 15, lets
you insert additional selections at a later time. The table is created using
the numerical sequence in this column.
Select the section heading when the label in column A does not identify
the stream. For example, if the label only states Mass Rate make sure the
stream label is also selected.
The results can be presented either as absolute values or delta from the
base case. The display mode is selected in cell on Row 16 with 0=delta
and 1=absolute. The base case is the first case selected in column E. All
the results cases on the chosen Result worksheet, starting with the case
selected in column F, are included in the customized table. Once the
DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 29

table selections have been made, click the CaseGen button on the upper
right corner to create the table and save the table to a separate file name.

4 - 30 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Summary Worksheet
The Summary worksheet displays summary data for a specified case
result for quickly reviewing and printing case highlights. Select the case
to be displayed using the list box and spinner as shown on the
Comparison worksheet.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 31

Charts
There are two Charts worksheets.
Charts is designed to look at one variable at a time across a
number of cases.
Charts-2 looks within a single case at a number of variables in
profile.

Charts Worksheet
Use Charts worksheet to plot up to ten sets of X-Y charts of data selected
from any of the three Result worksheets. For each set, specify one X
variable and up to seventeen Y variables.
The range of cases to be plotted is from a selected result sheet across a
consecutive series of cases identified in the cells labeled First and Last.

Setup Button
Setup lets you select which Results worksheet and group of cases are to
be plotted. The Available button opens a list of cases present on all
three Results worksheets. The numbers displayed are the values in the
profit cell for all cases in the three Results worksheets. Those with
values indicate that case data exists for that case and are available for
plotting.

4 - 32 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Update Button
Use Update to reset the plots after any change has occurred to the
configuration.

Select Button
Select lists all the possible variables available for plotting from the
Result worksheets. It also lets you select the specific variables and load
them into either the X variable slot or one of the seventeen Y variables in
Charts 1 through 17.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 33

Series /X Variable
Use Series /X Variable to toggle back and forth between X-Y mode and
line mode (where the Y data is displayed case by case). When you work
with X variables from Results page, Series is offered as the other choice
for X-axis. When the charts are shown with the case sequence as the Xaxis, X-Variable is offered as the other choice.

Save
The X and Y variable indices for each set of 17 charts can be saved with
a descriptive title. Ten sets of X, Y indices can be saved for the
workbook.

4 - 34 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Load
Load brings back the desired set of X, Y indices for display on the Charts
worksheet. Set 11 to 16 are predefined index sets. At present only set 11
is predefined using CFR as X axis.

Charts - 2 Worksheet
The Charts 2 worksheet displays the profiles shown below.
Select Result sheet
and case number

Pressure Profile

Temperature Profile

Pseudocomponent Weight
and Volume Distributions
K-Factor Profile

Molecular Wt Profile

Feed TBP Distillations by Temperature


Feed TBP Distillations by Cum Vol%

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Liquid Product Cum Vol% TBP


of Alternative Distillation

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 35

Worksheet Comments and Model Help


The on-line help available with the interface is in the form of Excel
comments and a help file available from the DC-SIM menu.
To access Comments attached to individual cells, place the mouse pointer
over the cell. A red triangle in the upper right hand corner of the cell
indicates a comment. Refer to the Excel documentation for more
information.

4 - 36 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Saving Files and DC-SIM Exit


Completed model files should be saved with their own unique names in
the default directory or custom directory using the Excel Save As option.
Maintain the template file DCSIMV2006Master_Gateway.xls as an
empty template from which to start new models.
As the inventory of calibration cases grows it may be desirable to save
them as *.DAT files as described in the Export Case Data procedure.
The easiest way to save data in this format is to select the calibration and
predict cases using the Run Case flag (row 3 of Calibration and Predict
Input worksheets). Use Export Case Data option from the DC-SIM menu
and specify the .DAT file name to save to.
To Exit the model, close and exit as you would any Excel session.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Using the Spreadsheet Interface 4- 37

Data Flow
When you run DC-SIM, you remain in the Excel workbook while the
application runs. Information flows between the Excel worksheets and
the model executable as follows:

