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# 18.

ASSIGNMENT 11: Design of the dynamic mass damper and its efficiency assessment

Based on theoretical calculation estimate the basic natural frequency of the investigated

structure.
Design the dynamic mass damper based on the calculated basic natural frequency for the
investigated structure.
Measure the real value of the basic natural frequency of the investigated structure.
Determine the level of the forced resonant vibration of the investigated structure.
Design the dynamic mass damper based on the measured basic natural frequency for the
investigated structure.
Assess the efficiency of the dynamic mass damper designed based on calculated basic
natural frequency.
Assess the efficiency of the dynamic mass damper designed based on measured basic
natural frequency.

Recorder

## Voltage supply 220 V

Measured data
output
Inductive
acceleration
ttransducer

Bridging amplifier
Spring for excitation

Investigated
structure

Exciter
Power
amplifier

## Figure 18.1 Schema of the used measurement line.

Solution procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## The measurement procedure and the measurement line.

Theoretical calculation of the basic natural frequency of the investigated structure.
Experimental determination of the spring stiffness of the mass damper.
Design of the mass amount of the mass damper based on the calculated natural frequency
Preparation of the dynamic response measurement of the structure, balance of the bridging
amplifier.

## 6. Calibration of the measurement line and evaluation of the calibration record.

7. Experimental determination of the basic natural frequency of the investigated steel
structure.
8. Design of the mass amount of the mass damper based on the measured natural frequency
9. Efficiency assessment of the designed vibration dampers measurement of the vibration
level of the investigated structure caused by dynamic resonant forces, which is influenced
by dampers designed based on calculated and measured basic natural frequencies.
10. Evaluation of the measurement.
18.1 Measurement procedure and measurement line.
Lets suppose that investigated model is the real building structure, which is
aerodynamically unstable. It means that the wind flowing around causes the dynamic load,
which extremely increases the vibration of the structure.
For example it can be the effect called eddy flow. It means that eddies separate from the
flow behind the circular cross-section cylinder with the frequency, which depends on the
speed of the air flow and the diameter of the structure. It is registered as the vibration of the
structure perpendicular to the direction of the air flow. The frequency of the vibration is the
same as the frequency of eddy separation. If the frequency of the eddy separation is close to
the natural frequency of the structure, the resonant vibration starts.
There are many methods described in literature how to decrease the extreme vibration of
the circular structure caused by eddy separation. We are going to use the dynamic mass
damper for decrease of the extreme resonant vibration of the investigated steel structure.
Dynamic mass damper is the mass, which is hanged on the structure using the elastic
member - spring. (Sometimes the damping member is also used.) This changes the dynamic
effects, it means that one degree of freedom is added. if you choose proper parameters of the
dynamic mass damper, the vibration amplitude of the structure decreases significantly and the
energy of the excitation transforms to the energy of the mass vibration of the damper. The
dynamic mass damper should be designed to allow its vibration.
Dynamic mass damper can be used generally for the decrease of any extreme vibration
of the structure, which vibrates with one dominant frequency, e.g. structures loaded by
dynamic effects of wind, footbridges, factory halls loaded by dynamic effects of machinery
etc.
The basic natural frequency of the building structure (similar to the investigated steel
cantilever beam) is usually the lowest natural frequency of the vertical bending natural mode
of vibration of the structure.
The basic natural frequency of the investigated steel structure will be determined from
the forced vibration excited by harmonic force F(t). The excitation force will be produced by
electrodynamic exciter, which is placed under the structure (Figure 18.1). The vibration of the
excitation mass will be transferred to the excitation spring using the steel wire. The cantilever
beam will be loaded by harmonic force at its free end
F(f ) = k B w B (f ) ,
(18.1)
where f is the is the excitation frequency, F(f) is the amplitude of the excitation force
depending on excitation frequency, kB is the stiffness of the excitation spring using which the
excitation force F(t) is transferred to the investigated structure and wB(f) is the amplitude of
vibration of the excitation mass of the exciter. It is necessary the wire and excitation spring be
prestressed by static force FST, which is bigger than the maximal amplitude of the excitation
force F(t), to be the excitation force F(t) really harmonic.
There are many methods how to determine the natural frequencies and modes of
vibration. The very suitable method for evaluation frequency response functions HRS(if) from

the measurement is described and used in the solution of the assignment number 8, simplified
method is then used in assignment number 9 and 10.

response

## CHARACTER OF THE RESONANT CURVE

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

f / f(Z)

Figure 18.2

Expected character of the resonant curve in the vicinity of the basic natural
frequency of the investigated steel structure.

