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Kenneth Ross Elementary Real Analysis Intro to Complex Analysis Solutions Student Manual Yellow Real Numbers Complex Numbers Lebesgue Integral

© All Rights Reserved

25%(4)25% нашли этот документ полезным (4 голоса)

4K просмотров68 страницKenneth Ross Elementary Real Analysis Intro to Complex Analysis Solutions Student Manual Yellow Real Numbers Complex Numbers Lebesgue Integral

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 68

Kenneth A. Ross

Selected Solutions

EXERCISE 1.2

Claim:

P (n) = 3 + 11 + + (8n 5) = 4n2 n n N

Proof :

By induction. Let n = 1. Then 3 = 4(1)2 (1) = 3, which will serve as the

induction basis. Now for the induction step, we will assume P (n) holds true

and we need to show that P (n + 1) holds true. P (n + 1) = 3 + 11 + + (8n

5) + (8(n + 1) 5) = 4(n + 1)2 (n + 1).

Now, 3 + 11 + + (8n 5) + (8(n + 1) 5) = 4n2 n + 8(n + 1) 5. So in

order to show that P (n + 1) is true, we need to show that 4(n + 1)2 (n + 1) =

4n2 n + 8(n + 1) 5, which, when evaluated is true, as desired.

EXERCISE 1.3

Claim:

P (n) = 13 + 23 + + n3 = (1 + 2 + + n)2 n N

Proof :

By induction. Let n = 1. Then, P (1) = 13 = 1 = 12 , which will serve as the

induction basis. Now for the induction step, we will assume P (n) holds true

and we need to show that P (n + 1) holds true.

P (n + 1) = 13 + 23 + + n3 + (n + 1)3 = (1 + 2 + + n)2 + (n + 1)3

= (1 + 2 + + n)2 + [(n + 1)3 (n + 1)2 ] + (n + 1)2

= (1 + 2 + + n)2 + (n + 1)2 [n + 1 1] + (n + 1)2

= (1 + 2 + + n)2 + 2(n + 1)n(n + 1)/2 + (n + 1)2

= (1 + 2 + + n)2 + 2(n + 1)(1 + 2 + + n) + (n + 1)2

= 1 (1 + 2 + + (n + 1))2 ,

as desired.

1 (a

EXERCISE 1.4

(a) For

n = 1, the expression is 1.

n = 2, the expression is 4.

n = 3, the expression is 9.

n = 4, the expression is 16.

We note that 1 + 3 + (2n 1) = n2 , which is the proposed formula.

(b) Claim:

P (n) = 1 + 3 + (2n 1) = n2 n N

Proof :

By induction. We already showed the case when n = 1. Now for the induction

step, we will assume P (n) holds true and we need to show that P (n + 1) holds

true.

P (n + 1) = 1 + 3 + (2(n + 1) 1) = 1 + 3 + + (2n 1) + (2n + 1)

= n2 + 2n + 1 = (n + 1)2 ,

as desired.

EXERCISE 1.6

Claim:

P (n) = (11)n 4n is divisible by 7 when n N

Proof :

By induction. P (1) = 11 4 = 7 is divisible by 7. Now for the induction step,

we will assume P (n) holds true and we need to show that P (n + 1) holds true.

P (n + 1) = (11)n+1 4n+1 = 11n+1 4 11n + 4 11n 4n+1

= 11n (11 4) + 4(11n 4n ) = 7 11n + 4(11n 4n ).

Since we assumed that 11n 4n was divisible by 7 because we assumed P (n)

was true, we can see that

11n+1 4n+1

is divisible by 7, as desired.

EXERCISE 1.9

(a) The inequality does not hold for n = 2, 3, 4. It holds true for all other n N.

(b) It is true by by inspection for n = 1 and 24 = 42 also holds for n = 4.

Implement the induction step. For n 4, if 2n n2 ,

then 2(n+1) > (n + 1)2 .

(n+1)

n

2

2

But 2

=2 2 2n > (n + 1) iff (n + 1) < 2n, for example when

1

= 2 + 1, which includes n N : n 4.

n > 21

EXERCISE 1.10

Claim:

(2n + 1) + (2n + 3) + (2n + 5) + + (4n 1) = 3n2 n N.

Proof :

Using the results from 1.4, we can avoid induction. Observe that

(2n+1)+(2n+3)+ +(4n1) = (1+3+ +(4n1))(1+3+ +(2n1))

= (1 + 3 + + 2(2n) 1) (1 + 3 + + (2n 1))

= (2n)2 n2 = 4n2 n2 = 3n2 ,

as desired.

(b) Observe the following:

1

(n k + 1) + k

n+1

1

+

=

=

.

k nk+1

k(n k + 1)

k(n k + 1)

Hence,

n!

n!

n!

1

1

+

=

+

k!(n k)! (k 1)!(n k + 1)!

(k 1)!(n k)! k n k + 1

n!

n+1

(n + 1)!

=

.

=

(k 1)!(n k)! k(n k + 1)

k!(n k + 1)!

(c) For n = 1 : (a + b)n = a + b = 11 a + 11 b. Now, for n 1, we get

(a + b)n =

n

X

n

k=0

ak bnk .

Hence,

(n+1)

(a + b)

= (a + b)

n

X

n

l=0

n+1

X

k=0

l nl

ab

n+1

X

k=0

n

n

+

ak bnk+1

k1

k

n + 1 k n1+k

a b

.

k

EXERCISE 2.1

Show that 3 is not rational (The exact same technique can be used to show

the other numbers are not rational).

Claim:

3

/R

Proof :

2

p

= 3 = p2 = 3q 2 = p2 is divisible by 3 = p is divisible by 3. Let p =

q

3k. Then 9k 2 = 3q 2 = 3k 2 = q 2 = q 2 is divisible by 3 = q is divisible by 3,

which is a contradiction.

EXERCISE 2.5

2

Lets assume [3 + 2] 3 does represent a rational

lets call this

number. Further,

3

which in turn implies 2 = (q 11)

, which is a rational number. But we know

6

2

/ Q - a contradiction.

EXERCISE 3.3

This problem will be done in two parts.

Proof:

(a)(b) = ab

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(a)(0) = ab + (ab)

(6)

0 = ab + (ab),

(7)

Proof:

ac(c1 ) = bc(c1 )

1

a(cc

) = b(cc

a(1) = b(1)

(8)

(9)

(10)

Hence, a = b3

EXERCISE 3.6

a. Claim: |a + b + c| |a| + |b| + |c|

Proof: One iteration of the triangle inequality can be used to construct:

|a + b + c| = |(a + b) + c| |a + b| + |c| .

A second iteration of the triangle inequality yields:

|a + b| + |c| |a| + |b| + |c| ,

2 (1) used (i), (2) used (iii), (3) used DL, (4) used A2, (5) used A4, (7) reintroduced

(1) and the conclusion reused (i).

3 (8) was built from multiplying both sides of the equality by the same element to preserve

equality, (9) used M1 and (10) used M4.

as desired.

b. We want to show |a1 + a2 + + an | |a1 | + |a2 | + |an |

We will use the principal of mathematical induction to show the above is true.

Proof:

P1 is certainly true, since |a1 | = |a1 |, and thus will serve as our basis for induction. Our induction hypothesis is:

Assume an n R : Pn holds, i.e. Pn : |a1 + a2 + + an | |a1 |+|a2 |+ |an | .

Implementing the induction step and the triangle inequality yield:

|a1 + a2 + + an + an+1 | |a1 + a2 + + an | + |an+1 | .

The induction step and O4 yield:

|a1 + a2 + + an + an+1 | |a1 | + |a2 | + + |an | + |an+1 | ,

as desired.

This exercise is asking us to list three lower bounds for the set; if the set is not

bounded below, it will be labeled NOT BOUNDED BELOW or NBB. The

rule outlined in the text we will follow is Definition 4.2 (b):

If a real number m satisfies m s s S, then m is called a lower bound of S

and the set S is said to be bounded below.

a. S = [0, 1]; 1, 2 and 3 satisfy Definition 4.2 (b).

b. S = [0, 1); 1, 2 and 3 satisfy Definition 4.2 (b).

c. S = {2, 7}; 1, 2 and 3 satisfy Definition 4.2 (b).

d. S = {, e}; 1, 2 and 3 satisfy Definition 4.2 (b).

e. S =

1

n

: n N ; 1, 2 and 3 satisfy Definition 4.2 (b).

h. S =

i. S =

n=1

T 1

1

n=1 n , 1 + n ; 1, 2 and 3 satisfy Definition 4.2 (b).

j. S = 1

1

3n

n

k. S = n +

: n N ; 1, 2 and 3 satisfy Definition 4.2 (b).

(1)n

n

o

: n N ; 1, 2 and 3 satisfy Definition 4.2 (b).

S has an upper bound, but since there is no lower bound outlined, this set is

unbounded from below.

m. S = r Q : r2 < 4 ;

n. S = r Q : r2 < 2 ;

2 3

1 , 1

2 3

1 , 1

and

and

4

1

4

1

satisfy Definition 4.2 (b).

MINIMUM OF THE SET EXISTS.

This exercise is asking us to give the infima of each set S. The rule outlined in

the text we will follow is Definition 4.3 (b):

If S is bounded below and S has a greatest lower bound, then we will call it the

infimum of S and denote it by infS.

Additionally, we are asked to determine if the minimum of the set (denoted

minS) exists. Note that, unlike the minimum of the set S, infS need not belong

to the set S 5

a. S = [0, 1]; infS = minS = 0.

b. S = (0, 1); infS = 0, minS D.N.E.

c. S = {2, 7}; infS = minS = 2.

d. S = {, e}; infS = minS = e.

4 Page

5 Page

21, first paragraph below Definition 4.3, first sentence.

1

e. S =

: n N ; infS = 0, however, minS does not exist.

g. S = [0, 1] [2, 3]; infS = minS = 0.

h. S =

i. S =

n=1

T 1

1

n=1 n , 1 + n ; infS = 0, minS D.N.E.

j. S = 1

1

3n

n

k. S = n +

: n N ; infS = minS = 23 .

(1)n

n

o

: n N ; infS = minS = 0.

l. S = {r Q : r < 2}; both infS and minS do not exist since S is NBB.

m. S = r Q : r2 < 4 ; infS = 2, however, minS does not exist.

n. S = r Q : r2 < 2 ; infS = 2, however, minS does not exist.

EXERCISE 4.8

Let S and T be non-empty subsets of R, with s t s S and t T .

(a) Since it is given that s t s S and t T , we know that any element

of T will bound S from above, so supS. Conversely, since it is given that

s t s S and t T , we know that any element of S will bound T from

below, so infT .

(b) Claim:

supS infT

This will be done in two parts.

Proof :

Given s t t T , it follows that s is a lower bound for T . By definition, infT

is the greatest lower bound for T . Hence, s infT s S.

Since s infT s S, infT is an upper bound for S. It follows that since supS

is the least upper bound for S,

supS infT,

as desired.

(c) Let S = (0, 1] and T = [1, 2). It is readily observable that supS = infT . It

is also readily observable that

S T 6= .

(d) Let S = (0, 1) and T = (1, 2). It is readily observable that supS = infT . It

is also readily observable that

S T = .

EXERCISE 4.12

Claim:

Given a < b, x R \ Q : a < x < b.

Proof :

if r Q and if the number x = r + 2 Q, then 2 = x r would have

been Q, acontradiction. Now, due to the denseness

of Q in R, we find an

r Q : a 2 < r < b 2. Then we have x = r + 2 R \ Q and we have

a < x < b, as desired.

Let A and B be nonempty bounded subsets of R, and let S be the set of all

sums a + b where a A and b B.

Claim: supS = supA + supB.

Proof :

The information we are given is that A and B are both subsets of R which

are non-empty and bounded from above (since they are bounded, this implies

they are bounded from above and below ). Since both subsets A and B are both

non-empty and bounded from above, they both possess a least upper bound,

i.e., both supA and supB exist6 . If S is to be defined as the set whose elements

are all of the sums a + b, where a A and b B and we are given both A

and B bounded, we know S is bounded; more specifically bounded from below

and above. Hence, by the Completeness Axiom, S is bounded above and as a

consequence supS exists. If supS exists, then a number O R : r 0 r S

and whenever O1 < O, r1 O : r1 < O1 ..

6 Otherwise,

and there exists a number N R : t N t B; whenever M1 < M s1

A : s1 < M1 and whenever N1 < N t1 B : t1 < N1 .

As a consequence of the above identities, it is obvious that since S set of all

sums a + b where a A and b B, O M + N , and hence supS = supA +

supB, as desired.