Excel
Input
Worksheet

DC.DAT

Model
Execution

DCSIM.CSV

Excel
Results
Worksheet

When running the model from Excel, the file DC.DAT is created in the
default directory from the data entered in the Excel Input worksheets.
This text file includes all the input data necessary for the model to run. If
multiple cases are being run, then the data for each case are appended to
the DC.DAT file.
The model executable, DCSIM.exe, is run in a batch mode loading the
DC.DAT file and processing each case sequentially. Once the model has
processed all the cases, it generates a text file containing the results,
called DCSIM.CSV. The output data in the DCSIM.CSV file is then
loaded into the Result worksheet.
If one of the model cases fails, processing is stopped and those cases
successfully completed are loaded into the Result worksheet and the
Error flag is displayed at the top of the failed case. Model messages
are logged in a Message file that you view from the Model Workbook
using a menu item.

4 - 38 Using the Spreadsheet Interface

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting ..................................................................................................................... 5-3
Model Failure .......................................................................................................... 5-3
Worksheet Problem ................................................................................................. 5-3
Gateway Failure....................................................................................................... 5-4

FCC-SIM Technology Manual

KBC Proprietary

Troubleshooting 5-1

Troubleshooting
All Predict and Calibration messages are stored in a text file. To view
the model messages at any time, select Text Files from the DC-SIM
menu and then select the DC-SIM Output/Messages.
Specific model error messages are listed in the Appendix.

Model Failure
When a case fails, model processing stops immediately. If there were
multiple cases being processed, cases to be run after the failed case are
not processed. The message below appears when a Calibration or Predict
case fails.

Selecting Yes opens the message file directly. To view the cause of the
model failure, scroll to the bottom of the file.

Worksheet Problem
The DC-SIM data Workbook requires that all the Worksheets exist and
are in a specific order. The following message is displayed if there is a
problem with the Workbook.

The most common problem is that one of the Worksheets has been
accidentally moved. To fix the problem, move the out of order
Worksheet to its proper location.

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Troubleshooting 5-3

Gateway Failure
When the KBCProfsimGateway fails, the falling message appears.
Before contacting KBC, check whether Excel has disabled the
KBCProfsimGateway.dll. Excel automatically disables a dll that prevents
it from functioning correctly.

To enable the KBCProfsimGateway.dll, select About Microsoft Office


Excel from the Excel Help Menu. Then select Disabled Items as
shown below. If the KBCProfsimGateway.dll is listed then select it and
Enable it. Note if the KBCProfsimGateway failure persists, contact
KBC.

6 - 4 Using the Spreadsheet

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

Appendix A Calibration Factors


Initialization Factors ............................................................................................................. A-3
DCSIM V2006 Tuning Factors............................................................................................. A-4
DC-SIM V2006 Calibration Factors ..................................................................................... A-7

DC-SIM User Guide

KBC Proprietary

Appendix A - Calibration Factors 1

Initialization Factors
Initialization
Factors

DC-SIM User Guide

Default

Range

Type

H2S Calibration
Distribution

H2SDR

0.25

>0

fraction of feed S
distributed to H2S

NH3 Calibration
Distribution

NH3DR

0.13

>0

fraction of feed N
distributed to NH3

K Factor Shift
Initializer

DUKNI

0.5

>0

Initial shift of
cracked pseudo K
from uncracked
pseudo. Help to
get product
volumes
converge

Furnace
Residence Time
Factor

TIMNI

0.5

>0

used in cracking
rate in furnace

Converge
Tolerance Initial
Factor

TOLFAC
I

0.01

>0

Tighter tolerance
will improve
reproducibility

KBC Proprietary

Appendix A - Calibration Factors 3

DCSIM V2006 Tuning Factors


Tuning
Factors

Default

Range

Type

Drum
Temperature
Scaling
Factor

DRTSF

0.5

0 -1

multiplier

multiplier to adjust
the Drum T

Furnace
Pressure
Offset

PRFA2

0.5

>0

offset

nominally the
furnace to drum
pressure drop,
main effect of
furnace outlet V/L
equilibrium

Drum
Pressure
Offset

PRFA1

>0

offset

drum pressure
tuning factor, affect
both drum and
furnace V/L
equilibrium

Cracking
Rate Factor

CRACK

>0

multiplier

cracking rate factor


to tune for liquid
yields

Polymerizati
on Rate
Factor

COKER

>0

multiplier

tuning factor for


coke make from
polymerization

Sulfur/Nitrog
en Gravity
Intercept

SGI

90

intercept of the
sulfur-API
correlation.
Changing the
intercept shifted
the curve.