INVESTIGATED
STRUCTURE

kK

VIBRATION
DAMPER

mK
Figure 18.3

## Schema of the vibration damper

The basic natural frequency of the investigated steel structure will be determined from
the resonant curve for this assignment (Fig. 18.2), it means that the dependence of the
response amplitude onto the change of the excitation force will be monitored.
The difference between the resonant curve and the frequency response function HRS(if)
used in the assignment No. 8 is not big. In fact, the frequency response function is the
resonant curve determined from the response of the structure loaded by harmonic excitation
force with constant unit amplitude. It would be necessary to measure the amplitude of the
excitation force to be able to evaluate the measurement results in the form of the frequency
response function HRS(if).
We will assume that the basic natural frequency of the investigated steel cantilever beam
is the frequency for which the local maximum appears on the resonant curve.
In the next part of the assignment solution, we will investigate the dynamic response of
the steel cantilever beam during its resonant vibration and its decrease influenced by designed
dynamic vibration dampers.
As it was mentioned above, the dynamic vibration damper is the mass, which is
connected to the structure using the elastic element spring (Fig. 18.3). Its design is based on

the relation between the natural frequency of the dynamic damper f0K and the basic natural
frequency of the investigated steel cantilever beam (more generally dominant frequency of
vibration, which should be decreased). Two possibilities are mentioned in literature:
(18.2)
A) f 0 K = f ( Z ) ,
f ( Z)

mK
,
(18.3)
(1 + )
mN
where f0K is the natural frequency of the dynamic vibration damper, f(Z) is the basic natural
frequency of the investigated structure, on which is tuned the damper, kK is the stiffness of the
elastic member of the damper, mK is the mass of the dynamic damper and mN is the mass of
the investigated structure modeled as one degree of freedom system.
When you are designing a damper on a real structure, it is necessary to cover the
changes of natural frequencies f0K a f(Z) influenced by e.g. ice formation, temperature etc. It is
the reason why it is not possible to use too low values (Equation (18.3)), the dynamic
vibration damper should have the mass satisfying the condition = 0.1, the dependence of the
damper efficiency onto changes of its parameters and parameters of the structure is not so
significant.
The measurement line is made up from devices used for measurement of the mechanic
quantities using the electric quantities. Mechanic quantity (deflection of a structure) is
transformed to the electric quantity (voltage) in the transducer. Then it is amplified in the
bridging amplifier and at the end it is printed on the recorder. The measured quantity must not
be distorted during its transfer from one component of the measurement line to the other from
the beginning to the end of the measurement line. It means that measurement line must satisfy
conditions of the undistorted transfer.
B)

f 0K =

, =

## Zvit pro uchycen snmae

Nut
Elastic member
Coil
Inertial mass
Coil
Elastic member
Body of a transducer
Connector

## Figure 18.4 Schema of the inductive acceleration transducer B12/500 HBM

Inductive acceleration transducer B12/500 (Fig. 18.4) will be used for the measuremetn
of the vibration of the investigated steel cantilever beam. This transducer allows to measure
the accelerations up to 1000 m.s-2 in the frequency range < 0 ; 250 Hz>. The transducer is
screwed to the sleeve mounted at the end of the investigated steel structure (Fig. 18.1). The
inertial mass is placed in the body of the transducer. The mass is mounted to the transducer
using two elastic membrane members. During the vibration the mass is damped by liquid,
which fills the transducer. During the vibration the inertial forces act on the inertial mass and
they load the elastic members, which deform itself and thus it results to the deflection of the

