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ASSIGNMENT 11: Design of the dynamic mass damper and its efficiency assessment

Task specification:

Based on theoretical calculation estimate the basic natural frequency of the investigated

structure.

Design the dynamic mass damper based on the calculated basic natural frequency for the

investigated structure.

Measure the real value of the basic natural frequency of the investigated structure.

Determine the level of the forced resonant vibration of the investigated structure.

Design the dynamic mass damper based on the measured basic natural frequency for the

investigated structure.

Assess the efficiency of the dynamic mass damper designed based on calculated basic

natural frequency.

Assess the efficiency of the dynamic mass damper designed based on measured basic

natural frequency.

Recorder

Measured data

output

Inductive

acceleration

ttransducer

Bridging amplifier

Spring for excitation

Investigated

structure

Exciter

Power

amplifier

Solution procedure:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Theoretical calculation of the basic natural frequency of the investigated structure.

Experimental determination of the spring stiffness of the mass damper.

Design of the mass amount of the mass damper based on the calculated natural frequency

Preparation of the dynamic response measurement of the structure, balance of the bridging

amplifier.

7. Experimental determination of the basic natural frequency of the investigated steel

structure.

8. Design of the mass amount of the mass damper based on the measured natural frequency

9. Efficiency assessment of the designed vibration dampers measurement of the vibration

level of the investigated structure caused by dynamic resonant forces, which is influenced

by dampers designed based on calculated and measured basic natural frequencies.

10. Evaluation of the measurement.

18.1 Measurement procedure and measurement line.

Lets suppose that investigated model is the real building structure, which is

aerodynamically unstable. It means that the wind flowing around causes the dynamic load,

which extremely increases the vibration of the structure.

For example it can be the effect called eddy flow. It means that eddies separate from the

flow behind the circular cross-section cylinder with the frequency, which depends on the

speed of the air flow and the diameter of the structure. It is registered as the vibration of the

structure perpendicular to the direction of the air flow. The frequency of the vibration is the

same as the frequency of eddy separation. If the frequency of the eddy separation is close to

the natural frequency of the structure, the resonant vibration starts.

There are many methods described in literature how to decrease the extreme vibration of

the circular structure caused by eddy separation. We are going to use the dynamic mass

damper for decrease of the extreme resonant vibration of the investigated steel structure.

Dynamic mass damper is the mass, which is hanged on the structure using the elastic

member - spring. (Sometimes the damping member is also used.) This changes the dynamic

effects, it means that one degree of freedom is added. if you choose proper parameters of the

dynamic mass damper, the vibration amplitude of the structure decreases significantly and the

energy of the excitation transforms to the energy of the mass vibration of the damper. The

dynamic mass damper should be designed to allow its vibration.

Dynamic mass damper can be used generally for the decrease of any extreme vibration

of the structure, which vibrates with one dominant frequency, e.g. structures loaded by

dynamic effects of wind, footbridges, factory halls loaded by dynamic effects of machinery

etc.

The basic natural frequency of the building structure (similar to the investigated steel

cantilever beam) is usually the lowest natural frequency of the vertical bending natural mode

of vibration of the structure.

The basic natural frequency of the investigated steel structure will be determined from

the forced vibration excited by harmonic force F(t). The excitation force will be produced by

electrodynamic exciter, which is placed under the structure (Figure 18.1). The vibration of the

excitation mass will be transferred to the excitation spring using the steel wire. The cantilever

beam will be loaded by harmonic force at its free end

F(f ) = k B w B (f ) ,

(18.1)

where f is the is the excitation frequency, F(f) is the amplitude of the excitation force

depending on excitation frequency, kB is the stiffness of the excitation spring using which the

excitation force F(t) is transferred to the investigated structure and wB(f) is the amplitude of

vibration of the excitation mass of the exciter. It is necessary the wire and excitation spring be

prestressed by static force FST, which is bigger than the maximal amplitude of the excitation

force F(t), to be the excitation force F(t) really harmonic.

There are many methods how to determine the natural frequencies and modes of

vibration. The very suitable method for evaluation frequency response functions HRS(if) from

the measurement is described and used in the solution of the assignment number 8, simplified

method is then used in assignment number 9 and 10.

response

0.8

0.9

1.1

1.2

f / f(Z)

Figure 18.2

Expected character of the resonant curve in the vicinity of the basic natural

frequency of the investigated steel structure.