EXERCISE 4.15

Claim:

Let a, b R. If a b +

1

n

n N, then a b.

Proof :

By contradiction. Assume a > b. This implies a b > 0. By the Archimedian

Property of R n N : a b > n1 . Using this specific n, we have a > b + n1 , a

contradiction, as desired.

EXERCISE 4.16

Claim: sup{r Q : r < a} = a for each a R.

Proof :

Let S {r Q : r < a}. From this, we can see that S is certainly bounded

from above, since we can chose any number a + n with n N and Definition

4.2 (b) will still be satisfied. Now by the denseness of Q in R, we know that7

if (a, b) R with a < b, then an r Q : a < r < b. So although we know

S is bounded and we can certainly povide many upper bounds for this set, if

we search for a least upper bound for this set, the search will go on indefinitely,

since whatever rational upper bound is discovered, it is always possible to find

one smaller. Thus, although a R, but a

/ S, this does not disqualify it from

being the supS. However, since the search for a least upper bound for S goes

on indefinitely due to the denseness of Q, by the definition of the supremum of

a set, sup{r Q : r < a} = a for each a R, as desired.

EXERCISE 7.3 (b), (d), (f ), (h), (j), (l), (n), (p), (r), (t)

(b) bn =

(d) tn =

n2 +3

n2 3

1 + n2

(f ) sn = (2)

1

n

converges to 1.

converges to 1.

converges to 1.

n

7 Proof

10

7n3 +8n

7

2n3 31 converges to 2 .

(l) sin n

diverges.

2

2n

(n) sin 3 diverges.

n

n+1

+5

= 2 2(2)+5

converges

(p) 22n 7

n 7

2

(r) 1 + n1 converges to 1.

6n+4

(t) 9n

2 +7 converges to 0.

(j)

to 2.

EXERCISE 8.4

If (sn ) is a sequence which converges to 0 and (tn ) is a bounded sequence, then

the sequence (sn tn ) converges to 0.

We will argue the fact that we are given a sequence (sn ) which converges to 0

so we know that

lim (sn ) = 0,

n

and we are given a sequence (tn ) which is a bounded sequence, so we know that

a constant M : |tn | M n N,

which means, in a geometric sense, that we can find an interval [M, M ] that

contains every term in the sequence tn .

With the above given, we can almost assuredly argue with what we know about

products that if one sequence which arbitrarily closes in on the value zero is

multiplied by another sequence which is bounded by a constant we can conclude that their product will eventually close in on the value zero since zero

a constant = zero (eventually).

Claim: Given (sn ), a sequence which converges to 0 and (tn ), a bounded sequence,

lim (sn tn ) 0.

n

Proof :

Let > 0 be given. Since we know limn sn 0, we can always find an

8

, for some constant M > 1. Further, a constant

n > N : |sn 0| < < M

M : |tn | M n N. Then, for n > N , it holds that

|sn tn 0| = |sn | |tn | <

(M ) = .

M

8 Proof

11

EXERCISE 8.7

Claim:

sn = cos

n

3

Proof :

For n = 1, 2, , 6, the terms of the sequence are 12 , 12 , 11 , 12 , 12 , 11 ,. . . .

Hence, for any s and any N , we can come up with n > N : sn = 1 =

sn+3 = 1 = |sn s| 1 or |sn+3 s| 1, by the triangle inequality, which

proves this sequence does not converge, as desired.

Claim:

Proof :

p

4n2 + n 2n =

4n2

n

1

= q

1

+ n + 2n

2 1 + 4n

+2

r

1

1

1 lim

1+

lim 1 +

= 1 + 0 = 1.

n

2n n

2n

Now, applying the limit theorems, we see that

lim

1

1

1

q

=

= ,

2

1

+

2

4

1

2 1 + 4n

+2

as desired.

12

EXERCISE 8.10

We are given s > a. Let limn sn = s.

Claim:

a number N : n > N = sn > a.

Proof :

s > a = there is an > 0 : s > a9 For such chosen N : n > N =

sn (s , s + ) = n > N = sn > s > a, as desired.

EXERCISE 9.4

qp

p

2 + 1,

2 + 1 + 1.

(b) Assume sn converges.

Claim: limn sn = 21 (1 +

5).

Proof :

We are given the assumption that sn converges. We will name some as

the element sn converges to. If sn converges, sn+1 inherently converges; more

specifically, sn+1 converges to , as well. From the problem, we have

2

(sn+1 ) = sn + 1,

which when utilized with the assumption laid out will converge to

()

2 10

= + 1 2 1 = 0.

yields

1+ 5

1 5

1 =

and 2 =

.

2

2

Since the greatest lower bound of the sequence sn is 1, the solution we want

to pick will reflect that the limit will trivially be positive, eliminating 2 as a

solution.

example := sa

.

2

this, we will use the fact that the limit of a product of sequences is the product of the

limits, i.e. if lim sn s and lim tn t, then lim(sn tn ) st.

b2 4ac

11 The quadratic formula, learned from principals, is x = b

.

2a

9 For

10 For

13

EXERCISE 9.5

Assume lim tn exists and is defined to be t. Then lim tn+1 = t as well. For all

n, we get 2tn tn+1 = t2n + 2. Implementing the limit theorems, we see that

2t2 = t2 + 2 = t = 2.

Since we aregiven t1 = 1 and the fact that the sequence

stays positive, we can

EXERCISE 9.11

(a) Show that if lim sn = + and inf{tn : n N} > , then lim (sn + tn ) =

+.

Let M > 0 and let m = inf {tn : n N}. We want sn + tn > M for n > N . This

will be sufficed by sn + m > M or sn > M m for n > N . So we will choose

an N : sn > M m for n > N . Let = M m. From the constraints above,

we see that 0 < . Since we can always find an N : sn > for n > N , we

can conclude that lim (sn + tn ) = +.

(b) Show that if lim sn = + and lim tn > , then lim (sn + tn ) = +.

If lim tn > , we can conclude that inf{tn : n N} exists. We can then use

the same argument as above by letting M > 0 and m = inf {tn : n N}. We

want sn +tn > M for n > N . This will be sufficed by sn +m > M or sn > M m

for n > N . So we will choose an N : sn > M m for n > N . Let = M m.

From the constraints above, we see that 0 < . Since we can always find

an N : sn > for n > N , we can conclude that lim (sn + tn ) = +.

(c) Show that if lim sn = + and if (tn ) is a bounded sequence, then lim (sn + tn ) =

+.

Let M > 0. If (tn ) is a bounded sequence, then a constant : |tn | n N,

which implies tn is bounded from above, but more importantly for this proof,

bounded from below by . We want sn + tn > M for n > N . This will be

sufficed by sn > M or sn > M + for n > N . So we will choose an

N : sn > M + for n > N . Let = M + . From the constraints above, we

see that 0 < . Since we can always find an N : sn > for n > N , we can

conclude that lim (sn + tn ) = +.

Choose a : L < a < 1. If = aL > 0, there exists an N : n N | sn+1

sn L|

sn+1

sn < L+ = a < 1. More specifically, |sN +1 | < a |sN | , |sN +2 | < a sN +1 <

a2 |sN | . . .. Thus, by induction, |sN +n | < an |sN | n N . To summarize,

lim |sn | = lim |sN +n | lim an |sN | = |sN | lim an = 0

14

EXERCISE 9.15

Let sn =

an

n!

sn+1

sn

a

(n+1)

0 as n = lim sn = 0

n

1

(b) (1)

n2 . The first term, 1, is less than the second term, 4 . Hence, the

sequence is not nonincreasing. The second term is greater

than

the

third term,

(1)n 2

1

1 n

9 . Hence, the sequence is not nondecreasing. Since n2 = n

N, the sequence is bounded.

(d) sin n

7 . The first term is positive, however, the 7th term is 0 = the

sequence is not nondecreasing. The second term is greater than the first term

and hence the sequence is not nonincreasing. Since |sin x| 1 x, the sequence

is bounded.

(f ) 3nn . The sequence is nonincreasing since aan+1

n

the sequence is bounded from below and since the sequence is nonincreasing, it

is bounded from above = the sequence is bounded.

EXERCISE 10.2

Claim:

All bounded monotone sequences converge.

Proof :

Let (sn ) be a bounded nonincreasing sequence. Let S be defined as the set

{sn : n N} and let v = inf S. S bounded = v exists and is real. We will

now show that lim sn = u. Let > 0. Since v + is not an upper bound for S,

N : sN < v + . Since sn is nonincreasing, = sN sn n > N . sn v n

and hence, n > N = v + > sn v = |sn v| < = lim sn = v, as

desired.

EXERCISE 10.5

Claim: If (sn ) is an unbounded non-increasing sequence, then lim sn = .

We want to show that

lim sn = for each M < 0 a number N : n > N = sn < M.

15

Proof :

Let (sn ) be an unbounded non-decreasing sequence. Let M < 0. Since the set

{sn : n N} is unbounded and it is bounded above by s1 , it must be unbounded

below, since for this sequence to be non-increasing, the condition sn sn+1 must

be fulfiilled. Hence, for some N N we have sN < M . Clearly, n > N =

M > sN sn , so

lim sn = ,

as desired.

EXERCISE 10.6

(a) Let (sn ) be a sequence such that

|sn+1 sn | < 2n n N

Claim: (sn ) is a Cauchy sequence and hence a convergent sequence.

Proof :

Given an arbitrary > 0, for n > N , choose N : 2N < 2 . Then m > n > N ,

we can see that

m1

X

sk+1 sk .

|sm sn |

k=n

Now,

m1

m1

m1

X

X

X

sk+1 sk

|sk+1 sk |

2k

k=n

k=n

(11)

k=n

*Note: The second inequality from line (1) is justified by Let (sn ) be a sequence

such that |sn+1 sn | < 2n n N in the first line of the problem.

m1

X

k=n

2k

2k = 2N +1 < ,

(12)

k=N

as desired.

(b) Is the result in (a) true if we only assume that |sn+1 sn | <

1

n

n N?

say that

the new constraint makes the result in (a) false, since the harmonic

P

series, n=1 n1 , is taken to be divergent.

P

1

As a counter-example, let us choose sn =

n=2 n1 , which will still fulfill

|sn+1 sn | n1 , but will inevitably diverge. Thus, as we travel down the sequence (N ), arbitrary sm s and sn s are not encroaching towards eachother,

violating the Cauchy criterion.

16

EXERCISE 10.7

Choose n N. Construct sn S : sup S sn < n1 and sn > sn1 for n > 1 =

sn an increasing sequence converging to sup S.

Pick s1 S : sup S 1 < sup S is not an upper bound of S. Implement induction. Assume s1 < < sn1 exists. Since sup S

/ S = sn1 < sup S =

sn S : sup S sn > sn1 and sup S sn < n1 . This is possible given that

neither sn1 < sup S nor sup S n1 < sup S is an upper bound for S.

EXERCISE 10.8

Let (sn ) be a non-decreasing sequence of positive numbers and define

n =

1

(s1 + s2 + + sn )

n

Proof :

From the assumption of sn being a non-decreasing sequence, we will proclaim

sn sn+1

Hence,

nsn nsn+1

= (s1 + s2 + sn ) nsn n(sn+1 )

(13)

(14)

(15)

= (n + 1)(s1 + s2 + sn ) n(s1 + s2 + sn + sn+1 ) (16)

1

1

= (s1 + s2 + sn )

(s1 + s2 + sn + sn+1 ),

n

n+1

(17)

Thus,

n n+1 ,

as desired.

EXERCISE 11.8

(a) Use Definition 10.6 and Exercise 5.4 to prove that lim inf sn = lim sup(sn ).

It is readily observable that

lim sup(sn ) = lim sup {(sn ) : n > N } = lim inf {(sn ) : n > N } = lim inf(sn ).

N

17

Hence,

lim sup(sn ) = lim inf(sn ) lim inf(sn ) = lim sup(sn ),

as desired.

(b) Let (tk ) be a monotonic subsequence of (sn ) converging to lim sup(sn ).

Show that (tk ) is a monotonic subsequence of (sn ) converging to lim inf sn .

Observe that this completes the proof of Corollary 11.4.

We are given a monotonic subsequence of (sn ), denoted (tk ). Then

tk = snk k, (tk monotonic) tk = snk k, (tk monotonic).

When taken with the results from part (a), the desired result is apparent.

EXERCISE 11.9

(a) Let (xn ) be a convergent sequence such that a xn b n N =

a limn xn b = [a, b] is a closed set.

(b) No. We know that the set of any subsequential limits of any set mus be

closed. The interval (0, 1) is not closed.

EXERCISE 11.10

Let (sn ) be the sequence of numbers in Figure 11.2 listed in the indicated order.