inertial mass relative to the body of the transducer. This deflection is proportional to the
measured absolute acceleration.
Two coils are inside the transducer. They are connected to the halfbridge of the
Wheatstone bridge, the second half is the part of the bridge. The inertial mass acts as the coil
core. Its displacement caused by vibration of the transducer produces the change of the coil
inductance. The electric voltage caused by this change appears on the diagonal of the
Wheatstone bridge and it is directly proportional to the measured acceleration. This electric
signal is amplified in one channel bridge KWS/T-5 (producer Hottinger-Baldwin
Messtechnik) and recorded by the recorder HIOKI 8804 (producer Hioki).
The effective value of the acceleration aef will be used for the description of the
vibration level of the investigated steel structure. This value is also called root means aRMS.
This value is defined by equation
T

a ef a RMS =

1
(a ( t )) 2 dt

T0

(18.4)

where T is the time of the chosen characteristic part of the record of the measured acceleration
a(t), from which the RMS value aRMS is evaluated. The advantage of the RMS value is that it
characterizes the investigated vibration for the whole time period T and not only in one time
instant.
If the RMS value is calculated from the constant value a(t) = K, the value aRMS = K
according the equation (18.4). We will use this property in calibration of the measurement
line.
18.2 Theoretic calculation of the basic natural frequency of the investigated steel structure.
Project engineer creates the model of a building structure under the certain physical and
mathematical assumptions. This is why it is possible to create many computational models for
one certain building structure. The aptness of the models is suitable and also interesting to
verify based on experimental investigation.
This is why the procedure of the theoretical determination of the basic natural frequency
f(Z),TEOR of the investigated steel cantilevered beam is not described in detail. Try to model the
behavior of the investigated structure the most accurate and independently e.g. you can use FEM,
deformation method of prof. Kolouek or you can model the structure as on degree of freedom
system. The interesting task of modeling of a building structure for the dynamic calculation is also
the way how to model the embedment of the steel cantilever beam to the column.
The suitability of your theoretical model for the dynamic behavior calculation will be
assessed at the end of the assignment.
The stiffness of the real building structures is much higher than the stiffness of the used
excitation springs. They have negligible influence on dynamic behavior of a real structure. But
in our assignment, we can not neglect the influence of the excitation spring on dynamic
behavior of the investigated structure, excitation spring should be considered as the part of the
dynamic system of the steel cantilever beam.
Schema of one of possible theoretical models of the investigated structure is shown in
Figure 18.5.

m3 m2

1, EI1

m1
2, EI2

kB

L4

L2

L3

L1

L
Figure 18.5 Simplified model of the investigated steel cantilever beam.
Experimentally determined parameters of this simplified theoretical model of the investigated
steel cantilever beam are:
Stiffness of the excitation spring
kB = 535 N m-1
Mass of the cylinder
m1 = 4 100 g
Mass of the sleeve
m2 = 90 g
Mass of the transducer and the sleeve
m3 = 90 g
Diameter of the steel bar
D1 = 16 mm
Mass of the steel bar (from a book of tables)
1 = 1,578 kg m-1
Moment of inertia of the cross section of the steel bar to its
horizontal gravity axis (from a book of tables)
1 = 3,2167 .10-9 m4
Side of the square cross section of the short stiff cantilever a2 = 29 mm
Mass of the short stiff cantilever (from a book of tables)
2 = 6,602 kg m-1
Moment of inertia of the short stiff cantilever to its
horizontal gravity axis (from a book of tables)
2 = 5,894 .10-8 m4
Length of the short stiff cantilever
L1 = 0,116 m
Distance of the mass m1 from the short stiff cantilever
L2 = ???
(It will be assigned individually in the range (0.4 ; 0.9 m))
Length of the part of the bar
L = L2 + L3 = 0,980 m
Length of the part of the bar
L4 = 0,115 m
18.3 Experimental determination of the spring stiffness of the dynamic vibration damper.
Working procedure can be summarized in these points:
1) Prepare the table according the template (Table 18.1).
2) Ask an assistant to give you 2 springs, which will be used for design of the damper.
3) Determine the stiffness kK of these springs using the device, which is on the table in front
of you. (One part of the device is also Fris deflection transducer.)
4) The first hook of the spring put to the hole in the upper part of the steel bar, which is
gripped in the lever of the Fris deflection transducer.
5) The second hook of the spring put to the hole in the upper part of the device.
6) Hang the tensional mass (the mass with two hooks and with the label 152g) to the hook in
the lower part of the steel bar and damp the potential vibration.
7) If the indicator of the Fris deflection transducer is in the improper position (after next
loading, the indicator would go over zero or the lever would reach the end position try to
recognize these states by hanging the mass 0.5 kg at the end of the bar), unscrew the screw
on the lever of the Fris deflection transducer, set the more proper position of the

