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Broadening the

research horizon

for mankind

17th December 2015


8.00 am - 5.00 pm
School of Dental Sciences
Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia

ORALPRESENTATION(BASICSCIENCES)
Venue: Auditorium
Poster
University
number

BS01

BS02

BS03

USM

USM

USM

BS04

USM

BS05

USM

BS06

UNPAD

BS07

USM

BS08

USM

BS09

USM

BS10

USM

Students
Ong Wei Shen, Tan
Hong Jin, Wafa Zahari,
Saaid Al Shehadat,
Azlina Ahmad, Khairul
Bariah Ahmad Amin
Noordin
Amal Mohd Lotfy,
Amalina Mohamed
Zakaria, Rabihah Alawi,
Sam'an Malik Masudi,
Nor Aidaniza Abd
Muttalib
Muhammad Amirul
Asraf, Ghouthamee Nair
A/P Rajendran, Aung
Thu Htun
Yee Tong Seng, Aimi
Najwa Pahrol Azman,
Nor Aidaniza Abdul
Muttlib, Rabihah Alawi,
Zaihan Ariffin
Safirah Ismail,
Shivahami Pubalan,
Huwaina Abd Ghani,
Mohd Fadhli Khamis,
Yanti Johari
Akhyar Dyni Zakyah,
Nina Djustiana, Elin
Karlina
Lim Sue Rin, Nurul
Syarafina Mohamad
Shah, Zuryati Ab-Ghani,
Mohamad Syahrizal
Halim, Dasmawati
Mohamad, Normastura
Abd Rahman
Kow Hui Xuan, Nor
Akmar binti Zamri, Wan
Nazatul Shima Shahidan,
Tuan Nadrah Naim Tuan
Ismail, Raja Azman Raja
Awang
James Lian Yoon Chen,
Goh Xin Yi, Zaihan
Ariffin, Nafij Jamayet
Brenda Chee Sze Ying,
Fatin Nabihah Mohd
Jamil, Norziah Ghani,
Nur Mohamad Makhatar,
Saidi Jaafar

Topic

Time

Page

Optimisation of PCR protocols for


Odontoblast Markers

9.15 am

Morphological study of dentine


replacement material (SDR) in
comparison to nano-glass (N100) in deep
caries management (SEM Study)

9.30 am

In vitro effect of application time of


fluoride gel and foam on microhardness
and demineralization of enamel in
permanent teeth

9.45 am

10.00 am

10.15 am

10.30 am

Efficacy, surface hardness and surface


roughness of natural tooth after home
bleaching, in-office bleaching and laser
in-office bleaching

10.45 am

Screening for potential compounds with


antibacterial properties in the pulp extract
of Musa acuminate AA/AAA

11.00 am

Antimicrobial activity of different types


of maxillofacial prosthetic silicone
elastomers

11.15 am

11.30 am

Intracanal adaptation of fiber reinforced


post system in comparison to cast metal
post

A Study of gap interface in incisors using


cone-beam computed tomography: a
preliminary study

Synthesis of zirconia-calcia-silica (ZrO2CaO-SiO2) particle from Indonesia


natural zircon sand as composite filler
using spray pyrolysis

Investigation of craniofacial
morphological variations in two strains of
mice




ORALPRESENTATION(BASICSCIENCES)
Venue: Auditorium
Poster
number
BS11

University
UNHAS

BS12

USM

BS13

USM

BS14

USM

BS15

USM

BS16

USM

BS17

UNHAS

BS18

BS19

BS20

USM

USM

UI

Students
Fransiske Tatengkeng

Adibah Husna Ali, Mas


Amira Mustaffa, Nik
Yusliyana Binti Nik
Yusoff, Suharni
Mohamad, Wan
Nazatul Shima
Shahidan
Tan Han Yann, Nurul
Afifah Kamarul Azizi,
Yanti Johari, Mohd
Fadhli Khamis, Ismail
Ab. Rahman
Tan Well Soon,
NurzulikaAqilah Md
Aziz, Azlina Ahmad,
Khairul Bariah Mohd
Amin Noordin,
Muhammad Fuad
Hilmi Yusof, Siti
Nurnasihah Md
Hashim
Mohd Amir Fahmi
Yahya, Khoo Jia Yen,
Ismail Abd Rahman,
Dasmawati Mohamad
Ting Lee Tong, Akmal
Syafi Doreyat, Kannan
Thirumulu Ponnuraj,
Suharni Mohamad
Ridhayani Hatta
Chan Yunn Yee, Aifa
Nadhirah Muhammad
Sazri, Nik Rozainah
Nik Abdul Ghani,
Norhayati Luddin,
Ismail Abdul Rahman,
Thirumulu Ponnuraj
Kannan
Wong Sim Yang,
Norhayati Luddin,
Hany Mohamed Aly
Ahmed , Siti Suraya
Zulkifli
Ayu Salvionita
Armadi, Citra
Kusumasari, Endang
Suprastiwi

Topic

Time

Page

The difference of ion Ni released


activity between NiTi archiwires and
NiTi with copperarchwires in saliva
artificial: An in vitro study

11.45 am

Minimum inhibitory concentration


(MIC) and minimum bactericidal
concentration (MBC) of the acetone
banana pulp extracts on selective
gram negative bacteria

12.00 am

Evaluation of microleakage of DHybridfil using different dentin


adhesive

12.15 am

The effect of Stichopushorrens


crude extract on the osteogenic
genes expressions of human
deciduous teeth stem cells (SHED)

12.30 am

Influence of polishing materials on


the surface roughness of D-Hybridfil
resin composite

2.00 pm

Antimicrobial properties of
cinacanthus nutans

2.15 pm

A probiotic potency of dangke to


reduce streptococcus spp.
colonization in dental plaque

2.30 pm

Genotoxic evaluation of locally


produced nano-hydroxyapatite silica

2.45 pm

Cytotoxicity of locally produced


Portland cement mixed with
different nano-radiopacifying agents
on HPLFs: An in vitro study

3.00 pm

10

Effect of saliva and blood


contamination to shear bond strength
of nanohybrid composite resin to
enamel

3.15 pm

11

ORALPRESENTATION(PUBLICHEALTH)
Venue: Lecture Hall 1
Poster
number

University

PH01

USM

PH02

UI

PH03

USM

PH04

USM

PH05

UNHAS

PH06

USM

PH07

USM

PH08

UNPAD

PH09

PH10

USM

USM

Students

Topic

Time

Oral Health literacy and self-reported


oral health outcomes.

9.15 am

Cross adaptation, validity and reliability


test of an Indonesian version of Health
Literacy in Dentistry Scale (HeLD-ID)

9.30 am

Social- demographic and psychological


factors affecting eating habits among
dental students of USM: a crosssectional study.

9.45 am

Carpal tunnel syndrome and its coping


strategies among dental support staff in
HUSM.

10.00 am

The assumption of tooth extractions in


urban and rural society

10.15 am

Chew Wei Wern, Lim


Zheng Ru, Nur Karyatee
Kassim, Azizah Yusoff,
Munirah Mohd Adnan

Awareness and knowledge of oral cancer


among Siamese ethnic group in Tumpat
Kelantan.

10.30 am

Nur Haneena Abdul


Halim, Lee Vui Chin,
Ruhaya Hassan,
Nurulezah Hasbullah

Food choice motive among dental


student in School of Dental Sciences
USM.

10.45 am

Balqis Hassan, Hafsah


Jauhariah Iskandar, Mon
Mon Tin Oo,
Norkhafizah Saddki
Syifa Adinda Thaher,
Diah Ayu Maharani,
Anton Rahardjo
Mohammad Majduddin
Sulaiman, Chai Rong
Yao, Ruhaya Hasan,
Norkhafizah Saddki
Nurfarah Wahidah
Mohd Nor Rasid, Nurul
Syafiqah Noh, Munirah
Mohd Adnan, Azizah
Yusoff, Normastura
Abd. Rahman
Andi Ulya Novianti,
Dedy Ariwansa

Heidy Stefanie, Eriska


Riyanti, Inne Suherna
Sasmita
Norsyahmila Rahmat,
Nur Adibah Mat Zubir,
Zuliani Mahmood ,
Rozita Hassan,
Basaruddin Ahmad

Rehana Nadirah Shaji


Khan, Nurul Syazana
Yaacob, Raja Azman
Raja Awang, Noor Huda
Ismail

Correlation between family economic


status and dental caries risk aged 0-3
years

11.00 am

New prediction equations for mixed


dentition analysis in a Malay population:
Validation and comparison to Tanaka
and Johnston, and Jaroontham and
Godfreys equations

11.15 am

The retention of basic sciences


knowledge in qualified dentists

11.30 am

Page

11

11

12

12

13

13

14

14

15

15

ORALPRESENTATION(PUBLICHEALTH)
Venue: Lecture Hall 1
Poster
number

University

Students

Topic

Time

Page

USM

Yang Soraya Mior


Azli, Wan Nur
Shazwani Wan Rossly,
Azizah Yusoff,
Munirah Mohd Adnan,
Normastura Abdul
Rahman

Prevalence of stress and coping


strategies among dental support staff
Hospital USM

11.45 am

16

PH12

UI

Cicilia Wijawati,
Febriana Setiawati,
Risqa Rina Darwita

Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in North


Kalimantan children and its association
with childrens snacking habit and
mothers education level

12.00 pm

16

PH13

USM

Nadeerah Ibrahim , Ng
Rou Enn, Adam
Husein

Survey on patients perceived


satisfaction towards dental treatment
provided by HUSM Dental Clinic

12.15 pm

17

USM

Shirley Lee Sze Yee,


Umi Najwa Basli, Erry
Mochamad Arief,
Basaruddin Ahmad,
Fauziah
Asmail@Ismail

Relationship between periodontitis and


psychosocial factors in adults in
Hospital Universiti Sains - A Pilot
Study

12.30 pm

17

UI

Saskia Karenina, Peter


Andreas, Herry
Novrinda

Relation between dental students


service quality and patient satisfaction :
a study from Universitas Indonesias
dental hospital, Indonesia

2.00 pm

18

Prevalence of stress level among


patient attending Oral Medicine Clinic
at Hospital USM

2.15 pm

18

Work-Related Musculoskeletal
Disorders (WMSD) experienced by
Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia
clinical dental support staf and their
coping strategies towards the disorders

2.30 pm

19

PH11

PH14

PH15

Nadhirah Farhain
Mazlan,
PH16

PH17

USM

USM

Su Lian Tiing,
Nurhayu Abdul
Rahman
Joel Moh Heng Shu,
Khadijah Rustam,
Normastura Abdul
Razak, Azizah Yusoff,
Munirah Mohd Adnan







ORALPRESENTATION(CLINICALSCIENCES)
Venue: Lecture Hall 2
Poster
number

University

Students

Topic

Time

Page

USM

Kunoor Asma Mat


Hassan, Shirley Thien
Lee Ting, Ninin
Sukminingrum, Mon
Mon Tin Oo

Incidence and associated factors of


ventilator associated pneumonia in the
Intensive Care Unit, Hospital
Universiti Sains Malaysia.

9.15 am

20

CS02

USM

Lau Yong Xin, Mohd


Affiq Iskandar Che
Zulkarnain, Roselinda
Ab Rahman, Nurhayu
Ab Rahman

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve


Stimulation (TENS) in
Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs)
A preliminary study in patients
attending Hospital Universiti Sains
Malaysia

9.30 am

20

CS03

UNPAD

Swan Teck Wei, Dede


Hadidjah, Nunung
Rusminah

Concentrated black mulberry (Morus


Nigra) fruit juice as disclosing agent on
dental plaque

9.45 am

21

USM

Er Hsien Yin, Siti


Khairulnadia Khamis,
Norkhafizah Saddki,
Norsila Abdul Wahab

Relationship between xerostomia and


salivary flow rate among dental
students in Universiti Sains Malaysia

10.00 am

21

USM

Noor Faezah Iberahim,


Nur Hanisah Roszali,
Mohammad Khursheed
Alam

10.15 am

22

USM

Loh Wei Lek, Tan Zhi


Chyi, Sarliza Yasmin
Sanusi

10.30 am

22

10.45 am

23

11.00 am

23

11.15 am

24

11.30 am

24

CS01

CS04

CS05

CS06

CS07

CS08

CS09

CS10

Sagittal and vertical occlusal


cepalometric analyses of Pancherz
among Malaysia Malay anad
Malaysian Chinese.
The outcome of space maintainers: A 5
year retrospective study.

UNHAS

Adrian Rustam

The relationship between body mass


index (BMI) and dental age in 8- to 15year-old children assessed by
Demirjian method

USM

Aliea Fatinah Wan


Hamizan, Fathin
Nabilah Fasya Ismar,
Shaifulizan Abdul
Rahman

Comparison between 2D and 3D


measurement of styloid process length

USM

Melvin Saw Jian Hao,


Maisarah Abu Talib,
Mohammad Khursheed
Alam, Rehana Basri,
Nor Farid Mohd Noor

USM

Lim Shuang Ying,


Fateen Nur Ain Mohd
Azmi, Wael Ahmed
Bayomy Mohamed,
Rozita Hassan

Soft tissue cephalometric measurement


among Malaysia Malay and Chinese

Temporary anchorage device stability ;


monocortical versus bicortical
anchorage technique






ORALPRESENTATION(CLINICALSCIENCES)
Venue: Lecture Hall 2
Poster
number

University

CS11

UI

Topic

Time

Page

Maximum mouth opening among


students of University of Indonesia

11.45 am

25

Photogrammetric analysis of commonly


interpreted reference points of Malay
face in Hospital Universiti Sains
Malaysia

12.00 pm

25

USM

Lee Win Nie, Nur


Amira Azreen Abdul
Halim, Asilah Yusof,
Marzuki Omar

Morphometric analysis of the


mandibular canal and its relationship
with impacted mandibular third molar
using cone beam computed tomography
(CBCT)

12.15 pm

26

CS14

USM

Chieng Kai Wen,


Aqilah Najwa,
Marzuki Omar,
Johari Yap

Correlation between size of orbital floor


defect and choice of implant material

12.30 pm

26

CS15

UNPAD

Mindy Frieda Anissa,


Rosiliwati Wihardja,
Sri Tjahajawati

Salivary flow in patient with type 2


diabetes mellitus based on the
characteristics of the subject

2.00 pm

27

Age estimation based on the tooth postdevelopmental changes

2.15 pm

27

Gingival biotypes identification among


Malay subjects : A pilot study

2.30 pm

28

Evaluation of permanent teeth extraction


indication in the patients attending
dental hospital of Universitas Indonesia

2.45 pm

28

A study of presence/impaction and/or


agenesis of third molar tooth germs in
relationship with ABO blood group in
orthodontic patients in Hospital
Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM).