(a) Find the set S of subsequential limits of (sn ).

Laying out the numbers listed in the indicated order gives the sequence

1

1 1 1 1 1

1, , 1, 1, , , , , , 1, 1, ...

2

2 3 4 3 2

Rearranging,

1/1,

1/2,

1/1,

1/4,

1/1,

1/6,

1/1,

1/8,

1/1,

1/2,

1/3,

1/2,

1/5,

1/2,

1/7,

1/3,

1/2,

1/3,

1/4,

1/3,

1/6,

1/1,

1/4,

1/3,

1/4,

1/5,

1/5,

1/2, 1/1,

1/5, 1/6, 1/7,

1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 1/1,

It seems that 2 sequences, both monotonic, one increasing the other decreasing. The even rows of the pyramid represent a monotonically increasing sequence and the odd rows correspond to a monotonically decreasing sequence.

Upon further inspection, we see that with respect to the decreasing sequences,

18

the denominator of the last entry corresponds to the row number of the pyramid

for which the decreasing sequence is located, i.e., the last entry of row 3 has

1

3 as its last entry. Conversely, with respect to the increasing sequences, the

denominator of the entry for which the increasing sequence commences corresponds to the row number of the pyramid for which the increasing sequence is

located, i.e., the first entry of row 6 is 16 . Since the odd rows all commence at

1

1

1 and progressively converge to n , we can say that one subsequential limit is

0. Conversely, since the even rows all seem to converge to 1 from a fraction

progressively closer to n1 , we could say the other subsquential limit is 1.

Hence the set of subsequential limits is

[n o

1

S=

0

:nN

n

EXERCISE 12.1

Let (sn ) and (tn ) be sequences and suppose that there exists N0 : sn tn n >

N0 .

Claim:

lim inf sn lim inf tn and lim sup sn lim sup tn .

Proof :

Refer to Exercise 4.8 (b). From there, we see that

sup {sn : n > N } inf {tn : n > N } N N0 =

lim sup {sn : n > N } lim inf {tn : n > N }

()

Since

lim inf(sn ) lim sup(sn ) and

lim inf(tn ) lim sup(tn ),

the desired inequalities are obtained implementing (*), as desired.

19

EXERCISE 12.2

Prove that lim sup |sn | = 0 if and only if lim sn = 0.

We will use Theorem 11.7 throughout this proof.

Proof :

= :

limsn = 0 lim|sn | = 0 lim supsn = 0.12

= :

lim sup |sn | = 0 lim inf |sn | = 0, since |sn | 0.

As N , lim sup |sn | lim sn , since Theorem 11.7 tells us that lim sup |sn |

is exactly the largest subsequential limit of sn . Hence,

lim sup |sn | = 0 lim sn = 0,

as desired.

EXERCISE 12.3

(a) lim inf sn + lim inf tn = 0 + 0 = 0

(b) lim inf(sn + tn ) = 1

(c) lim inf sm + lim sup tn = 0 + 2 = 2

(d) lim sup(sn + tn ) = 3

(e) lim sup sn + lim sup tn = 2 + 2 = 4

(f ) lim inf sn tn = 0

(g) lim sup sn tn = 2

EXERCISE 12.4

Claim:

lim sup(sn + tn ) lim sup sn + lim sup tn for bounded (sn ) and (tn ).

Proof :

For any n > N ,

sn + tn sup {sn : n > N } + sup {tn : n > N } =

sup {(sn + tn ) : n > N } sup {sn : n > N } + sup {tn : n > N } .

12 By

Theorem 11.7.

20

Hence,

lim sup {(sn + tn ) : n > N } lim (sup {sn : n > N } + sup {tn : n > N })

N

sup {sn : n > N } N =N0 and sup {tn : n > N } N =N0

are both convergent and monotonic, as desired.

EXERCISE 12.8

Let (sn ) and (tn ) be bounded sequences of nonnegative numbers. Prove that

lim sup sn tn (lim sup sn )(lim sup tn ).

Give an example where the strict inequality holds.

Claim:

lim sup sn tn (lim sup sn )(lim sup tn ).

Proof :

Since sn and tn are both bounded sequences of nonnegative numbers,

sn sup {sn : n > N } n N

and

tn sup {tn : n > N } n N,

by definition. This implies

(sn )(tn ) (sup {sn : n > N })(sup {tn : n > N }) n N,

by multiplicativity and since, once again, sn and tn are both bounded and

nonnegative. Now since the right hand side of the inequality serves as an upper

bound for the left hand side,

sup {sn tn : n > N } (sup {sn : n > N })(sup {tn : n > N }) n N

If sn and tn are both sequences which converge to s and t with sn tn n N,

we can take limits and conclude

lim sup sn tn (lim sup sn )(lim sup tn ),

as desired.

21

An example where the strict inequality would hold would be the case when sn

and tn both converge to s and t, respectively, but sn < tn n N.

EXERCISE 12.10

Claim:

(sn ) is bounded lim sup |sn | < +

Proof :

lim sup = + = a subsequence (snk ) : lim |snk | = + = this subsequence

is unbounded. Conversely, (sn ) unbounded = for any k N snk : |snk | > k.

Assume that n1 < n2 < < nk < and thus get a subsequence (snk ) :

lim |snk | = +, i.e., lim sup |sn | = +.

EXERCISE 12.11

Claim:

sn+1

1

lim inf |sn | n

lim inf

sn

Proof :

1

Let = lim inf |sn | n . Let L = lim inf sn+1

sn . We need to show that L for

any L1 < L.

sn+1

sn+1

= lim inf

:n>N

> L1

L = lim inf

sn n

sn

sn+1

: n N > L1

= N N : inf

sn

sn+1

> L1

= n N we have

sn

It then follows that

|sn | > LnN

|sn | , n > N

1

N

n

|sn | > L1 L1 |sn | , n > N

| {z }

=

|sn | >

Ln1 ,

n > N = |sn |

1

n

> L1 n , n > N

1

22

Let B be the set of all bounded sequences x = (x1 , x2 , ...) and define d(x, y) =

sup {|xj yj | : j = 1, 2, ...}.

Show that d is a metric for B.

To show that d is indeed a metric for B, we need to show that it satisfies the

three conditions of Definition 13.1. As we will see the first 2 conditions are

trivial.

D1. d(x, x) = 0, since sup {|xj xj | : j = 1, 2, ...} = sup {0} = 0, and

d(x, y) > 0, since for bounded sequences x = (x1 , x2 , ...) and y = (y1 , y2 , ...),

sup {|xj yj | : j = 1, 2, ...} > 0.

D2. d(x, y) = sup {|xj yj | : j = 1, 2, ...} = sup {|yj xj | : j = 1, 2, ...} =

d(y, x).

D3. If x, y, z B, then for each j = 1, 2, ..., k,

d(x, z) = sup {|xj zj | : j = 1, 2, ...}

(18)

(19)

(20)

(21)

(22)

where the inequality follows from the triangle inequality and the nature of the

supremum. Hence d is a metric.

EXERCISE 13.6

We will prove each part of Proposition 13.9 in turn.

(a) Claim:

The set E is closed if and only if E = E .

Proof :

=

Assume E is closed = E is a closed set containing E = the intersection of

all closed sets containing E E = E = E.

=

Assume E = E. By definition, E is a closed set since any intersection of closed

sets is closed (by Definition 13.8). E closed set = E is closed.

23

(b) Claim:

The set E is closed if and only if it contains the limit of every convergent

sequence of points in E.

Proof :

Assume E is closed and for purposes of contradiction, assume the limit of every

convergent sequence of points

/ E = a convergent sequence of points

E = for some arbitrary limit point in E some -ball around the limit point

such that all points are inside the ball. But, it then becomes a problem (a

contradiction) to have a sequence from E converge to its limit point if for some

there does not exist elements of E contained in such a ball. Hence, all limit

points of E must be contained in E E, as desired.

(c) Claim:

An element is in E if and only if it is the limit of some sequence of points in

E.

Proof :

=

Let x E be arbitrary. If this x is not the limit point = some -ball

around this x: x is the only element of E in this ball = E o is not the interior

of E because any (s 6= x S) the aforementioned -ball is not contained in

E o , which is a contradiction. Now if x E \ E o = we can create a similar

-ball around x: some of the interior of E is missing, another contradiction =

any such point in E is a limit point.

=

see part (b) above, as desired, lol.

(d) Claim:

A point is in the boundary of E if and only if it belongs to the closure of both

E and its complement.

Proof :

Let E E o = S \ E closed = S \ E contains its boundary = any s

boundary of S \ E must also be in the boundary of E, otherwise either some

x: x is neither E or S \ E, or x both E and S \ E, which both contradict

S \ E E c . Let E E = S \ E is open = S \ E does not contain its

boundary = any s boundary of S \ E must also be the boundary of E

and E = S \ E E c , as desired.

24

We will verify each assertion step by step.

1. In Rk , open balls {x : d(x, x0 ) < r} are open sets. We can verify this by

showing that every point in the set is interior to the set. Choose an arbitrary x1

1|

,

in the set. Then |x0 |+r represents the boundary. We can then take (|x0 |+r)|x

2

which represents the distance between the boundary and x1 , but divided by 2.

Hence all of the points in the set are interior to the set.

2. In Rk , closed balls {x : d(x, x0 ) r} are closed sets. We want to show that

the complement of closed balls are by definition open sets = closed balls are

closed sets. WLOG define our closed ball to be

B (0) := {x : d(x, 0) } ,

WLOG, define the complement of the closed ball by

B (0) := {x : d(x, 0) > } .

To show the complement is open, let be arbitrary. Define := the magnitude

of - . Define a new 0 -ball, with radius:= 2 . All points in this new ball are

contained in the complement of our closed ball.

3. The boundary of each of these sets is

{x : d(x, x0 ) = r}

The boundary of each of these sets is the boundary of the ball with radius r.

By Proposition 13.9 (d),

A point is in the boundary of E if and only if it belongs to the closure

of both E and its complement.

Consider the neighborhood of this set

{x : d(x, x0 ) < r} = (x r, x + r).

whose closure, the intersection of all closed sets containing (x r, x + r), is

[x r, x + r]. The complement of {x : d(x, x0 ) < r} is defined to be {x : d(x, x0 ) r}.

Hence,

[x r, x + r] {x : d(x, x0 ) r} = {x : d(x, x0 ) = r} .

Assertion 1

{(x1 , x2 ) : x1 > 0} is open.

Discussion: Noting that any element in this set is, by definition, interior to it,

we see this is an open set.

25

Assertion 2

{(x1 , x2 ) : x1 > 0 and x2 > 0} is open.

Discussion: Once, again, noting the strict inequalties, this defines an open set.

Conversely, if non-strict inequalities, i.e., >, we can note that the set will

include its limit points, hence closing the set.

Assertion 3

{(x1 , x2 ) : x1 > 0 and x2 0} is neither open nor closed.

Discussion: This set fails to be open or closed. As counterexamples, consider

(1, 0) which is not interior to this set and (0, 0), which is a limit point, but is

not the set.

EXERCISE 13.10

(a) We want to show that the interior of the set

Claim:

int

1

:nN

n

1

n

: n N = .

=

Proof :

Define a neighborhood in this set as:

1

1

1

.

n+1

n

n1

Now define an -ball with radius

r=

1

n

1

n+1

This makes -balls around an arbitrary element in the set such that only the

arbitrary element is contained in the ball, as desired.

(b) Using the fact that Q contains gaps,13 we want to show that

int(Q) =

Proof :

Let q Q and r > 0 be arbitrary. Consider the neighborhood

{s R : |s q| < r} = (s r, s + r)

13 This

26

z (s r, s + r) = the neighborhood (s r, s + r) is not contained in Q.

But s was given as arbitrary = q cannot be defined as an interior point. But

q was given as arbitrary = interior of Q = , as desired.

(c) Claim:

The interior of the Cantor set is empty.

Proof:

By the definition of the Cantor Set outlined in the text, the Cantor Set the

intersection of closed sets = the Cantor Set is closed. Now define the different

articulations (labeled Tn ) of the Cantor Set as follows:

1 2

,

, ..., T 15 = of all Tn

T0 = [0, 1], T1 = [0, 1] \

3 3

Recalling the above, T is closed = T T , the closure of the Cantor Set.

Now,

c

int(T ) = T

c

c

= [0, 1] \ T =

and note that we are still in the metric space [0, 1]. Thus, T

c

T = ([0, 1] \ T ) {x [0, 1] : x is a limit point of [0, 1] \ T }. Since T

{x [0, 1] : x is a limit point of [0, 1] \ T } [0, 1], we know

c = ([0, 1] \ T ) T

T

[0, 1].