indicator (e.g. set the indicator to the positive range, accurate set of zero is very
complicated) and screw the screw again.
8) Read out the value from the Fris deflection transducer (zero reading wP0i) and write it
down to the table. Read out with precision 0.01mm (scale division is 0.1mm, estimate the
hundredth).
9) Hang the test mass mZ = 0,500 kg on the lower hook of the tensional mass and damp the
potential vibration
write it down to the table.
11) Put down the test mass and damp the potential vibration.
12) Repeat the procedure from the point 8), do it three times.
13) Put down the tensional mass, change the springs and repeat the procedure from the point
6) for the second spring.
14) Set the device to the initial state. Put down the tensional mass and put out the spring.
15) Elongation of the spring in the load step No. i (
wPi) is
w Pi =w PZi w P 0i
,
(18.5)
16) Calculate the resulting value of the spring elongation wP as an average of all loadings.
17) The stiffness of the given spring kK is determined by relation
m g
k K w P = FZ ; FZ = G Z = m Z g k K = Z
,
(18.6)
w P
where g is the gravity acceleration. The value g is necessary to consider to the calculation
very accurate (g = 9,81 m s-2).
18.4 Design of the mass of the dynamic vibration damper based on theoretical basic
natural frequency
When you are designing a damper on a real structure, it is necessary to cover the
changes of natural frequencies f0K a f(Z) influenced by e.g. ice formation, temperature etc. It is
the reason why it is not possible to use too low values (Equation (18.3)), the dynamic
vibration damper should have the mass satisfying the condition = 0.1, the dependence of the
damper efficiency onto changes of its parameters and parameters of the structure is not so
significant. This optimal design can not be always realized. The recommended mass of the
In our assignment, choose the spring for which is closer to the recommended value
= 0,1 .
If the design of the mass of the damper mK is designed based on the equation (18.2),
we can write
kk
,
(18.6)
mK =
4 f (2Z ) 2
But the damper is more efficient, if it is designed according the relation (18.3). Then it is
k

k
m 2K K2 + m K 2 K 4 f (2Z ) 2 + k K = 0 ,
(18.7)
mN
mN

and estimate mN mass of the structure, which is modeled as one degree of freedom system.
Because the structure is complicated, it is not possible to determine unique procedure for mN
determination. This is why the method of mN determination is on your choice based on your
experiences.