3.00 pm

29

CS12

CS13

CS16

CS17

CS18

CS 19

USM

USM

USM

UI

USM

Students
Alya Rahmania,
Farisza Gita, Ira
Tanti
Nurul Amira Husna
Abd Rauf, Anis
Nuraini Abd Halim,
Ramizu Shaari,
Shaifulizan Ab
rahman, Akram
Hassan

Karen Lio Su Ying,


Hilwa Hanin Abd
Halim , Mohd Fadhli
Khamis, Yanti Johari,
Zarina Jaafar
Manjitra a/p
Sukumarama
Mohamad Yusof Bin
Rashid, Zurairah
Berahim, Haslina
Taib, Yanti Johari
Atikah Amalina
Ghaisani, Rachmita
Anne, Corputty
Johan. E. M
Yap Hao Zhi, Che
Ku Farah Najwa Che
Ku Aziz, Mohammad
Khursheed Alam,
Wan Suriana Wan
Ab Rahman




POSTERPRESENTATION
Venue: Seminar Room
Poster
number

University

Students

Topic

P01

USM

Japsimretjit Kaur Manjit


Singh, Masturah Sengut,
Mohamad Syahrizal Halim,
Zuryati Ab Ghani,
Normastura Abd Rahman

P02

UNPAD

P03

USM

Comparison of efficacy and


bleaching safety between
professional home bleaching agent
and over-the-counter bleaching agent
on human natural tooth.
Minimum inhibitory concentration
(MIC) of ethyl acetate extract of
blood cockle (Anadara granosa) on
the growth of streptococcus
sanguinis ATCC 10556
Evaluation of microleakage in
combined amalgam-composite resin
class II restoration

P04

USM

P05

P06

USM

UI

P7

USM

P8

USM

P9

USM

P10

UI

Ayu Galih Permata Dewi

Ng King Hua, Mohamad


Aiman Mohd Sabri, Saman
Malik Masudi
Sharon Wong Kah Khei, Nur
Fatin Mohamed
Pauzi@Ramli, Akram
Hassan, Haslina Taib
Nurulhuda Mohd Noor,
Savithri Rajandran,
Dasmawati Mohamad,
Fatimah Suhaili Abdul
Rahman
Ariana Maulina Putri, Citra
Kusumasari, Endang
Suprastiwi
Khairun Nadzirah Khairul
Azman, Ida Dahlia Ab Aziz,
Noraini Mohamad,
Norkhafizah Saddki
Muhammad Ilman A Wahab,
Muhammad Izzul Norman,
Mohd Zulkarnain Sinor,
Basaruddin Ahmad,
Azirrawani Ariffin
Goh Sim Ying, Azirrawani
Ariffin, Mohd Zulkarnain
Sinor
Dela Medina, Elizhabet
Napitupulu ,Yosi Kusuma
Eriwati, Bambang Irawan

Evaluation of different hygiene


instruments on titanium implant
fixture
Antibacterial evaluation of GIC
incorporated with coumarin
derivatives
Effect of saliva and blood
contamination after bonding
procedure on shear bond strength of
nanohybrid composite resin to
enamel
Knowledge, attitude, exposure and
future intention of Universiti Sains
Malaysia medical and dental students
towards exclusive breastfeeding.
Dental attendance among elderly to
Hospital USM dental Clinic.
Oral health profile of complete
denture patients treated by USM
undergraduate students.
Effect of color shade and LED light
source distance on diametral tensile
strength of bulk-fill composite
restorative material

Time

Page

9.15 am

30

9.30 am

30

9.45 am

31

10.00 am

31

10.15 am

32

10.30 am

32

10.45 am

33

11.00 am

33

11.15 am

34

11.30 am

34





POSTERPRESENTATION
Venue: Seminar Room
Poster
University
number
P11

USM

P12

UGM

P13

USM

P14

USM

P15

UI

P16

USM

P17

USM

P18

P19

P20

UI

USM

UGM

Students
Fradella Sandy Telasai,
Saidatul Aklima Salleh,
Md Nazmul Hassan,
Mohammad Khursheed
Alam
Putri Wulan Sari,Ahmad
Ridwan, Nunuk Purwanti,
Dedy Kusuma Yulianto,
Anne Handrini Dewi
Nadiah Suhaimi, Natasha
Kamaruzaman, Haslina
Taib, Wan Majdiah Wan
Mohamad, Wan Syamimee
Wan Ghazali
Stefanie Yong E Ping,
Zuriana binti Mohd Adirus
@ Mohd Idrus, Rehana
Basri, Mohammad
Khursheed Alam ,
Shaifulizan Ab. Rahman
Annisa Widiandini, Citra
Kusumasari, Endang
Suprastiwi
Nur Kamaliah Tng Mohd
Salleh Tng, Tham Yuen
Wern, Nurhafizah Ghani,
Masitah Hayati Harun, Nik
Aloesnisa Nik Mohd Alwi
Syirrin Faldhira Haziq
Mazlan, Nur Shaqira Atiqa
Mohd Saad, Abdullah
Pohchi, Roselinda Ab.
Rahman
Ivana Florentina, Harun A.
Gunawan, Niniarty Z.
Djamal
Nurul Husna Abdul Harith,
Nur Fathiah Amran, Raja
Azman Raja Awang,
Zeehaida Mohamad, Mior
Azrizal M. Ibrahim,
Suharni Mohamad
Afina Alfasia, Bayu
Anggoro Aji, Mega Denada
Aldila, Hans Kristian
Wibowo, Berilla Silsila
Surbakti, Tetiana
Haniastuti

Topic

Time

Page

A 10 years evaluation of removable


orthodontic treatment at School of Dental
Sciences, HUSM.

11.45 am

35

Characterization of chitosan-gelatin
membrane incorporated with
cinnamaldehyde for potential wound healing
application in oral cavity

12.00 pm

35

Assessment of periodontal status in patients


with rheumatoid arthritis: A pilot study.

12.15 pm

36

Functional ability of masticatory muscle In


treated mandibular fracture cases using
Surface Electromyography (sEMG)

12.30 pm

36

Effect of saliva, blood, and gloves


contamination on compressive strength of
nanohybrid composite resin

2.00 pm

37

Oral mucosal lesions : A 1-year data review


of dental patients in Hospital Universiti Sains
Malaysia

2.15 pm

37

Vascular anomalies : A 15 year experiences


of vascular anomalies in head and neck in
HUSM from 1997-2011 A clinical audit

2.30 pm

38

Comparison of various preparation and


isolation methods on calcium measurement
of dried shrimp (Macrobrachium sp.)

2.45 pm

38

Evaluating the presence of oral protozoa in


gingival crevicular fluid from patients with
periodontal disease A pilot study

3.00 pm

39

Skin frog (Fejervarya limnocharis) extract


gel accelerates angiogenesis and collagen
synthesis in post extraction wound healing
process: in vivo study

3.15 pm

39

OptimisationofPCRProtocolsforOdontoblastMarkers
BS1
Ong Wei Shen, Tan Hong Jin, Wafa Zahari, Saaid Al Shehadat, Azlina Ahmad. Khairul Bariah Ahmad Amin Noordin BS01
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
This study aimed to determine the best condition of PCR for amplification of odontoblast markers: Alkaline Phosphatase
(ALP), Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1), Dentin Sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and Osteoponin (OPN). RNA was extracted
from odontoblasts obtained from dental pulps of thirty extracted teeth using innuPREP RNA Mini kit (Analytik Jena,
Germany). Informed consent was sought from the individuals prior to tooth extraction. Five selected target factors in
enhancing PCR: primer concentration, extension time, number of cycle, annealing time, and annealing temperature, were
manipulated to yield the correct size of amplicons. One step reverse transcriptase PCR reactions were performed using
MyTaq One-Step RT-PCR kit (Bioline, USA) with a C1000 Thermal Cycler (Bio-Rad, USA) in a 25 PL reaction, keeping
the amount of 2 ng/PL RNA, 0.25 PL reverse transcriptase, 0.5 PL RiboSafe Rnase inhibitor and 1X MyTaq One-Step
Mix, constant. The optimal conditions were determined to be: 400nM of primers for DMP1 and DSPP, 200 nM for ALP
and OPN; 30 seconds of extension time and 35 PCR cycles for all genes; 10 seconds of annealing time for ALP, DMP1
and DSPP, 7 seconds for OPN. The annealing temperature were 56.4C for ALP, 58.6C for DMP1, 52.7C for DSPP,
and 56.3C for OPN, respectively. The optimised PCR protocols produced the correct size of odontoblast markers.



Morphological Study of Dentine Replacement Material (SDR) in Comparison to


NanoGlass(N100)inDeepCariesManagement(SEMStudy)
Amal Mohd Lotfy, Amalina Mohamed Zakaria, Rabihah Alawi, Sam'an Malik Masudi, Nor Aidaniza Abd Muttalib
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Both Smart Dentine Replacement (SDR) and nano-glass ionomer Ketac (N100) are claimed to be a better restorative
material by their manufacturers; however there is lack of study on these material for deep caries management. This study
aimed to investigate dentinal interface of these two materials when used for treatment of deep caries lesion. In this in vitro
study, twelve sound extracted human premolars were selected and immersed in 0.1% thymol solution. Samples were
subjected to Class I cavity preparation with measurement of 2mm depth from dentino-enamel junction and 3mm width,
filled with hard setting calcium hydroxide lining (Dycal) and then divided into two groups. Group one were packed with
(SDR) while group two with Ketac (N100). All samples were then filled with composite resin (CR). Samples were cut
longitudinally using Exact Cutting System and sanded with increasing grit sandpaper (#320, #500, #800, #1200) for 30
seconds each and prepared for SEM analysis. The interface was measured at three different points of uniform gaps and
the means were calculated and analysed using Mann-Whitney test, whereby P-value <0.05 is significant. The Z score was
-2.989, the dentinal interface beween Dycal and KETAC N100 was found to be significantly larger than between Dycal
and SDR. In conclusion, smaller gap presence between Dycal and SDR compared to Dycal and Ketac N100 proving SDR
is a better base material when used with Dycal for deep caries management.

BS02

InVitroEffectofApplicationTimeofFluorideGelandFoamonMicrohardness
andDemineralizationofEnamelinPermanentTeeth
BS03

Muhammad Amirul Asraf, Ghouthamee Nair A/P Rajendran, Aung Thu Htun
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Topical fluoride is recommended for prevention and remineralization of early carious lesions in dentistry. Application
time is important in its clinical ulilization. The objective of the study is to assess the effect of application time of fluoride
gel and foam on the microhardness of enamel surface of permanent teeth. Fifty enamel blocks and neutral sodium fluoride
were used in this cross-sectional study. After measuring baseline Vickers hardness (VH), enamel blocks were randomly
assigned into five groups of (1) Control: no fluoride treatment, (2) 1-minute flouride-gel treatment, (3) 4-minute fluoridegel treatment, (4) 1-minute fluoride-foam treatment, and (5) 4-minute fluoride-foam treatment. The samples were
submerged in saliva after fluoride application. Lactic acid gel (pH 4.7) was applied for three hours to simulate carious
demineralisaton before measuring final VH. The difference in the hardness values was subjected to a one way ANOVA
statistics followed by Bonferroni post hoc test at significance level 0.05. All enamel blocks show a decrease in hardness
after lactic acid attack but fluoride-gel treatment groups showed lesser reduction in hardness than fluoride-foam treatment.
In both fluoride-gel and fluoride-foam experimental groups, 4-minute application was better than one minute to resist acid
attack. Fluoride-foam treatment is not equally good as fluoride-gel to reinforce the enamel hardness if the application time
is the same.

Intracanal Adaptation of Fiber Reinforced Post System in Comparison to Cast
MetalPost

BS4


Yee Tong Seng, Aimi Najwa Pahrol Azman, Nor Aidaniza Abdul Muttlib, Rabihah Alawi, Zaihan Ariffin
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
The use of cast metal posts is common nowadays. Nevertheless, they are inferior in aesthetics and more prone to root
fracture due to its rigidity. With the advancement of technology, the problems have been improved with the development
of fiber-reinforced post system including carbon fiber, quartz fiber and glass fiber. However, little studies have discussed
about the adaptation of glass fiber post, everStick. The purpose of this study was to investigate the adaptation of everStick
post system and cast metal post. 17 extracted human permanent maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated
following the standard protocol. 17 everStick posts had been fabricated and adapted to the prepared parallel root canals.
A light body impression material was inserted into the root canals followed by the post. A digital scale was used to measure
the weight of the remaining material that filled the gap between the post and the canal wall. The adaptation was indicated
by the weight difference before and after impression material insertion. The same procedures were repeated with 17 cast
metal posts in the same tooth specimens. The mean difference for the weight of the material within the group was
statistically significant (P-value <0.001) with the value of 6.1mg( 2.7mg) for cast metal post and 6.4mg( 2.7mg) for
everStick post system. However, the mean difference was not statistically significant when compared with both group (Pvalue>0.05). In conclusion, both cast metal post and everStick post system showed similar adaptation to the canal.

BS4
BS04

AStudyofGapInterfaceinIncisorsusingConeBeamComputedTomography:A
PreliminaryStudy


BS5
BS05

Safirah Ismail, Shivahami Pubalan, Huwaina Abd Ghani, Mohd Fadhli Khamis, Yanti Johari
School of Dental Sciences Universiti Sains Malaysia 16150 Kota Bharu Kelantan
The complexity of the root canal system can influence the root canal preparation and obturation filling. The aim of this
research is to study the gap interface of root canal obturation in maxillary and mandibular incisors, filled with Thermafil
system obturation technique following rotary instrumentation. Twelve extracted incisors were collected based on inclusion
and exclusion criteria which randomly assigned into two groups namely maxillary and mandibular groups.The root canals
were prepared using Pro Taper system up to a F3 ProTaper file. Then, the teeth were scanned with Planmeca Promax 3D
scanner (Planmeca USA Inc.). All prepared root canals were obturated using Thermafil and AH Plus sealer. The teeth
were scanned again. The gap surface was evaluated in multiplane views at the coronal, middle and apical third of root.
The gap interface was scored using 03 scale. Results showed that the percentage of gap (scales1-3) for maxillary incisors
was 25.0% while in mandibular incisors was 19.4%. For coronal section, the gap interface in maxillary incisors was 11.1%
and 13.9% in mandibular incisors. For middle section, the gap interface in maxillary incisors was 8.3% and 2.8% in
mandibular incisors. For apical section, the gap interface in maxillary incisors was 5.55% and 2.8% in mandibular incisor.
In conclusion the findings showed that the gap interface in maxillary incisors were higher in the middle and apical third
of incisors than in the mandibular incisors. A further study will analyze statistically the differences in the gap interface
distribution between maxillary and mandibular incisors.

Synthesis of zirconiacalciasilica (ZrO2CaOSiO2) particle from Indonesia


naturalzirconsandascompositefillerusingspraypyrolysis
Akhyar Dyni Zakyah, Nina Djustiana, Elin Karlina
Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran Jl. Raya BandungSumedang Km.21 JatinangorSumedang, Jawa Barat,
Indonesia
Indonesia natural zircon sand is one of the natural resources of Indonesia that has not yet been exploited widely. Consisting
mostly of zirconia, silica, titania, and alumina, Indonesia natural zircon sand is obtained from the residu of gold and tin
mining or mined directly. Almost all of Indonesia natural zircon sand are exported straight after mined because of the lack
of the refinement and processing technology. Zirconia in dentistry is widely known for its high physical properties and
biocompatibility. This experiment had successfully synthesised zirconia-calcia-silica from Indonesia natural zircon sand
with the spray pyrolysis method. The precursor solutions used for this experiment are zirconyl nitrate (Zr(NO3)2), sodium
silicate (Na2SiO3), and calcium hidroxide (Ca(OH)2). The furnace reactor temperature was set to 4000C, 4500C, and
5000C with feed rate 6 L/minute and piezoelectric frequency 1.7 MHz. The results were examined using EDS, SEM, and
XRD characterization. The experiment result showed that the particle synthesised that was closest to the experiment design
was found at 450C with the zirconia-calcia-silica composition was 1:14:4, size 500-1000 nm, and had the zirconium
silicate in tetragonal phase dan dicalcium silicate in monoclinic phase. It can be concluded that the particle resulted from
the synthesis at 4500C has the possibility to be used as the composite filler based on SEM and XRD characterization.

BS06
BS6

Efficacy, surface hardness and surface roughness of natural tooth after home
bleaching,inofficebleachingandlaserinofficebleaching
Lim Sue Rin, Nurul Syarafina Mohamad Shah, Zuryati Ab-Ghani, Mohamad Syahrizal Halim, Dasmawati Mohamad,
Normastura Abd Rahman
School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

BS7
BS07

Laser bleaching shortens bleaching procedure, however data on its efficacy and safety are conflicting. This study
evaluated the effectiveness of home bleaching, in-office bleaching and laser in-office bleaching, and their influence on
surface hardness and roughness of discoloured human natural teeth. Forty-eight extracted intact permanent human incisor
teeth were mounted on resin blocks, exposing labial side. Baseline colour (CIEL*a*b*), Vickers hardness, and surface
roughness were measured, teeth were stained with human blood, and divided into four groups (n=12). Group 0 (control,
no bleaching); Group 1 (Opalescence PF 20% CP); Group 2 (Opalescence Boost 40% Hydrogen peroxide (HP)); Group
3 (Laser White 20 46% HP), and were bleached according to the manufacturers instructions. Post bleaching colour
change, surface hardness and surface roughness were measured. Data were analysed using SPSS version 22.0. KruskalWallis Test was used for colour change (E) and change in surface roughness (R), whilst one way ANOVA was used
for hardness change (H), (p< 0.05). Twenty percent CP home bleaching agent gave significant superior colour changes
compared to in-office (p=0.006) and laser bleaching (p=0.001). However, there was significant increase in the surface
hardness with home bleaching compared to in-office (p=0.008) and laser bleaching (p=0.00). There was also a
significance increase in surface roughness in home bleaching compared to laser bleaching (p = 0.008). Home bleaching
agent is the most effective but it increases surface hardness and roughness of teeth compared to in-office and laser
bleaching.

Screening for potential compounds with antibacterial properties in the pulp
extractofMusaacuminateAA/AAA
Kow Hui Xuan, Nor Akmar binti Zamri, Wan Nazatul Shima Shahidan, Tuan Nadrah Naim Tuan Ismail, Raja Azman BS08
Raja Awang
School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Our previous study on acetone extract from banana pulp of Pisang Berangan (Musa acuminate AA/AAA) has shown an
antibacterial effect when tested using agar disc diffusion method. Thus, the aim of the current study was to identify the
chemical compounds of the extract that may contribute to this antibacterial effect. Pulps were dried and powdered before
Soxhlet apparatus technique was used to extract the crude compounds using acetone as its extraction solvent. Then, rotary
evaporation technique was used to remove the solvent yielding the extracted compounds. The volatile compounds of the
extract were identified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. The compounds were characterised by
comparison with mass spectra libraries. More than forty individual compounds were identified of which the main
compounds were terpenoids group (mainly squalene, 12.02%) and phytosterol group (mainly gamma-sitosterol, 8.26%
and stigmasterol, 6.30%). The role of these two compound groups in the antibacterial activities has been reported. In
conclusion, the extract of this banana pulp has valuable chemical compounds (terpenoids and phytosterol) that may
contribute to the antibacterial effect. Study on antimicrobial properties and their mechanism of action of these main
compounds isolated from the pulp extract of Musa acuminate AA/AAA seems beneficial.