Fuel Oil
Equivalent
Conversion
Constant

FOEFC

---

FOE barrel
conversion. Default
is 6

Furnace
Duty Scaling
Factor

FFAC

>0

multiplier

used to adjust the


enthalpy of the
furnace outlet
stream

Furnace
Cracking T
Factor

FURCRK

0
1.32

multiplier

Used to shift the


equivalent cracking
T in the furnace

Kinetics
Tuning Flag

IN(16)

0 or 1

CFR factor
on Coke
Make

CCFRADJ

A-4 Appendix A - Calibration Factors

KBC Proprietary

0 = V2003 Kinetics;
1 = Use V2001
Kinetics
multiplier

multiplier to ratio of
recycle ratio to
calib tower bottom
recycle ratio.
Impacts coke make
DC-SIM User Guide

Tuning
Factors

Default

Range

Type
from cracked feed,
use 0.0001 for 0

Drum T
factor on
Coke

COKDTAD
J

multiplier

power factor to
ratio calib drum T
vs drum T.
Multiplied to total
coke make

Drum P
factor on
Coke

COKPADJ

multiplier

factor based on
delta of drum P
from calib drum P.
Impact total coke
make. Use 0.0001
for 0

H2S Sulfur
Temperature
factor

SULFTH2
S

multiplier

power factor to
ratio calib drum T
vs drum T.
Multiplied H2S
level.

H2S Sulfur
Pressure
factor

SULFPH2
S

multiplier

power factor to
ratio drum P vs
calib drum P.
Multiplied H2S
level. More
sensitive than T
factor.

Coke Sulfur
Pressure
factor

SULFPFA
C

multiplier

power factor to
ratio drum P vs
calib drum P.
Multiplied coke
sulfur level. More
sensitive than T
factor.

Coke Sulfur
Temperature
factor

SULFTFA
C

multiplier

power factor to
ratio calib drum T
vs drum T.
Multiplied coke
sulfur level.

Advanced
Tuning
Factors

Default

Range

Type

>0

multiplier

Advanced
Tuning
Factors
Drum P
factor
unCrack V/L

DC-SIM User Guide

PFAC1

KBC Proprietary

multiplier factor on
the vapor/liquid
equilibrium for drum
uncracked pseudo
components

Appendix A - Calibration Factors 5

Advanced
Tuning
Factors

Default

Range

Type

Drum P
factor Crack
V/L

PFAC2

>0

multiplier

multiplier factor on
the vapor/liquid
equilibrium for drum
cracked pseudo
components

Crack rate
factor for
UnCracked
comp

CRAFAC1

>0

multiplier

multiplier to the
cracking rate for
uncracked pseudo
components

Coke rate
factor for
UnCracked
comp

COKFAC1

>0

multiplier

multiplier to the
cracking rate for
cracked pseudo
components

Crack rate
factor for
Cracked
comp

CRAFAC2

>0

multiplier

multiplier to the
coking rate for
uncracked pseudo
components

Coke rate
factor for
Cracked
comp

COKFAC2

>0

multiplier

multiplier to the
coking rate for
cracked pseudo
components

factor on
Kinetic K1 for
T effect on
Cracking

CKTK

>0

multiplier

multiplier to the K1
factor in Cracking
Arrhenius kinetics:
K1* exp (-A1/T)

factor on
Kinetic Act
Eng for T
effect on
Cracking

CKTA

>0

multiplier

multiplier to the A1,


activation energy, in
Cracking Arrhenius
kinetics: K1* exp (A1/T)

factor on
Kinetic K2
for T effect
on Coking

COKTK

>0

multiplier

multiplier to the K2
factor in Coking
Arrhenius kinetics:
K2* exp (-A2/T)

factor on
Kinetic Act
Eng for T
effect on
Coking

COKTA

>0

multiplier

multiplier to the A2,


activation energy, in
Coking Arrhenius
kinetics: K2* exp (A2/T)

A-6 Appendix A - Calibration Factors

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

DC-SIM V2006 Calibration Factors

DC-SIM User Guide

Calibration
Factors

---

Type

C4Hydrocarbon

XKUP(1)

multiplier

Gas Yield calibration factor, ratio of


actual yield to predicted yield

C4- Mol. Wt.