Choose the weight, which is suitable for your designed mass of the damper mK, from
three weights m= 200 g, m = 300 g a m = 400 g (the label with the mass value is on each
of them). The weights lie on the work table in front of you.
ATTENTION!!! Nuts and washers, which are strongly screwed to the upper part of the
weight closely to the basic cylinder, are considered to the basic mass of the weight. Do not
manipulate with them under no circumstances!!!
Adjust the basic mass closest to your designed mass mK of the damper using the nuts
and washers, which are prepared on your table. The big nut has the mass m = 10 g, the
smaller nut has the mass m = 5 g and one washer has the mass m = 3 g. Screw the nuts and
washers to the lower part of the bar thread. Tighten them using the nut wrench not to move on
the weight.
18.5 Preparation of the dynamic response measurement of the structure, balance of the
bridging amplifier
Check the connection of the measurement line and add types of used devices to your
schema in your report. Balance the bridging amplifier KWS/T-5 using the procedure:
1) Check if the transducer is screwed to the sleeve at the free end of the cantilever beam and if
it is oriented down and if its axis is vertical. If it is necessary, adjust its position: unscrew the
screw in the sleeve, adjust the position of the transducer and screw the screw again.
2) Set the switch MESSBEREICH to the position 0 on the bridging amplifier.
3) Set the switch BRCKE to the position Ind (inductive transducer).
4) Switch on the device using the button EIN.
5) Set the sensitivity to the value 1000oo using the switch MESSBEREICH.
6) Balance the resistance of the bridging amplifier. Set zero on the voltmeter using two
buttons R. The left button GROB is for coarse balance. The right button FEIN is the
multiple button composed of two parts. The middle part is used for middle coarse balance
and the outside button is used for fine balance.
7) Balance the capacity of the bridging amplifier. Press the button C ABGLEICH. During
balancing the capacity it is necessary to hold this button pressed.
8) Set zero on the voltmeter using the button C, which is also multiple. The middle part is
used for middle coarse balance and the outside button is used for fine balance.
9) If zero is on the voltmeter after release the button C ABGLEICH, continue to the point
10), in another case repeat the procedure from the point 6).
10) Set the sensitivity to the finer one using the switch MESSBEREICH. It is not necessary
to balance the bridging amplifier for each sensitivity. Balance the amplifier for the
sensitivity for which the voltmeter indicator is approximately in the middle of the range
(repeat the procedure from the point 6) for just set sensitivity). In any case, balance the
bridging amplifier for the finest sensitivity 1oo.
11) Set the sensitivity 10oo using the switch MESSBEREICH.
12) Unscrew the screw in the sleeve, adjust the position of the transducer to be oriented up and
to be its axis vertical. Screw the screw by hand to be able to turn it with gentle resistance.
13) Set the voltmeter indicator to the 95% of its range (full range corresponds to the output
voltage 2V) using the potentiometer MESSBEREICH FEIN.
14) Turn the sleeve with the transducer to be oriented down and to be its axis vertical.
18.6 Calibration of the measurement line and evaluation of the calibration record
Now the measurement line is prepared fro calibration. Calibration of the measurement
line is determination of the proportionality constant between the measured quantity
(acceleration at the free end of the cantilever) and the quantity registered on the recorder
(digital values of the voltage).

Recording of the calibration record on the recorder HIOKI 8804 can be summarized in
these points:
1) The acceleration transducer will be calibrated using the gravity load g.
2) The initial position of the transducer for calibration will be the position, in which the
transducer is oriented down and its axis is vertical (point 14 chapter 18.5). Turn the sleeve
with the transducer to be oriented up in the first step of calibration and then turn it back in
the second step. Pay attention to be the axis of the transducer vertical in both positions.
Repeat both steps three times.
3) Try to do calibration without recording it, damp the possible vibration using your hand.
4) Balance the bridging amplifier carefully on the finest sensitivity 1oo and then turn back
the sensitivity to the value Ckal = 10oo.
5) Write down to the table set sensitivity Ckal.
6) Switch on the recorder using the button POWER (on the side of the device under the
group of buttons PRINTER).
7) Set the cursor on RMS using buttons (+) and (-).
8) Switch the screen to the window (stts) (it measns STATUS) using the button

Ukal

Figure 18.5 Parameter setting of the recorder for recording the calibration record

## Figure 18.6 The ideal calibration record

9) Check and correct the settings of the recorder according the figure 18.5. Use the buttons
CURSOR for moving on the screen and change the parameters using buttons (+) and (-).
10) Switch the screen to the window MEASUR (the graph with the last measured data is on
the screen) using the button MENU/WAVE.
11) Press the button START to start the calibration record (warning light above the button
starts to light).