Antimicrobial activity of different types of maxillofacial prosthetic silicone


elastomers.
James Lian Yoon Chen, Goh Xin Yi, Zaihan Ariffin, Nafij Jamayet
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

BS9
BS09

Maxillofacial prosthetics is the combination of art and science of anatomic, functional or cosmetic rehabilitation to regain
the function of a patient with deformities. Silicone elastomers have been used for fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses.
However, the porosity of silicone prosthetic materials may also provide a pathway for microbial invasion, contributing to
skin infections which may cause the individual to decide against wearing the prosthesis. This study aimed to compare the
antimicrobial activities of two different types of silicone elastomer materials used in maxillofacial prostheses against three
microorganisms. Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus were incubated separately with two
types of silicone elastomers (n = 11), A-2000 and A-2006, respectively for 24 hours and 48 hours at 37C. The zone of
inhibition formed around the silicone elastomer pellets were measured using a digital caliper and recorded in millimeters
after 24 hours and 48 hours respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way ANOVA, paired t-test and
independent t-test where p<0.05 indicates statistical significance. It was found that the zones of inhibition formed by A2006 against Streptococcus mutans after both 24 hours (P = 0.037) and 48 hours (P = 0.011) was significantly greater
than that of A-2000 while the zones of inhibition formed by A-2006 against Candida albicans after 48 hours was also
significantly greater (P = 0.025) than that of A-2000. In conclusion, the findings demonstrated the superior antimicrobial
activity of the A-2006 silicone elastomer against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans compared to the A-2000
silicone elastomer.

Investigationofcraniofacialmorphologicalvariationsintwostrainsofmice



BS10
Brenda Chee Sze Yinga, Fatin Nabihah Mohd Jamila, Norziah Ghanib, Nur Mohamad Makhatara, Saidi Jaafar a,b
a
b
School of Dental Sciences, Animal Research and Service Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150
Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Mouse embryos are extensively used to study craniofacial development because it accurately reflects early stage of human
embryogenesis. Variable developmental stages of embryos at a given day of gestation have been noted in different strains
of mice. Intra- and inter-litter morphological variations of certain organs exist in inbred embryonic mice. However,
morphological variations for facial development have not been documented. Our study focused on the lips morphogenesis
to investigate the morphological stage variations at 11.5 dpc embryos in BALB/c and Swiss Albino mice. Standard timed
mating of Swiss Albino and BALB/c mice was carried out and the pregnant mice were sacrificed using carbon dioxide
and cervical dislocation at 11.5 dpc. The embryos were collected, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and rinsed in phosphate
buffer sali
e. Photographs of the embryos were taken using stereomicroscope with attached camera system and their craniofacial
developmental stages were determined using the Atlas of Mouse Development (Kaufman, 1998). Results showed that all
embryos reflected normal development of 11-11.25 dpc and 11.5 dpc in BALB/c and Swiss Albino respectively. There
were no intra-litter variations but inter-litter variations were noted in these two different inbred strains. This inter-litter
craniofacial morphological variation was due to the strain-specific differences of mating process where BALB/c mice are
known to be slower compared to other inbred strains. In conclusion, although no intra-litter variation of lips morphogenesis
was detected, consideration should be taken when using BALB/c mice as the morphological stage of their embryos could
be slower at a given day of gestation.

ThedifferenceofionNireleasedactivitybetweenNiTiarchiwiresandNiTiwithcopper
archwiresinsalivaartificial:Aninvitrostudy
Fransiske Tatengkeng
Faculty of Dentistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

BS11

Nowadays, fixed orthodontic treatment is well-known and b e c o m e a trend for all ages in society. Orthodontic
treatment can be the causes of a certain oral clinical manifestation in the mouth such as glossitis, metal-ish taste,
gingivitis, erythema multiforrme or gingival hypertrophy. These manifestations might be triggered from corrosion of
orthodontic appliances products which related to the cytotoxicity of these materials. One of the corrosion products is
ion Ni from Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires. According to Costa et al., interaction between Nickel Titanium (NiTi) and saliva presumed can increase ion Ni release on saliva. Nowadays Nickel Titanium with copper is being
developed which by added copper into the Nickel- Titanium(Ni-Ti) could maintain the deformation of the archwire.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate ion Ni released between Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) archwire and Ni-Ti archwire
with additional copper (NiTi-Cu). The study carried out by immersed the Nickel -Titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires and NiTiCu archwires on artificial saliva at pH= 7 and incubated on 37C, with the ratio of the archwire and the saliva was
0.02 gm : 1 ml for 30 days. Average saliva artificial contained ion Ni after immersed of Ni-Ti archwires and NiTi
with additional copper (NiTi-Cu) were 0.053 0.022 and 0.0806 0.045 respectively. Activities o f ion Nickel
released in Nickel Titanium with additional copper (NiTi-Cu) shown higher concentration than Nickel Titanium
archwire (Ni-Ti) in the artificial saliva.

Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration


(MBC)oftheacetonebananapulpextractsonselectivegramnegativebacteria

Adibah Husna Ali, Mas Amira Mustaffa, Nik Yusliyana Binti Nik Yusoff, Suharni Mohamad, Wan Nazatul Shima
Shahidan
School of Dental Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Based on the previous study, acetone extract from banana pulp of Pisang Berangan (Musa acuminate AA/AAA) has shown
an antibacterial effect when tested using agar disc diffusion method. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate
the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the acetone banana pulp
extracts, where selected gram-negative bacteria were used. Pulps were dried and powdered before Soxhlet apparatus
technique was used to extract the crude compound using acetone as its extraction solvent. Then rotary evaporation
technique was used to remove the solvent yielding the extracted compound. MICs of bacterial isolates (Escherichia coli
and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were determined using broth macrodilution testing method at the extract concentration of
500 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml, 125 mg/ml and 62.5 mg/ml. The broth dilution of MIC tests were used determine the MBC by
sub-culturing onto Muller-Hinton agar plates using sterile swab stick. The results showed that the MIC of acetone banana
pulp extracts were 125 mg/ml and 250 mg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Eschericia coli respectively while
the MBC were 500 mg/ml against both organisms. In conclusion, the banana pulp exhibited antibacterial effect on both
bacteria at 500 mg/ml. However, further studies need to be conducted to identify its bioactive components responsible for
their antibacterial.

BS12

EvaluationofmicroleakageofDHybridfilusingdifferentdentinadhesive
Tan Han Yann, Nurul Afifah Kamarul Azizi, Yanti Johari, Mohd Fadhli Khamis, Ismail Ab. Rahman
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150, Kubang Kerian,Kelantan,Malaysia

BS13

With improvement in current adhesive technology, problems associated with composites have been largely overcome.
However, microleakage due to polymerization shrinkage still remains a challenge. This phenomenon can result in marginal
staining, post-operative sensitivity, pulpal pathology and secondary caries. This in vitro study aims to assess the microleakage of D-Hybridfil, a newly developed nano-hybrid composite from agriculture biomass, using different dentin
adhesives. This study was conducted on 24 extracted permanent molar teeth. Class V cavities measuring 3mmx 2mm x
1.5mm depth were prepared on the buccal surface of the extracted molars. The specimens were randomly assigned into 4
groups (n=6): positive control; Single Bond; Magic Bond; and Clearfil. All cavities were restored with D-Hybridfil, and
then were subjected to 600 thermocyclers between 5C and 55C. Then the teeth were subjected to 24 hours immersion
in 2% methylene blue and were sectioned buccolingually into half. Evaluation of the dye microleakage were measured
using Hirox (KH-770) and was statistically analysed with one way ANOVA using SPSS 22.0. The positive control
validated the microleakage study methods. All specimens exhibited leakage however there is a significant difference
among materials (p<0.05). Highest microleakage exhibited by Magic Bond. Clearfil and Single Bond both show similar
microleakage (p>0.05) but is significantly less than Magic Bond (p<0.05). Based on the findings, Clearfil and Single
Bond demonstrated the best sealing ability, followed by Magic Bond as the dental adhesive for D-Hybridfil.

TheeffectofStichopushorrens crudeextractontheosteogenicgenesexpressionsof
humandeciduousteethstemcells(SHED)
Tan Well Soon, Nurzulika Aqilah Md Aziz, Azlina Ahmad, Khairul Bariah Mohd Amin Noordin, Muhammad Fuad Hilmi BS14
Yusof, Siti Nurnasihah Md Hashim
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are pluripotent stem cells derived from dental pulp and able to
be differentiated into odontoblast. StichopusHorrens(S.horrens) or sea cucumber is known to promote tissue repair and
wound healing. S.horrenswas used to treat SHED in the current study. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect
of S. horrens extract on the osteogenic genes expression of SHED. SHED were incubated with 50 and 100g/ml of S.
horrens crude extract. On day 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14, the cells were harvested. Total RNA was extracted from all the cell
samples. The RNA was subjected for Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) using specific
forwardand reverse primers for Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), Bone Morphogenetic
Protein-2 (BMP-2), Osteopontin (OPN), -actin and Nestin, respectively. The PCR products were then subjected for
electrophoresis on agarose gel. The intensity of the respective gene expressions was analysed using Image Analyzer.
Nestin, the stem cell gene marker was consistent expressed in control and treated samples. BMP-2 and RUNX-2, early
osteoblast gene markers were moderately expressed similarly to the control.The IL-8 genewas highly expressed on day 1
of treated SHED of both concentration, and the 100g/ml extract affected SHED comparatively high against both control
and 50g/ml at day 10 and 14. OPN is a protein produced by osteoblast, and its genewas highly expressed in SHED from
day 7 onwards, especially the one treated with 100g/ml. The findings leads to the suggestion that S. horrens extractmay
be able to induce osteogenic genes expressions of SHED.

Influence of polishing materials on the surface roughness of DHybridfil resin
composite



BS15

Mohd Amir Fahmi Yahya, Khoo Jia Yen, Ismail Abd Rahman, Dasmawati Mohamad
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
The influence of polishing materials on the surface roughness of D-hybridfil resin composite from rice husk developed at
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia was carried out. This study aimed to compare surface roughness of
D-hybridfil with commercial composites Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350 after polishing with Sof Lex Discs. A total of
30 specimens were prepared on perspex mould measured 5mm in diameter x 2mm in thickness and assigned to three
groups: Group A was filled with D-hybridfil, Group B filled with FiltekZ250, Group C filled with FiltekZ350 and
subdivided into Sof Lex Discs and mylar group (n=5). Mylar group was the control group. All the specimens were covered
with mylar strip and light cured for 40 seconds. Then, Sof Lex Discs groups were polished. All the specimens were
immersed in distilled water at 37 C for 24 hours. One specimen from each composite in both groups was evaluated under
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The mean surface roughness, Ra, for each
group of specimen was measured using AFM and profilometer. The results were analysed by one-way ANOVA and there
were significant difference of the surface roughness between the groups. In conclusion, Ra for D-hybridfil after being
polished (61.92 nm) is comparable to Z250 (61.73 nm) and superior than Z350 (86.42 nm). The results were
supported by SEM evaluation.

Antimicrobialpropertiesofcinacanthusnutans
Ting Lee Tong, Akmal Syafi Doreyat, Kannan Thirumulu Ponnuraj, Suharni Mohamad
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) is a valuable herb native to tropical Asia known for its medicinal properties. The aim of
this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of C. nutans using agar diffusion test. This is an in vitro
experimental study carried out in the Craniofacial Science Laboratory, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains
Malaysia, Malaysia. Four types of microbes commonly found in the oral cavity were selected, namely, Streptococcus
mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus salivarius were subcultured on Blood Agar at 37C for 24 hours while
Candida albicans was subcultured on Saboraud Dextrose Agar for 48 hours. C. nutans extract was mixed with 50%
DMSO and diluted using serial dilution method to achieve a concentration of 1600, 800 and 400mg/ml after which 20l
of each concentration of extract was impregnated on 6mm diameter sterile empty disc. This was placed on culture media
and incubated for 48 hours. The diameter of zone of growth inhibition was measured using digital calliper in mm. 0.5%
chlorhexidine was used as the positive control for antibacterial testing while Tystatin (Nystatin 100,000units) was
employed for the antifungal testing. 50% DMSO was used as the negative control for both the tests. The tests were done
in triplicates and data analysed using SPSS version 22.0. C. nutans did not show any zone of inhibition at the different
concentrations tested. C. nutans did not demonstrate any antimicrobial effect against the tested microbes.

BS16

A probiotic potency of dangke to reduce streptococcus spp. colonization in dental


plaque
Ridhayani Hatta
Faculty of Dentistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

BS17

Dangke is a traditional dairy product from Enrekang district, South Sulawesi. The making process of Dangke uses
papain enzyme as a coagulant for the milk proteins coagulation by utilizing bacteria to lysis the lactose into
lactic acid. Utilization of these bacteria called probiotics, microbes which contained in foods that provide a good
influence for the host. The study conducted by Nur et al. showed the probiotic of dangke were Lactobacillus plantarum
and Lactobacillus fermentum which capable to prevent growth of cariogenic bacteria. Streptococcus spp. is a
cariogenic bacteria in the dental plaque. The objective of this study is to determine the probiotics potential of dangke
to reduce colonization of Streptococcus spp. in dental plaque. Clinical trial study with cross-over design w a s
performed on 15 subjects who met the inclusion criteria by simple random sampling method. The study group
consists of test group (Dangke), positive control (cheddar cheese), and negative control (no intervention), dental
plaque taken twice in each group: before (T0) and two hours after dairy products consumption (T1) thus obtained
30 samples of plaque in each group. The evaluation number of Streptococcus spp. in dental plaque was in
Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University. The result showed the average number of
Streptococcus spp. colony in dangke, cheddar cheese, and control group at baseline (T0) was 14.00 CFU/ml while the
T1 were 2.13, 22.27, 19.07 CFU/ml, respectively, which statistically significant (p <0.05). Probiotics in dangke
had potential to reduce Streptococcus spp. colonization in dental plaque.

Genotoxic evaluation of locally produced nano-hydroxyapatite silica


Chan Yunn Yee, Aifa Nadhirah Muhammad Sazri, Nik Rozainah Nik Abdul Ghani, Norhayati Luddin, Ismail Abdul BS18
Rahman, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
The growth of nanotechnology in dentistry over the years has precipitated the vast variety of production and applications
of biomaterials in nano-scale. Hydoxyapatite (HA) has a marvellous biological behaviour and its application in restorative
dentistry has shown promising advantages in terms of strength, polishability, aesthetics and radiopacity compared to the
conventional ones. Researchers in School of Dental Sciences, University Science of Malaysia have developed this nanohydroxyapatite-silica which present improved and refined properties compared to the conventional ones. The objective of
this in vitro study was to evaluate genotoxicity of locally produced nano-hydroxyapatite-silica using bacterial reverse
mutation assay (Ames test). In Ames test, five Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535 and
TA1537 were incubated with nano-hydroxyapatite-silica in the presence and absence of an exogenous metabolic activation
system (S9) at five different concentrations (0.3125, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/plate) along with appropriate positive and
negative controls. Assessment of the results were based on the number of revertant colonies in each plate and the results
was regarded as mutagenic when the number of revertant colonies was more than two-fold of the negative control. There
was no significant increase in the number of revertant colonies corresponding to the increase in the concentrations of the
test substance for all the five bacterial strains treated with or without S9. In conclusion, the results deducted that the locally
produced nano-hydroxyapatite-silica are non-genotoxic and have no mutagenic potential under these present test
conditions.

Cytotoxicity of locally produced Portland cement mixed with different nano
radiopacifyingagentsonHPLFs:Aninvitrostudy
Wong Sim Yang, Norhayati Luddin, Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed, Siti Suraya Zulkifli
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

BS19

Portland cement (PC) has been proposed as an alternative to MTA due to its similar chemical composition and physical
properties, good availability and low cost. However, PC has insufficient radiopacity, hence, a suitable radiopacifier need
to be added to allow the cement to be detected radiographically. This study aims to compare the cytotoxicity of Malaysian
white PC (MWPC) with those mixed with different nano-radiopacifying agents, nano-bismuth oxide (nBiO2) and nanozirconium oxide (nZrO2) on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs). Upon mixing with 300l distilled water,
1g of MWPC is used as a control group, while 0.2g of nBiO2 and nZrO2 were added to 0.8g of MWPC, respectively, act
as experimental groups. After mixing, the set cement capsules were then added into prepared -MEM and incubated for
seven days. After HPLFs seeding, the material extracts were added at seven concentrations and incubated for 48 hours.
The cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay and the data was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann
Whitney test (P<0.05). At 200 and 100mg/ml concentration, nBiO2 group showed significantly less cytotoxicity compared
to the nZrO2 group and control. At 50 and 25mg/ml concentration, the control and nBiO2 group has lower cytotoxicity
compared to nZrO2 and the difference was statistically significant (P< 0.05). At lower concentration, nZrO2 is significantly
more cytotoxic compared to nBiO2 and the control. In conclusion, MWPC mixed with nano-bismuth oxide exhibits more
favourable cell viability compared to those mixed with nano-zirconium oxide.