INVESTIGATED

STRUCTURE

kK

VIBRATION

DAMPER

mK

Figure 18.3

The basic natural frequency of the investigated steel structure will be determined from

the resonant curve for this assignment (Fig. 18.2), it means that the dependence of the

response amplitude onto the change of the excitation force will be monitored.

The difference between the resonant curve and the frequency response function HRS(if)

used in the assignment No. 8 is not big. In fact, the frequency response function is the

resonant curve determined from the response of the structure loaded by harmonic excitation

force with constant unit amplitude. It would be necessary to measure the amplitude of the

excitation force to be able to evaluate the measurement results in the form of the frequency

response function HRS(if).

We will assume that the basic natural frequency of the investigated steel cantilever beam

is the frequency for which the local maximum appears on the resonant curve.

In the next part of the assignment solution, we will investigate the dynamic response of

the steel cantilever beam during its resonant vibration and its decrease influenced by designed

dynamic vibration dampers.

As it was mentioned above, the dynamic vibration damper is the mass, which is

connected to the structure using the elastic element spring (Fig. 18.3). Its design is based on

the relation between the natural frequency of the dynamic damper f0K and the basic natural

frequency of the investigated steel cantilever beam (more generally dominant frequency of

vibration, which should be decreased). Two possibilities are mentioned in literature:

(18.2)

A) f 0 K = f ( Z ) ,

f ( Z)

mK

,

(18.3)

(1 + )

mN

where f0K is the natural frequency of the dynamic vibration damper, f(Z) is the basic natural

frequency of the investigated structure, on which is tuned the damper, kK is the stiffness of the

elastic member of the damper, mK is the mass of the dynamic damper and mN is the mass of

the investigated structure modeled as one degree of freedom system.

When you are designing a damper on a real structure, it is necessary to cover the

changes of natural frequencies f0K a f(Z) influenced by e.g. ice formation, temperature etc. It is

the reason why it is not possible to use too low values (Equation (18.3)), the dynamic

vibration damper should have the mass satisfying the condition = 0.1, the dependence of the

damper efficiency onto changes of its parameters and parameters of the structure is not so

significant.

The measurement line is made up from devices used for measurement of the mechanic

quantities using the electric quantities. Mechanic quantity (deflection of a structure) is

transformed to the electric quantity (voltage) in the transducer. Then it is amplified in the

bridging amplifier and at the end it is printed on the recorder. The measured quantity must not

be distorted during its transfer from one component of the measurement line to the other from

the beginning to the end of the measurement line. It means that measurement line must satisfy

conditions of the undistorted transfer.

B)

f 0K =

, =

Nut

Elastic member

Coil

Inertial mass

Coil

Elastic member

Body of a transducer

Connector

Inductive acceleration transducer B12/500 (Fig. 18.4) will be used for the measuremetn

of the vibration of the investigated steel cantilever beam. This transducer allows to measure

the accelerations up to 1000 m.s-2 in the frequency range < 0 ; 250 Hz>. The transducer is

screwed to the sleeve mounted at the end of the investigated steel structure (Fig. 18.1). The

inertial mass is placed in the body of the transducer. The mass is mounted to the transducer

using two elastic membrane members. During the vibration the mass is damped by liquid,

which fills the transducer. During the vibration the inertial forces act on the inertial mass and

they load the elastic members, which deform itself and thus it results to the deflection of the

inertial mass relative to the body of the transducer. This deflection is proportional to the

measured absolute acceleration.

Two coils are inside the transducer. They are connected to the halfbridge of the

Wheatstone bridge, the second half is the part of the bridge. The inertial mass acts as the coil

core. Its displacement caused by vibration of the transducer produces the change of the coil

inductance. The electric voltage caused by this change appears on the diagonal of the

Wheatstone bridge and it is directly proportional to the measured acceleration. This electric

signal is amplified in one channel bridge KWS/T-5 (producer Hottinger-Baldwin

Messtechnik) and recorded by the recorder HIOKI 8804 (producer Hioki).

The effective value of the acceleration aef will be used for the description of the

vibration level of the investigated steel structure. This value is also called root means aRMS.

This value is defined by equation

T

a ef a RMS =

1

(a ( t )) 2 dt

T0

(18.4)

where T is the time of the chosen characteristic part of the record of the measured acceleration

a(t), from which the RMS value aRMS is evaluated. The advantage of the RMS value is that it

characterizes the investigated vibration for the whole time period T and not only in one time

instant.