The time record of the measured data will be visible on the screen. In a ideal case it
will look like the record in the figure 18.6.
 The recorder will RMS values of the measured signal automatically with the period
10s on the paper. Maximal time of the record is 200 s.
 Within this time calibrate the transducer three times, damp the possible vibration of
the cantilever beam using your hand. Change the position of the transducer after two
same values of RMS appear on the paper. The record ends automatically after 200 s.
 If the first RMS value on the paper at time +0.000 s is not 0,0000 V, Stop the record
and check the verticality of the transducer and balance the bridging amplifier
carefully.
 If you will not repeat the calibration three times in 200s but the calibration values
from the first two repetitions are the same, it is not necessary to repeat the record.
12) Press the button SHIFT. Now, you can view the record on the screen of the recorder. You
can move through the record to view all of its parts using buttons (+) and (-).
13) Write the label Calibration record on the record with numbers printed on the recorder.
14) Check the position of the transducer for measurement (the transducer is oriented down and
its axis is vertical) and screw the screw using a screwdriver in the sleeve.
18.7 Experimental determination of the basic natural frequency of the investigated structure.
18.7.1 Preparation of the measurement of the resonant curve
1) Prepare values of the excitation frequency, for which you will determine resonant curve.
natural frequency in the range < f(Z),TEOR 0,8 Hz ; f(Z),TEOR + 0,8 Hz > with step 0.2 Hz.
The frequency will be determined more accurate with the step 0.05 Hz for the determined
resonant range.
2) Consult the prepared range with the assistant.
3) It is not necessary to change the setting of the recorder. It is the same as for the calibration.
4) Balance the resistance of the bridging amplifier carefully for the finest sensitivity 1oo.
5) Set the ideal sensitivity of the bridging amplifier for the measurement. In this case it is
Cm = 10oo
6) Write down the value of the sensitivity Cm.
7) Check the connection of the devices before switching them on. (Figure 18.1)
8) Set the amplification button of the power amplifier
( left down) to the minimum
(turn it counterclockwise).
9) Check if the cable leads from the power amplifier to the exciter, which will excite the
vibration of the investigated steel cantilever beam.
10) If the power amplifier is switched on, go to the point 13.
11) If the power amplifier is not switched on, CHECK IF THE RED BANANA PIN OF THE
CABLE IS OUT OF THE OUTLET
. When you switch on the power amplifier, the
electric impulse appears on its output and this impulse cause OVERSIZED displacement
of the core, which hits the body of the exciter and can cause the damage of the exciter. All
is accompanied with very noisy bang.
12) Switch on the power amplifier with red button (up right). If everything is all right, this
button starts to light.
13) Put the banana pin to the outlet
of the power amplifier.
14) Switch on the signal generator (SOURCE UNIT). Press the red button (left and down) to
the position ON.
15) Switch on the generation of the sinus signal using the button
in the group of buttons
FUNCTION.

## 16) Set the amplitude of the excitation signal:

 Press the button AMP in the group of buttons ENTRY.
 Set the amplitude of the excitation signal to the value 0.10 V in the group of buttons
DATA. If the value is set properly, confirm it by pressing the button Hz/V (up and
right in the group of buttons DATA). If the value is not correct, clear it with the
button CLR.
17) Set the excitation frequency:
 Press the button FREQ in the group of buttons ENTRY.
 Set the initial excitation frequency to the value (f(Z),TEOR 0,8 Hz) in the group of
buttons DATA. If the value is set properly, confirm it by pressing the button Hz/V
(up and right in the group of buttons DATA). If the value is not correct, clear it with
the button CLR.
18) Turn clockwise softly and slowly the button of the amplitude amplification to the marked
position (P). Pay attention to not exceed the permissible amplitude 3mm of vibration of
the exciter. Its exceeding is signalized by noise because the core hits the body of the
exciter.
18.7.2 Measurement of the resonant curve
1) Set the exciting frequency on the signal generator according the values prepared in the
point 1 chapter 18.7.1 :
 Set the exciting frequency using the group of buttons DATA on the display.
 The exciter will start to vibrate after pressing the button Hz / V. The number on the
display is ignored till this pressing.
2) Wait a few seconds (about 10 s) till the vibration of the structure becomes steady-state.
Attention, do not be confused by the behavior of the investigated cantilever beam. If the
excitation frequency is close to the basic natural frequency, frequency beats appear.
3) Start measurement by pressing the button START (warning light above the button starts
to light).
 Waveform of the measured data will be displayed on the screen. Check if the range
of the recorder is not exceeded (measured values reach the limit line at the upper
edge of the screen).
 The recorder will print automatically the RMS values of the measured signal with
the period 10 s. Maximal record time is 200 s.
 If three printed RMS values are the same or if a pair of values repeats periodically,
stop the measurement by pressing the button STOP.
4) Mark the record by its excitation frequency. Write down to the table resulting RMS value
of the response (or the average of the pair of repeating values).
5) Repeat the procedure from the point 1 for all necessary excitation frequencies.
6) Stop the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD (up and right) on the
signal generator, warning light on the button stops to light. The transfer of the excitation
signal from the signal generator to the exciter is interrupted this way.
7) Evaluate the frequency range in which the basic natural frequency of the investigated steel
cantilever beam lies. It is the range near the excitation frequency for which the RMS value
is the highest.
8) Start the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD (up and right) on the
signal generator, warning light on the button starts to light. The transfer of the excitation
signal from the signal generator to the exciter is restored again this way.
9) Carry out the measurement to accurate the position of the basic natural frequency.
Supplement the measurement of the determined resonant range with the response of the
cantilever onto added frequencies to be the step between frequencies in the resonant range