XKUP(2)

multiplier

Gas MW factor, ratio of actual C4MW to predicted MW

Coking Rate

XKUP(3)

multiplier

factor based on ratio of actual


coke/predicted coke yields from
Concarbon in feed

H2S

XKUP(4)

Fraction Feed Sulfur to H2S

NH3

XKUP(5)

Fraction Feed Nitrogen to NH3

Hydrogen
(offset)

XKUP(6)

Offset

Factor to adjust mol % distribution


used to match predict yield to actual

Methane (offset)

XKUP(7)

Offset

Factor to adjust mol % distribution


used to match predict yield to actual

Ethane (offset)

XKUP(8)

Offset

Factor to adjust mol % distribution


used to match predict yield to actual

Ethylene (offset)

XKUP(9)

Offset

Factor to adjust mol % distribution


used to match predict yield to actual

Propane (offset)

XKUP(10)

Offset

Factor to adjust mol % distribution


used to match predict yield to actual

Propylene
(offset)

XKUP(11)

Offset

Factor to adjust mol % distribution


used to match predict yield to actual

Isobutane
(offset)

XKUP(12)

Offset

Factor to adjust mol % distribution


used to match predict yield to actual

Normal Butane
(offset)

XKUP(13)

Offset

Factor to adjust mol % distribution


used to match predict yield to actual

Butylene (offset)

XKUP(14)

Offset

Factor to adjust mol % distribution


used to match predict yield to actual

Stream #1
Sulfur Distr

XKUP(15)

multiplier

Shift to Sulfur to product 1


distribution factor, multiplier to total
liquid sulfur

Stream #2
Sulfur Distr

XKUP(16)

multiplier

Shift to Sulfur to product 2


distribution factor, multiplier to total
liquid sulfur

Stream #3
Sulfur Distr

XKUP(17)

multiplier

Shift to Sulfur to product 3


distribution factor, multiplier to total
liquid sulfur

Stream #4
Sulfur Distr

XKUP(18)

multiplier

Shift to Sulfur to product LCGO


distribution factor, multiplier to total
liquid sulfur

KBC Proprietary

Appendix A - Calibration Factors 7

Calibration
Factors

---

Type

Stream #5
Sulfur Distr

XKUP(19)

multiplier

Shift to Sulfur to product HCGO


distribution factor, multiplier to total
liquid sulfur

Stream #6
Sulfur Distr

XKUP6(1)

multiplier

Shift to Sulfur to product FZGO


distribution factor, multiplier to total
liquid sulfur

Coke Sulfur
Distr

XKUP(20)

multiplier

Sulfur factor for Concarbon coke


contribution

Stream #1
Nitrogen Distr

XKUP(21)

multiplier

Shift to N2 to product 1 distribution


factor, multiplier to total liquid N2

Stream #2
Nitrogen Distr

XKUP(22)

multiplier

Shift to N2 to product 2 distribution


factor, multiplier to total liquid N2

Stream #3
Nitrogen Distr

XKUP(23)

multiplier

Shift to N2 to product 3 distribution


factor, multiplier to total liquid N2

Stream #4
Nitrogen Distr

XKUP(24)

multiplier

Shift to N2 to product LCGO


distribution factor, multiplier to total
liquid N2

Stream #5
Nitrogen Distr

XKUP(25)

multiplier

Shift to N2 to product HCGO


distribution factor, multiplier to total
liquid N2

Stream #6
Nitrogen Distr

XKUP6(2)

multiplier

Shift to N2 to product FZGO


distribution factor, multiplier to total
liquid N2

Coke Nitrogen
Distr

XKUP(26)

Stream #1 RON
(offset)

XKUP(27)

Offset

Calibration RON

Stream #1 MON
(offset)

XKUP(28)

Offset

Calibration MON

Stream #2 RON
(offset)

XKUP(29)

Offset

Calibration RON

Stream #2 MON
(offset)

XKUP(30)

Offset

Calibration MON

Stream #3 RON
(offset)