In other words, the closure of the Cantor Set is T0 , the interval from 0 to 1.

Hence,

c c [0, 1]c ,

int(T ) = T

as desired.

EXERCISE 13.12

(a) Let (S, d) be any metric space.

Claim:

If E is a closed subset of a compact set F , then E is also compact.

Proof :

Let E be a closed subset of a compact set F . Let a collection of open sets U be

an open cover for E. E closed = E c open. Now, E c + U an open cover of

F . Given F compact, a finite subcover that covers F . Now given E F and

F covered by some finite subcover, E compact.

14 For every real numbers x and y, with x < y, a rational and an irrational such that

x < < y and x < < y.

15 T

THE Cantor Set

27

Claim:

The finite union of compact sets S is compact.

Proof :

Let C1 , C2 , ..., Cn : n < be compact sets, each with a finite subcover Si : i =

1, 2, ..., n. Since each Si is the union of open sets and contains finite open sets, it

is open. Now consider the union of all of these finite subcovers (S1 S2 Sn ),

which trivially covers the union of C1 , C2 , ..., Cn . The union of all of these finite

subcovers (S1 S2 Sn ) is, by definition, open, since it is the union of

open sets and further, it is a finite collection of open covers, since it is a union

of finitely many finite subcovers. Hence, since a finite subcover of the union

of C1 , C2 , ..., Cn = the union of C1 , C2 , ..., Cn compact.

EXERCISE 13.13

We will show that inf E belongs to E and the case for the sup E is similar.

Claim: If E is a nonempty subset of R, then inf E E.

Proof :

Assume, by contradiction, that inf E

/ E. Since E is nonempty and compact,

we know, by the Heine-Borel Theorem, that a subset E of Rk is compact if and

only if it is closed and bounded. Since E is closed and bounded, a sequence

(sn ) in E where inf E = lim sn = sup E. Furthermore, if the set E is closed,

this implies that it contains the limit of every covergent sequence of points in

E, including inf E, a contradiction.

Proof :

Assume, by contradiction, that sup E

/ E. Since E is nonempty and compact,

we know, by the Heine-Borel Theorem, that a subset E of Rk is compact if and

only if it is closed and bounded. Since E is closed and bounded, a sequence

(sn ) in E where inf E = lim sn = sup E. Furthermore, if the set E is closed,

this implies that it contains the limit of every covergent sequence of points in

E, including sup E, a contradiction.

Alternatively, both of these proofs can be combined into one proof.

Assume E is a compact subset of R. We know, by the Heine-Borel theorem E is

closed and bounded. Call Lu and Gl the least upper and greatest lower bound,

respectively. Then we know Lu supE and Gl infE. Now consider the sequences Lu n1 and Gl + n1 which are clearly E. Furthermore, limLu n1 = Lu

and limGl + n1 = Gl . E closed = Lu , Gl E. But then by the definition of

28

EXERCISE 14.2

P n1

P n

P 1

P1 P 1

P1

16

(a)

n2 =

n2

n2 =

n

n2 . Since

n diverges, the entire

series diverges.

P

(b) The series (1)n fails to converge because it doesnt satisfy the Cauchy

criterion17 . In other words, the terms of the sequence an do not arbitrarily grow

closer to eachother as n .

P 1

P 3n P 3

(c)

n3 =

n2 = 3

n2 , which we know is 3 times a convergent series, thus

the series converges.

3

series converges by the Ratio Test.

(n+1)3 3n

3n+1 n3 ,

so lim|an+1 /an | =

1

3.

Hence the

n!

(e) If an = nn! , then an+1 /an = (n+1)

(n+1)!n2 , so lim|an+1 /an | = 0. Hence the series

converges by the Ratio Test.

n

1

(f ) If an = n1n = n1 , then lim sup|an | n = 0. Hence the series converges by

the Root Test.

converges by the Ratio Test.

(n+1)2n

2n+1 n ,

EXERCISE 14.4

(a) We will use induction and the Comparison Test to show that the series

1

2

n=2

[n + (1)n ]

converges.

To accomplish this task we need to show

n + (1)n

so that

1

2

n=2

[n + (1)n ]

1

n,

2

X

X

4

1

=

4

,

2

2

n

n

n=2

n=2

since, by the Comparison Test, this would show the series is convergent.

16 This single series has been split into 2 seperate series.

The rule I am following is that the sum of two series will converge is both of the sums converge. Hence

the series will diverge, if we can show that one of the sums diverges.

Reference:

http://www.sosmath.com/calculus/series/examples/examples.html

17 Proof ommitted, as it wasnt required.

29

basis.

1

2 + (1)2 (2) = 3 1,

2

which is trivial.

Let us now implement the induction step, n + 1, and show the inequality still

holds.

1

(n + 1)

2

1

1

n + 1 + (1)n (1) n +

2

2

1

1

n

n + 1 (1) n +

2

2

1

1

n

n + (1) 0

2

2

1

1

n + (1)n ,

2

2

(n + 1) + (1)n+1

(23)

(24)

(25)

(26)

(27)

1

n

2

2

1

2

(n + (1)n )

n

2

4

1

1

2 1 2 = n 2

n

(n + (1) )

2n

X

X 4

X

1

1

=

4

,

2

2

n ]2

n

n

[n

+

(1)

n=2

n=2

n=2

n + (1)n

(28)

(29)

(30)

(31)

as desired.

(b) Since

X

n+1

X

n =

X

X 1

1

1

1 X 1

=

,

n

n+1+ n

2 n+1

2 2n

2 2

(c) We will show the series

X n!

nn

18 A

p 1.

1

.

np

30

an+1

< 1.

lim

an

n

an+1

(n + 1)!

n!(n + 1)nn

nn

n

nn

.

= lim

lim

= lim

= lim

= lim

n+1

n

n

an

(n + 1)

n!

(n + 1) (n + 1)n!

(n + 1)

n+1

Since

n

n + 1 n

1

lim

= lim 1 + n = e,

n

n

n

= 1 < 1.

lim

n+1

e

Hence, the series converges by the Ratio Test.

P

We want to show that if we have a known convergent series

an and raise it

to a power p > 1, it will simply converge quicker. An example would be the

convergent p-series. We know that

X 1

np

converges for values of p > 1. Now if the series is further raised by a power of

p > 1 the original p will be even greater, and thus wll still be convergent.

Claim:

P

P

an := convergent and an 0 n N = (an )p converges.

Proof :

If we know that

X

X

(an )p < an p > 1 and n N =

(an )p <

an p > 1 and n N.

P

Hence, (an )p converges by the Comparison Test, as desired.

31

EXERCISE 14.10

Consider this series:

2(1)

+n

n=0

EXERCISE 15.4

Determine which of the following series converge.

P

1

n for large n = 1n < log1 n = n1 <

(a)

n=2 n log n . Since log n <

P

P

1

1

1

=

n=2 n <

n=2 n log n , and hence is divergent by comparison

n log n

with the harmonic series.

P

(b) n=2 logn n . This problem trivially diverges when compared19 to the harmonic series for values of n > 1.

R

P

1

1

(c) n=4 n(log n)(log

log n) . Implement the integral Test. n=4 n(log n)(log log n) dn

can be evaluated with a substitution. Let u = log log n. The integral now

becomes

Z log log

h

ilog log

1

du = log u

= log log log log log log 4 = ,

u

log log 4

log log 4

hence the series diverges by the integral test.

P

(log n+1)

n

log n

(d) n=2 log

, so implementing the integral

n2 . The integral of n2 is

n

test yields:

n

log n

1

log 2 1

(log x + 1)

+

+ ,

lim

=

n

x

n

n

2

2

2

log 2

2

1

2

which converges to

converges to an existent finite number, the series converges.

EXERCISE 15.6

(a) A divergent series

an for which

X

1

.

n

n=1

P

P 2

(b) If

an is a convergent series of nonnegative terms, then

an also converges. This can be shown with a similar method as the proof done in Problem

No. 3.

19 Note:

32

Claim:

P

P

an := convergent and an 0 n N = (an )2 converges.

Proof :

If we know that

(an )2 < an n N =

(an )2 <

an n N.

P

Hence, (an )2 converges by the Comparison Test, as desired.

(c) Consider this series:

X

(1)n

.

n

n=1

EXERCISE 17.5

(a) We will use induction to prove f (x) = xm is continuous. This will be done

by first showing that when m = 1 we are dealing with f (x) = x, which will

be taken as continuous (proof is provided in the Appendix). Then by assuming

that f (x) = xm is continuous for some m N, we will show our induction

step, f (x) = xm+1 is continuous, by noting that f (x) = xm+1 = xm x is hence

continuous given Theorem 17.4 (ii), which will then imply that f (x) = xm is

continuous for m N.

Claim:

If m N, then the function f (x) = xm is continuous on R.

Proof :

This proof will use mathematical induction. For m = 1, f (x) = x, which

will be taken as continuous (proof provided in the Appendix). f (x) = x will

then serve as our induction basis. We can now assume our induction hypothesis,

f (x) = xm is continuous. But we need to show continuity holds for the induction

step, m + 1. But we know f(x) = xm+1 xm x, which is the product of two

continuous functions, our inductions hypothesis, and our induction basis, and

is hence continuous by Theorem 17.4 (ii).

(b) Claim:

Every polynomial function p(x) = a0 + a1 x + + an xn is continuous on R.

Proof :

Given the solution from part (a), p(x) is simply the sum and product of continuous functions and is hence continuous, by Theorem 17.4 (i) and Theorem

17.3, as desired.

33

EXERCISE 17.6

Claim:

Every rational function is continuous.

Proof :

A rational function is composed of constants, f (x) = c and the continuous function f (x) = x by multiplication, addition and division. Since f (x) = x and

f (x) = c are trivially continuous = rational functions are continuous by the

continuity theorems of sums, products and quotients of continuous functions, as

desired.

Claim:

|x| is a continuous function on R.

Proof :

|x| is continuous at any x0 since it coincides with x for x > 0 and x for x < 0.

At x = 0, the function f (x) = |x| is continuous because for any > 0 we have:

|x 0| < = |f (x) f (0)| = |x| < .

EXERCISE 17.8

(a) Claim:

min(f, g) =

1

1

(f + g) |f g|

2

2

Proof :

Case 1 : Let f (x) g(x). Then

1

(f + g)

2

1

= (f + g)

2

1

(g f )

2

1

|f g|

2

1

(f + g)

2

1

= (f + g)

2

1

(f g)

2

1

|f g| .

2

min(f, g) = f (x) =

(32)

(33)

min(f, g) = g(x) =

Hence,

min(f, g) =

1

1

(f + g) |f g| ,

2

2

as desired.

34

(34)

(35)

(b) Claim:

min (f, g) = max (f, g)

Proof :

Case 1 : Let f (x) g(x) = f (x) g(x)

= min (f, g) = f (x) = (f (x)) = max(f, g)

Case 2 : Let f (x) g(x) = f (x) g(x)

= min (f, g) = g(x) = (g(x)) = max(f, g).

Hence,

min (f, g) = max (f, g) ,

as desired.

(c) Claim:

f and g continuous at x0 R = min(f, g) is continuous at x0

Proof :

Recall Theorems 17.3 and 17.4 (i):

Theorem 17.3: Let f be a real-valued function with dom(f ) R.

If f is continuous at x0 in dom(f ), then |f | and kf , k R, are

continuous at x0 .

Theorem 17.4 (i): Let f and g be real-valued functions that are

continuous at x0 R. Then f + g is continuous at x0 .

In combination with the results from part (a), i.e.,

min(f, g) =

1

1

(f + g) |f g| ,

2

2

we see that min(f, g) is simply the sum, difference and composition of functions

which are continuous at x0 , and hence is itself continuous at x0 , as desired. .

EXERCISE 17.9

(a) Claim:

f (x) = x2 is continuous at x0 = 2

Proof :

Let > 0 be given. We want to show that |x2 4| < provided |x 2| is

sufficiently small, i.e., less than some . We observe that |x2 4| = |(x + 2)(x

2)| |x + 2| |x 2|. We need to get a bound for |x 2| that doesnt depend

on x. We notice that if |x 2| < 1,say, then |x + 2| < 5, so it suffices to get

|x 2| 5 < . So by setting = min 1, 5 , we see that f (x) = x2 is continuous

at x0 = 2, as desired.

35

(b) Claim:

f (x) =

x is continuous at x0 = 0

Proof :

|x

0|

is sufficiently small, i.e., less than some . We observe that | x 0| = x.

2

Since

we

want this to be less than , we set = . Then |x 0| < implies

x < = , so

|x 0| < = |f (x) f (0)| < ,

as desired.