Effect of Saliva and Blood Contamination to Shear Bond Strength  of Nanohybrid
CompositeResintoEnamel


Ayu Salvionita Armadi, Citra Kusumasari, Endang Suprastiwi
Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia
Composite resin is a direct restorative material with highly sensitive application technique. This study aimed to analyze
the effect of saliva and blood contamination during application procedure to shear bond strength between composite resin
and enamel. Twenty five samples of enamel (n=25) were etched using phosphoric acid 17% for 15 seconds, then rinsed
and dried. Divided into three group: Group 1 as control group (n=5) were bonded and applied composite resin. Group 2
(n=10) after saliva contamination procedure, 5 samples were rinsed by water, and 5 samples were re-etched then bonded
and applied composite resin. Group 3 (n=10) had same intervention as Group 2, but the contamination was using blood.
All samples were incubated in incubator at 370C for 24 hours. Shear bond strength of all samples were tested using a
Universal Testing Machine with load cell 50kgF and test-speed 0.5mm/minutes. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17 with
One-way ANOVA statistical test followed by Post Hoc test. When saliva and blood contamination occured after etching
procedure, shear bond strength was significantly reduced. The adhesive strength (MPa) mean values were: Group 1=
16.100.99; Group 2a= 12.051.16; Group 2b= 10.530.36; Group 3a= 8.260.98; Group 3b= 6.591.18 (Post Hoc test
showed the differences each group statistically, P<0.05). Between control group and all contamination group were
significantly different. Water rinsing and re-etching method did not affect to restore shear bond strength. In conclusion,
saliva and blood contamination can cause decreasing shear bond strength between composite resin and enamel.

BS20

OralHealthliteracyandselfreportedoralhealthoutcomes.
Balqis Hassan, Hafsah Jauhariah Iskandar, Mon Mon Tin Oo, Norkhafizah Saddki
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

PH01

Individuals with inadequate oral health literacy are at high risk for poor access to care and poor health outcomes. This
study aims to determine the association between oral health literacy and self-reported oral health among adult Malaysian
patients attending Medical Outpatient Department of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). A cross-sectional study
was carried out using structured self-administrated questionnaire. The questions consisted information on the sociodemographic background, frequency of dental visits, and self-reported oral health problems. Oral health literacy was
measured with a validated Oral Health Literacy Instrument Malay version (OHLI-M). Informed consents were
obtained from all participants. A One-Way ANOVA and independent t test were used to determine the association
between OHLI-M scores and variables. Of 262 respondents, 36.3% were male and 63.7% were female. Fifty-five
percent of respondents had adequate oral health literacy. Fair oral health status was reported by 43.9% and 36.6%
claimed that they had last dental visit more than 2 years ago. Less than half of the respondents (45.8%) had two or more
self-reported oral health problems, cavitated tooth and toothache (61% and 30.9% respectively). Malay ethnic group had
lower oral health literacy score than other group (P= 0.005). Oral health literacy score differed significantly across the
oral health status (P=0.002). Higher oral health literacy score was found in respondents with tertiary education
(P=0.045). Dental visit, self-reported oral health problems were not associated with oral health literacy score. In
conclusion, low oral health literacy was associated with ethnicity, education attainment, and perceived oral health status
.

Cross adaptation, validity and reliability test of an Indonesian version of Health
LiteracyinDentistryScale(HeLDID)


Syifa Adinda Thaher, Diah Ayu Maharani, Anton Rahardjo
Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, 10430 Salemba, Jakarta, Indonesia
The aims of this study were to develop an Indonesian version of Health Literacy in Dentistry (HeLD) instrument and to
analyze its validity and reliability among 12-14 years old in Jakarta, Indonesia. HeLD questionnaire was forwardbackward translated into Indonesian. This study design is cross sectional with correlative and comparative analysis. The
questions of the HeLD scale were used to assess the components of oral health literacy. The test and retest reliability,
internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity of HeLD were also evaluated. 462 students completed the
self-administered questionnaire. The mean total HeLD score was 3.450.02. The Intra-class Correlation Coefficients
(ICCs) were 0.75 and Cronbachs alpha=0.77. The convergent and discriminant validity were confirmed by HeLD scores
being significantly associated with last dental visit (p<0.001). The Indonesian version of HeLD suggested that is a valid
and reliable instrument for measuring oral health literacy in children ages 12-14 years old.

PH02

Social demographicandpsychologicalfactorsaffectingeating habits amongdental


studentsofUSM:acrosssectionalstudy.
PH03
Mohammad Majduddin Sulaiman, Chai Rong Yao, Ruhaya Hasan, Norkhafizah Saddki
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Poor eating habits among young adults including university students is one of major public health concern. This poor
behaviour can cause nutritional problems that have important implications for general health and well-being. This study
aimed to assess the pattern of eating habits and its association with socio-demographic and psychological factors among
dental students. This was a cross-sectional study. All the dental undergraduate students of academic year 2014/2015 at
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia were selected as participants. Data were obtained through selfadministered questionnaire which included questions on socio-demographic, eating habits and psychological factors.
Anthropometric measurements of weight and height among respondents were taken. The respondents comprised 73.1%
female, 49.4% Malay with the mean age of respondents being 22.15 1.60 years old. Most of them (74.1%) had normal
BMI. About 85.8% had regular meals and about half of them took daily breakfast (51.1%). 52.4% consumed fruits less
than 3 times per week, majority (74.7%) consumed fried foods for 3 or more times per week and 78.1% drank water less
than 2 litres daily. The eating habits score between Malay and Chinese group was significantly different (p<0.05). There
was also significant association of eating habit score between students who stayed in hostel and stayed out campus
(p<0.05). Only one psychological factor eat because of feeling lonely was significantly associated with eating habits
score (p<0.05). In conclusion, the study demonstrated that ethnicity, residence and psychological factor of eat because
of feeling lonely were significantly associated with eating habits among dental students.

Carpal tunnel syndrome and its coping strategies among dental support staff in
HUSM.

Nurfarah Wahidah Mohd Nor Rasid, Nurul Syafiqah Noh, Munirah Mohd Adnan, Azizah Yusoff, Normastura Abd.
Rahman
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is the most common musculoskeletal disorders, after back pain due to ergonomic
problems among dental personnel. Prolonged work with highly repetitious flexion and extension of wrist and forceful
grip task were shown to increase the risk to develop CTS. The objectives of the study were to determine prevalence,
work-related and psychosocial risk factors and their coping strategies among clinical dental supporting staffs (CDSS) in
HUSM. A cross sectional study was conducted among CDSS i.e. dental staff nurses (DSN), dental technologists (DT),
dental surgery assistants (DSA) and healthcare assistants (HA). The respondents were selected using simple random
sampling. Those with less than 6 months working experience were excluded. A set of self-administered questionnaire
consisting of socio-demographic status, work-related and psychosocial risk factors and coping strategies (Brief COPE)
questionnaire was distributed. Ninety-five CDSS completed and returned the questionnaire with a response rate of
80.5%. Majority of the respondents were female (66.3%). The mean age was 35.1(SD8.23). The prevalence of probable
CTS was 38.9%, highest among DSA (40.5%) followed by DT (29.7%). There was no significant association between
work-related or psychosocial risk factors with CTS (p>0.05). Most of the respondents prefer religion as the coping
mechanism, mean 7.11 (SD1.13). The least common coping strategies was substance use, mean 2.11 (SD0.66). The
prevalence of probable CTS among DSA was relatively high. There was no significant association of either psychosocial
or work-related risk factors with CTS. Awareness training should be emphasized among CDSS on CTS and its
prevention.

PH04

Theassumptionoftoothextractionsinurbanandruralsociety

Andi Ulya Novianti, Dedy Ariwansa


Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

PH05

There are various types of dental health care, one of which is tooth extraction. Peoples perception of one care of
tooth extractions is at a level quite satisfied, not very satisfied attained. Most of them are satisfied with the revocation
yet many are not opting for tooth extractions because they think it is better to keep the teeth rather that extracting
them. Half of the respondents said they often do care of tooth extractions. The reason they chose revocation care
because of the cost that is affordable, saves time, and on the advice of a doctor or dental nurse. Their view on care
repeal is quite positive. They are satisfied and often do care of tooth extractions. This study aimed to describe
peoples perception on tooth extraction services at health centers. This study used a cross-sectional analytic survey,
with univariate and bivariate analyses. Population studied were patients (n=160) who had been treated at rural and
urban health centres, aged over 17 years, using questionnaire. The results showed that characteristics such as age
and occupation influence the public perception of care repeal, while no effect of age and education was found.
Patient behavior such as knowledge and attitudes influence the public perception of care tooth extractions, while the
action has no effect. Thus it can be seen lifting of peoples perception of care is good enough.

Awareness and knowledge of oral cancer among Siamese ethnic group in Tumpat
Kelantan
Chew Wei Wern, Lim Zheng Ru, Nur Karyatee Kassim, Azizah Yusoff, Munirah Mohd Adnan
School of Dental Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Oral cancer is one of the life-threatening diseases. Lack of public awareness is a potent barrier for early detection of oral
cancer, especially the high risk population. This study aimed to evaluate the awareness and knowledge of signs,
symptoms and risk factors of oral cancer among Siamese ethnic group in Tumpat, Kelantan. A cross sectional study was
conducted using a guided questionnaire on socio-demography, habits, awareness and knowledge of oral cancer on signs,
symptoms and risk factor. Individuals under 18-year-old and who had been diagnosed with oral cancer were excluded
from the study. A total of 195 respondents participated, 61.5% were female while 38.5% were male. The mean age was
46 (SD 1.64) range from 18 to 85-year-old. About 41% of respondents had received secondary education and 35.4%
were illiterate. Most respondents were self-employed (21.5%), work as farmer (19.5%) and housewife (20%). Most of
the respondents (76.9%) were below the poverty level of RM830 in monthly income. Among them, 22.6% had habit of
smoking, 25.6% consumed alcohol, 8.2% were betel quid chewer and 2.6% chew tobacco. Out of 195, 13 respondents
(6.7%) were aware about oral cancer. 33 respondents (16.9%) correctly answered the questions for signs and symptoms
of oral cancer and only 8 respondents (4.1%) knew the risk factors of oral cancer. In conclusion, it reveals the
uncertainty and ignorance of the Siamese ethnic group of awareness and knowledge of oral cancer. In view of
indulgence in high risk habits, future and effective health promotion programmes should be emphasised.

PH06

Food choice motive among dental student in School of Dental Sciences USM.

Nur Haneena Bt Abdul Halim, Lee Vui Chin, Ruhaya Bt Hassan, Nurulezah Hasbullah
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

PH07

Dental students are exposed to the knowledge and awareness of oral health which might affect their food choice motive
especially when they are in the clinical years. This study aim was to investigate the food choice motive among dental
students in School of Dental Science, USM, to compare the differences in food choice motive between preclinical and
clinical dental student and also in between gender. This cross-sectional study was conducted in all undergraduate dental
students of USM. A self-administered Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) that was adopted with permission, from
Crossley ML et al. (2002) was used. It is consisted of 10 factors namely health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal,
natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, ethical concern and oral health. The results were analyzed using SPSS
version 22.0 by descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test. There were 244 respondents, 95 of them were from
preclinical group and 149 were from clinical group. The differences were found in 5 out of the 10 factors in the FCQ:
mood, sensory appeal, price, familiarity, and ethical concern. Preclinical year students choose mood as the most
important factors whereas clinical year students rated health as food selection. Comparisons between gender with regard
to their mean scores showed differences in health factor. Both gender ranked health factors as the most important factor.
This study presents a preliminary investigation into the factors that affects students food motivations. The differences in
food choice motivation were found between students at different clinical years (p=0.001) and between different gender
(p=0.03).

Correlation between family economic status and dental caries risk aged 0-3 years

Heidy Stefanie, Eriska Riyanti, Inne Suherna Sasmita


Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, 40132, Indonesia.
Family economic status is an important indicator to determine dental caries in children, especially in their younger age,
or 0-3 years. This study aimed to see the correlation between family economic status and dental caries risk in children
aged 0-3 years. This analytic correlational study used multistage random sampling technique. Family economic status
and dental caries risk were measured in 109 children aged 0-3 years, which had been registered in 5 Integrated Health
Service Posts (Posyandu) Bandung City, using scale, based on Nielsen Media Research and American Academy of
Pediatric Dentistrys Caries-risk Assessment Tool. The correlation of variables was analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed
Rank Test. The result showed that children with low family economic status have high dental caries risk. Statistic
calculation using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with  = 5% showed coefficient correlation Z = -8,315, with significance
p-value = 0.000. The conclusion of this study showed that there is correlation between family economic status and
dental caries risk aged 0-3 years, which is, the lower the family economic status, the higher the dental caries risk.

PH08

New prediction equations for mixed dentition analysis in a Malay population:


Validation and comparison to Tanaka and Johnston, and Jaroontham and Godfreys
equations
PH09
Norsyahmila Rahmat, Nur Adibah Mat Zubir, Zuliani Mahmood, Rozita Hassan, Basaruddin Ahmad
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Mixed dentition analysis is a valuable tool in preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatment planning. This study
aimed to validate the new equations by Ahmed et. al. (2012) and compare it with Tanaka and Johnston, and Jaroontham
and Godfreys equations. A total of 57 orthodontic study models of Malay subjects (n=57); 10 males and 47 females age
ranged between 13 to 20 years old were selected. Mesio-distal widths of canines, premolars, mandibular incisors and
maxillary first molars were measured using Absolute Digimatic Caliper (Mitutoyo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan).
Predicted values were calculated for each prediction models by Ahmed et al. (2012), Tanaka and Johnston (1974), and
Jaroontham and Godfrey (2000) and compared to the actual values using paired t-test. Ahmeds et al. equations
significantly underestimated the actual measurements in both maxilla and mandible (mean difference= -0.89mm,
p=0.04; -1.24mm, p=0.01) in males and in the mandible for females (-0.63mm, p<0.001). The maxilla in females was
overestimated (1.03mm, p<0.001). For males, the predictions by Tanaka and Johnston were not significantly different
from the actual measurement in both arches and; by Jaroontham and Godfrey, in the mandible. However, none of the
equations satisfactorily predicted the data for females (p<0.001). In conclusion, the newly predicted model requires a
revision on the development of the prediction equation.

The retention of basic sciences knowledge in qualified dentists.


Rehana Nadirah Shaji Khan, Nurul Syazana Yaacob, Raja Azman Raja Awang, Noor Huda Ismail
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
The aim of this study was to investigate the degree to which qualified dentists retained basic science knowledge that
would have been taught to them as undergraduate dental students. A questionnaire was devised that aimed to cover the
subject areas of the pre-dental science curriculum in School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM).
Advice was also taken, from the UK experience pre-clinical teachers, concerning the composition of each question. Ten
questions were finally selected and each contained a question stem and five answer options, with only one being correct.
The questionnaire was completed on an anonymous, but supervised, basis. A total of 52 dentists attending short courses
or workshops in School of Dental Sciences, USM comprised the study group. As a comparator group, 77 senior
undergraduate clinical dental students attending School of Dental Sciences, USM were surveyed. Statistical analysis of
the results used the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. The results show that there was a statistically difference
(p<0.05) between the student and dentist group. The median score for the undergraduate group was 5/10 and for the
dentists 3/10. There was also a significant reduction (p<0.05) in score the further away from graduation the qualified
dentists were. In conclusion, many dentists retain surprisingly little basic science knowledge, at least by the measures
employed in this study. It is also of note that the further away a dentist is from graduation there appears to be an even
greater reduction in basic science knowledge.

PH10

Prevalence of stress and coping strategies among dental support staff Hospital USM.
Yang Soraya Mior Azli, Wan Nur Shazwani Wan Rossly, Azizah Yusoff, Munirah Mohd Adnan, Normastura Abdul
Rahman
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian Kota Bharu, Kelantan,
Malaysia

PH11

Job stress plays an important role in some chronic health problems. Hence, it is important to understand how workplace
causes stress and types of coping methods adopted. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of stress
and its association with work characteristics and psychosocial job factors among clinical dental support staff (CDSS),
and the coping strategies to manage stress. A cross sectional study was conducted among CDSS at Hospital Universiti
Sains Malaysia (HUSM) using simple random sampling. A set of self-administered questionnaire consisting of sociodemography, work characteristics, psychosocial factors (JCQ), DASS-21, and coping strategies (Brief Cope) were
distributed to those who had more than one year working experience. Data were analysed using SPSS 22. A total of 100
CDSS participated in the study, where 27 were dental staff nurses (DSN), 26 dental technicians (DT), 37 dental surgery
assistants (DSA), and 10 healthcare assistants (HCA). The highest prevalence of stress was among DSN (22.2%)
followed by DSA (21.6%). The least was among DT (11.5%). Mann-Whitney test showed no significant association
between work characteristics or psychosocial job factors and CDSS (p>0.05). The most frequent coping strategy
adopted by CDSS was religion. Prevalence of stress among CDSS was highest among DSN and DSA. There was no
work related or psychosocial risk factors associated with job stress. Coping strategies used by CDSS were positive
coping skills. Further research needs to be done to follow through these cohorts to ensure minimal stress working
environment with positive coping strategies.

Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in North Kalimantan children and its association with
childrens snacking habit and mothers education level
PH12
Cicilia Wijawati, Febriana Setiawati, Risqa Rina Darwita
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia, 10430 Jakarta, Indonesia
North Kalimantan seceded from East Kalimantan in 2012 and has become the newest province in Indonesia. According
to Indonesian Health Research 2013, North Kalimantan does not have data on caries prevalence. This study aimed to
analyse risk factor of Early Childhood Caries status of children age 36-71 months in Pembeliangan and Mansalong
village, North Kalimantan. This was a cross-sectional study of 172 children. Clinical oral examinations were done by
the University of Indonesia final year dental students to obtain data on decayed, extracted and filled teeth (deft). A deft
score of  1 was considered as having ECC. Frequency of dietary cariogenic snacking habit (candy, chocolate, chewing
gum, and sweetened tea) of the children and the mothers level of education were assessed using a questionnaire. The
mean deft score was 7.766,46. 113 of the children have ECC. Nine children of 27 mothers with high level of education
have ECC, 76 children of 111 mothers with middle level of education have ECC, and 28 children of 34 mothers with
low level of education have ECC. The association between ECC and mothers level of education was significant
(p<0,05). Seventy-one children with high risk diet (4 times exposures to cariogenic snack/day) have ECC, 29 children
with moderate risk diet have ECC, and only 7 children with low risk diet have ECC. Snacking habit of the children was
significantly associated with ECC (p<0.05). In conclusion, 65,7% of the children in Pembeliangan and Mansalong
village, North Kalimantan have ECC. The mean deft was high and the occurrence of ECC was associated with
childrens snacking habit and the mothers education level.

Survey on patients perceived satisfaction towards dental treatment provided by


HUSM Dental Clinic
PH13
Nadeerah binti Ibrahim, Ng Rou Enn, Adam Husein
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Patients satisfaction towards dental treatment provided by HUSM Dental Clinic has never been reported before. This
study aimed to evaluate patients perceived satisfaction towards dental treatment provided by HUSM Dental Clinic and
to investigate the factors influencing patients perceived satisfaction regarding the treatment received. Besides that this
survey also aimed to collect suggestions for improvement of dental services in HUSM Dental Clinic. This is a crosssectional study targeting dental patients who seek dental treatment in HUSM Dental Clinic. Two hundred patients were
interviewed by using a structured, interviewer-guided, adapted questionnaires. About 48% of the subjects were between
18-25 age group and 59.5% of all subjects earned <RM1000 per month. Generally about 78.5% were satisfied with the
dental treatment provided in which 53% were satisfied and 21.5% were very satisfied. About 7.0 % of the respondents
were dissatisfied. Dental specialists, dental officers, post graduate students and undergraduate students produced 1.0%,
9.7%, 0% and 4.1% of dissatisfaction respectively. The major causes of satisfaction were friendly clinics staff (46.0%),
competent operator (39.5%) and low cost treatment (31.0%). As for patient dissatisfaction, the major causes were long
waiting time (40.0%), failure of operator to complete treatment on time (25.0%) and poor service of clinics staff
(15.0%). In general, majority of the respondents were satisfied with the treatment received. However, improvements are
needed in some areas.

Relationship between periodontitis and psychosocial factors in adults in Hospital


Universiti Sains - A Pilot Study
Shirley Lee Sze Yeea, Umi Najwa Baslia, Erry Mochamad Ariefa, Basaruddin Ahmada, Fauziah Asmail@Ismailb
a
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. b KKM
Periodontal diseases are among the most common oral diseases in human populations. The main aetiology is microbial
plaque but other factor like psychosocial factors also can contribute to periodontal diseases. The aims of this study were
to investigate the relationship between periodontitis and psychosocial factors in adults who attend the Hospital
Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kubang Kerian, Kelantan within the period of study. 1111A cross sectional study
was carried out and 53 selected participants were classified as having no periodontitis, mild, moderate and severe
periodontitis based on criteria defined by Bassani et al. The psychosocial factors was assessed using DASS 21
questionnaires and Brief COPE scale. Data from this study showed that there was no relationship between depression,
anxiety trait, depression trait and methods of coping with severity of periodontitis (p>0.05). In conclusion, there is no
evidence to support the hypotheses that there is a relationship between periodontitis and psychosocial factors in adults in
Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.

PH14

Relation between dental students service quality and patient satisfaction : a study
from Universitas Indonesias dental hospital, Indonesia
PH15
Saskia Karenina, Peter Andreas, Herry Novrinda
Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia
Patient satisfaction is one of the indicators of health service success. Only few studies have been conducted concerning
dental students service qualities in Indonesia, despite having 26 dentistry schools all over the country. The information
can help other dental students and hospital managements to improve service qualities for learning hospitals. The
objectives of this study were to analyze the level of patients satisfaction and to know the relationship between dental
students service qualities and patient satisfaction. Cross sectional study was done during the period of June 2015 with
80 patients age 17-60 from Universitas Indonesias dental hospital. With the SERVQUAL method, a 20-item
questionnaire that states patients expectations and assesses students health service performance were given. Based on
the importance performance analysis, it is found that tangibility had the most contribution to patient satisfaction level
with 74 respondents (92,5%) satisfied. Results from chi square tests found that reliability, assurance, and responsiveness
show significant relationship with patient satisfaction level (p<0.05), while tangible and empathy did not show any
significant. Patients with high expectations show lower satisfaction level. This indicates the importance of managing
patients expectation other than just students performance.

Prevalence of stress level among patient attending Oral Medicine Clinic at Hospital
USM
Nadhirah Farhain Mazlan, Su Lian Tiing, Nurhayu Abdul Rahman
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Stress is well documented factor associated with chronicity and relapse of disease symptoms. Our objectives were to
assess the level of stress, possible correlation between stress level and disease symptom and the prevalence of crenated
tongue among the patient who attends Oral Medicine Clinic. Two groups (n=18), each comprised of patients suffering
from chronic disease and normal subjects within the age range 18 to 75 years old were recruited. A modified and
validated questionnaire was distributed and clinical examination was carried out in the test group. The gender
distribution ratio of female to male patients attending the clinic was 3:1. Two respondents (10.6%), who were diagnosed
with chronic orofacial pain, suffered from very significant stress level (>8 total score). More than half of respondents in
this group also experienced stomach problem or headache and claimed to have less energy compared to 27.8% of
respondents in control group. None in the control group suffers from very significant stress level. In the significant
stress level category (5-8), nearly equal distribution noted for both groups. Crenated tongue was found in 11 patients
who attended the clinic and 8 (72.7%) of them were diagnosed with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder. Our
findings showed that individuals with chronic disease tend to suffer from higher level of stress compared to their normal
counterpart, hence the symptoms and clinical signs that are associated with it. Psychological management, combined
with physical treatment might be beneficial for these patients to help improve their condition.

PH16

Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) experienced by Hospital


Universiti Sains Malaysia clinical dental support staf and their coping strategies
towards the disorders
Joel Moh Heng Shu, Khadijah Rustam, Normastura Abdul Razak, Azizah Yusoff, Munirah Mohd Adnan
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) are one of the important occupational issues. This study aimed to
determine WMSDs experienced by clinical dental support staff (CDSS) at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
and their coping strategies towards this disorder. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 82 CDSS using a set of
questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic profiles, NORDIC musculoskeletal pain and coping strategies. Data was
analysed using IBM SPSS version 22.0. CDSS consisted of dental staff nurses (30.5%), dental surgery assistants
(40.2%), dental technologists (18.3%) and healthcare assistants (11.0%). Their age ranged between 31.035.3 years old.
The most prevalent WMSD related to problem (ache, pain and discomfort) around the neck at any time during the last
12 months was at 54.9% (CI: 44.0%, 66.0%). The common reported cases that affect normal work were those who
experienced lower back pain (34.1%) and ankle or feet pain (34.1%), at any time during last 12 months. On the other
hand, highest cases reported for having problem at any time during the last 7 days were at the area such as neck (36.6%),
lower back (36.6%) and ankle or feet (36.6%). The highest coping strategies score among the staff were religion,
3.69(SD2.15) followed by active coping and acceptance at 3.13(SD 0.68). The prevalence of WMSD among CDSS at
the neck region is considered high. Coping strategies used were mainly religion. Awareness on the prevention of this
problem among the clinical dental support staff need to be strengthened.

PH17

IncidenceandassociatedfactorsofventilatorassociatedpneumoniaintheIntensive
CareUnit,HospitalUniversitiSainsMalaysia.

CS01

Kunoor Asma Mat Hassan, Shirley Thien Lee Ting, Ninin Sukminingrum, Mon Mon Tin Oo
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is pneumonia that develops 48 hours or longer after mechanical ventilation is
given by means of endotracheal tube or tracheostomy. The aim of the study was to describe the incidence, mortality and
survival rate, as well as associated factors and characteristics of VAP in patients admitted to ICU of HUSM in 2013.
This study also determines type of microorganism isolated from endotracheal tube (ETT) sample. A cross-sectional
study was conducted on 297 medical records and ETT results of adult age 18 year-old who were admitted to ICU in
2013. Based on the records, patients were categorized into VAP patient and Non-VAP patient. Students t test was used
to compare the numerical variables, while chi-square test or Fishers exact test was used to compare the categorical
variables between groups. The incidence of VAP for ICU patient was 34.68%. The mortality and survival rate of VAP
were 43.69% and 56.31% respectively. The significant associated factors of VAP were age, patient with respiratory
failure, surgical history, tracheostomy, bronchoscopy, tube thoracoscopy, enteral feeding, reintubation, use of antibiotics
and inotropic drugs. Acinetobacter species was the organism most cultured among VAP patient while MRSA was the
most among non-VAP patient. In conclusion, the incidence of VAP in ICU HUSM in 2013 was considerably high, as
well as mortality rate. Most of the invasive procedures were associated with VAP occurrence.

C02

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) in Temporomandibular Disorders


(TMDs)ApreliminarystudyinpatientsattendingHospitalUniversitiSainsMalaysia
CS02
CSO
Lau Yong Xin, Mohd Affiq Iskandar Bin Che Zulkarnain, Roselinda Ab Rahman, Nurhayu Ab Rahman
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Pharmacological therapy and physical therapy are the common treatment modalities in managing patient with
Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) while transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used
as a noninvasive treatment for general musculoskeletal pain. It is not widely used as an adjunct for the TMDs treatment.
This study is done to investigate the effectiveness of TENS as an adjunct physical therapy for patient suffering from
TMDs. Six patients diagnosed with TMDs attending Oral Medicine Clinic Hospital USM, Kelantan were subjected to the
clinical intervention study. They were randomly divided into 2 groups, control group (pharmacological therapy only) and
experimental group (TENS and pharmacological therapy). Assessment of the pain intensity and quality of life were done
before and after the intervention using VAS and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. The mean VAS score for the
experimental group improved from 3.67 to 1.67 with differences of 2.00 while for the control group there is slight
improvement of mean score of 0.33. Generally there is an increase in mean score in all the domains in the control group
that ranges from 2.00 to 14.33. Experimental group also showed mean score improvement in all the domains with physical
health domain recorded the largest leap of mean score (39.33). In conclusion, overall QoL and VAS of patient subjected
to TENS were improved compared to control group with a marked increased in QoL in the physical health domain. A
larger sample size should be conducted to assess the outcome using TENS in treating TMDs patient.




Concentratedblackmulberry(MorusNigra)fruitjuiceasdisclosingagentondental
plaque
Swan Teck Wei, Dede Hadidjah, Nunung Rusminah
School of Dental Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, 40132, Bandung, Indonesia.

CS03
CSO3 CSO3

Black mulberry (Morus Nigra) fruit is rich in anthocyanin which is a natural colorant that gives fruits in red to purple
color and has been used for food colorant. Black mulberry fruit has strong staining property and a nice flavor with juicy
and acidic characteristics. The study aimed to investigate the staining activity of the natural colorant derived from black
mulberry fruit as an alternative to the use of synthetic erythrosine disclosing agent in staining dental plaque. This study
was using experimental method. There were twenty-four subjects (n=24) with total number of ninety-six teeth with
dental plaque were tested with four different groups of solutions which were control group disclosing agent containing
erythrosine and three other groups that were concentrated fruit juice at concentration of 50%, 75%, and 100% on four
selected maxillary teeth. The colors of plaque stained were compared with the color chart of The Royal Horticultural
Society. The data were recorded and analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney U Test with p<0.05 indicates statistical
significance. Results showed that all the concentrated black mulberry fruit juice (50%, 75% and, 100% concentrate) had
the significant mean values of color code (p=0.000) which stained the dental plaque with good red color if compared to
control group of erythrosine. Conclusion, the concentrated black mulberry fruit juice was suggested to be used as a
dental plaque disclosing agent in daily plaque removal alternative to the conventional dental plaque disclosing agent
containing synthetics colorant erythrosine. The findings also demonstrated the taste of concentrated black mulberry fruit
juice were likeable and pleasant to the subjects if compared to the erythrosine.

Relationship between xerostomia and salivary flow rate among dental students in
UniversitiSainsMalaysia
Er Hsien Yin, Siti Khairulnadia Khamis, Norkhafizah Saddki, Norsila Abdul Wahab
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Xerostomia is a subjective feeling of oral dryness that may or may not be associated with a decreased quantity of saliva.
The aims of this study were to determine the degree of severity of xerostomia, measure stimulated salivary flow rate, and
assess the relationship between xerostomia and salivary flow rate among dental students in Universiti Sains Malaysia
(USM). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 150 dental students in USM. A self-administered Shortened
Xerostomia Index (SXI) questionnaire was used to evaluate the xerostomic condition of the students followed by
collection of saliva during gum chewing for 2 minutes to measure the stimulated salivary flow rate. There were 58 third
year students, 53 fourth year, and 39 fifth year dental students who completed the questionnaire and gave their saliva
samples. The degree of severity of xerostomia as indicated by the SXI score and salivary flow rate of the students were
determined. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between xerostomia and salivary flow rate.
The mean salivary flow rate was 1.95 g/min (SD 0.84) and the mean SXI score was 8.01 (SD 1.82). No significant
correlation was found between the salivary flow rate and SXI score of the students (r=0.118, P value = 0.151). In
conclusion, the degree of severity of xerostomia among dental students in USM was not associated with their salivary
flow rate.




CS04

Sagittal and vertical occlusal cepalometric analyses of Pancherz among Malaysia
MalayanadMalaysianChinese.
Noor Faezah Iberahim, Nur Hanisah Roszali, Mohammad Khursheed Alam
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

CS05
CSO5
CSO5

The aim of this study was to analyze sagittal and vertical occlusal cephalometric analyses of Pancherz among Malaysian
Malay and Malaysian Chinese. Further comparisons of each area of interest are needed to know the differences between
them. This is a cross sectional study of secondary data of sagittal and vertical occlusal cephalometric analyses of
Pancherz among Malaysian Malay and Malaysian Chinese. The total number of lateral cephalometric x-rays 640
(Malay=407,Chinese=233) which were selected randomly among orthodontic patients. All sagittal and vertical occlusal
cephalometric parameters of Pancherz were measured digitally using Planmeca software. Descriptive statistics, gender,
and racial dimorphism were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics Version 22.0. Data were analysed using independent ttest. Statistically significant disparities were found in the Malaysian Malay population between males and female for 1
of 11 parameters in the sagittal occlusal analysis, and 1 of 10 in the vertical occlusal analysis. In the Malaysian Chinese
population, there were statistically significant disparities between males and females for five parameters in the vertical
occlusal analysis but there were no significant disparities found in sagittal occlusal analysis between gender. Statistically
significant disparities were found between Malaysian Malay and Malaysian Chinese population for 6 of 11 parameters in
sagittal occlusal analysis and 3 of 11 parameters in vertical occlusal analysis. In conclusion, there were significant
disparities between Malaysian Malay and Malaysian Chinese in general and also between genders of each race seen
using cephalometric analyses of Pancherz.