0.05 Hz and to be in the vicinity of the determined basic natural frequency from both sides
the point with the frequency distance 0.05 Hz. At first, start to find it in the interval in the
direction from the maximum to the second highest neighboring ordinate.
10) Stop the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD (up and right) on the
signal generator, warning light on the button stops to light. The transfer of the excitation
signal from the signal generator to the exciter is interrupted this way.
11) The exciting frequency, for which the RMS value is highest, will be rated as the basic
natural frequency f(Z),m. The accuracy of the determination f(Z),m is then 0,025 Hz,
which is very good accuracy even from the practical view.
18.8 Design of the dynamic mass damper based on the measured basic natural frequency.
Use the same procedure for the design of the dynamic mass damper based on the
measured value of the basic natural frequency f(Z),m as for the case of the calculated basic
natural frequency. The procedure is described in the chapter 18.4.
18.9 Efficiency assessment of the designed vibration dampers measurement of the
vibration level of the investigated structure caused by dynamic resonant load, which is
influenced by dampers designed based on calculated and measured basic natural
frequencies.
1) It is not necessary to change the setting of the recorder. It is the same as for the previous
measurement.
2) Balance the bridge carefully for the finest sensitivity 1oo.
3) Set the ideal sensitivity of the bridge for the measurement. In this case it is Cm = 10oo
4) Write down this sensitivity Cm.
5) Switch on the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD (up and right) on
the signal generator, warning light on the button starts to light. The transfer of the
excitation signal from the signal generator to the exciter is restored again this way.
6) Set the basic natural frequency f(Z),m evaluated from the measurement on the signal
generator.
 Set the basic natural frequency using the group of buttons DATA on the display.
 The exciter will start to vibrate after pressing the button Hz / V. The number on the
display is ignored till this pressing.
7) Wait a few seconds (about 10 s) till the vibration of the structure becomes steady-state.
8) Start measurement by pressing the button START (warning light above the button starts
to light).
 Waveform of the measured data will be displayed on the screen. Check if the range
of the recorder is not exceeded (measured values reach the limit line at the upper
edge of the screen).
 The recorder will print automatically the RMS values of the measured signal with
the period 10 s. Maximal record time is 200 s.
 If three printed RMS values are the same or if a pair of values repeats periodically,
stop the measurement by pressing the button STOP.
9) Mark the record Resonant vibration. Write down to the table resulting RMS value of the
response (or the average of the pair of repeating values).
12) Stop the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD (up and right) on the
signal generator, warning light on the button stops to light.
13) Hang the chosen more apposite spring under the mass m1. Hang the mass of the damper to
the lower hook of the spring. It is the mass which you have created based on the calculated
basic natural frequency (last two paragraphs in chapter 18.4.).