XKUP(29)

Offset

Calibration RON

Stream #3 MON
(offset)

XKUP(30)

Offset

Calibration MON

Stream #2
Aniline Pt(offset)

XKUP(31)

Offset

Actual-Predicted. If no data, set to


XKUP(32)

Stream #3
Aniline Pt(offset)

XKUP(32)

Offset

Actual-Predicted. If no data, set to


XKUP(33)

Stream #4
Aniline Pt(offset)

XKUP(33)

Offset

Actual-Predicted

Stream #5
Aniline Pt(offset)

XKUP(34)

Offset

Actual-Predicted

A-8 Appendix A - Calibration Factors

N2 factor for Concarbon coke


contribution

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

DC-SIM User Guide

Calibration
Factors

---

Type

Stream #6
Aniline Pt(offset)

XKUP6(3)

Offset

Actual-Predicted

Stream #1
Bromine
Number

XKUP(35)

Offset

Calibration Bromine Number

Stream #2
Bromine
Number

XKUP(36)

Offset

Calibration Bromine Number

Stream #3
Bromine
Number

XKUP(37)

Offset

Calibration Bromine Number

Stream #4
Bromine
Number

XKUP(38)

Offset

Calibration Bromine Number

Stream #5
Bromine
Number

XKUP(39)

Offset

Calibration Bromine Number

Stream #6
Bromine
Number

XKUP6(4)

Offset

Calibration Bromine Number

Stream #1 KFactor Shift

XKUP(40)

Offset

Shift to cracked pseudo K in


product 1, based on convergence of
predicted vs actual product volume

Stream #2 KFactor Shift

XKUP(41)

Offset

Shift to cracked pseudo K in


product 2, based on convergence of
predicted vs actual product volume

Stream #3 KFactor Shift

XKUP(42)

Offset

Shift to cracked pseudo K in


product 3, based on convergence of
predicted vs actual product volume

Stream #4 KFactor Shift

XKUP(43)

Offset

Shift to cracked pseudo K in


product 4, based on convergence of
predicted vs actual product volume

Stream #5 KFactor - UK2

XKUP(44)

Stream #6 KFactor - UK2

XKUP6(5)

Offset

Shift to cracked pseudo K in FZGO

Cutpoint Shift
Stream 1-2

XKUP(45)

Offset

Shift to cutpoint in pseduos to


converge product yields

Cutpoint Shift
Stream 2-3

XKUP(46)

Offset

Shift to cutpoint in pseduos to


converge product yields

Cutpoint Shift
Stream 3-4

XKUP(47)

Offset

Shift to cutpoint in pseduos to


converge product yields

Cutpoint Shift
Stream 4-5

XKUP(48)

Offset

Shift to cutpoint in pseduos to


converge product yields

Cutpoint Shift
Stream 5-6

XKUP6(6)

Offset

Shift to cutpoint in pseduos to


converge product yields

Cracked K factor, UK2

KBC Proprietary

Appendix A - Calibration Factors 9

Calibration
Factors

---

Type

Stream 1-2 TBP


Cutpoint

XKUP(49)

deg F

Cutpoint from actual b.p. curves

Stream 2-3 TBP


Cutpoint

XKUP(50)

deg F

Cutpoint from actual b.p. curves

Stream 3-4 TBP


Cutpoint

XKUP(51)

deg F

Cutpoint from actual b.p. curves

Stream 4-5 TBP


Cutpoint

XKUP(52)

deg F

Cutpoint from actual b.p. curves

Stream 5Recycle
Cutpoint

XKUP(53)

deg F

Cutpoint from actual b.p. curves

Convergence
Tolerance
Factor

XKUPN(10)

Stream 1 D86
90% Cutpoint

XKUPC(1)

deg F

D86 Cutpoint from actual b.p.


curves

Stream 2 D86
90% Cutpoint

XKUPC(2)

deg F

D86 Cutpoint from actual b.p.


curves

Stream 3 D86
90% Cutpoint

XKUPC(3)

deg F

D86 Cutpoint from actual b.p.


curves

Stream 4 D86
90% Cutpoint

XKUPC(4)

deg F

D86 Cutpoint from actual b.p.


