You are on page 1of 14

University of San Carlos

Department of Chemical Engineering


CHE 512L Chemical Engineering Laboratory 2

Experiment Plan
(Form CHE512L-1)
Prepared and submitted by:

Bureros, Glorie Mae A.

Cuizon, Dan Elmer S.

Tanjay, April A.

Experiment :

SEDIMENTATION (Settling Characteristics of Calcium Carbonate Slurry)


Objectives of the Experiment
1. Determine the drying characteristics of a small quantity of wet sawdust dried under vacuum conditions.
2. Use experimental drying data to predict drying time at constant rate and falling rate phases, and compare
predicted values with the actual time of drying.
Methodological Framework
Objective 1
Set constant the mass of tray, initial mass of wet sawdust, area of the exposed wet sawdust, drying
temperature and drying pressure.
Record the weight of the tray with the wet sawdust as a function of time
Calculate for the free ethanol content as a function of time.
Obtain the drying rate and plot it as a function of free ethanol content.
Determine the drying characteristics of wet sawdust such as the drying rate at constant rate period and
falling rate period, equilibrium and critical ethanol content, and the actual time of drying.
Objective 2
Calculate for the theoretical drying times of the constant rate and falling rate periods.
Calculate for the percent difference between the theoretical and actual drying time.

Materials, Measuring Apparatus & Equipment


Material

Quantity
-

Sawdust
Ethanol (80%)
Apparatus
Size
Quantity
Drying pan
1
Spatula
1
Weighing Scale
30-kg capacity
1
Stopwatch
1
Equipment
Specifications
Vacuum Tray Dryer
Vacuum Dryer
Heraeus model, type GMBH Hanau
220 V, 50 Hz, Single Phase
Vacuum Pump
Westinghouse model

220 V, 60 Hz, 1/3 Hp, Single Phase

Thermostat

Temperature Range: 0-400 C

Pressure Gauge

0-760 torr

Task Plan

Time
9:00-11:00
11:00-11:30

Task
Questioning
Setting up the Drier
Close the air vents located at the top of the dryer door and at the
left side of the dryer.
Close the dryer door and obtain a good seal by securing the three
lock screws.

Person
Responsible
All

Bureros
Cuizon

Plug the dryer in a 220-V socket.

Tanjay

Turn the four-way switch on (red bulb should illuminate).

Bureros

Set the thermostat controller to 50 C (yellow bulb should


illuminate).
Plug the vacuum pump in a 220-V socket and switch it on. Check
for leaks in the system if vacuum of 300 torr cannot be obtained.

Cuizon
Tanjay

If the vacuum obtained is good, then open the air vent at the left
side of the dryer and wait until the pressure gauge indicates 760
torr (atmospheric pressure).

Bureros

Turn off the pump.

Cuizon

Allow the dryer to attain the operating temperature of 50 C. In the


meantime, prepare the wet stock.
Wet Stock Preparation
Weigh the drying pan.

12:30-1:00

Fill into the pan a quantity of dry sawdust sufficient to give an even
bed of solid about halfway the depth of the pan. Determine its
weight and surface area.
Wet the sawdust uniformly by adding ethanol in small portions until
it is thoroughly damp but not so wet as to lose ethanol by drainage
(~80% ethanol). Mix the components thoroughly by means of a
spatula.
Weigh the tray with the wet sawdust. Proceed as follows.

1:00-3:00

3:00-3:15

Drying Operation
Make sure that the temperature inside the dryer is at 50 C.
Whenever necessary, adjust the thermostat control knob to
maintain the temperature at this setting.
Open the dryer door and place the weighing scale with the pan and
wet stock inside the dryer.
Close the dryer door and obtain a good seal as before, start the
vacuum pump, and record the initial time. Maintain the vacuum at
300 torr by occasionally adjusting the air vent at the side of the
dryer.
Record the time and weight of wet stock on the pan at 2-minute
interval. Extend this time interval to 3 minutes as the drying rate
falls off.
Continue drying until a constant weight is obtained. Record the final
time to complete this drying operation.
Shutdown Operation
Release the vacuum by opening the air vent at the left side of the
dryer until atmospheric pressure is attained.
Turn off the vacuum pump and dryer.
Allow the drier to cool. Do not open immediately.
Discard the spent sawdust to the container provided for.

Tanjay

Bureros
Cuizon & Tanjay

All
Bureros

Cuizon
Tanjay
Bureros

All
All
Cuizon
Tanjay
Bureros
Cuizon

Information Flow Diagram

Legend
4

Ws = weight of dry sawdust (kg)

W = weight of wet stock (kg)

X Ethanol = total ethanol content (kg EtOH/kg dry sawdust)

t = time (min)

X* = equilibrium ethanol content (kg EtOH/kg dry sawdust)

X = free ethanol content (kg EtOH/kg dry sawdust)

dX/dt = rate of change of the free ethanol content (kg EtOH/min)

A = exposed surface area of the wet stock (cm 2)

R = drying rate (kg EtOH/mincm2)

Rc = dyring rate at constant rate period (kg EtOH/mincm2)

Xc =critical point (kg EtOH/kg dry sawdust)

tf = drying time at falling rate period (min)

tc = drying time at constant rate period (min)

tactual = actual drying time (min)

t = predicted drying time (min)

%diff = percent difference between the actual and predicted drying time (%)

Raw Data Sheets


Table 1. Material Specifications
Mass of pan (g)
Mass of pan + dry sawdust (g)
Length of pan (cm)
Width of pan (cm)
Volume of ethanol solution added (mL)
Mass of pan + wet sawdust (g)
Thickness of wet sawdust (mm)

Table 2. Drying Operating Conditions


Temperature (C)
Pressure (torr)
5

Table 3. Mass of Wet Sawdust as a Function of Time Data


Mass of Pan + wet
Time (min)
sawdust (g)

Time (min)

Weight of Pan +
wet sawdust (g)

Time (min)

Weight of Pan +
wet sawdust (g)

10

11

Time (min)

Weight of Pan +
wet sawdust (g)

12

13

14