10) Start the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD.
11) DO NOT CHANGE the excitation frequency!!!
12) Wait a few seconds (about 10 s) till the vibration of the structure becomes steady-state.
13) Set the ideal sensitivity of the bridge for the measurement. In this case it is Cm = 1oo
14) Write down this sensitivity Cm.
15) Start measurement by pressing the button START (warning light above the button starts
to light).
 Waveform of the measured data will be displayed on the screen. Check if the range
of the recorder is not exceeded (measured values reach the limit line at the upper
edge of the screen). If the range is exceeded, it is necessary to switch to lower
sensitivity on the bridge.
 The recorder will print automatically the RMS values of the measured signal with
the period 10 s. Maximal record time is 200 s.
 If three printed RMS values are the same or if a pair of values repeats periodically,
stop the measurement by pressing the button STOP.
16) Mark the record Damper - theory. Write down to the table resulting RMS value of the
response (or the average of the pair of repeating values).
14) Stop the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD.
15) Damp the vibration of the investigated steel cantilever beam by your hand.
16) Put down the mass of the damper.
17) Using the procedure described in last two paragraphs in the chapter 18.4, correct the mass
of the damper to the value mK, which you have designed based on the measured basic
natural frequency of the investigated steel cantilever beam.
18) Hang the mass mK of the damper to the lower hook of the spring
17) Switch on the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD (up and right) on
the signal generator, warning light on the button starts to light. The transfer of the
excitation signal from the signal generator to the exciter is restored again this way.
18) DO NOT CHANGE the excitation frequency!!!
19) Wait a few seconds (about 10 s) till the vibration of the structure becomes steady-state.
20) Set the ideal sensitivity of the bridge for the measurement. In this case it is Cm = 1oo
21) Write down this sensitivity Cm.
22) Start measurement by pressing the button START (warning light above the button starts
to light).
 Waveform of the measured data will be displayed on the screen. Check if the range
of the recorder is not exceeded (measured values reach the limit line at the upper
edge of the screen). If the range is exceeded, it is necessary to switch to lower
sensitivity on the bridge.
 The recorder will print automatically the RMS values of the measured signal with
the period 10 s. Maximal record time is 200 s.
 If three printed RMS values are the same or if a pair of values repeats periodically,
stop the measurement by pressing the button STOP.
23) Mark the record Damper - experiment. Write down to the table resulting RMS value of
the response (or the average of the pair of repeating values).
24) The measurement is finished. Switch off the devices, which you have used for the
measurement. Pull out the red banana pin from the outlet of the power amplifier.

## 18.10 Evaluation of the measurement

At first, evaluate the calibration record, determine the constant of the conversion of the
registered quantity (digital values of the voltage, which are reordered on the paper of the
recorder) to the investigated mechanic quantity (vertical acceleration of the end of the
cantilever beam)
M kal
kp =
,
(18.8)
C kal U kal
where Mkal is the amplitude of the used calibration mechanic quantity acceleration (the
change of the measured acceleration between two positions of the transducer in the first and in
the second steps of the calibration (a half turn of the transducer) corresponds to the double
gravity acceleration Mkal = 2 g = 2 9.81 = 19.62 m s-2), Ckal is the sensitivity set on the
bridging amplifier during recording the calibration record and Ukal is the difference between
the levels of the record, which correspond to the first and to the second steps of the calibration
(Figure 18.5). Ukal is obtained from the calibration record as the average of the correct values.
Calculate the efficiency of the dampers and the real RMS value of the measured
acceleration aRMS,i during measurement of the resonant curve for each step of measurement
according the equation
a RMS,i = k p C mer ,i U RMS,i
,
(18.9)
where i is the step of the measurement, Cmer,i is the sensitivity set on the bridge during the
measurement and URMS,i is the RMS value of the voltage registered by the recorder.
Compare the calculated (f(Z),TEOR) and measured (f(Z),EXP) basic natural frequency in the
efficiency assessment of your model of the investigated steel cantilever beam. According the
SN 73 2044 Dynamic tests of building structures (Dynamick zkouky stavebnch
konstrukc), the agreement between the theoretical calculation and the experiment is reached,
when the difference between theoretical and measured natural frequency f(j) is within the
prescribed range. f(j) is determined based on the equation
f ( j),TEOR f ( j),OBS
f ( j) =
100
[%] ,
(18.10)
f ( j),MIN

where f(j) ,TEOR is j-th calculated natural frequency, f(j) ,OBS is the corresponding measured
natural frequency and f(j) ,MIN is the lesser of the previous compared values f(j) ,TEOR and
f(j) ,OBS. The f(1) for the first natural frequency f(1) has to be lesser than 5.0%.
Consider the basic natural frequency f(Z) as the first natural frequency f(1) of the
investigated steel cantilever beam.
Summarize the measurement results:
1) In the prepared table.
2) Plot the resonant curve to the graph.
3) Characterize the efficiency of the designed vibration dampers.
4) Assess the aptness of your model of the investigated steel cantilever beam, on which you
have determined the theoretical basic natural frequency.