(c) Claim:

f (x) = xsin

1

for x 6= 0 and f (0) = 0 is continuous at x0 = 0

x

Proof :

Let > 0 be given. We want to show that |xsin x1 0| < provided

|x 0|

is sufficiently small, i.e., less than some . We see that |xsin x1 0| x x.

Since we want this to be less than , we set = . Then |x 0| < implies

x < = , so

1

|x 0| < = xsin

0 < ,

x

as desired.

(d) Claim:

g(x) = x3 is continuous at x0 arbitrary

Proof :

By the hint given,

x3 x30 = (x x0 )(x2 + x0 x + x20 ) = (x x0 ) (x2 x0 )2 + 3xx0 )

and we know that

|x| = |x x0 + x0 | |x x0 | + |x0 |,

by the triangle inequality. Hence,

|g(x) g(x0 )| = |x3 x30 | |x x0 |(|x x0 |2 + 3|x x0 ||x0 | + 3x20 ).

Now let > 0 be given. We show that a = (x0 , ) > 0 such that

|x x0 | < = |g(x) g(x0 )| < .

36

Let = min 1, 3 , g|x0|+1 , gx2+1 . Then |x x0 | < implies

0

+ 3|x0 |

+ 3x20

,

2

g|x0 | + 1

g|x0 |2 + 1

+ + = ,

3 3 3

as desired. .

Alternatively,

Assume g(x) = x2 , x0 arbitrary. Observe that (x3 x30 ) = (xx0 )(x2 +x0 x+x20 ).

Now we will make the assumption that |x x0 | < 1 = |x| < |x0 | + 1, which

enables us to see

|x2 + x0 x + x20 | |x2 | + |x0 x| + |x20 | < |x0 |2 + 2|x0 | + 1 + |x0 | ||x0 | + 1| + |x20 | k,

where the material to the right of the last inequality is all greater than 0.

We can then set = min 1, k . Hence,

|xx0 | < = |g(x)g(x0 )| = |(xx0 )(x2 +x0 x+x20 )| < |xx0 ||k| <

k = ,

k

as desired.

EXERCISE 17.12

(a) Let f be a continuous real-valued function with domain (a, b).

Claim:

If f (r) = 0 for each rational number r (a.b), then f (x) = 0 x (a.b).

Proof :

We are given f (x) = 0 x Q. If x R \ Q, then a sequence of rational

numbers, (rn ), which converges to x. Hence, by continuity, rn x = f (rn )

f (x). But f (rn ) = 0 n, given the conditions in the claim, so 0 f (x) =

f (x) = 0 x (a, b), as desired.

(b) Let f and g be continuous real-valued functions on (a, b) : f (r) = g(r) for

each rational number r (a, b).

Claim:

f (x) = g(x) x (a, b).

Proof :

Using the limit concept of sequences, for any x (a, b) a sequence of rational

numbers, (rn ) : limfn = x = f (x) = limf (rn ) = limg(rn ) = g(x).

20

37

Let h(x) = x x Q and h(x) = 0 x R \ Q.

Claim:

h is continuous at x = 0 and no other point.

Proof :

For any > 0, if |x 0| < , then |h(x) h(0)| is either 0 (if x is R \ Q) or |x|

(if x Q, and thus in both cases < ). Thus h is continuous at x = 0. other

x, consider two sequences with limit x, one (rn ) Q, and another, (xn ) R \ Q.

Then lim h(xn ) = 0 and lim h(rn ) = x 6= 0. Hence, disconituity for h at x 6= 0,

as desired.

EXERCISE 17.14

Claim:

f is continuous at each point of R \ Q and discontinuous at each point of Q.

Proof :

For x = pq Q, define a sequence xn R\Q : lim xn = x = lim f (xn ) = 0, but

f (x) = 1q 6= 0 = f is discontinuous at x. For an irrational x and any > 0, let

> 0 be defined as the distance from x to the closest irreducible fraction pq with

denominator q 1 . Then for any x0 : |x0 x| < = |f (x0 ) f (x)| < 0 = f

continuous at x R \ Q, as desired.

EXERCISE 18.2

The limit x0 (or y0 ) of the subsequence xnk (a, b) (or ynk (a, b)) may be

an endpoint a or b of the interval and thus lie outside of the domain of the

function.)

38

EXERCISE 18.4

Let S R and suppose there exists a sequence (xn ) in S that converges to a

number x0

/ S.

Claim:

an unbounded continuous finction on S.

Proof :

Let x0

/ S. We are given a sequence (xn ) S which converges to x0 . Then

|xn x0 | := the distance to x0 is continuous and strictly positive on S. Define

1

= f is well-defined and continuous on S = limn f = , as

f := |xn x

0|

desired.

EXERCISE 18.6

Claim:

x = cos x for some x 0, 2 .

Proof :

We know f (x) = xcos x is continuous 0, 2 , < 0 at x = 0 and > 0 at x = 2 .

Implement the Intermediate Value Theorem. Hence, an x 0, 2 : f (x) = 0,

as desired.

EXERCISE 18.8

Suppose that f is a real-valued function continuous on R and that f (a)f (b) < 0

for some a, b R.

Before commencing, we will state the properties that

0 a = 0 a Z

and

a b < 0 a < 0, b > 0 or a > 0, b < 0 a, b Z

Claim:

an x between a and b : f (x) = 0.

Proof :

Given f (a)f (b) < 0, either

Case 1 : f (a) < 0 = f (b) > 0 = f (a) < 0 < f (b), or

Case 2 : f (a) > 0 = f (b) < 0 = f (b) < 0 < f (a).

In either case, the Intermediate Value Theorem tells us that x (a, b) : f (x) =

0, as desired.

39

EXERCISE 18.10

Suppose that f is continuous on [0, 2] and f (0) = 2.

Claim:

x, y [0, 2] : |x y| = 1 and f (x) = f (y).

Proof :

Let g(x) = f (x + 1) f (x) = g is continuous on [0, 1] and g(0) = f (1)

f (0) = f (1) f (2) = g(1). Implement the Intermediate Value Theorem.

x [0, 1] : g(x) = 0, as desired.

EXERCISE 19.2

(a) Claim:

f (x) = 3x + 1 is uniformly continuous on R.

Proof :

Let > 0 be given. We want |f (x) f (y)| = |(3x + 1) (3y + 1)| < for

|x y| < with x, y R. We know |(3x + 1) (3y + 1)| = |3x 3y| = 3|x y|.

Take := 3 . Then

|xy| < = |xy| <

= 3|xy| < = |3x3y| < = |3x3y+11| < =

3

as desired.

(b) Claim:

f (x) = x2 is uniformly continuous on [0, 3] .

Proof :

Let > 0 be given. We want |f (x) f (y)| = |x2 y 2 | < for |x y| < with

x, y [0, 3]. We know |x2 y 2 | = |(x y)(x + y)| = |x y| |x + y|. With

x, y [0, 3], let |x + y| |3 + 3| = 6. Define := 6 . Then for any x, y [0, 3]

with |x y| < ,

|f (x) f (y)| = |x2 y 2 | = |(x y)(x + y)| = |x y| |x + y| < |x y| 6 = ,

as desired.

(c) Claim:

f (x) =

1

is uniformly continuous on

x

40

1

, .

2

Proof :

Let > 0 be given. We want |f (x) f (y)| = | x1 y1 | < for |x y| < , with

1

1

x, y 21 , . We know | x1 y1 | = | yx

xy | = |( xy )(y x)| = |x y| | xy |. With

1

1

1

1

x, y 2 , , let xy 1 1 = 1 = 4. Define := 4 . Then for any x, y 12 ,

2 2

4

with |x y| < ,

1

1

1 y x

= |x y| < |x y| 4 = ,

|f (x) f (y)| = =

x y

xy

xy

as desired. .

EXERCISE 19.4

(a) Claim:

If f is uniformly continuous on a bounded set S, then f is a bounded function

on S.

Proof :

By contradiction. Assume that f is uniformly continuous on a bounded set S

and an unbounded function on S. Then a sequence, (xn ) in the domain of

f such that |f (xn )| n. By the Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem, the sequence

contains a convergent subsequence (xnk ), since the domain is bounded. A convergent subsequence is Cauchy (by definition) and hence the sequence of values

f (xnk ) is Cauchy by the property of uniformly continuous functions. But the

sequence |f (xnk )| nk is unbounded, contradicting our assumption in the outset of this proof. Hence, if f is uniformly continuous on a bounded set S, then

f is a bounded function on S, as desired.

(b) Claim:

1

is not uniformly continuous on (0, 1).

x2

Proof :

We want to show that if x12 is not a bounded function on (0, 1), then

uniformly continuous on (0, 1)21 . So it will suffice to show that

1

x2

is not

1

is not a bounded function on (0, 1).

x2

Let M > 1 be arbitrary = 0 < M12 < 1. We want to show that x12 > M for

some x (0, 1) = x < 1M . Let x = M1 +1 , since 0 < M1 +1 < 1M < 1. But

then for f (x) = x12 , we see that

f (x) =

1

1

=

2 = M + 1 > M,

x2

1

M +1

21 This

41

1

x2

EXERCISE 19.6

(a) Claim:

Proof :

1

+ as x 0 = f 0 (x) is unbounded. f continuous on

f 0 (x) = 2

x

the closed interval [0, 1] = f uniformly continuous on [0, 1] = f uniformly

continuous on the subset (0, 1], as desired.

(b) Claim:

f is uniformly continuous on [1, ).

Proof :

Let > 0 be given. We want |f (x) f (y)| = | x y| < for |x y| < with

x, y R. We know | x y| = ||xy|

x+ y|

|x y| < = |x y| < 2 =

|x y|

|x y|

= | x y| < ,

2

| x + y|

as desired.

EXERCISE 19.10

The limit

1

g(x)

= lim x sin x = 0,

x0

x

x

in other words, g is differentiable at x = 0 (g 0 (0) = 0). At x 6= 0,

1

1

1

1

1

g 0 (x) = 2x sin + x2 cos 2 = 2x sin cos ,

x

x

x

x

x

lim

x0

6 1and |sin y| |y| y = for y = x1 :

2x sin 1 cos 1 = 2 sin y cos y 2 + 1 = 3.

x

x

y

Thus, g 0 is both bounded and defined on R = g is uniformly continuous.

42

Claim:

lim

xb

x b

1

=

xb

2 b

Proof :

xb

b

( x b) x+

1

x b

x+ b

x+ b

=

=

=

xb

xb

xb

x+ b

Hence,

lim

xb

1

1

1

=

x+ b

b+ b

2 b

EXERCISE 20.14

Claim:

lim

x0+

1

1

= + and lim

=

x

x0 x

Claim 1 :

lim+

x0

1

= +

x

Proof :

1

Let M > 0 and := 2M

. Then 0 < x < 0 + = 0 < x < =

f (x) = x1 > 1 = 11 = 2M > M . Hence, limx0+ x1 = +, as desired.

2M

Claim 2 :

lim

x0

1

=

x

Proof :

1

Let M < 0 and := 2M

. Then 0 < x < 0 = < x < 0 =

1

1

1

f (x) = x < = 1 = 2M < M . Hence, limx0 x1 = , as desired.

2M

EXERCISE 20.16

Suppose that the limits L1 = limxa+ f1 (x) and L2 = limxa+ f1 (x) exist.

(a) Claim:

If f1 (x) f2 (x) x in some interal (a, b), then L1 L2 .

43

Proof :

By contradiction. Let f1 (x) f2 (x) and assume L1 > L2 . Corollary 20.8 says

lim f (x) = L > 0 > 0 : a < x < a + = |f (x) L| <

xa+

1

1

1 : x (a, a + 1 ), f1 (x) > L1 = L1 (L1 L2 ) = (L1 + L2 )

2

2

1

1

2 : x (a, a + 2 ), f2 (x) < L2 + = L2 + (L1 L2 ) = (L1 + L2 ).

2

2

Let := min {1 , 2 } =

f1 (x) >

1

(L1 + L2 ) > f2 (x),

2

which is a contradiction. Hence, if f1 (x) f2 (x) x in some interal (a, b), then

L1 L2 , as desired.

(b) Suppose f1 (x) < f2 (x) x in some interval (a, b). Can you conclude that

L1 < L2 .

Consider f1 (x) = x and f2 (x) = 2x, x (a, b) = f1 (x) < f2 (x) x (a, b).

Consider a = 0 and b = 1 = (a, b) = (0, 1). We can plainly see that

lim f1 (x) = lim f2 (x) = 022 ,

x0

x0

some interval (a, b).