Theoutcomeofspacemaintainers:A5 yearretrospectivestudy.
Loh Wei Lek, Tan Zhi Chyi, Sarliza Yasmin Sanusi
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Space maintainers are fixed or removable appliances used to preserve arch length following premature loss or elective
extraction of tooth. In the clinical training of dental undergraduates at Universiti Sains Malaysia, the construction and
issue of space maintainers to patients constitutes part of their clinical requirements. However, the longevity of these
appliances has never been studied. Thus, the objective of this study was to study the longevity of space maintainers
issued by the Unit of Paediatric Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. This cross-sectional
study involved the folders review of 205 paediatric patients involving 285 units of space maintainers issued between
2009 and 2015. The failure rate of space maintainers was 38.2%. 11.6% failed due to dislodgement from cement failure
and 7.7% was due to broken appliances. The mean survival time of space maintainers was 8.14 (8.15) months. Reverse
crown and loop has the longest survival rate of 11.29 (10.55) months, while removable appliances have the shortest
survival rate of 6.0 (8.05) months. Redo cases showed significant increase in failure rate of 80.6% compared to new
cases with failure rate of 55.3% (p=0.009). Arch location showed significant difference influencing failure rate of space
maintainers. Mandibular arch showed 64.5% failure rate, compared to 50.0% of the maxillary arch (p=0.059). Variables
such as age, gender, type of appliances, pre-treatment assessment, and type of radiographs did not show significant
changes to success or failure of space maintainers.





CS06

Therelationshipbetweenbodymassindex(BMI)anddentalagein8to15yearold
childrenassessedbyDemirjianmethod
CS07
Adrian Rustam
Faculty of Dentistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar
This research aims to determine if a relationship exists between body mass index and dental age in 8- to 15-yearold children. The dental age of 48 samples (25 male, 23 female) were estimated using Demirjian method and
panoramic radiographs. Body Mass Index was calculated using BMI formula based on age. BMI value will then be
grouped according to classification established by the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The
relationship between body mass index and dental age analyzed through Pearson correlation test. Statistical tests
(p<0.05) showed a significant positive correlation between BMI and dental age based on age and gender. BMI
value of women reached 17.77 followed by dental age of 10.60, whereas in men, the BMI value was only
17.02 followed by dental age of 10.57. In the age group 8-10 years, BMI value was16.08 with an average dental
age of 8.97 years. In the age group 10-12 years, BMI value reached 17.79 with average dental age of 10.84 years.
In the age group 12-15 years, the BMI value was 19.70 with average dental age reached 13.63. Overall, the
BMI value was 17.38 with average dental age of 10.58. In conclusion, significant positive correlation exists
between body mass index and dental age after adjusting for age and gender. The coefficient correlation and
determination explains that i n overall, higher BMI values, will be followed by an accelerated dental age of 44.6%.
Women have a higher dental age and BMI value than males.

Comparisonbetween2Dand3Dmeasurementofstyloidprocesslength
Aliea Fatinah Wan Hamizan , Fathin Nabilah Fasya Ismar , Shaifulizan Abdul Rahman
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia;
Elongated styloid process is associated with ambiguous orofacial pain termed as Eagles syndrome. This study was
carried out to evaluate the mean radiographic length of styloid process on ortopantomogram (OPG) and cone beam
computed tomography (CBCT) and to compare the measurements obtained via 2D and 3D image. The study included
OPG and CBCT radiographs of twenty two subjects taken using Planmeca Promax 3D Mid. Evaluation of the styloid
process were done twice using the measurement tool software (Planmeca Romexis 2.9.2.R) and an average value was
taken. Twenty one subjects were chosen instead as one case could not be measured on CBCT. Data were analysed
statistically using paired t test with p<0.05 indicates statistical significance. The average radiographic length of styloid
process as measured on OPG is 23.70 (SD = 6.67) mm on the right side and 24.09 (SD = 7.06) mm on the left side. For
CBCT, the mean radiographic length is 27.60 (SD = 6.97) mm and 27.91 (SD = 7.24) mm on the right and left side
respectively. Paired t test analysis showed statistically significant difference in sample mean length of styloid process
measured with OPG and CBCT with (p=0.000, p=0.002 respectively). In summary, the use of CBCT in measuring
styloid process should be considered in diagnosing Eagles syndrome as it represent more accurate measurement because
of 3D visualization as compared to OPG which often presents with under measurement.




CSO8
CS08

SofttissuecephalometricmeasurementamongMalaysianMalayandChinese
Melvin Saw Jian Hao, Maisarah Abu Talib, Mohammad Khursheed Alam, Rehana Basri, Nor Farid Mohd Noor
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

CS09

Soft tissue cephalometric analysis was applied for orthodontic treatment planning.This study aimed to obtain the
standardized values of individuals of Malaysian Malay and Chinese for further relevant research such as treatment
planning and aesthetical considerations. This is a retrospective study where 440 (n=440, of which 305 were Malays and
135 were Chinese) standardized lateral cephalometric radiographs of orthodontic patients selected through simple
random sampling were profiled using Holdaways analysis. There were significant differences between the Malays and
Chinese in their skeletal profile convexity, superior sulcus depth, inferior sulcus to the H line and nose prominence.
Between Malay females and males, there were significant differences in superior sulcus depth, soft tissue subnasale to H
line, basic upper lip thickness, upper lip thickness and nose prominence. Between Chinese males and females, there were
differences in their skeletal profile convexity, upper lip to H line, basic upper lip thickness and upper lip thickness.
Independent T test was used to assess the disparities in race and gender. The values with p < 0.05 were considered
significant. In conclusion, the findings demonstrated the difference between standardized norms and the unique profiles
of Malaysian Malays and Chinese. There are significant gender disparities in the soft tissue cephalometric measurements
among Malaysian Malay and Chinese subjects.

Temporary anchorage device stability ; monocortical versus bicortical anchorage


technique
Lim Shuang Ying, Fateen Nur Ain Mohd Azmi, Wael Ahmed Bayomy Mohamed, Rozita Hassan
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Orthodontic anchorage such as miniscrews are useful in many clinical cases as it is less bulky compared to traditional
osteointegrated implants. This study was done to evaluate the relationship between splinted and non-splinted miniscrews
with monocortical and bicortical bone. AbsoAnchor miniscrews (10mm x 1.5mm) were used and the miniscrews were
divided into four groups; non-splinted monocortical miniscrews, non-splinted bicortical miniscrews, splinted
monocortical miniscrews and splinted bicortical miniscrews. The miniscrews were screwed into bovine bone blocks
prepared and the pull-out strength for each group of orthodontic miniscrews was measured using Instron 8874; a
crosshead speed of 5mm/minute was applied. Six readings were taken for each group and the average reading for each
group was obtained. The significance comparison of the average pull-out strength readings between all the groups were
accessed using four sets of paired t-test with 95% confidence interval (P<0.05). Average result for each groups pull-out
strength was non-splinted monocortical 155.08 (SD =45.78) Newton (N), non-splinted bicortical miniscrews 201.83 (SD
=69.14) N, splinted monocortical miniscrews 300.15 (SD = 37.18) N and splinted bicortical miniscrews 305.87 (SD
=43.91) N. There was a significant difference in pull-out strength between each group except for the pair of splinted
monocortical and splinted bicortical miniscrews. Non-splinted bicortical miniscrews had a significant higher pull-out
strength than non-splinted monocortical miniscrews. In conclusion, both splinted monocortical and splinted bicortical
miniscrews had higher pullout strength than non-splinted counterpart. On the other hand, pull-out strength of splinted
bicortical miniscrews was higher than the splinted monocortical miniscrews, however, the difference was not
significant.




CS10

MaximummouthopeningamongstudentsofUniversityofIndonesia
Alya Rahmania, Farisza Gita, Ira Tanti
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Indonesia, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia

CS11

Normal mouth opening can be measured by maximum mouth opening (MMO). MMO has been defined as the greatest
distance between the incisal edges of the maxillary central incisor to the incisal edges of the mandibular central incisors
when the mouth is open as wide as possible to the painless limit. Unfortunately, the variability of MMO makes the
evaluation difficult. There are several studies that had investigated the measurement of MMO among different
population in the world, but there arent any in Indonesia. The aim of this study is to measure the MMO among students
of University of Indonesia and to analyze the difference of MMO in between gender and height groups. Cross sectional
study was conducted on 182 students aged 17-22 from University of Indonesia. MMO and height were recorded by
digital caliper and stature meter. The mean of MMO regardless gender and height is 40.5 r 6.0 mm. Independent t test
showed significant differences between male (44.8 r 4.9 mm) and female (37.6 r 4.9 mm), with male significantly
higher than female (p<0.05). One way ANOVA test also showed significant difference between the higher and lower
height groups (p<0.05). Thus, MMO differ significantly in between gender and height groups.

Photogrammetricanalysis of commonlyinterpretedreferencepoints ofMalayface


inHospitalUniversitiSainsMalaysia
Nurul Amira Husna Abd Rauf, Anis Nuraini Abd Halim, Ramizu Shaari, Shaifulizan Ab rahman, Akram Hassan
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Reference points are the crucial facial points for analysis in the orthognathic surgery and orthodontic treatment. From
this study, we measure the norms for malay facial profile.To quantify average measurements of nasolabial angle,
mentolabial angle,vertical facial dimension(middle facial height,lower facial height), incisal display and upper lip length
in Malay population with comparison of males and females, a total of 25 Class I female and 25 Class I male aged 19-30
years old from Malay ethnic group were randomly selected among dental students and staffs. The photographic setup
consisted of a tripod that held a digital SLR camera. Photographs were taken in a standard protocol. Photos taken in
JPEG format were digitalized and analysed using MITK Benchwork 2014.03. Two angular norm values, and four
vertical measurements of facial were determined. All the data were assessed using independent T-test with 95%
confidence interval. The standard deviation and mean of middle facial height, lower facial height, upper lip length and
incisal display for male are 32.10391.34 mm, 51.56474.23 mm, 18.20162.72 mm and 10.0613.99 mm whereas for
female are 31.90367.80 mm, 44.26415.45 mm, 18.97146.07 mm and 8.9914.87 mm. For angular measurements of
nasolabial angle and mentolabial angle, the standard deviation and mean for male are 22.12103.30q, 12.40129.02q,
whereas for female are 5.47103.28q, 9.52122.71q.This study has given a projection of data regarding Malay facial
norm in Malaysia.




CS12

Morphometric analysis of the mandibular canal and its relationship with impacted
mandibularthirdmolarusingconebeamcomputedtomography(CBCT)
Lee Win Nie, Nur Amira Azreen binti Abdul Halim, Asilah Yusof, Marzuki Omar
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

CS13

This retrospective study aimed to determine the linear dimension of the mandibular canal and its relationship with
impacted mandibular third molar using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in Malaysian population. CBCT
images of 90 subjects (33 males and 57 females) with the age of 18 years old and above were included. Images were taken
using Planmeca Promax 3D (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland) with standard exposure protocols and reconstructed using
Planmeca Romexis 2.9.2 (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland) software. The anatomical position of the mandibular canal in
relation to the impacted mandibular third molar was morphometrically measured. 60% (n=54) of the impacted mandibular
third molars were left-sided and significant difference was detected between sexes and sides of mandibular third molar
impaction (p=0.010).The mean (SD) for linear distance of the mandibular canal proximal to the impacted mandibular third
molar tooth was 2.9mm (0.93mm) while the linear distance between the mandibular canal and the impacted mandibular
third molar was -0.7mm (2.33mm). The mean (SD) of the depth of impaction of the impacted mandibular third molar
tooth was 8.9mm (4.51mm). There was no statistical difference between sexes for these three measurements with p-value
of 0.200, 0.624 and 0.932 respectively. The mandibular canal is in close proximity with impacted mandibular third molar
and therefore should be considered during surgical removal of the tooth. However, due to the variability of the depth of
impaction, radiographic assessment, preferably CBCT should ideally be performed for every patient before surgical
removal of impacted mandibular third molar.

Correlationbetweensizeoforbitalfloordefectandchoiceofimplantmaterial
Chieng Kai Wen, Aqilah Najwa, Marzuki Omar, Johari Yap
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Orbital floor fractures secondary to trauma is not uncommon. The resultant defect often needs to be reconstructed.
Various materials can be used to repair the defect including autogenous bone graft, synthetic implants such as porous
polyethylene and titanium. The aim of this study was to find the correlation between area size of orbital floor fracture
and operators choice of implant material in Hospital USM. This is a cross-sectional study whereby 19 subjects with
unilateral orbital floor fracture whom had undergone surgery in HUSM and had been reviewed for at least six months
were chosen. The CT images of these subjects were obtained from archive images from Picture Archiving and
Communication System (PACS) server at radiology department HUSM. The area sizes of the orbital floor fracture were
estimated from the CT imaging using Osirix Imaging Software Pixmeo SARL and recorded. The samples treatment
records were retrieved and the choice of implant material was recorded for each patient. Complications with each
implant material after surgical correction of orbital floor fracture were also recorded. Data were analyzed statistically
using Kruskal-Wallis test which showed that there is no significant association between the area size of orbital floor
fracture and operators choice of implant material with p>0.05. In conclusion, eventhough there was no statistically
significant association between the area size of orbital floor fracture and operators choice of implant material, the
median showed that titanium was used for larger sized orbital floor defects, medpore for medium-sized and autograft for
the smaller orbital floor defects.




CS14

Salivaryflowinpatientwithtype2diabetesmellitusbasedonthecharacteristicsof
thesubject
Mindy Frieda Anissa, Rosiliwati Wihardja, Sri Tjahajawati
Faculty of Dentistry, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Sekeloa Selatan I Bandung Jawa Barat

CS15

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease caused by a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Polyuria which is
one of the common symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus causes an imbalance of body fluid to intracellular and
extracellular dehydration. The condition leads to reduced production of saliva of major and minor salivary glands. The
purpose of this study was to determine salivary flow in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus based on the characteristic
subject.This is a descriptive study with consecutive sampling techniques with the data being presented in tables and
graphs. The population consisted of 60 patients, divided into two equally sized groups those with type 2 controlled and
those with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. The results of patient with controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, 11
people (36.67%) showed normal salivary flow rate, 10 people (33.33%) had low salivary rate, another 9 people (30%)
suffered from hyposalivation. In the group of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus, as many as one person
(3.33%) showed normal salivary flow rate, 16 people (53.33%) was low, and 13 (43.33%) hyposalivation. It can be
concluded from this study the salivary rate of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus was less than that of
controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

CO16

Ageestimationbasedonthetoothpostdevelopmentalchanges
CS16
Karen Lio Su Ying, Hilwa Hanin Abd Halim, Mohd Fadhli Khamis, Yanti Johari, Zarina Jaafar
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between area and length of transparent dentin, area and width
ratio of root canal and normalised chronological age. The research was conducted on sixty-three extracted anterior teeth
and premolars of Northeastern Malaysian with known age and sex. Measurements were made digitally from x-ray for
analysis of the root canal area over the total root area (RCA/RAX) ratio and width ratios of the pulp cavity in three root
levels. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally. Root dentin transparency on sectioned teeth was observed with naked
eye and scored using Gustafsons and Johansons methods. Measurements of root dentin transparency were made under
stereomicroscope for analysis of translucent dentin length over total root length (TDL/TRL) ratio and translucent dentin
area over the total root area (TDA/RAS) ratio. The coefficient of correlation of Gustafson score with normalized
chronological age is the strongest (r=0.738, p<0.001) and the sexual dimorphism was statistically significant. Johanson
score and RCA/RAX ratio had significant strong correlation with normalized chronological age too, which were
r=0.689, p<0.001 and r=0.489, p=0.008 respectively. The result showed reduction of pulp size with increasing
normalized chronological age. Only width ratio at point B showed significant strong correlation with normalized
chronological age (r=0.575, p=0.001). However, there was no significant correlation between TDL/TRL ratio,
TDA/RAS ratio and normalized chronological age. In conclusion, scoring methods still produce better estimation than
linear and area measurement of transparent dentine while only width ratio at point B provide strong correlation.




GingivalbiotypesidentificationamongMalaysubjects:Apilotstudy
Manjitra Sukumaram, Mohamad Yusof Rashid, Zurairah Berahim, Haslina Taib, Yanti Johari
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

CS17

Gingival biotypes play an important role in predicting prognosis and treatment outcome of the periodontal plastic
procedure and restorative dentistry in general around the aesthetic region. Therefore, this pilot study was carried out to
detect the differences in the gingival biotype present in the male and the female Malay population in Kelantan. In this
study we recruited 24 male and 24 female aged from 18 to 47 who fulfilled all the inclusion criteria with healthy upper
anterior teeth and periodontal status. The gingiva and the incisors morphometric were examined and measured using
Williams periodontal probe. Crown width and crown length ratio (CW/CL), gingival width (GW), papilla height
(PH), probing depth (PD) and gingival thickness (GT) were recorded. Williams probe was inserted into the gingival
sulcus and the transparency of probe determined the GT. All the parameters and photo of upper front teeth were
recorded. Data was analyzed using SPPS version 22.0 and non-parametric test was employed. Statistical significance
was set at p<0.05. There was no significant difference of the gingival biotypes between male and female subjects
(p=0.68). The majority of the subjects (more than 80%) has thin biotypes at both lateral and central incisors. Thin
biotype is significantly associated with narrow gingival width (p=0.019). In conclusion, management of anterior
region in Malay patients requires careful and proper treatment procedures as thin gingival biotypes may influence
tissue response and disparities in the aesthetic outcome.