If the RMS value is calculated from the constant value a(t) = K, the value aRMS = K

according the equation (18.4). We will use this property in calibration of the measurement

line.

18.2 Theoretic calculation of the basic natural frequency of the investigated steel structure.

Project engineer creates the model of a building structure under the certain physical and

mathematical assumptions. This is why it is possible to create many computational models for

one certain building structure. The aptness of the models is suitable and also interesting to

verify based on experimental investigation.

This is why the procedure of the theoretical determination of the basic natural frequency

f(Z),TEOR of the investigated steel cantilevered beam is not described in detail. Try to model the

behavior of the investigated structure the most accurate and independently e.g. you can use FEM,

deformation method of prof. Kolouek or you can model the structure as on degree of freedom

system. The interesting task of modeling of a building structure for the dynamic calculation is also

the way how to model the embedment of the steel cantilever beam to the column.

The suitability of your theoretical model for the dynamic behavior calculation will be

assessed at the end of the assignment.

The stiffness of the real building structures is much higher than the stiffness of the used

excitation springs. They have negligible influence on dynamic behavior of a real structure. But

in our assignment, we can not neglect the influence of the excitation spring on dynamic

behavior of the investigated structure, excitation spring should be considered as the part of the

dynamic system of the steel cantilever beam.

Schema of one of possible theoretical models of the investigated structure is shown in

Figure 18.5.

m3 m2

1, EI1

m1

2, EI2

kB

L4

L2

L3

L1

L

Figure 18.5 Simplified model of the investigated steel cantilever beam.

Experimentally determined parameters of this simplified theoretical model of the investigated

steel cantilever beam are:

Stiffness of the excitation spring

kB = 535 N m-1

Mass of the cylinder

m1 = 4 100 g

Mass of the sleeve

m2 = 90 g

Mass of the transducer and the sleeve

m3 = 90 g

Diameter of the steel bar

D1 = 16 mm

Mass of the steel bar (from a book of tables)

1 = 1,578 kg m-1

Moment of inertia of the cross section of the steel bar to its

horizontal gravity axis (from a book of tables)

1 = 3,2167 .10-9 m4

Side of the square cross section of the short stiff cantilever a2 = 29 mm

Mass of the short stiff cantilever (from a book of tables)

2 = 6,602 kg m-1

Moment of inertia of the short stiff cantilever to its

horizontal gravity axis (from a book of tables)

2 = 5,894 .10-8 m4

Length of the short stiff cantilever

L1 = 0,116 m

Distance of the mass m1 from the short stiff cantilever

L2 = ???

(It will be assigned individually in the range (0.4 ; 0.9 m))

Length of the part of the bar

L = L2 + L3 = 0,980 m

Length of the part of the bar

L4 = 0,115 m

18.3 Experimental determination of the spring stiffness of the dynamic vibration damper.

Working procedure can be summarized in these points:

1) Prepare the table according the template (Table 18.1).

2) Ask an assistant to give you 2 springs, which will be used for design of the damper.

3) Determine the stiffness kK of these springs using the device, which is on the table in front

of you. (One part of the device is also Fris deflection transducer.)

4) The first hook of the spring put to the hole in the upper part of the steel bar, which is

gripped in the lever of the Fris deflection transducer.

5) The second hook of the spring put to the hole in the upper part of the device.

6) Hang the tensional mass (the mass with two hooks and with the label 152g) to the hook in

the lower part of the steel bar and damp the potential vibration.

7) If the indicator of the Fris deflection transducer is in the improper position (after next

loading, the indicator would go over zero or the lever would reach the end position try to

recognize these states by hanging the mass 0.5 kg at the end of the bar), unscrew the screw

on the lever of the Fris deflection transducer, set the more proper position of the

indicator (e.g. set the indicator to the positive range, accurate set of zero is very

complicated) and screw the screw again.

8) Read out the value from the Fris deflection transducer (zero reading wP0i) and write it

down to the table. Read out with precision 0.01mm (scale division is 0.1mm, estimate the

hundredth).

9) Hang the test mass mZ = 0,500 kg on the lower hook of the tensional mass and damp the

potential vibration

10) Read out the value from the Fris deflection transducer (reading in loaded state wPZi) and

write it down to the table.

11) Put down the test mass and damp the potential vibration.