EXERCISE 20.18

Claim:

For f (x) =

1 + 3x2 1

3

, lim f (x) = .

2

x0

x

2

Proof :

Non-formal. Rearranging f (x),

1 + 3x2 1

1 + 3x2 1 1 + 3x2 + 1

(1 + 3x2 ) 1

3

=

=

,

2

2

2

2

2

x

x

1 + 3x + 1

( 1 + 3x + 1)x

1 + 3x2 + 1

which we see is a composition of continuous functions which happen to behave

well near x = 0. Hence, limx0 f (x) f (0) = 32 , as desired.

22 Since

44

EXERCISE 21.6

Let (S1 , d1 ), (S2 , d2 ), and (S3 , d3 ) be metric spaces.

Claim:

f : S1 S2 and g : S2 S3 continuous = g f continuous from S1 into S3

Proof :

From both the claim and Theorem 21.3, f 1 (U ) is an open subset of S1 for every

open subset U of S2 , i.e., f 1 (U ) = {s S1 : f (s) U } and g 1 (V ) is an open

subset of S3 for every open subset V of S3 , i.e., g 1 (V ) = {s S3 : f (s) V }.

Define a new mapping, h(S1 ) = g f : S1 S3 . Then h1 (V ) is an open subset

of S1 for every open subset V of S3 , i.e. h1 (V ) = {s S1 : h(S) V }, by the

continuity of composite functions outlined in Theorem 17.5 and the fact that

g and f are both coninuous throughout S. Thus, by Theorems 17.5 and 21.3,

h(S1 ) := (g f )(S1 ) : S1 S3 is continuous, as desired.

For 21.10 (b), in order to show continuous functions mapping (0, 1) R,

consider

log(2x)

f (x) =

1x

As x 0, f (x) and as x 1, f (x) +. We see f (x) is the composition of continuous functions and the denominator 6= 0 through f s domain

and is hence continuous, as desired.

For 21.11 (b), we can use informal contradiction:

f : [0, 1] R = R is compact, since [0, 1] is compact, by Theorem 21.4 (i).

But R is unbounded and thus cannot be compact, which is a contradiction.

Hence, there do not exist continuous functions mapping [0, 1] onto R.

n

P x n

P xn

P 1 n n

1

(b)

=

x . If an = n1 , then lim sup |an | n = 0.

n

nn =

n

Therefore, = 0, R = + and this series has a radius of convergence + and

hence an interval of convergence of (, +).

P n3 n

an+1 1

an+1

(n+1)3 3n

n3

(d)

x

.

If

a

=

,

then

=

,

so

lim

n

n

n+1

3

n

3

3

an

3

n

an = 3 . Therefore, = 13 and R = 3. This series diverges for both x = 3 and x = 3, hence

the radius of convergence is 3 and the interval of convergence is (3, 3).

P

an+1

an+1

(n+1)2 2n

1

1

n

x

.

If

a

=

,

then

=

,

so

lim

(f )

2

n

2

n

2

n+1

n

(n+1) 2

(n+1) 2

an

(n+2) 2

an =

1

2.

Therefore, =

1

2

45

[2, 2].

P (1)n n

an+1

an+1

(1)n

(1)n+1

n2 4n

(h)

x

.

If

a

=

,

then

=

,

so

lim

2

n

2

n

2

n+1

n

n

n 4

n 4

an

(n+1) 4

(1)

an =

1

4.

hence the radius of convergence is 4 and the interval of convergence is [4, 4].

EXERCISE 23.2

P n

n+1

n+1

= 1. Therefore,

=

,

so

lim

nx . If an = n, then aan+1

(a)

n

n

n

= 1 and R = 1. This series diverges at x = 1 and x = 1, hence the radius

of convergence is 1 and the interval of convergence is (1, 1).

1

1

P 1 n

1

1

x .

(b)

If an = nn , then |an | n = 1 and lim sup 1 = 1.

n n

n n P

n n

1

At x = 1, the series converges with comparison to

np with p > 1 and for

x = 1, the series diverges by the alternating series theorem since the limit of

|an | approaches 1 and not 0. Hence, the radius on convergence is 1 and the

interval of convergence is (1, 1].

P n!

(c)

x . When |x| 1, the series diverges since lim xn! does not tend to

0 as nP . Now for |x| < 1, the series converges absolutely by comparison

with

|x|m23 . Therefore, = 1 and R = 1. This series diverges at x = 1 and

x = 1, hence the radius of convergence is 1 and the interval of convergence is

(1, 1).

P 3n 2n+1

x

(d)

. For this series, the radius of convergence is:

n

1

R=

lim

3n

1

1

1

= lim(3n) 4n+2 = .

1

2n+1

3

3

1 1

convergence is 13 and the interval of convergence is

,

.

3

3

An example of such a series is

X (x)n

.

n

n>0

23 Note

24 The

P n! P

that

x = P

am xm with am = 1 when m = n! and am = 0 when m 6= n!.

series turns into

1 .

3n

46

This series converges to ln(1 + x) when |x| < 1, diverges at x = 1 and converges at x = +1.

EXERCISE 23.8

fn (x) 0 since n1 sin nx 6= n1 0 as n . But fn0 (x) = cos nx (1)n

when x = , which has no limit.

EXERCISE 24.2

For x [0, ), let fn (x) =

(a) For fn (x) =

x

n,

x

n.

x

n

= 0. Hence, f (x) = 0.

(b) YES.

Claim: fn f uniformly on [0, 1].

Proof :

Let > 0 be given. Let N := 1 . Then, for n > N , |fn (x) 0| = nx

1

n < , as desired.

1

(c) NO.

Claim: fn does not converge uniformly to f on [0, ).

Proof :

By contradiction. Using the above, let := 1 = an N : nx < 1 n >

N = |x| < n n > N = |x| < n + for some > 0. But since x [0, ),

x is unbounded, contradicting |x| < n + for some > 0. Hence, fn does not

converge uniformly to f on [0, ), as desired.

EXERCISE 24.6

Let fn (x) = x

1 2

n

(a) YES.

Claim:

fn (x) = x

1 2

n

Proof :

2

1

fn (x) = x n1 = x2 2x

n + n2 With x [0, 1], let n grow arbitrarily large

1

2

= fn (x) x , since with n large, 2x

n 0 and n2 0 = fn (x)

2

f (x) := x . Hence, given x arbitrary, fn (x) converges pointwise for x [0, 1],

as desired.

The limit function will thus be f (x) = x2 .

(b) YES.

47

Claim:

1 2

n

fn (x) = x

Proof :

Let > 0 be given and N := 12 . Then for x [0, 1], we have:

2

1 2xn

1

2

1 < 1 = ,

x =

x

2

n

n

n

N

as desired. .

EXERCISE 24.14

Let fn (x) =

nx

1+n2 x2

(a) Claim:

fn 0 pointwise on R.

Proof :

n

o

Let x R. Let > 0 be arbitrary. Let N := max x2 , x . Then for n > N ,

|fn 0| =

x x

x

nx

x < .

=

1

1

2

2

2

2

1+n x

n2

N2

n + nx

n +n

(b) Claim:

fn (x) does not converge to 0 uniformly on [0, 1].

Proof :

Implement Remark 24.4. Hence,

fn0 (x) =

n

nxn2 2x

n + n3 x2 2n3 x2

n n3 x2

=

=

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1+n x

(1 + n x )

(1 + n x )

(1 + n2 x2 )2

3

nn x

1

2

Assume, for contradiction, (1+n

2 x2 )2 0, which implies x = n2 which implies

x = n1 . But we see that fn n1 = 12 6= 0, a contradiction, since x [0, 1]

satisfies x = n1 . Hence, fn (x) does not converge to 0 uniformly on [0, 1] as

desired.

(c) Claim:

fn (x) converges to 0 uniformly on [1, ).

48

Proof :

Implement Remark 24.4. With x [1, ), x is unable to always satisfy n1 .

nx

Using methods from calculus we can see that fn (x) = 1+n

2 x2 assumes its maxn

imum at x = 1, which is [1, ). Since fn (1) = 1+n2 0 as n , fn (x)

converges to 0 uniformly on [1, ) as desired.

EXERCISE 25.2

Let fn (x) =

xn

n .

Proof :

Let > 0 be given. Let N := 1 . Then for n > N and x [1, 1],

n

x

1

1

|fn (x) f (x)| =

0 25

= ,

n

n

N

as desired.

The limit function is fn (x) f (x) = 0 for large n.

EXERCISE 25.6

P

P

(a) Show that if

|ak | < , then

ak xk converges uniformly on [0, 1] to a

continuous function.

P

Implement Theorem

25.5

and the Weierstrass M-test.PSince

|ak | <

P

P

and that

ak xk

ak because x [0, 1], we know

ak xk converges

uniformly on S. P

Now since the series converges uniformly on S and ak xk is

continuous, then

ak xk represents a continuous function on S.

P 1 n

(b) Does n=1 n2 x represent a continuous function on [1, 1]?

This is a series which converges at both x = 1 (by the alternating series test)

and at x = 1 (convergent

the interval 1 a 1

P 1 n p-series). Now consider

n

2 n

and note that

a

converges.

Since

|n

x

| P|n2 an | = an2 for

2

n=1 n

x [a, a], the Weierstrass M-test shows that the series n=1 n12 xn converges

uniformly to a function on [a, a]. Since |a| can be any number 1, we conclude that f represents a continuous function on [1, 1]26 .

25 This

P 1 n

2

n=1 n2 x 6 for x [1, 1].

26 Note:

49

EXERCISE 25.14

Claim:

P

If

gk converges uniformly on a set S and if h is a bounded function on S,

P

then

hgk converges uniformly on S.

Proof :

P

P

If the series gk converges uniformly on a set S, then gk is uniformly Cauchy

on S. If h is a bounded function on S, then an M : |h| M . Let > 0 be

. Then

given and let N := M

n

n

n

X

X

X

gk M

M gk = M

n m > N =

hgk

= ,

M

k=m

k=m

k=m

as desired.

EXERCISE 27.2

Show that if f is continuous on R, then there exists a sequence (pn ) of polynomials such that pn f uniformly on each bounded subset of R. Hint: Arrange

for |f (x) pn (x)| < n1 for |x| n.

Claim:

If f is continuous on R, then there exists a sequence (pn ) of polynomials such

that pn f uniformly on each bounded subset of R.

Proof :

Given |x| n, suppose I = [n, n], a closed and bounded interval; hence x I

and f : I R is a continuous function. Let g : [0, 1] [n, n] be a bijective

map defined by g(x) = n + x(2n), and hence continuous, i.e., g(0) = n and

g(1) = n. Since f is continuous, the composite function, f g : [0, 1] R

is continuous. Hence, for any > 0, N > 0 such that for any n N , the

Bernstein Polynomial Bn (f g) satisfies

|(f g)(x) Bn (f g)(x)| < x [0, 1]

Now g is a continuous injective map and so g has a continuous inverse function

defined by

x+n

g 1 (x) =

x [n, n]

2n

Thus, for all x [n, n], |f (x) BN (f g)(g 1 (x))| < .

Hence,

f (x) BN (f g) x + n < x [n, n]

2n

50

Since BN (f g) is a polynomial function, p (x) = BN (f g) x+n

is a polynomial

2n

function in x and |f (x) p (x)| < x I. If we let qn (x) = BN (f g) x+n

2n ,

then

X

k

nk

n

x+n

n

x+n

x+n

k

qn (x) = BN (f g)

=

1

f g

2n

n

k

2n

2n

k=0

n

X

k=0

n

X

(36)

k

nk

n

x+n

nx

k

(f g)

n

k

2n

2n

f

k=0

(37)

k

nk

n

x+n

nx

k

a + (2n)

n

k

2n

2n

(38)

uniformly on [n, n], as desired.

EXERCISE 27.6

Claim:

If Bn f f uniformly on [0, 1], then f is continuous on [0, 1].

Proof :

If Bn (f ) f uniformly on [0, 1], then

> 0 N x [0, 1] n > N : |Bn f (x) f (x)| <

2

|f (x)f (x0 )| = |Bn f (x)f (x0 )+f (x)Bn f (x)| |Bn f (x)f (x0 )|+|Bn f (x)f (x)|

as desired.

EXERCISE 28.2

Use the definition of the derivative to calculate the derivatives of the following

functions at the indicated points.

