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DEFINITION OF SCIENTIFIC TERMS

FORM 1

Chapter 1: Introduction to Science


1. Weight is the force of gravity that acts on an object.
2. Mass is the quantity of matter in an object.

Chapter 2: Cell as a Unit of Life


1. Cells are the basic units of all living things.
2. Unicellular organisms are living things with only one cell.
3. Multicellular organisms are living things which are made up of more than one cell.

Chapter 3: Matter
1. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.
2. The density of a substance is the mass per unit volume of that substance.

Chapter 4: The Variety of Resources on Earth


1. An element is the simplest matter that is made up of only one type of particles.
2. A compound is formed when two or more elements combined chemically.
3. A mixture is made up of two or more substances combined physically.

Chapter 5: The Air around Us


1. Combustion is a chemical process that takes place when fuel reacts with oxygen to produce
heat and light.

Chapter 6: Sources of Energy


1. Energy is the ability to do work.

Chapter 7: Heat
1. Heat is a form of energy.

2. Temperature is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of an object.


3. Conduction is the flow of heat through solids.
4. Convection is the transfer of heat from one part of a fluid (liquids and gases) to another by
the circulatory movement of the heated fluid (liquids and gases).
5. Radiation is a process of heat transfer that does not require a medium (through a vacuum).

FORM 2

Chapter 1: The World through Our Senses


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Stimulus is a change in the environment that causes the body to react or respond to it.
Tropism is a growth response in a particular direction.
Phototropism is the movement or growth of plants in response to light.
Geotropism is the growth movement of the tips of the shoots and roots of plants in response
to gravity.
5. Hydrotropism is a plants growth response to water.
6. Thigmotropism is a tropic response in which the stimulus is touch or contact.
7. Nastic movement is the response of a plant towards touch, light and heat.

Chapter 2: Nutrition
1. Diet is all the food that we eat every day.
2. Balanced diet is a diet that contains food from all seven classes of food in the right quantity /
ratio.
3. Physical digestion is where large pieces of food break down into smaller particles
mechanically through the cutting, tearing and grinding action of teeth.
4. Chemical digestion is the breaking down of large and complex food molecules chemically
into simple molecules by the actions of enzymes.
5. Peristalsis is the contraction and relaxation of the muscle of the alimentary canal in a wavelike movement to move the food.

Chapter 3: Biodiversity
1. Biodiversity or biological diversity is the variety of living organisms.
2. Vertebrates are animals with backbones.
3. Invertebrates are animals without backbones.

Chapter 4: Interdependence among Living Organisms and the Environment


1. Habitat is a place where an organism lives, looks for food, gets shelter and reproduces.
2. Species is a group of organisms that have the same characteristics and can produce healthy
offspring through mating within the group.
3. Population is a group of organisms that have the same species that live together in the same
habitat.
4. Community means many populations of different plants and animals that live together in the
same habitat.
5. Ecosystem is a dynamic system where different communities interact with one another and
with the environment.

6. Ecology is the study of the relationship between living things and environment.
7. Intra-specific competition is a competition between organisms of the same species.
8. Inter-specific competition is a competition between organisms of different species.
9. Symbiosis means two or more species which live close together and interact with each other.
10. Commensalism is a relationship between two organisms in which the commensal benefits
from the host while the host does not receive any benefits or harm.
11. Mutualism is an interaction that benefits both organisms.
12. Parasitism is a relationship between two organisms in which the parasite benefits from the
host while the host is harmed by the parasite.
13. Biological control is a method to control pests by using the natural enemy of the pests.
14. Oxygen cycle is a continuous process of taking in and returning oxygen into the atmosphere.
15. Carbon cycle is a continuous process of taking in and returning carbon in the form of carbon
dioxide to the atmosphere.
16. Conservation is the wise use of natural resources and protecting the living things from
extinction.
17. Preservation is keeping the living things in their original and natural state.

Chapter 5: Water and Solution


1. Evaporation is the process of liquid changes to gas at any temperature below the liquids
boiling point.
2. Solute is a substance that can dissolve in a liquid.
3. Solvent is a liquid that dissolves a substance.
4. Solution is a product of mixture produced when a solute dissolves in a solvent.
5. Suspension is a mixture containing insoluble substances.

Chapter 6: Air Pressure


1. Air pressure or atmospheric pressure is the pressing down of the atmosphere on Earth.

Chapter 7: Dynamics
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A force is a push or pull acting upon an object.


Frictional force is a force that opposes the motion between two objects that are in contact.
Gravitational force is a force that pulls all objects towards the centre of the Earth.
Electrostatic force is a force produced by electrical charges that do not flow.
Magnetic force is the force of attraction between magnets and magnetic substances.

Chapter 8: Support and Movement


1. Skeleton is the structure that supports humans and animals.

Chapter 9: Stability
1. The centre of gravity is the point of equilibrium of an object.
2. Stability is the ability of an object to remain in its original position.

Chapter 10: Simple Machines


1. A machine is any device that helps us to do work more easily.
2. A lever is a simple type of machine.

FORM 3

Chapter 1: Respiration
1. Respiration is the chemical process whereby energy is released from glucose or other simple
substances.
2. Diffusion is the movements of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of
lower concentration.

Chapter 2: Blood Circulation and Transport


1. The circulatory system is the human transport system.
2. Transpiration is the process whereby plants losses water in the form of water vapour.

Chapter 3: Excretion
1. Excretion is a process in which living things remove waste and other unwanted substance
from their body.

Chapter 4: Reproduction
1. Puberty is a stage of human growth in which the human reproductive organs start to produce
sex cells and sex hormones.
2. The menstrual cycle is the regular monthly cycle of menstruation and ovulation.
3. Sterility is the inability to reproduce
4. Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma.
5. Vegetative reproduction is a type of asexual reproduction in flowering plants.

Chapter 5: Growth
1. Growth is an increase in body size, weight, number of cells, change in body shape and
functions of an organism.

Chapter 7: Electricity and Magnetism


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Electrostatics is the study of static electrical charges.


Electrical energy is the flow of electrical charges (electrons) in one direction.
Electric current is the rate of flow of electrical charges (or electrons).
Voltage is the electrical force need to move electrical charges from one point to another in a
conductor.

5. Resistance is the property of a substance that opposes or resists the flow of electrical charges
through it.
6. A magnetic field is the area around a magnet where its magnetic force can be detected.
7. Electromagnetism is the effect of magnetic field produced by electric current.

Chapter 8: Generation of Electricity


1. Generators are machines that convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.