12) Repeat the procedure from the point 8), do it three times.

13) Put down the tensional mass, change the springs and repeat the procedure from the point

6) for the second spring.

14) Set the device to the initial state. Put down the tensional mass and put out the spring.

15) Elongation of the spring in the load step No. i (

wPi) is

w Pi =w PZi w P 0i

,

(18.5)

16) Calculate the resulting value of the spring elongation wP as an average of all loadings.

17) The stiffness of the given spring kK is determined by relation

m g

k K w P = FZ ; FZ = G Z = m Z g k K = Z

,

(18.6)

w P

where g is the gravity acceleration. The value g is necessary to consider to the calculation

very accurate (g = 9,81 m s-2).

18.4 Design of the mass of the dynamic vibration damper based on theoretical basic

natural frequency

When you are designing a damper on a real structure, it is necessary to cover the

changes of natural frequencies f0K a f(Z) influenced by e.g. ice formation, temperature etc. It is

the reason why it is not possible to use too low values (Equation (18.3)), the dynamic

vibration damper should have the mass satisfying the condition = 0.1, the dependence of the

damper efficiency onto changes of its parameters and parameters of the structure is not so

significant. This optimal design can not be always realized. The recommended mass of the

additionally designed damper can increase the static load over the limit load, especially for

already built structures.

In our assignment, choose the spring for which is closer to the recommended value

= 0,1 .

If the design of the mass of the damper mK is designed based on the equation (18.2),

we can write

kk

,

(18.6)

mK =

4 f (2Z ) 2

But the damper is more efficient, if it is designed according the relation (18.3). Then it is

necessary to solve quadratic equation

k

k

m 2K K2 + m K 2 K 4 f (2Z ) 2 + k K = 0 ,

(18.7)

mN

mN

and estimate mN mass of the structure, which is modeled as one degree of freedom system.

Because the structure is complicated, it is not possible to determine unique procedure for mN

determination. This is why the method of mN determination is on your choice based on your

experiences.

Choose the weight, which is suitable for your designed mass of the damper mK, from

three weights m= 200 g, m = 300 g a m = 400 g (the label with the mass value is on each

of them). The weights lie on the work table in front of you.

ATTENTION!!! Nuts and washers, which are strongly screwed to the upper part of the

weight closely to the basic cylinder, are considered to the basic mass of the weight. Do not

manipulate with them under no circumstances!!!

Adjust the basic mass closest to your designed mass mK of the damper using the nuts

and washers, which are prepared on your table. The big nut has the mass m = 10 g, the

smaller nut has the mass m = 5 g and one washer has the mass m = 3 g. Screw the nuts and

washers to the lower part of the bar thread. Tighten them using the nut wrench not to move on

the weight.

18.5 Preparation of the dynamic response measurement of the structure, balance of the

bridging amplifier

Check the connection of the measurement line and add types of used devices to your

schema in your report. Balance the bridging amplifier KWS/T-5 using the procedure:

1) Check if the transducer is screwed to the sleeve at the free end of the cantilever beam and if

it is oriented down and if its axis is vertical. If it is necessary, adjust its position: unscrew the

screw in the sleeve, adjust the position of the transducer and screw the screw again.

2) Set the switch MESSBEREICH to the position 0 on the bridging amplifier.

3) Set the switch BRCKE to the position Ind (inductive transducer).

4) Switch on the device using the button EIN.

5) Set the sensitivity to the value 1000oo using the switch MESSBEREICH.

6) Balance the resistance of the bridging amplifier. Set zero on the voltmeter using two

buttons R. The left button GROB is for coarse balance. The right button FEIN is the

multiple button composed of two parts. The middle part is used for middle coarse balance

and the outside button is used for fine balance.

7) Balance the capacity of the bridging amplifier. Press the button C ABGLEICH. During

balancing the capacity it is necessary to hold this button pressed.

8) Set zero on the voltmeter using the button C, which is also multiple. The middle part is

used for middle coarse balance and the outside button is used for fine balance.

9) If zero is on the voltmeter after release the button C ABGLEICH, continue to the point

10), in another case repeat the procedure from the point 6).

10) Set the sensitivity to the finer one using the switch MESSBEREICH. It is not necessary

to balance the bridging amplifier for each sensitivity. Balance the amplifier for the

sensitivity for which the voltmeter indicator is approximately in the middle of the range

(repeat the procedure from the point 6) for just set sensitivity). In any case, balance the

bridging amplifier for the finest sensitivity 1oo.