(a) f (x) = x3 at x = 2.

x3 8

(x 2)(x2 + 2x + 4)

= lim

= lim x2 +2x+4 = (2)2 +2(2)+4 = 12

x2 x 8

x2

x2

x2

f 0 (2) = lim

51

+ = ,

2 2

(b) g(x) = x + 2 at x = a.

x+2a2

xa

(x + 2) (a + 2)

= lim

= lim

=1

xa

xa

xa x a

xa

xa

f 0 (a) = lim

x2 cos x 0

x2 cos x (0)2 cos(0)

= lim

= lim x cos x = 0 1 = 0

x0

x0

x0

x0

x0

f 0 (0) = lim

(d) r(x) =

r0 (1) = lim

x1

3x+4

2x1

3x+4

2x1

at x = 1

x1

7

1

= lim

x1

11x+11

2x1

x1

= lim

x1

11x + 11 1

11

= lim

= 11

2x 1 x 1 x1 2x 1

EXERCISE 28.4

Let f (x) = x2 sin x1 for x 6= 0 and f (0) = 0.

(a) Use Theorems 28.3 and 28.4 to show that f is differentiable at each a 6= 0

and calculate f 0 (a). Use, without proof, the fact that sin x is differentiable and

that cos x is its derivative.

Using the definition, we see that

a2 sin a1

f (a) = lim

xa

xa

2

1

1

1 x a2

2 sin x sin a

= lim x

+ sin

,

xa

xa

a

xa

0

x2 sin

1

x

1

sin( x

)sin( a1 )

where the

limit represents sin0 x1 . We are given that a 6= 0,

xa

which gives the function sin a1 some meaning in terms of differentiability and

hence, using Theorems 28.3 and 28.4 and the given fact that sin0 x = cos x,

1

1

1

1

1

f 0 (a) = a2 sin0

+ sin

(a2 )0 = a2 cos

+

2a

sin

2

a

a

a

a

a

1

1

cos

.

= 2a sin

a

a

(b) Use the definition to show that f is differentiable at x = 0 and that f 0 (0) =

0.

x2 sin x1

f (x) f (0)

f (x)

1

lim

= lim

= lim

= lim x sin = 0 ,

x0

x0 x

x0

x0

x0

x

x

where || 1, and hence the whole expression equals zero, as desired.

(c) Show that f 0 is not continuous at x = 0.

52

Implement Theorem

28.4, which

implies f is differentiableeverywhere. Further,

1

1

f 0 (x) =

x

sin

cos

at

x

6= 0. We know x sin x1 0 as x 0 and

x

x

1

cos x doesnt have a limit at x = 0. Hence, the sum f 0 (x) has no limit at

x 6= 0 and thus is discontinuous at x = 0.

EXERCISE 28.8

Let f (x) = x2 for x rational and f (x) = 0 for x irrational.

(a) Claim:

f is continuous x = 0.

Proof :

Let > 0 be given. Let |x 0| < . Then f (x) is either equal to x2 [0, ) or

0. In either of these 2 cases, |f (x) f (0)| < = continuity at 0, as desired.

(b) Claim:

f is discontinuous at all x 6= 0.

Proof :

This will be done in 2 cases.

Case I: x 6= 0, x Q

Let > 0 be given. Let > 0 be given. Further, let := x2 . Due to the

denseness of the rationals, an irrational number q in (a , a + ). But while

|x q| < and |f (x) f (q)| = , can be made arbitrarily small (once again,

due to the denseness property) = f is not continuous at x, as desired.

Case II: x 6= 0, x R \ Q

2

x

Let > 0 be given. Let 0 < < |x|

2 be given. Further, let := 10 . Due to

the denseness of the irrationals, a rational number q in (a , a + ). By the

x2

x2

triangle inequality, |q| > |x|

2 = f (q) = 4 = |f (x) f (q)| = 4 > . Since

can be made arbitrarily small = f is not continuous at x, as desired.

(c) Claim:

f is differentiable at x = 0.

Proof :

(a)

Let x = 0 and a 6= 0. Then limxa f (x)f

= f (a)

xa

a , which will will equal a if

a Q and 0 otherwise. Both cases show that the limit 0 as a 0, and hence

f is differentiable at x = 0 with derivative equal to 0, as desired.

53

EXERCISE 28.15

Proof of Leibniz Rule

Claim:

(n)

(f g)

n

X

n (k)

(a) =

f (a)g (nk) (a)

k

k=0

Proof :

By Induction on n27 . Let Leibniz Rule hold for n = m. Then

(f g)

(m+1)

0 (m)

= (f g + f g )

m

m

X

m (k+1) (mk) X m (k) (m+1k)

=

f

g

+

f g

k

k

k=0

k=0

m+1

X m m

=

+

f (k) g (m+1k)

k1

k

k=0

m+1

X m + 1

=

f (k) g (m+1k) ,

k

k=0

where, using Pascals triangle28 (from the Binomial Theorem handout), the last

equality holds. Hence, Leibniz Rule holds true, as desired.

EXERCISE 29.4

Let f and g be differentiable functions on an open interval I. Suppose that a, b

in I satisfy a < b and f (a) = f (b) = 0.

Claim:

f 0 (x) + f (x)g 0 (x) = 0 for some x (a, b).

Proof :

Consider the function h(x) = f (x)eg(x) . Since f (a) = f (b) = 0 = h(a) =

h(b) = 0, implementing Rolles Theorem, we know some x (a, b) : h0 (x) = 0.

Differentiating h(x) yields:

h0 (x) = f (x)g 0 (x)eg(x) + f 0 (x)eg(x)

= eg(x) (f (x)g 0 (x) + f 0 (x)) .

Given h0 (x) = 0 for some x (a, b), either eg(x) has to equal 0 for some x (a, b)

or f (x)g 0 (x) + f 0 (x) has to equal 0 for some x (a, b). Since we know eg(x) cannot equal 0 for any value g(x), we can safely conclude that f (x)g 0 (x) + f 0 (x) = 0

for some x (a, b), as desired.

27 For

n = 1, Leibniz

Rule

turns into the product rule, i.e., (f g)0 = f 0 g + f g 0 .

m

= k1

+ m

.

k

28 m+1

k

54

EXERCISE 29.8

Claim:

f is strictly decreasing is f 0 (x) < 0 x (a, b).

Proof :

Consider x1 , x2 where a < x1 < x2 < b. By the Mean Value Theorem, for some

x (x1 , x2 ) we have

f (x2 ) f (x1 )

= f 0 (x) < 0.

x2 x1

Since x2 x1 > 0 and f (x2 ) f (x1 ) < 0 = f (x2 ) < f (x1 ), as desired.

Claim:

f is increasing if f 0 (x) 0 x (a, b).

Proof :

Consider x1 , x2 where a < x1 x2 < b. By the Mean Value Theorem, for some

x (x1 , x2 ) we have

f (x2 ) f (x1 )

= f 0 (x) 0.

x2 x1

Since x2 x1 > 0 and f (x2 ) f (x1 ) 0 = f (x2 ) f (x1 ), as desired.

Claim:

f is decreasing if f 0 (x) 0 x (a, b).

Proof :

Consider x1 , x2 where a < x1 x2 < b. By the Mean Value Theorem, for some

x (x1 , x2 ) we have

f (x2 ) f (x1 )

= f 0 (x) 0.

x2 x1

Since x2 x1 > 0 and f (x2 ) f (x1 ) 0 = f (x2 ) f (x1 ), as desired.

EXERCISE 29.10

Let f (x) =

x

2

Claim:

f 0 (0) > 0, but f is not increasing on any interval containing 0. Compare this

result with Theorem 29.7 (i).

55

Proof :

We know

f (x)

1

1

1

f (0) = lim

= lim

+ x sin

= +0>0

x0 x

x0 2

x

2

0

Conversely, at x 6= 0, we get

f 0 (x) = 2x sin

1 1

1

+ cos .

x 2

x

infinitely many times in any neighborhood of x = 0. 21 1 < 0 = in any

neighborhod of x = 0, f 0 stay < 0 on some intervals. Implement Theorem 29.7.

The function f is therefore decreasing on these intervals = f is not increasing

in any neighborhod of x = 0. If f 0 were continuous at x = 0, then it would

remain positive in some neighborhood of x = 0. Hence, discontinuity of f 0 at

x = 0, as desired.

EXERCISE 29.15

1 0

0

1

0

We know that (xm ) = mxm1 for m 0, x1 = x12 and x n = x n 1 . We

m 0

can thus calculate x n using the chain rule as follows:

1

1

1

m

d

m m

y n 1

m

d

xn =

(xm ) n =

mxm1 = xm( n 1) xm1 = x n 1 .

dx

dx

n y=xm

n

n

EXERCISE 29.18

Let f be be differentiable on R with a = sup {|f 0 (x)| : x R} < 1. Select s0 R

and define sn = f (sn1 ) for n 1. Thus s1 = f (s0 ), s2 = f (s1 ),...etcetra.

Claim:

(sn ) is a convergent sequence.

Proof :

Implement the Mean Value Theorem. Then, for each n > 0,

|sn+1 sn | = |f (sn ) f (sn1 )| = |f 0 (y)(sn sn1 )| a|sn sn1 |,

which implies

|sn+1 sn | an |s1 s0 |, n > 0,

by induction. Further,

|sm+1 sn |

m

X

|sk+1 sk | (s1 s0 )

k=n

m

X

k=n

56

ak , m n > 0.

P k

We know

a converges if a < 1 and further, its partial

Pn the geometric series

sums, k=0 form a Cauchy Sequence. Therefore, by the previous estimate, (sn )

is a Cauchy sequence, and hence converges, as desired.

EXERCISE 30.2

Find the following limits if they exist.

(a) limx0

x3

sin xx

2

x

LHospitals rule and get limx0 6x

sin x = 6 limx0 sin x = 6 1 = 6.

0

(b) limx0 x

x3 = 0 , which is an indeterminant form, so we apply LHospitals

2

= 00 , which is an indeterminant form, so we apply

rule and get limx0 sec3xx1

2

2

x tan x

LHospitals rule and get limx0 2 sec 6x

= 00 , which is an indeterminant

4

2

x tan2 x

= 13

form, so we apply LHospitals rule and get limx0 sec x+2 sec

3

1

(c) limx0 sin x x1 = , which we can rearrange to suffice for an appli

0

x

cation of LHospitals rule. limx0 sin1 x x1 = limx0 xsin

x sin x = 0 , which is an

1cos x

indeterminant form, so we apply LHospitals rule and get limx0 x cos

x+sin x =

0

0 , which is an indeterminant form, so we apply LHospitals rule and get

0

x

limx0 2 cos sin

xx sin x = 2 = 0.

1

(d) limx0 (cos x) x2 = 1 , which when manipulated, can yield an indeterminant form sufficient for the application of LHospitals rule.

1

x)

limx0 ln(cos

= 00 , which is an indeterminant form, so we apply LHospitals

x2

x

rule and get limx0 tan

= 00 , which is an indeterminant form, so we apply

2x

2

1

x

ln y

LHospitals rule and get limx0 sec

= 1

=

2

2 . Thus ln y = 2 = e

1

1

1

2

e = y = e . Therefore, the limit as x 0 = e .

EXERCISE 30.4

Let f be a function defined on some interval (0, a), and define g(y) = f

1

y (a

, ); here we set a

1

y

for

= 0 if a = .

Claim:

limx0+ f (x) exists if and only if limy g(y) exists, in which case they are

equal.

Proof :

In two parts.

limx0+ f (x) exists = limy g(y) exists.

57

Assume limx0+ f (x) exists and is equal to L. Then for each > 0 > 0 : 0 <

x < = |f (x) L| < . Now, define y := x1 . Then 0 < x < = 1 < y < .

Then for f defined on an interval (c, ), for each > 0 < : < y1 =

1

f y L < = limy g(y) exists and is equal to L, as desired.

limy g(y) = limx0+ f (x) exists.

limy g(y) = limy f y1 , which when implemented with the same trans

formation, y := x1 = x = y1 , we see that limy f y1 limx0+ f (x) and

hence limx0+ f (x) exists and is finite.

EXERCISE 30.7

For x R, let

f (x) = x + cos x sin x and g(x) = esin x (x + cos x sin x).