Evaluation of permanent teeth extraction indication in the patients attending
dentalhospitalofUniversitasIndonesia

CO18
CS18

Atikah Amalina Ghaisani, Rachmita Anne, Corputty Johan. E. M


Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok, West Java,
Indonesia
Tooth loss continues to be a health problem in many parts of the world. Based on data from the 2013 Basic Health
Research in Indonesia, the Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMF-T) index in Indonesia is 4.6 with Missing Teeth (MT)
component value 2.9. It shows that the high rate of tooth loss is still very high.This study aims to describe an overview
of distribution and frequency of permanent teeth extraction in Dental Hospital, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas
Indonesia (RSKGM FKG UI) patients from January 1st 2012 till December 31st 2014 as an evaluation of the adequacy
of dental care and the development of oral health programs. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted at the
RSKGM FKG UI in June to August 2015. The secondary data of patients were obtained from the medical records of
the RSKGM FKG UI during the research period. The results showed that the indication for tooth extraction was pulp
and root necrosis (45.6%), followed by tooth impaction (30.6%), orthodontic reason (13.8%), malposition (4.7%),
periodontal diseases (2.6%), fractures (1.1%), prosthodontic reason (0.4%) and other reasons (1.5%). Extraction cases
were found more in women (64%) in the age group 11-30 years (44.9%) with the bachelor degree level (42.2%), and
mandibular molars (45.9 %). The highest rank in indications of permanent teeth extracted was pulp and root necrosis,
which is a continuation of the decay process, followed sequentially by tooth impaction, orthodontic reason,
malposition, periodontal disease, fracture, other reasons and prosthodontics reason.




A study of presence/impaction and/or agenesis of third molar tooth germs in
relationshipwithABObloodgroupinorthodonticpatientsinHospitalUniversitiSains
Malaysia(HUSM).
Yap Hao Zhi, Che Ku Farah Najwa Che Ku Aziz, Mohammad Khursheed Alam, Wan Suriana Wan Ab Rahman
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
In last few decades, several studies have been carried out to investigate relationships between ABO blood groups and the
incidence of certain oral and dental disease, limited number of studies have been carried out to explore the relationship
between third molar agenesis and different blood group. The purpose of study is to determine the presence/impaction
and/or agenesis of third molar tooth germs in relationship with the ABO blood group in orthodontic patients in HUSM.
This is a cross sectional study on secondary data whereby 271 subjects (n=271) was randomly selected from HUSMs
orthodontic clinic. Number of patients with blood group type A is 73 (n=73), type B is 75(n=75), type AB is 56(n=56)
and type O is 67(n=67). Patients blood group is determined using Tyles method and orthopantomograph (OPG) is used
to assess third molar status and angulation of impaction according to Winters classification. The data were analysed
statistically using SPSS version 22 with Pearsons Chi-Square test. The result shows no relationship between the ABO
blood group and impaction status (p=0.52) and no significance association between ABO blood group and agenesis of
third molars (p=0.321). The most common type of impaction based on angulation is mesioangular, as the incidence of
blood group A is (n=77), B is (n=67), AB is (n=66) and O is (n=60). Blood group A has the highest incidence of
agenesis (n=34), followed by blood group B (n=32). In conclusion, there is no association between impaction status and
ABO blood group in orthodontic patients in HUSM.




CS19

Comparison of efficacy and bleaching safety between professional home bleaching
agentandoverthecounterbleachingagentonhumannaturaltooth.
P01
Japsimretjit Kaur Manjit Singh, Matsurah Sengut, Mohamad Syahrizal Halim, Zuryati Ab Ghani, Normastura Abd
Rahman
School Of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
There is wide range of bleaching modalities available for tooth whitening nowadays. This study was done to investigate
the efficacy and effects of bleaching on human natural tooth. Specifically, the objectives were to compare the colour
changes, microhardness and surface roughness of the human natural tooth after bleaching with professional home
bleaching agent and over the counterbleaching agent. 57 human natural tooth were embedded in acrylic of 2.5mm
thickness and 14 x 8 mm surface area. The samples were stained with human blood before they were divided into 3
groups (n=19 per group) of control (C), Opalescence PF 15% (PB) and Whitelight Tooth Whitening set (WL) before
being treated with the respective bleaching agents for 10 days. Colorimetric measurements (L*, a* and b* values) were
recorded pre-staining, post-staining and post-bleaching while microhardness and surface roughness measurements were
recorded for pre-bleaching and post-bleaching. Colour changes after bleaching was noticed in all groups. The
microhardness for PB and WL group increased after bleaching while surface roughness remains the same for all the
groups. There were no significant differences in colour changes changes after staining, colour changes after bleaching
and changes in surface roughness between the three groups. Significant difference were noticed for differences in
microhardness after bleaching regime with significance of C group against PB group (p<0.001) being higher than C
group against WL group (p=0.003).As a conclusion, both professional home bleaching and over-the-counter bleaching
agents showed similar efficacy with no effect on surface roughness and both caused an increase in microhardness.

Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethyl acetate extract of blood cockle
(Anadaragranosa)onthegrowthofstreptococcussanguinisATCC10556

PO2
P02

Ayu Galih Permata Dewi


Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, 40132, Indonesia
Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) contains antibacterial compounds that can inhibit the growth of Streptococcus sanguinis
as a pioneer in the formation of dental plaque. In dentistry, blood cockle has potency to be used as a source of active
ingredients mouthwash. The purpose of this study was to find out the minimum inhibitory concentration of ethyl acetate
extract of blood cockle (A.granosa) on the growth of S.sanguinis ATCC 10556. The study was laboratory experimental
using serial dilution method. The concentrations of ethyl acetate extract of blood cockle used in this experiment were 0.5
mg/mL, 0.25 mg/mL, and 0.125 mg/mL. The result of this study shows that bacteria colonies were reduced almost 100%
in 0.5 mg/mL, while they were reduced  50% in 0.25 mg/mL. On the other hand, 0.125 mg/mL unable to inhibit the
growth of Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556. It is concluded that 0.25 mg/mL ethyl acetate extract of blood cockle
was minimum inhibitory concentration to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556.




Evaluation of microleakage in combined amalgamcomposite resin class II


restoration
Ng King Hua, Mohamad Aiman Mohd Sabri, Saman Malik Masudi
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

P03

Microleakage has been defined as the passage of ions, molecules, fluids or bacteria between a cavity wall and
restorative material. This study aimed to access and compare marginal seal at tooth-material and material-material
interfaces at the proximal box in combined amalgam/composite resin restorations. Mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD)
cavities were prepared in 25 premolars with carbide bur. The distal proximal box was restored with Silverfil amalgam
(Dunia Perwira, Malaysia) until reaching the height of pulpal floor. Dental tissues were then etched with 37%
phosphoric acid (ScotchbondTM Universal Etchant; 3M-ESPE) and a bonding agent (3M ESPE, USA) was applied
and cured. Composite resin (Filtek Z250, 3M-ESPE) was placed in layers in the mesial proximal box first, then all
occlusal, and light cured. Marginal adaptation was evaluated at the following interfaces: amalgam-tooth (A),
amalgam-composite resin (AC) and composite resin-tooth (C). Microleakage was evaluated by means of methylene
blue infiltration after a week of water storage and thermocycling regimen (1500 cycles) at 5C- 55C. Microleakage
was assessed as percentage depth of horizontal dye penetration (infiltration extent/cavity extension). ANOVA showed
statistically significant difference between A-C and AC-C (p<0.01). No statistically significant difference was found
between A-AC interfaces (p>0.05). Mean and standard deviation of microleakage values were A, 88.39(24.23), AC,
76.27(31.79) and C, 34.23(43.24), according to Tukey's test. The results showed that amalgam/composite resin
interface exhibited the lowest microleakage scores. Since composite resin restorations exhibited lower microleakage
scores than combined composite resin and amalgam, it is concluded that composite resin alone or in combination with
amalgam is effective to reduce microleakage in class II restorations.

Evaluationofdifferenthygieneinstrumentsontitaniumimplantfixture
Sharon Wong Kah Khei, Nur Fatin Mohamed Pauzi@Ramli, Akram Hassan, Haslina Taib
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Roughened surfaces of the exposed fixture due to peri implantitis can contribute to accumulation of bacterial plaque
thus, deteriorates the integrity of the implant. This study aimed to assess the effect of different hygiene instruments on
titanium implant fixture surface. This is an experimental clinical study whereby nine Bego implant fixtures (n=9) were
used. All 9 samples were mounted on 2cm x 2cm x 2cm stone stands and were randomly divided into 3 groups based
on different hygiene instruments and methods: Control (n=3), Airflow (AF) abrasive system (n=3) , and rubber cup
(RC) with pumice (n=3). All samples were treated for 2 minutes each. The treated fixtures were irrigated with normal
saline and fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde. The samples were air dried, wrapped in sterile 2cm x 2cm dry gauze and
stored in individually labeled and sealed compartments. One fixture was randomly selected from the three groups and
observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Surface roughness of each specimens were described according
to SEM images using x1000 and x2000 magnifications. SEM showed that fixture from control group was not a smooth
surface and revealed machine lines due to milling process. The fixture from AF group had generalized micropores and
craters but machine lines were slightly diminished. The fixture from RC group showed semicircular lines of rubber cap
and diminished machine lines. Based on the findings, the titanium implant fixture surface treated with air powder
abrasive systems revealed the less invasive and more effective compared to surface treated with rubber cup and
pumice under present test condition.




P04

AntibacterialevaluationofGICincorporatedwithcoumarinderivatives
Nurulhuda Mohd Noor, Savithri Rajandran, Fatimah Suhaili Abdul Rahman, Dasmawati Mohamad,
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

P05
P

The aim of this study was to evaluate the synthesized coumarin derivatives as an antibacterial agent incorporated with
glass ionomer cement (GIC). Fuji II GIC was used as a control. Fabrication of GIC-RUA and GIC-RUC paste was made
at 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5 % w/w of RUA and RUC by adding the synthesized coumarin derivatives to
powdered GIC (Fuji II). The antibacterial activity of each GIC was evaluated against Streptococcus sanguinis and
Streptococcus mutans using agar diffusion test. Further study was carried out on the material tested using microdilution
method against Streptococcus sanguinis. The result was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test by IBM SPSS Statistics 22.
Based on the agar diffusion test, results indicated that both RUA and RUC significantly inhibited the growth of
Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans in which RUC is more potent inhibitor compared to RUA. From the
kinetic bacteria growth test, it showed that 0.5% GIC-RUC already inhibit bacteria growth compared to GIC-RUA at
1.5%. In conclusion, coumarin derivatives can effectively act as antibacterial agent when incorporated with GIC.

Effect of saliva and blood contamination after bonding procedure on shear bond
strengthofnanohybridcompositeresintoenamel
Ariana Maulina Putria, Citra Kusumasarib, Endang Suprastiwib
Undergraduate Student, Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta,
Indonesia
Composite resin is very sensitive and vulnerable to contamination that occurs in oral cavity. This study aimed to
determine the effect of saliva and blood contamination after bonding on shear bond strength of composite to enamel and
to compare several decontamination procedures. 25 human premolars, mounted in acrylic blocks, were grinded on buccal
surface to prepare flat superficial enamel surface. They were randomly divided into 5 groups based on type of
contamination and decontamination procedures. Group A (n=5) as control group were etched, bonded, and applied
composite resin. Group B (n=10) after bonding procedure and polymerization, samples were contaminated by saliva for
15 seconds, 5 samples were rinsed by water and air-dried (group B1), and the rests were cleaned by cotton pellet soaked
in alcohol (group B2). Group C (n=10) had the same intervention as Group B, but the contamination was using blood.
All samples were incubated at 370C for 24 hours. Shear bond strength was tested using a Universal Testing Machine
with load cell 50kgF and test speed 0.5 mm/min. The highest bond strength was seen in control group (14.780.89),
while group C2 (blood-alcohol) showed the lowest bond strength (9.031.10). Significant differences (p<0.05) were seen
among all groups, except B1 (saliva-rinse-air dry) compared to control group (p>0.05), and B2 (saliva-alcohol)
compared to C1 (blood-rinse-air dry) (p>0.05). In conclusion, contamination of saliva and blood after bonding decreased
the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel. Decontamination with water and air is sufficient in restoring the
bond strength, similar to control group.




P06

PO8

Knowledge, attitude, exposure and future intention of Universiti Sains Malaysia
medicalanddentalstudentstowardsexclusivebreastfeeding.
Khairun Nadzirah Khairul Azman, Ida Dahlia Ab Aziz, Noraini Mohamad, Norkhafizah Saddki
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

P07

Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months is the optimal way of feeding infants. As future health professionals, it is
important for medical and dental student to have good knowledge and attitude about exclusive breastfeeding. This crosssectional study is aimed to determine knowledge, attitude, exposure and future exclusive breastfeeding intention among
dental and medical student of Universiti Sains Malaysia. A total of 162 students participated in this study. A selfadministered questionnaire was used to collect variables of interest. Most students knew breast milk reduces risk of lung
infection in babies (95.1%), provides more protection against allergy than formula milk (98.8%), and helps in proper
development of babys teeth and gum. Most students (97.3%) also knew about the advantages of brestfeeding to
mothers. However, more than half (53.7%) thought that expressed milk can be warmed in a microwave and the
remaining can be stored again. Most students (95.1%) strongly agreed that exclusive breastfeeding is easier to be
practiced than formula feeding and that it is the best choice for working mothers (73.5%). More than 80% of students
were exposed to exclusive breastfeeding and 93.2% intend to breastfeed their children in the future. Exclusive
breastfeeding intention of the students was significantly associated with their ethnicity, exposures and attitude towards
exclusive breastfeeding. This study concludes that medical and dental students in USM have good knowledge, attitude
and future intention towards exclusive breastfeeding. Ethnicity of the students, their past exposures to exclusive
breastfeeding and attitude towards the practice are associated with their future exclusive breastfeeding intention.

DentalattendanceamongelderlytoHospitalUSMdentalClinic.
Muhammad Ilman A Wahab, Muhammad Izzul Norman, Mohd Zulkarnain Sinor, Basaruddin Ahmad, Azirrawani Ariffin
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

P08
With increasing age, elderly that attend to the dental clinic to seek dental treatment come with various medical problems.
In this study, we want to determine the pattern of attendance among elderly to dental clinic and what are their main oral
health problems as well as their medical problems. This cross-sectional study evaluated among 98 elderly patients that
came to HUSM Dental Clinic from 1st January 2014 to 30th June 2014. Data were obtained from the treatment records of
each patients collected from the Unit Rekod Perubatan Hospital USM. Elderly aged 60 years old and above were
identified and their sociodemographic data, dental chief complaint and medical history were recorded into a form. Data
were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. Edentulism (30.6%) is the most oral
health concern among the elderly that bring them to the dental clinic, followed by cavitated tooth (21.4%), mobile tooth
(16.3%) and tooth pain (13.3%). Meanwhile, most of the elderly came to the dental clinic with a medical history of
hypertension (69.4%), followed by diabetes (35.7%) heart disease (20.4%) and musculoskeletal disorder (13.3%). To
conclude, edentulism is the main reason why elderly came to the dental clinic and most of them presented with
hypertension which will affect dental treatment. Thus, it is important for the dental personnel especially dental students
to have knowledge of screening geriatric patient with various medical illnesses.




PO 5

Oral health profile of complete denture patients treated by USM undergraduate
students.
PO9
PO9
P09
Goh Sim Ying, Azirrawani Ariffin, Mohd Zulkarnain Sinor
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Complete dentures are important for mastication, speech and aesthetics. However, their impact on the oral health and
Quality of Life (QoL) of these patients is questionable. The objective of this study was to assess the oral health profile
and QoL of complete denture patients treated by USM undergraduate students. Seventy four patients (n=74) consented
and completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-14 questionnaires (Malay version) at least one month following
provision of the complete dentures provided by USM undergraduates from 2013 to 2015. Data on age, sex, years of
complete denture experience and years of complete edentulism were retrieved from their clinical records. SPSS version
22.0 was used to analyse the data. While the other items appeared to be unaffected or minimally affected by their
dentures, 45% of the patients claimed to have chewing difficulties. Almost similarly, discomfort in eating any food
and problems with food sticking to the dentures were reported in 47% and 49% of patients respectively. Overall, 65%
of the patients claimed to have prevented eating certain food when wearing dentures. In spite of these, the QoL was
never affected in 69% of the patients. In conclusion, the items related to eating seemed to be mostly affected although
not often, by their dentures in most of the patients. However their global QoL remain unaffected.