curves

Stream 5 D86
90% Cutpoint

XKUPC(5)

deg F

D86 Cutpoint from actual b.p.


curves

Stream 1
D86/TBP
Cutpoint Shift

XKUPCS(1)

Offset

TBP CUTPOINT - D86 CUTPOINT

Stream 2
D86/TBP
Cutpoint Shift

XKUPCS(2)

Offset

TBP CUTPOINT - D86 CUTPOINT

Stream 3
D86/TBP
Cutpoint Shift

XKUPCS(3)

Offset

TBP CUTPOINT - D86 CUTPOINT

Stream 4
D86/TBP
Cutpoint Shift

XKUPCS(4)

Offset

TBP CUTPOINT - D86 CUTPOINT

Stream 5
D86/TBP
Cutpoint Shift

XKUPCS(5)

Offset

TBP CUTPOINT - D86 CUTPOINT

Stream #1 T00
TBP Shift

XKUP(54)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #1 T10
TBP Shift

XKUP(55)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #1 T30
TBP Shift

XKUP(56)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

A-10 Appendix A - Calibration Factors

Internal Calibration Iteration


Convergence Factor

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

DC-SIM User Guide

Calibration
Factors

---

Type

Stream #1 T50
TBP Shift

XKUP(57)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #1 T70
TBP Shift

XKUP(58)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #1 T90
TBP Shift

XKUP(59)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #1 T99
TBP Shift

XKUP(60)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #2 T00
TBP Shift

XKUP(61)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #2 T10
TBP Shift

XKUP(62)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #2 T30
TBP Shift

XKUP(63)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #2 T50
TBP Shift

XKUP(64)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #2 T70
TBP Shift

XKUP(65)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #2 T90
TBP Shift

XKUP(66)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #2 T99
TBP Shift

XKUP(67)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #3 T00
TBP Shift

XKUP(68)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #3 T10
TBP Shift

XKUP(69)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #3 T30
TBP Shift

XKUP(70)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #3 T50
TBP Shift

XKUP(71)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #3 T70
TBP Shift

XKUP(72)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #3 T90
TBP Shift

XKUP(73)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #3 T99
TBP Shift

XKUP(74)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #4 T00
TBP Shift

XKUP(75)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #4 T10
TBP Shift

XKUP(76)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #4 T30
TBP Shift

XKUP(77)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

KBC Proprietary

Appendix A - Calibration Factors 11

Calibration
Factors

---

Type

Stream #4 T50
TBP Shift

XKUP(78)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #4 T70
TBP Shift

XKUP(79)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #4 T90
TBP Shift

XKUP(80)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #4 T99
TBP Shift

XKUP(81)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #5 T00
TBP Shift

XKUP(82)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #5 T10
TBP Shift

XKUP(83)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #5 T30
TBP Shift

XKUP(84)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #5 T50
TBP Shift

XKUP(85)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #5 T70
TBP Shift

XKUP(86)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #5 T90
TBP Shift

XKUP(87)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #5 T99
TBP Shift

XKUP(88)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.

Stream #6 T00
TBP Shift

XKUP6(10)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.(if no
data, use recycle info)

Stream #6 T10
TBP Shift

XKUP6(11)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.(if no
data, use recycle info)

Stream #6 T30
TBP Shift

XKUP6(12)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.(if no
data, use recycle info)

Stream #6 T50
TBP Shift

XKUP6(13)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.(if no
data, use recycle info)

Stream #6 T70
TBP Shift

XKUP6(14)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.(if no
data, use recycle info)

Stream #6 T90
TBP Shift

XKUP6(15)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.(if no
data, use recycle info)

Stream #6 T99
TBP Shift

XKUP6(16)

Offset

Offset of TBP in actual data from


predicted value from cutpoints.(if no
data, use recycle info)

A-12 Appendix A - Calibration Factors

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

DC-SIM User Guide

Calibration
Factors

---

Type

Calib External
Flow Control
Quench

XKUP(89)

Stream 4+ CCN
and Metals
Weight
Reference

XKUP(90)

multiplier

Wt distribution in Gas Oil and Coke,


used for ConCarbon and Metals
prediction

Stream 5+ CCN
and Metals
Weight
Reference

XKUP(91)

multiplier

Wt distribution in Gas Oil and Coke,


used for ConCarbon and Metals
prediction

Stream 6+ CCN
and Metals
Weight
Reference

XKUP6(9)

multiplier

Wt distribution in Gas Oil, FZGO,


and Coke, used for ConCarbon and
Metals prediction

Sulfur in Coke
from Con
Carbon

XKUP(92)

