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ELEMENTARY SURVEYING FIELD

MANUAL

FIELD WORK NO. 10

AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING THEODOLITE
AND TAPE
CE120-0F / A1

SUBMITTED BY:
NAME:

STUDENT NO.:

GROUP NO. 4
DATE OF FIELD WORK: AUGUST 19, 2014
DATE OF SUBMITTION: AUGUST 28, 2014

SUBMITTED TO:
PROFESSOR: ENGR. CERVANTES

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FIELD WORK NO. 10 AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING THEODOLITE AND TAPE

FIELD WORK 10

DATE: AUGUST 19, 2014

TIME: 10:30AM 12:00PM
WEATHER: SUNNY

STATION
OCCUPIED

STATION
OBSERVED

AZIMUTH

TAPE
DISTANCE

A
B
C
D
E

B
C
D
E
A

16747
23651
31636
2043
1039

5.8
6.25
6.5
6.2
6.4

GROUP NO.: 4
LOCATION: MAPUA CAMPUS
PROFESSOR: ENGR. CERVANTES

BEARING

LATITUDE
N
S

DEPARTURE
E
W

N1213W 5.669
N5651E 3.418
5.233
S4324E
4.723 4.466
S2043W
5.799
N7619W 1.514

1.227

2.193
6.218

TOTAL AREA = 65.948 m2

B. COMPUTATIONS:
Latitude = tape distance cosine (bearing)
Latitude = 5.8 m cos(1213)
Latitude = 5.669 m, N

Departure = tape distance sine (bearing)

Departure = 5.8 m sin(1213)
Departure = 1.227 m, W

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FIELD WORK NO. 10 AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING THEODOLITE AND TAPE

SKETCH

Reading the azimuth angle of the side of the

field.
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FIELD WORK NO. 10 AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING THEODOLITE AND TAPE

DISCUSSIONS
A traverse is a continuous series of connected lines of known lengths related to
one another by known angles. The lengths of the lines are determined by direct
measurement of horizontal distances, slope measurement, or by indirect measurement
using the methods of stadia or the subtense bar. The line courses run between a series
of points are called traverse stations. The angles at the traverse stations, between the
lines are measured by tape, transit, theodolite, compass, plane table, or sextant. These
angles can be interior angles, deflection angles, or angles to the right. The lengths and
azimuths or bearings of each line of the traverse are estimated through field
measurements. The lengths are horizontal distances, and the azimuths or bearings are
true, magnetic, assumed, or grid.
There are two types or classes of traverses. An open traverse is called a first
class traverse. It starts at a point of known or assumed horizontal position with respect
to a horizontal datum, and terminates at an unknown horizontal position. Thus, open
traverses end without closure. Open traverses are used on route surveys, but should be
avoided whenever possible since they cannot be properly checked. Measurements in
open traverses should be repeated to minimize mistakes. A closed traverse is called a
second class traverse. It starts at a known or assumed horizontal position and
terminates at that point (i.e., loop traverse), or it starts at a known horizontal position
and terminates at another known horizontal position (i.e., connecting traverses). Both
the measured angles and lengths in a closed traverse may be checked.
Traverse surveys are made for many purposes to include:
To determine the positions of exiting boundary markers.
To establish the positions of boundary lines.
To determine the area encompassed within a boundary.
To determine the positions of arbitrary points from which data may be obtained for
preparing various types of maps (i.e., establish control for map making).

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FIELD WORK NO. 10 AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING THEODOLITE AND TAPE

To establish ground control for photographic mapping.

To establish control for gathering data regarding earthwork quantities in railroad
highway, utility, and other construction work.
To establish control for locating railroads, highways, and other construction work.

Coordinate measurement
Coordinates of an unknown point relative to a known coordinate can be
determined using the total station as long as a direct line of sight can be established
between the two points. Angles and distances are measured from the total station to
points under survey, and the coordinates (X, Y, and Z or northing, easting and
elevation) of surveyed points relative to the total station position are calculated using
trigonometry and triangulation. To determine an absolute location a Total Station
requires line of sight observations and must be set up over a known point or with line of
sight to 2 or more points with known location.
Angle measurement
Most modern total station instruments measure angles by means of electrooptical scanning of extremely precise digital bar-codes etched on rotating glass
cylinders or discs within the instrument. The best quality total stations are capable of
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FIELD WORK NO. 10 AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING THEODOLITE AND TAPE

measuring angles to 0.5 arc-second. Inexpensive "construction grade" total stations can
generally measure angles to 5 or 10 arc-seconds.

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FIELD WORK NO. 10 AZIMUTH TRAVERSE USING THEODOLITE AND TAPE

CONCLUSION
On this field work, we tried to determine the area of a traverse by measuring the
points azimuth with the use of a theodolite and a tape. Based on the data gathered, the
rectilinear field is not really closed.
According from the lecture being discussed, a traverse must be closed field. The
common sources of error on this field work are the inaccurate reading of
measurements, human errors and instrumental errors. Human errors include reading
the azimuth of a given point even if the bubble of the theodolite is not yet on the center
and not reading the measurements on the theodolite accurately. Rotating the theodolite
counter clockwise is also one of the common sources of error. While instrumental errors
include if the instrument/s used for getting the data in the field work, which is a
theodolite for this field work, is/are defective..
It is recommended to have patience in doing the field work because this field
work has so much part and a lot to be done. Also check first if the measuring tape is
completely perpendicular to the ground before recording the measurement to lessen the
error that might be acquired. Using a plumb bob is also recommended to see if the
measuring tape is perpendicular to the ground. Team work is also required for this
experiment because everyone has their assigned task to do to finish the field work on
time. Follow the instructions on the manual carefully to avoid errors.

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