(a) Since | cos x| 1 and | sin x| 1 = | cos x sin x| 1, we can conclude

lim f (x) = x + cos x sin x lim x 1 = +,

e, this implies

1

e

limx esin x

1

(x + cos x sin x) lim esin x (x + cos x sin x) lim e(x + cos x sin x)

x e

x

x

which implies

1

lim esin x (x + cos x sin x) e

x

e

sin x

which implies limx e

(x + cos x sin x) = +, by the Squeeze Theorem.

lim

(b) Implement Theorem 28.3 and the trigonometric identity sin2 x + cos2 x = 1.

f (x) = x + cos x sin x

f 0 (x) = 1 + cos x(cos x) + sin x( sin x)

= 1 + cos2 x sin2 x

= cos2 x + (1 sin2 x)

= cos2 x + cos2 x

= 2(cos x)2

g(x) = esin x (x + cos x sin x)

g 0 (x) = esin x (2 cos2 x) + (x + cos x sin x) cos xesin x

= esin x (2 cos2 x) + esin x cos x [f (x)]

= esin x cos x [2 cos x + f (x)]

58

f 0 (x)

2(cos x)2

= sin x

0

g (x)

e

cos x [2 cos x + f (x)]

2e sin x cos2 x

=

cos x [2 cos x + f (x)]

2e sin x cos x

=

2 cos x + f (x)

(d) Using the fact that | sin x| 1 and | cos x| 1, we see that

2 cos x

2

2

lim

lim

0 as x ,

+ x + cos x sin x) x 2e + xe + e x e(3 + x)

lim

x esin x (2 cos x

lim

f 0 (x)

g 0 (x)

x + cos x sin x

1

,

= lim

esin x (x + cos x sin x) x esin x

doesnt exist.

1

e

f (x)

g(x)

EXERCISE 31.2

sinh x =

X x2n1

X x2n

and cosh x =

.

(2n 1)!

(2n)!

n1

n0

P xn

Both of these results follow from the series expansion for ex

n! and the

fact that (sinh x)0 = cosh x. Convergence for both series can be shown by

implementing the Ratio Test.

2n+2

x

(2n)!

x2

0 < 1,

lim sup

2n = lim sup

(2n + 2)! x

2n(2n + 1)

2n+1

x

(2n 1)!

x2

0 < 1.

lim sup

= lim sup

2n1

(2n + 1)!

x

(2n + 1)(2n + 2)

EXERCISE 32.2

Let f (x) = x for rational x and f (x) = 0 for irrational x.

(a) To calculate the upper Darboux integral for f on the interval [0, b], we need

to come up with an upper bound. Consider the partition

P = {0 = t0 < t1 < < tn = b} where tk = b

59

k

for each k.

n

This implies

U (f, P ) =

n

X

kb

k=1

1 2

2 b (1

b

29 =

n n

2 X

2 2

n

b

b

n +n

1

k=

= b2 (1 + 2n1 ).

n

n

2

2

k=1

+ 2n1 ) 12 b2 as n = U (f ) 21 b2 .

P = {0 = t0 < t1 < < tn < b}

which implies

U (f, P ) =

n

X

k=1

n

X

(tk + tk1 )

k=1

1X 2 2

1

(tk tk1 )32 = b2

2

2

k=1

which implies U (f ) = 21 b2 .

To calculate the lower Darboux integral for f on the interval [0, b], for each

partition

P = {0 = t0 < t1 < < tn < b} ,

an irrational number in [ti1 , ti ] for each i, which implies the minimal value

of f on [ti1 , ti ] is 0 = L(f, P ) = 0 for each P = L(f ) = 0.

(b) Assume b > 0 = U (f ) 6= L(f ) = f is not integrable on [0, b], since the

Theorems of this chapter wont hold for a degenerate interval.

EXERCISE 32.6

Let f be a bounded function on [a, b]. Suppose there exist sequences (Un ) and

(Ln ) of upper and lower Darboux sums for f such that lim(Un Ln ) = 0. Show

Rb

f is integrable and a f = lim Un = lim Ln .

We want to show that lim Ln = lim Un . Assume that lim Ln < lim Un . Then

lim(Un Ln ) > 0 which is a contradiction. Observe that Ln L(f ) U (f )

Un . Taking limits of both sides and implementing the Squeeze Theorem yields

lim Ln L(f ) U (f ) lim Un = lim Ln . Thus L(f ) = U (f ) by the Squeeze

Theorem which implies f is integrable by Theorem 32.9.

i1 , ti ], the maximum value of f is attained

n

at ti = ni .

30 Each interval has length b ; the supremum of f on [t

i1 , ti ] is ti since you can pick rational

n

numbers in the interval arbitrarily close to ti .

tk +tk1

31 Since t > t

.

k

k1 , tk >

2

32 Note that this is a telescoping series, lol.

60

A function f on [a, b] is called a step-function if a partition P = {a = u0 < u1 < < um = b}

of [a, b] such that f is constant on each interval (uj1 , uj ), say f (x) = cj for x

in (uj1 , uj ).

Claim:

f is integrable.

Proof :

Consider a sub-partition of P , called P 0 , where

P 0 = u0 < u1 < u1 < u1 < < un1 < un1 < un1 < un ,

where ui ui < i.

We want to show |U (f, P ) S| < and |S L(f, P )| < . From P 0 ,

U (f, P 0 ) L(f, P 0 ) =

L(f, P 0 )

n

X

j=1

sired.

Rb

a

f =

Pn

j=1 cj (uj

uj1 ), as de-

EXERCISE 33.4

Give an example of a function f on [0, 1] that is not integrable for which |f | is

integrable.

Consider the intervale [0, 1] and let f (x) = 1 for rational x [0, 1], and let

f (x) = 1 for irrational x [0, 1]. For any partition

P = {0 = t0 < t1 < < tn = 1} ,

we have

U (f, P ) =

n

X

k=1

n

X

1 (tk tk1 ) = 1

k=1

and

L(f, P ) =

n

X

k=1

61

the absolute value of f is taken, we see that f (x) = 1 x R, and hence will

be integrable since U (f ) = L(f ).

EXERCISE 33.7

Let f be a bounded function on [a, b], so that B > 0 : |f (x)| B x [a, b].

(a)Claim:

h

i

U (f 2 , P ) L(f 2 , P ) 2B U (|f |, P ) L(|f |, P ) partitions P of [a, b]

Proof :

n

X

M (f 2 , [tk1 , tk ]) m(f 2 , [tk1 , tk ) (tk tk1 )

k=1

n

X

[M (|f |, [tk1 , tk ]) + m(|f |, [tk1 , tk )] [M (|f |, [tk1 , tk ]) m(|f |, [tk1 , tk )] (tk tk1 )

k=1

2B

n h

X

i

M (|f |, [tk1 , tk ]) m(|f |, [tk1 , tk ]) (tk tk1 ),

k=1

as desired33 . .

(b)Claim:

If f is integrable on [a, b], then f 2 is integrable on [a, b].

Proof :

From part (a), we know

h

i

U (f 2 , P ) L(f 2 , P ) 2B U (|f |, P ) L(|f |, P ) partitions P of [a, b],

and by Theorem 32.5, if f is integrable on [a, b], then for > 0, U (f, P )

L(f, P ) < .

But,

h

i

U (f 2 , P ) L(f 2 , P )

< ,

U (f 2 , P )L(f 2 , P ) 2B U (|f |, P )L(|f |, P ) < =

2B

which implies

U (f 2 , P ) L(f 2 , P ) < 2B.

So define a new , 0 := 2B > 0 and we thus have

U (f 2 , P ) L(f 2 , P ) < 0 ,

33 The

62

which implies that if f is integrable on [a, b], then f 2 is integrable on [a, b], as

desired.

EXERCISE 33.8

Let f and g be integrable functions on [a, b].

(a) Claim:

f g is integrable on [a, b].

Proof :

Implement Theorem 33.3. Let f and g be integrable on [a, b]. Then, by Theorem 33.3, f + g and f g are integrable on [a, b]. Further, if f + g and f g

2

are integrable on [a, b], then (f + g)2 and (f g)

integrable

are both

on [a, b],

1

as per the results of exercise 33.7 (b). Since 4 (f + g)2 (f g)2 = f g, and

Theorem 33.3 tells us a constant times an integrable function is integrable, this

shows that if f and g are integrable on [a, b], then f g is integrable on [a, b], as

desired.

(b) Claim:

max(f, g) and min(f, g) are integrable on [a, b].

Proof :

Implement Theorem(s) 33.3 and 33.5. We know

1

(f + g) +

2

1

min(f, g) = (f + g)

2

max(f, g) =

1

|f g|

2

1

|f g|,

2

which are compositions of functions and constants integrable on [a, b] and hence

are integrable by Theorems 33.3 and 33.5, as desired. .

EXERCISE 33.10

Let f (x) = sin x1 for x 6= 0 and f (0) = 0. Show that f is integrable on [1, 1].

Let > 0 be given. Since f is piece-wise continuous, by Definition 33.7, on [ 4 , 1],

a partition P1 of [ 4 , 1] : U (f1 , P ) L(f1 , P ) < 2 . Similarly, a partition P2 of

[1, 4 ] : U (f2 , P ) L(f2 , P ) < 2 . Define P = P[ 1 d P2 , a partition of [1, 1].

Since

n

h i

h i o n o

M (f, , ) m(f, , )

< ,

4 4

4 4

4

4

which, when combined with Theorem 32.5, shows f is integrable on [1, 1].

63

EXERCISE 33.14

Suppose f and g are continuous functions on [a, b] and that g(x) 0 x [a, b].

(a) Claim:

x [a, b] :

b

Z

f (t)g(t)dt = f (x)

g(t)dt.

Proof :

Given that

f (t)g(t)dt =

a

i=1

ai bi min {ai } bi = ai min {ai }

ai bi max {ai } bi = ai max {ai } .

Then,

b

Z

f (t)g(t)dt fmin

g(t)dt

a

b

Z

f (t)g(t)dt fmax

g(t)dt.

Rb

Rb

Value Theorem, x [a, b] : a f (t)g(t)dt = f (x) a g(t)dt., as desired. .

(b) Let g(x) :=

1

ba

1

ba .

Then

Z

f (t)g(t)dt = f (x)

f (t)dt =

a

a

EXERCISE 34.2

(a)

1

x0 x

lim

et dt

Z x

F (x) F (x0 )

1

=

f (t)dt for x 6= x0

x x0

x x0 x0

Hence,

f (x0 ) =

1

x x0

64

f (x0 )dt.

x0

Z

2

1 x t2

e dt = e0 = 1.

lim

x0 x 0

(b)

1

lim

h0 h

3+h

et dt

1

lim

h0 h

Z

3

3+h

1

e dt = lim

h0 h

t2

e(t+3) dt = e3 = e9 .

EXERCISE 34.6

Let f be a continuous function on R and define

sin x

f (t)dt for x R.

G(x) =

0

If f is continuous at x R, then f (sin x) is differentiable on R as a composition of differentiable functions. Hence, f is differentiable at sin x and

G0 = f (sin x) cos x, per the chain rule.

Let > 0 and B > 0 : |f (sin x)| B x R. Now x R : | sin x sin 0|

R sin x

| sin x| < , we have |F (sin x) F (0)| | 0

f | | sin x| < , which shows G

is continuous.

EXERCISE 36.1

Show that if f is integrable on [a, b] as in Definition 32.1, then

Z

lim

db

Z

f (x)dx =

f (x)dx.

a

Z

Z b

d

f (x)dx

f (x)dx B(b d).

a

a

Hence, we want to show that for |b d| < = |B(b d)| < . Choose :=

Then

|B(b d)| = B|(b d)| < B = .

65

B.

Hence as d approaches b from the left, the difference between the integrals converges to zero, showing they are equivalent.

EXERCISE 36.6

Let f and g be continuous functions on (a, b) : 0 f (x) g(x) x (a, b); a

can be and b can be +.

(a) Claim:

b

Z

g(x)dx < =

f (x)dx <

Proof :

We know

Z

f (x)dx =

f (x)dx,

Z b

Z

g(x)dx =

a

f (x)dx +

0

g(x)dx +

g(x)dx.

0

From the fact that 0 f (x) g(x) x (a, b), we can assume

!

!

Z 0

Z b

Z 0

Z b

f (x)dx +

f (x)dx

g(x)dx +

g(x)dx .

a

Implementing Definition 36.1 and Theorem 19.6 (Extensions from bounded intervals to unbounded intervals being uniformly continuous and hence integrable):

!

Z

Z

Z

Z

0

lim

f (x)dx + lim

a

b+

f (x)dx

lim

g(x)dx + lim

a

b+

g(x)dx .

0

f (x). Hence,

Z

Z

Z

Z

h(x)dx :=

g(x) f (x) dx = g(x)dx =

h(x) + f (x) dx.

We can now see that

Z

Z

g(x)dx < =

h(x)+f (x) dx < =

Z

f (x)dx < , since

as desired.

(b) Claim:

Z

Z

f (x)dx = =

g(x)dx =

a

66

h(x)dx 0,

Proof :

Using the result from part (a),

Z

Z

Z

f (x)dx = g(x)dx h(x)dx,

and therefore,

Z

Z

Z

Z

f (x)dx = = g(x)dx h(x)dx = = g(x)dx = ,

as desired. .

67