11) Set the sensitivity 10oo using the switch MESSBEREICH.

12) Unscrew the screw in the sleeve, adjust the position of the transducer to be oriented up and

to be its axis vertical. Screw the screw by hand to be able to turn it with gentle resistance.

13) Set the voltmeter indicator to the 95% of its range (full range corresponds to the output

voltage 2V) using the potentiometer MESSBEREICH FEIN.

14) Turn the sleeve with the transducer to be oriented down and to be its axis vertical.

18.6 Calibration of the measurement line and evaluation of the calibration record

Now the measurement line is prepared fro calibration. Calibration of the measurement

line is determination of the proportionality constant between the measured quantity

(acceleration at the free end of the cantilever) and the quantity registered on the recorder

(digital values of the voltage).

Recording of the calibration record on the recorder HIOKI 8804 can be summarized in

these points:

1) The acceleration transducer will be calibrated using the gravity load g.

2) The initial position of the transducer for calibration will be the position, in which the

transducer is oriented down and its axis is vertical (point 14 chapter 18.5). Turn the sleeve

with the transducer to be oriented up in the first step of calibration and then turn it back in

the second step. Pay attention to be the axis of the transducer vertical in both positions.

Repeat both steps three times.

3) Try to do calibration without recording it, damp the possible vibration using your hand.

4) Balance the bridging amplifier carefully on the finest sensitivity 1oo and then turn back

the sensitivity to the value Ckal = 10oo.

5) Write down to the table set sensitivity Ckal.

6) Switch on the recorder using the button POWER (on the side of the device under the

group of buttons PRINTER).

7) Set the cursor on RMS using buttons (+) and (-).

8) Switch the screen to the window (stts) (it measns STATUS) using the button

MENU/WAVE.

Ukal

Figure 18.5 Parameter setting of the recorder for recording the calibration record

9) Check and correct the settings of the recorder according the figure 18.5. Use the buttons

CURSOR for moving on the screen and change the parameters using buttons (+) and (-).

10) Switch the screen to the window MEASUR (the graph with the last measured data is on

the screen) using the button MENU/WAVE.

11) Press the button START to start the calibration record (warning light above the button

starts to light).

The time record of the measured data will be visible on the screen. In a ideal case it

will look like the record in the figure 18.6.

The recorder will RMS values of the measured signal automatically with the period

10s on the paper. Maximal time of the record is 200 s.

Within this time calibrate the transducer three times, damp the possible vibration of

the cantilever beam using your hand. Change the position of the transducer after two

same values of RMS appear on the paper. The record ends automatically after 200 s.

If the first RMS value on the paper at time +0.000 s is not 0,0000 V, Stop the record

and check the verticality of the transducer and balance the bridging amplifier

carefully.

If you will not repeat the calibration three times in 200s but the calibration values

from the first two repetitions are the same, it is not necessary to repeat the record.

12) Press the button SHIFT. Now, you can view the record on the screen of the recorder. You

can move through the record to view all of its parts using buttons (+) and (-).

13) Write the label Calibration record on the record with numbers printed on the recorder.

14) Check the position of the transducer for measurement (the transducer is oriented down and

its axis is vertical) and screw the screw using a screwdriver in the sleeve.

18.7 Experimental determination of the basic natural frequency of the investigated structure.

18.7.1 Preparation of the measurement of the resonant curve

1) Prepare values of the excitation frequency, for which you will determine resonant curve.

Start with your calculated basic natural frequency rounded to tenth and find the real basic

natural frequency in the range < f(Z),TEOR 0,8 Hz ; f(Z),TEOR + 0,8 Hz > with step 0.2 Hz.

The frequency will be determined more accurate with the step 0.05 Hz for the determined

resonant range.

2) Consult the prepared range with the assistant.

3) It is not necessary to change the setting of the recorder. It is the same as for the calibration.

4) Balance the resistance of the bridging amplifier carefully for the finest sensitivity 1oo.

5) Set the ideal sensitivity of the bridging amplifier for the measurement. In this case it is

Cm = 10oo

6) Write down the value of the sensitivity Cm.

7) Check the connection of the devices before switching them on. (Figure 18.1)

8) Set the amplification button of the power amplifier

( left down) to the minimum

(turn it counterclockwise).