Sulfur in precipitated coke

Nitrogen in
Coke from Con
Carbon

XKUP(93)

N2 in precipitated coke

Coke Ash

XKUP(94)

Offset

factor of coke ash to feed metal


ratio

Coke VCM
(offset)

XKUP(95)

Offset

wt% VCM correction factor

Coke HGI factor

XKUPN(5)

multiplier

ratio of calibration HGI input to


calculated HGI

H2S Sulfur
Temperature
factor

XKUPN(8)

multiplier

H2S T response factor from Tuning


Factor section

H2S Sulfur
Pressure factor

XKUPN(9)

multiplier

H2S P response factor from Tuning


Factor section

Coke Sulfur
Temperature
factor

XKUPN(6)

multiplier

Coke Sulfur T response factor from


Tuning Factor section

Coke Sulfur
Pressure factor

XKUPN(7)

multiplier

Coke Sulfur P response factor from


Tuning Factor section

Stream 4 CCR
Distr

XKUP(96)

multiplier

used in CCR correlation

Stream 5 CCR
Distr

XKUP(97)

multiplier

used in CCR correlation

Stream 6 CCR
Distr

XKUP6(7)

multiplier

used in CCR correlation

Stream 4 Metals
Distr

XKUP(98)

multiplier

used in Metal correlation

Used with Calib Drum T to


determine if too much Flow Control
Quench predict input.

KBC Proprietary

Appendix A - Calibration Factors 13

Calibration
Factors

---

Type

Stream 5 Metals
Distr

XKUP(99)

multiplier

used in Metal correlation

Stream 6 Metals
Distr

XKUP6(8)

multiplier

used in Metal correlation

DISADJ

XKUP(100)

multiplier

Gas yield factor to converge liquid


factor

DUK

XKUP(101)

offset

shift between feed K and recycle


(cracked) K

HTCK

XKUP(102)

multiplier

Heat of Cracking factor used to


calculate Drum outlet temperature

Flow Control
Quench molar
Enthalpy Offset

XKUP(103)

Offset

correction to Flow Control Quench


enthalpy, btu/mole

Furnace Duty
Factor

XKUP(104)

multiplier

factor to adjust furnace duty during


calibration

Reference CFR

XKUP(105)

Calibration CFR

Reference
CFRD

XKUP(106)

Calibration CFR using only


distillates

Reference
CFRN

XKUP(107)

Calibration CFR (only tower bottom


recycle, exclude distillate recycle)

Reference
Velocity GO %
of Furnace Feed

XKUP(108)

Calibration Velocity Gas Oil % of


feed

Reference
Quench Del T
(DTQ)

XKUP(109)

deg F

Drum vapor delta T due to Quench

Furn to Drum
Delta T

XKUP(110)

deg F

Furnace outlet to Drum Inlet heat


loss T

Drum Delta
Temperature

XKUP(111)

deg F

Drum inlet T - Drum outlet T

Quenched
Vapor to Frac
Delta T

XKUP(112)

deg F

Heat loss of Quenched Drum Vapor


to Frac inlet

T.C. Quench Oil


vol Enthalpy
Offset

XKUP(113)

Offset

correction to Temperature Control


Quench enthalpy, Btu/bbl

Drum Minus
Frac Pressure

XKUP(114)

psi

delta P between Drum and


Fractionator overhead

Frac Minus
WGS Suction

XKUP(115)

psi

delta P between Fractionator


overhead and gas compressor
suction P

Residence Time
Base Volume

XKUP(116)

cuft

Furnace base flow rate used to


adjust furnace residence time

Residence Time
Basis

XKUP(117)

multiplier

Furnace residence time factor for


cracking kinetics

A-14 Appendix A - Calibration Factors

KBC Proprietary

DC-SIM User Guide

DC-SIM User Guide

Calibration
Factors

---

Type

HGO Draw
Temp - Cutpt
Shift

XKUP(118)