EffectofcolorshadeandLEDlightsourcedistanceondiametraltensilestrengthof
bulkfillcompositerestorativematerial
P10
Dela Medina, Elizhabet Napitupul, ,Yosi Kusuma Eriwati, Bambang Irawan
Undergraduate student, bDepartment of Dental Materials, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia,
10430, Jakarta, Indonesia
Mechanical properties of bulk-fill composites were determined by an adequate polymerization, which influenced by
several factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of color shades and LED light source distance on the diametral
tensile strength of bulk-fill composite restorative material. Tetric N-Ceram Bulk-Fill composite resin (Ivoclar-Vivadent,
Lichetenstein) was formed into 50 cylindrical specimens with 3mm in thickness and 6mm in diameter according to
ADA specification no 27 (1993). Each group consists of 10 specimens and divided by its color shade, IVA (Vita: A2A3), IVB (Vita B1-B2), and IVW (bleached shades). Those 3 groups were prepared with 0mm curing distance. Another
2 groups were prepared with various curing distance: 3mm and 5 mm. Curing of the composites were done using LED
Light Curing Unit Bluephase Style resin (Ivoclar-Vivadent, Lichetenstein) for 10 seconds. Diametral tensile strength
was determined after 24 hours using Shimadzu AG5000 Universal Mechanical Testing Machine with test speed of 0.5
mm/min. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and LSDs post hoc test to delineate ares of significant (p<0.05).
Specimens with color shade of IVW showed the highest diametral tensile strength among the groups and significantly
higher (p<0.05) than the diametral tensile strength of shade IVA. However, the differences in LED light source distance
did not show significant difference (p>0.05) on diametral tensile strength. In conclusion, the finding of this study
demonstrated that diametral tensile strength of bulk-fill composite resin could be affected by its color shades.




A 10 years evaluation of removable orthodontic treatment at School of Dental
Sciences,HUSM
Fradella Sandy Telasai, Saidatul Aklima Salleh, Md Nazmul Hassan, Mohammad Khursheed Alam
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan Malaysia.

P11

Orthodontic treatments are involved in the correction of maxillary and mandibular inter and intra-arch tooth relationships
abnormalities. The aim of this study is to determine the type and reason of using removable orthodontic appliances at
School of Dental Sciences, HUSM. This study also determines the relationship between the Index of Treatment Need
(IOTN), focusing on type of malocclusions, and removable orthodontic appliance used. The investigation was performed
on archived records of randomly selected, 151 patients (114 female, 37 male), treated between 2004 to 2014. Eight types
of appliance components were evaluated from the removable appliances used, which are; labial bow, springs, bite plane,
canine retractor, twin block and expansion screw. Patients treated with fixed appliance were also included in the study.
Patients were analyzed according to their age, gender, race and type of malocclusion. SPSS version 22.0 was used to
analyze the results. The frequency of removable appliances was found as follows: labial bow 43.7%, springs 23.8%,
canine retractor 6%, anterior and posterior bite plane 26.5%, screw expansion 7.9% and twin block 3.3%. In addition,
40.3% of removable appliance were used for skeletal class I malocclusion and 15.8% of those were used in incisal
relationship class II as compared to fixed appliance. From the analysis, labial bow are the most commonly used followed
by bite planes which were associated with overjet and crossbites. Other components were also used frequently. Twin
block had a quite seldom use. From the analysis, there were no relationship between the IOTN and removable
appliances.

Characterization of chitosangelatin membrane incorporated with cinnamaldehyde


forpotentialwoundhealingapplicationinoralcavity
P12
Putri Wulan Sari, Ahmad Ridwan, Nunuk Purwanti, Dedy Kusuma Yulianto, Anne Handrini Dewi
Undergraduate student, Biomedical Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Chitosan is a biodegradable polymer that has a potential use in drug delivery system. Cinnamaldehyde as an antiinflammatory agent is suggested for wound healing application. However direct incorporation cinnamaldehyde to the
formulation need more attention since its low water solubility and have a crosslinking effect like the other aldehyde
group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different cinnamaldehyde concentration on characterization of
chitosan-gelatin membrane as drug delivery system. Chitosan-gelatin membrane was prepared by mixing emulsion
system that consists of cinnamaldehyde, PEG 400 and VCO with homogenized chitosan-gelatin solution. Specimen was
cut in 1.5X1.5cm for the cinnamaldehyde groups and control group. In this present study, chitosan-gelatin membrane
incorporated with cinnamaldehyde at level 1%, 2% and 3% (v/v) were prepared to examine swelling ratio, weight loss,
contact angle, surface roughness and folding endurance. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to describe
surface structure and the chemical bonding were investigated by Fourier Transformed Infrared (F-TIR).One way Anova
and LSD analysis of swelling ratio and weight loss demonstrated that there were a significant differences between all
cinnamaldehyde groups and a control group (p<0.05). The statistic result proved a significant difference only between
cinnmaldehyde 3 % and control group on contact angle and surface roughness (p<0.05). The incorporation of
cinnamaldehyde 3% into chitosan-gelatin membrane was found increasing the folding endurance significantly among the
other groups (p<0,05). In conclusion, the result demonstrated that the chitosan-gelatin membrane are suitable for
cinnamaldehyde delivery system.




PO13

Assessment of periodontal status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis:  A pilot
study.
P13
Nadiah Suhaimi, Natasha Kamaruzaman, Haslina Taib, Wan Majdiah Wan Mohamad, Wan Syamimee Wan Ghazali,
School of Dental Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan,
Malaysia.
The association between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis has been reported in recent literature; however,
the findings are still controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the proportion and status of periodontal disease
among rheumatoid arthritis patients in Hospital USM. The association between severity of periodontal disease and
rheumatoid factor was also determined. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at the Dental Clinic of
Hospital USM. In this study, data on age, gender, ethnicity, history of rheumatoid arthritis, plaque score, gingivitis
score, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were collected. A sum of 16 rheumatoid arthritis and 16 nonrheumatoid arthritis patients with median age of 33.50 (IQR26) were examined (n=32). Data obtained were analysed
with SPSS version 22 using non-parametric test with p<0.05 taken as significant. It was found that all rheumatoid
arthritis and 93.8% of non-rheumatoid patients have periodontal disease (p=1.000 by Fishers exact test). There were
no significant differences in periodontal parameters between rheumatoid arthritis and non-rheumatoid arthritis
patients; p=0.940, 0.346, 0.985, and 0.119 for plaque score, gingivitis score, probing pocket depth, and clinical
attachment loss respectively. There was also no significant association between severity of periodontal disease
and rheumatoid factor (p=1.000). Findings from this limited data showed that periodontal disease is not associated
with rheumatoid arthritis.

PO14

FunctionalabilityofmasticatorymuscleIntreatedmandibularfracturecasesusing
SurfaceElectromyography(sEMG)
Stefanie Yong E Ping, Zuriana Mohd Adirus @ Mohd Idrus, Rehana Basri, Mohammad Khursheed Alam, Shaifulizan
Ab. Rahman.
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.
Mandibular fractures occur frequently and account for more than half of all maxillofacial fractures. The mandible is
then subject to complications after treatment. The aim of this study is to assess the function of the masticatory muscles
in patients who have been treated for mandibular fractures in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in relation
to quality of life, clinical findings and surface electromyography (sEMG) findings of the masseter and temporalis
muscles. Subject group refer to patients who underwent treatment for mandibular fracture in HUSM. Subjects were
interviewed using a quality of life questionnaire adapted from the University of Washington Quality of Life ScaleVersion 4 and then assessed clinically. The function of the masticatory muscles were then assessed using sEMG and
the results compared to that of the control group of patients who never had mandibular fracture.A total of 15 control
and 5 subject patients underwent the assessment. All the patients in the subject group experienced a decrease in quality
of life in at least one criteria. 80% of patients had pain, paraesthesia, difficulty in chewing and change in appearance.
40% had speech difficulty. 20% had increased anxiety and overall decrease in mood. Clinical examination showed
60% of patients had facial asymmetry, 40% had tenderness and clicking of temporomandibular joint, and 40% had
decreased mouth opening. Statistical analysis of the parameters showed significant difference (p<0.05) for both
masseter and temporalis muscles during rest, chewing and clenching except for the right masseter muscle during rest.
In conclusion, the function of the masticatory muscles was significantly affected even after treatments have been given
post mandibular fracture in relation to their quality of life, clinical findings and sEMG results.




P14

Effect of saliva, blood, and gloves contamination on compressive strength of
nanohybridcompositeresin
Annisa Widiandini, Citra Kusumasari, Endang Suprastiwi
Undergraduate Student, Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, 10430
Jakarta, Indonesia.

P15

The aims of this study were to determine the effect of saliva, blood, and gloves contamination on the compressive
strength of nanohybrid composite resin. Twenty four specimens (n=24) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=4)
based on the type of contamination. Group 1 as control group, Group 2 as saliva contamination group, Group 3 as blood
contamination group, Group 4 as gloves contamination group. The specimens were prepared using a cylindrical split
mold with 8.0 mm height and 4.0 mm diameter in which the materials were inserted incrementally. The upper layer of
the composite was contaminated with saliva, blood, or gloves. After the contamination, the surfaces were rinsed for 10s
with water stream from an air-water syringe, followed by air drying for 5s. The curing time of each increment was 20s.
The specimens were kept in distilled water and incubated at 37qC for 24 hours. The specimens were tested using
Universal Testing Machine (Shimadzu Autograph AG 5000) with load cell of 500 kgf running at a crosshead speed of
0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17 with One-way ANOVA statistical test. The mean and standard
deviation values (MPa) for compressive strength were Group 1= 151.57 17.97, Group 2= 159.94 18.55, Group 3=
134.91 25.53, Group 4= 151.72 17.34. All groups did not show statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the
compressive strength. In conclusion, saliva, blood, and gloves contamination do not affect the compressive strength of
nanohybrid composite resin.

Oralmucosallesions:A1yeardatareviewofdentalpatientsinHospitalUniversiti
SainsMalaysia
Nur Kamaliah Tng Mohd Salleh Tng, Tham Yuen Wern, Nurhafizah Ghani, Masitah Hayati Harun, Nik Aloesnisa Nik P16
Mohd Alwi
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) lesions are commonly encountered in patients at a dental clinic. OMLs include changes to
the mucosal integrity, colour, texture and swellings. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of OMLs in
patients attending Dental Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (Hospital USM). A cross sectional study using
secondary data was used. Dental records of patients seen in dental clinic from January to December 2014 were obtained.
SPSS version 23 was used to analyse the results. Forty three patients presented with oral mucosal lesions. The age in the
sample range 0.5 to 77 years with the mean of 48.95 19. The highest lesion was non-malignant ulcer (40.0%) and
followed by oral lichen planus (31.1%). Patients with exophytic lesions contributed about 17.8%. Candida related lesion
and keratotic lesion was about 11.1% each out of all patients with oral mucosa lesion. Patients diagnosed with herpetic
lesion were 2.2% and other lesions were 4.4%. The highest site of occurrence of OMLs was buccal mucosa with
frequency of 41.3%. There was no significant association between demographic and behavioral factors. As a
conclusion, the highest lesion of oral mucosal was non malignancy ulcer and lowest lesion was herpetic lesion.




Vascular anomalies:A15yearexperiencesofvascularanomaliesinheadandneck
inHUSMfrom19972011Aclinicalaudit
Syirrin Faldhira Haziq Mazlan, Nur Shaqira Atiqa Mohd Saad, Abdullah Pohchi, Roselinda Ab. Rahman
School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

P17

Vascular anomalies are the type of congenital anomalies that involve vascular system. It can be divided into
hemangiomas or vascular tumors and vascular malformations (VM). This study was done to determine the pattern of
vascular anomalies in head and neck region that treated in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) since 1997-2011.
This was a retrospective study of twenty-seven records of all vascular anomalies cases diagnosed and treated in HUSM
over period of 15 years. Data were analysed statistically using SPSS 22.0. Sociodemographic result showed that all 27
cases diagnosed as vascular malformation were mostly Malays (77.8%) with male to female ratio is 1: 1.25. Patients age
were ranged from 1 to 67 years old, predominantly in the first decade (33.3%) and second decade (33.3%) of life. Most
of the malformation occurred mainly in the brain region (44.4%). Based on the angiographic data, most feeder vessels
were from facial artery (14.8%), posterior cerebral artery (14.8%) and anterior cerebral artery (11.1%). Most of the
cases underwent embolization (37.0%), surgical excision (22.2%), intralesional laser theraphy (14.8%), stereotactic
radiosurgery (7.4%), and sclerotheraphy (3.7%). 14.8% of the patients were only diagnosed for having VM in HUSM
but did not get treatment here. There were 5 cases reported recurrences after treatments. In conclusion, pattern of
vascular anomalies in head and neck case that treated in HUSM were quite identical with published study worldwide.
However, there is still confusion regarding some parts of vascular anomalies such as the terminology used and treatment
modalities.

Comparison of various preparation and isolation methods on calcium


measurement of dried shrimp (Macrobrachium sp.)
Ivana Florentina, Harun A. Gunawan, Niniarty Z. Djamal
Undergraduate student, Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia, 10430 Jakarta,
Indonesia.
Dried shrimps or ebi (Macrobrachium sp.) is one of Indonesias natural resources which easily obtained and assumed to
contain high calcium level. The objective of this study was to know the exact calcium level in ebi and analyze the effects
of various preparation and isolation methods in calcium level measurement. Ebi was divided in two preparation groups,
the heated (oven) preparation and non heated respectively. Heat preparation was done at 80C for 20 minutes. Sample in
each preparation group was divided into three different isolation methods, dilution, acid digestion, and dry ashing group.
In dilution, sample was shaken in deionized water, where in acid digetion method used microwave-assisted digestion
with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and in dry ashing, sample was ashed using furnace from 26C to 550C, then
added with nitric and hydrochloride acids. The measurement was done use atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with
422.7 nm wavelength by comparing to calcium chloride standards of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ppm. Results showed
that the highest calcium level were 8,853 ppm (non heated preparation group) and 7,749 ppm (heated preparation group)
both using the acid digestion isolation method. There was strong and positive correlation in calcium measurement
between the preparation and the isolation methods. Acid digestion showed the ability to break the chemical bonds
between the calcium and the organic material in ebi, therefore eased the calcium measurement. In conclusion, ebi
prepared using non heated and isolated using acid digestion, showed the highest calcium measurement result.




P18

Evaluating the presence of oral protozoa in gingival crevicular fluid from patients
withperiodontaldiseaseApilotstudy
Nurul Husna Abdul Harith, Nur Fathiah Amran, Raja Azman Raja Awang, Zeehaida Mohamad , Mior Azrizal M.
Ibrahima, Suharni Mohamad
School of Dental Sciences, bSchool of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan,
Malaysia.

P19

This pilot study describes a pilot evaluation of Entamoeba gingivalis (E. gingivalis) and Trichomonas tenax (T. tenax)
in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with periodontal diseases who attended dental clinic at Hospital Universiti
Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. This study aimed to determine and compare the occurrence of E. gingivalis and T. tenax
from healthy and diseased sites from patients with periodontal diseases. A total of six patients with periodontal
diseases (n=6) were recruited in this study. Six samples were taken from each patient in whom three samples were
chosen from healthy sites and three samples were chosen from diseased sites. The gingival crevicular fluid was
collected by using sterile paper points. All the samples were sent to the parasitological laboratory and stained with
Giemsa before examination under microscope. There were no oral parasites seen during parasitological examination in
all 72 slides taken from six patients with periodontal diseases. Based on the findings of this research, it can be
concluded that there was absence of E. gingivalis and T. tenax in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with
periodontal diseases. These results obtained may be due to small sample size. Increasing the number of sample size in
the study may give better results.

Skinfrog(Fejervaryalimnocharis)extractgelacceleratesangiogenesisandcollagen
synthesisinpostextractionwoundhealingprocess:invivostudy
Afina Alfasia, Bayu Anggoro Aji, Mega Denada Aldila, Hans Kristian Wibowo, Berilla Silsila Surbakti, Tetiana P20
Haniastuti
Faculty of Dentistry, bDepartment of Oral Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 55281, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. This procedure causes disruptions of normal structure and
function of tissue. Frog (Fejerfarya limnocharis) is one of amphibian which can be found easily in Indonesia. Frog
skin contains bioactive compounds such as saponins, alkaloid, and bradykinin which has good effects in wound
healing. This research aimed to study the effect of 70% frog skin extract gel on angiogenesis and collagen synthesis in
post extraction wound healing process. The subject of this study consisted of 45 guinea pigs which were divided into 3
groups. After tooth extraction was performed on the right mandibular incisors, the sockets were filled with either 15 l
70% frog skin extracts gel (treatment group), 15 l povidone iodine (positive control group), or 15 l aquadest
(negative control group). Guinea pigs were sacrificed on days 3rd, 7th, and 14th after the extraction. The mandibles of
the guinea pig were processed histologically and stained with hematoxylin eosin and Mallory. Statistical analysis
showed significant differences (p<0.05) among groups, indicating that the frog skin extract gel stimulated
angiogenesis and collagen synthesis. Post hoc analysis showed significant difference of the number of blood vessels
and collagen between treatment and negative control groups in all observation periods. In addition, there was no
significant difference of the number of blood vessels and collagen between treatment and positive control groups. In
conclusion, 70% frog skin extract gel accelerates angiogenesis and collagen synthesis of post extraction wound healing
in guinea pig.