9) Check if the cable leads from the power amplifier to the exciter, which will excite the

vibration of the investigated steel cantilever beam.

10) If the power amplifier is switched on, go to the point 13.

11) If the power amplifier is not switched on, CHECK IF THE RED BANANA PIN OF THE

CABLE IS OUT OF THE OUTLET

. When you switch on the power amplifier, the

electric impulse appears on its output and this impulse cause OVERSIZED displacement

of the core, which hits the body of the exciter and can cause the damage of the exciter. All

is accompanied with very noisy bang.

12) Switch on the power amplifier with red button (up right). If everything is all right, this

button starts to light.

13) Put the banana pin to the outlet

of the power amplifier.

14) Switch on the signal generator (SOURCE UNIT). Press the red button (left and down) to

the position ON.

15) Switch on the generation of the sinus signal using the button

in the group of buttons

FUNCTION.

Press the button AMP in the group of buttons ENTRY.

Set the amplitude of the excitation signal to the value 0.10 V in the group of buttons

DATA. If the value is set properly, confirm it by pressing the button Hz/V (up and

right in the group of buttons DATA). If the value is not correct, clear it with the

button CLR.

17) Set the excitation frequency:

Press the button FREQ in the group of buttons ENTRY.

Set the initial excitation frequency to the value (f(Z),TEOR 0,8 Hz) in the group of

buttons DATA. If the value is set properly, confirm it by pressing the button Hz/V

(up and right in the group of buttons DATA). If the value is not correct, clear it with

the button CLR.

18) Turn clockwise softly and slowly the button of the amplitude amplification to the marked

position (P). Pay attention to not exceed the permissible amplitude 3mm of vibration of

the exciter. Its exceeding is signalized by noise because the core hits the body of the

exciter.

18.7.2 Measurement of the resonant curve

1) Set the exciting frequency on the signal generator according the values prepared in the

point 1 chapter 18.7.1 :

Set the exciting frequency using the group of buttons DATA on the display.

The exciter will start to vibrate after pressing the button Hz / V. The number on the

display is ignored till this pressing.

2) Wait a few seconds (about 10 s) till the vibration of the structure becomes steady-state.

Attention, do not be confused by the behavior of the investigated cantilever beam. If the

excitation frequency is close to the basic natural frequency, frequency beats appear.

3) Start measurement by pressing the button START (warning light above the button starts

to light).

Waveform of the measured data will be displayed on the screen. Check if the range

of the recorder is not exceeded (measured values reach the limit line at the upper

edge of the screen).

The recorder will print automatically the RMS values of the measured signal with

the period 10 s. Maximal record time is 200 s.

If three printed RMS values are the same or if a pair of values repeats periodically,

stop the measurement by pressing the button STOP.

4) Mark the record by its excitation frequency. Write down to the table resulting RMS value

of the response (or the average of the pair of repeating values).

5) Repeat the procedure from the point 1 for all necessary excitation frequencies.

6) Stop the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD (up and right) on the

signal generator, warning light on the button stops to light. The transfer of the excitation

signal from the signal generator to the exciter is interrupted this way.

7) Evaluate the frequency range in which the basic natural frequency of the investigated steel

cantilever beam lies. It is the range near the excitation frequency for which the RMS value

is the highest.

8) Start the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD (up and right) on the

signal generator, warning light on the button starts to light. The transfer of the excitation

signal from the signal generator to the exciter is restored again this way.

9) Carry out the measurement to accurate the position of the basic natural frequency.

Supplement the measurement of the determined resonant range with the response of the

cantilever onto added frequencies to be the step between frequencies in the resonant range

0.05 Hz and to be in the vicinity of the determined basic natural frequency from both sides

the point with the frequency distance 0.05 Hz. At first, start to find it in the interval in the

direction from the maximum to the second highest neighboring ordinate.

10) Stop the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD (up and right) on the

signal generator, warning light on the button stops to light. The transfer of the excitation

signal from the signal generator to the exciter is interrupted this way.

11) The exciting frequency, for which the RMS value is highest, will be rated as the basic

natural frequency f(Z),m. The accuracy of the determination f(Z),m is then 0,025 Hz,

which is very good accuracy even from the practical view.

18.8 Design of the dynamic mass damper based on the measured basic natural frequency.

Use the same procedure for the design of the dynamic mass damper based on the

measured value of the basic natural frequency f(Z),m as for the case of the calculated basic

natural frequency. The procedure is described in the chapter 18.4.

