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EFFECT OF OREGANO ESSENTIAL OILS ON LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

POPULATIONS IN THE INTESTINAL TRACT OF BROILER CHICKENS


1CORPOICA, Bogota

V Phandanouvong2, F Rodriguez1, L Betancourt2, M Hume3, C Ariza-Nieto1, D Nisbet3, G Afanador-Tellez1


- Colombia, 2Universidad de La Salle, Bogota - Colombia, 3USDA, ARS, FFSRU, College Station, TX - USA

Abstract. Oregano extracts have been shown previously to have positive effects on broiler intestinal villus characteristics, body weight gain, and mortality, and negative effects on enteropathogen
proliferation. The present study evaluated the effects of oregano essential oil (OEO) extracts from different varieties of cultivated oregano, on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations, specifically
Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, in the intestinal tract of broiler chickens. Twenty-five 1-day-old Hybro male broiler chickens in each of six experimental groups were assigned to the basal diet (C), and
the basal diet supplemented with either 500 ppm of chlortetracycline (AB), 50 ppm of EO from Origanum vulgare H. ground in Greece (OG), and 200 ppm each of EO from 3 varieties ground in Sabana
of Bogot-Colombia, O. vulgare H. (OBH), O. vulgare L. (OBL), and O. mejoranum (OBM). Intestinal contents were collected from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca and colon of chickens at 3, 7, 14
and 21 days of age. Populations of LAB, were quantified by Real-Time PCR. The distribution of LAB throughout the intestine was analyzed at each collection date. The effect of the supplemented AEO
was evaluated in chickens during the growth period (21 to 35 days-old). Total populations of monitored LAB were significantly different at 3 and 7 days of age (P<0.05), LAB particularly showed that the
lactobacillus, were established in the intestine at this time, while bifidobacteria were detected later. In addition, LAB differed significantly by intestinal segments (P<0.05), LAB were mostly detected in
proximal intestine but the total Lactobacillus concentrations decreased in a proximal-distal direction. Bifidobacterium were mainly present in the duodenum. Supplemented OEO from different varieties
of oregano showed none significant effects (P>0.05) in terms of the LAB populations, specifically Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. In summary, OEO showed beneficial effects on intestinal LAB
populations and OEO extracts did not affect LAB populations; this may explain part of the positive effects of EO on the performance of broiler chickens.

RESULTS

INTRODUCTION
A. LAB

B. Lactobacillus

0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0,0

0,008
0,006
0,004
0,002

14

0,000
21

14

0,0016
0,0014
0,0012
0,0010
0,0008
0,0006
0,0004
0,0002
0,0000

21

14

21

Age (d)

Age (d)

Figure 1. 2-Ct values for each bacterial group in the intestine of broilers at four ages
B. Lactobacillus

0,6
0,4
0,2
0
Ileum

Caeca

Intestinal segment

Colon

C. Bifidobacterium

0,007
0,006
0,005
0,004
0,003
0,002
0,001
0

2 -Ct values

2 -Ct values

0,8

Duodenum Jejunum

Preparation of
intestinal samples

Age (d)

2 -Ct values

Hydro male chicks

2 -Ct values

0,010

A. LAB

METHODOLOGY

C. Bifidobacterium

0,012

2 -Ct values

2 -Ct values

Several studies have shown that oregano essential


oils (OEO) supplementation positively influenced
daily feed intake, daily weight gain, and feed
utilization in broilers by improving host gut
microbial balance (3, 4). OEO have been reported
to inhibit in vitro pathogen bacteria growth (1, 2).
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), specially lactobacilli
and bifidobacteria, are beneficial bacteria that
provide health benefits to the host (5, 6). The aim
of this study was to investigate the influence of
OEO cultivated in Colombia, on populations of
Lactic
Acid
Bacteria,
Lactobacillus,
and
Bifidobacterium, in the intestinal tract of broiler
chickens

Duodenum Jejunum

Ileum

Caeca

Intestinal segment

Colon

0,006
0,005
0,004
0,003
0,002
0,001
0
Duodenum Jejunum

Ileum

Caeca

Colon

Intestinal segment

Figure 2. Effect of OEO on 2-Ct values for each bacterial group in the intestine of broilers during the growth period (21 to 35 days-old)

CONCLUSIONS

DNA extraction

Quantitative Real-time PCR

During the first week of age, lactic acid bacteria, particularly the genus Lactobacillus, were established in the intestine
The Lactobacillus population decreased in proximal-distal direction. The genus Bifidobacterium was mainly present

in
duodenum
During the growth period, supplemented chickens with OEO ground in Greece and OEO ground in Sabana of Bogot-Colombia
showed no effects (p>0,05) on LAB populations, particularly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium.
The OEO extracts may improve the performance of broiler chickens due to the benefical effects on intestinal LAB populations
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