deg F

Shift between HGO draw


temperature and HGO cut point

Tower
Temperature
Adjustment

XKUP(119)

deg F

Adjustment to tower temperature


profile to match plant data

Calibration
FZGO Cut Point

XKUP(120)

deg F

Calibration FZGO cut point

Stream 3 Cloud
Update

XKUPN(3)

deg F

delta between API predicted vs


actual

Stream 4 Cloud
Update

XKUP(121)

deg F

delta between API predicted vs


actual

Stream 5 Cloud
Update

XKUP(122)

deg F

delta between API predicted vs


actual

Stream 6 Cloud
Update

XKUP(123)

deg F

delta between API predicted vs


actual

Stream 3 Pour
Update

XKUPN(4)

deg F

delta between API predicted vs


actual

Stream 4 Pour
Update

XKUP(124)

deg F

delta between API predicted vs


actual

Stream 5 Pour
Update

XKUP(125)

deg F

delta between API predicted vs


actual

Stream 6 Pour
Update

XKUP(126)

deg F

delta between API predicted vs


actual

Calib External
Temp Control
Quench

XKUP(127)

Calibration
Drum Pressure

XKUP(128)

psi

Calibration
Drum Out Temp

XKUP(129)

deg F

Calibration Total
Feed CCR

XKUPN(11)

wt%

Calibration Total
Feed API

XKUPN(12)

Product API
Adjust Factor for
Slurry Oil

XKUPN(13)

multiplier

Calibration
Coke Yield

XKUPN(14)

wt%

Furnace
Cracking T
Tuning Factor

XKUPN(15)

multiplier

Calib HGO T50

XKUPN(16)

Used with Calib Ext Flow Control


Quench to determine if too much
Flow Control Quench predict input.

KBC Proprietary

Power factor to UK2 ratio used in


Predict mode to adjust product API
when slurry oil is in feed

Used to shift the equivalent


cracking T in furnace

Appendix A - Calibration Factors 15

Calibration
Factors

---

Calib HGO API

XKUPN(17)

FZGO Cracking
Factor

XKUPN(18)

FZGO Tail
Index

XKUPN(19)

TGO Bias

XKUPN(20)

Release Version

XKUPN(21)

Prod 2 Flash
Point Update

XKUPN(22)

Offset

Prod 3 Flash
Point Update

XKUPN(23)

Offset

LGO Flash
Point Update

XKUPN(24)

Offset

HGO Flash
Point Update

XKUPN(25)

Offset

FZGO Flash
Point Update

XKUPN(26)

Offset

Release Build

XKUPN(27)

Prod 1 Olefins
Update

XKUPN(28)

Offset

Prod 1
Naphthenes
Update

XKUPN(29)

Offset

Prod 1
Aromatics
Update

XKUPN(30)

Offset

Prod 2 Olefins
Update

XKUPN(31)

Offset

Prod 2
Naphthenes
Update

XKUPN(32)

Offset

Prod 2
Aromatics
Update

XKUPN(33)

Offset

Prod 3 Olefins
Update

XKUPN(34)

Offset

Prod 3
Naphthenes
Update

XKUPN(35)

Offset

Prod 3
Aromatics
Update

XKUPN(36)

Offset

Spare

XKUPN(37)

A-16 Appendix A - Calibration Factors

Type

multiplier

Used to adjust FZGO range


cracking
Used to match plant data FZGO
endpoint

Offset

KBC Proprietary

Tower HGO temperature internal


bias

DC-SIM User Guide

DC-SIM User Guide

Calibration
Factors

---

Type

Spare

XKUPN(38)

Spare

XKUPN(39)

Spare

XKUPN(40)

Spare

XKUPN(41)

Spare

XKUPN(42)

Spare

XKUPN(43)

Spare

XKUPN(44)

Spare

XKUPN(45)

VDRUM Volume

XKUP(130)

cuft

DDRUM Diameter

XKUP(131)

ft

HDVOL - Head
Volume

XKUP(132)

cuft

TLOUT - Top
T/L Outage

XKUP(133)

ft

CELLS Number of Cells

XKUP(134)

MNOUT Minimum
Outage

XKUP(135)

ft

KBC Proprietary

Appendix A - Calibration Factors 17

Оценить