18.9 Efficiency assessment of the designed vibration dampers measurement of the

vibration level of the investigated structure caused by dynamic resonant load, which is

influenced by dampers designed based on calculated and measured basic natural

frequencies.

1) It is not necessary to change the setting of the recorder. It is the same as for the previous

measurement.

2) Balance the bridge carefully for the finest sensitivity 1oo.

3) Set the ideal sensitivity of the bridge for the measurement. In this case it is Cm = 10oo

4) Write down this sensitivity Cm.

5) Switch on the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD (up and right) on

the signal generator, warning light on the button starts to light. The transfer of the

excitation signal from the signal generator to the exciter is restored again this way.

6) Set the basic natural frequency f(Z),m evaluated from the measurement on the signal

generator.

Set the basic natural frequency using the group of buttons DATA on the display.

The exciter will start to vibrate after pressing the button Hz / V. The number on the

display is ignored till this pressing.

7) Wait a few seconds (about 10 s) till the vibration of the structure becomes steady-state.

8) Start measurement by pressing the button START (warning light above the button starts

to light).

Waveform of the measured data will be displayed on the screen. Check if the range

of the recorder is not exceeded (measured values reach the limit line at the upper

edge of the screen).

The recorder will print automatically the RMS values of the measured signal with

the period 10 s. Maximal record time is 200 s.

If three printed RMS values are the same or if a pair of values repeats periodically,

stop the measurement by pressing the button STOP.

9) Mark the record Resonant vibration. Write down to the table resulting RMS value of the

response (or the average of the pair of repeating values).

12) Stop the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD (up and right) on the

signal generator, warning light on the button stops to light.

13) Hang the chosen more apposite spring under the mass m1. Hang the mass of the damper to

the lower hook of the spring. It is the mass which you have created based on the calculated

basic natural frequency (last two paragraphs in chapter 18.4.).

10) Start the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD.

11) DO NOT CHANGE the excitation frequency!!!

12) Wait a few seconds (about 10 s) till the vibration of the structure becomes steady-state.

13) Set the ideal sensitivity of the bridge for the measurement. In this case it is Cm = 1oo

14) Write down this sensitivity Cm.

15) Start measurement by pressing the button START (warning light above the button starts

to light).

Waveform of the measured data will be displayed on the screen. Check if the range

of the recorder is not exceeded (measured values reach the limit line at the upper

edge of the screen). If the range is exceeded, it is necessary to switch to lower

sensitivity on the bridge.

The recorder will print automatically the RMS values of the measured signal with

the period 10 s. Maximal record time is 200 s.

If three printed RMS values are the same or if a pair of values repeats periodically,

stop the measurement by pressing the button STOP.

16) Mark the record Damper - theory. Write down to the table resulting RMS value of the

response (or the average of the pair of repeating values).

14) Stop the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD.

15) Damp the vibration of the investigated steel cantilever beam by your hand.

16) Put down the mass of the damper.

17) Using the procedure described in last two paragraphs in the chapter 18.4, correct the mass

of the damper to the value mK, which you have designed based on the measured basic

natural frequency of the investigated steel cantilever beam.

18) Hang the mass mK of the damper to the lower hook of the spring

17) Switch on the vibration of the exciter. Press the button CONT/HOLD (up and right) on

the signal generator, warning light on the button starts to light. The transfer of the

excitation signal from the signal generator to the exciter is restored again this way.

18) DO NOT CHANGE the excitation frequency!!!

19) Wait a few seconds (about 10 s) till the vibration of the structure becomes steady-state.

20) Set the ideal sensitivity of the bridge for the measurement. In this case it is Cm = 1oo

21) Write down this sensitivity Cm.

22) Start measurement by pressing the button START (warning light above the button starts

to light).

Waveform of the measured data will be displayed on the screen. Check if the range

of the recorder is not exceeded (measured values reach the limit line at the upper

edge of the screen). If the range is exceeded, it is necessary to switch to lower

sensitivity on the bridge.

The recorder will print automatically the RMS values of the measured signal with

the period 10 s. Maximal record time is 200 s.

If three printed RMS values are the same or if a pair of values repeats periodically,

stop the measurement by pressing the button STOP.

23) Mark the record Damper - experiment. Write down to the table resulting RMS value of

the response (or the average of the pair of repeating values).

24) The measurement is finished. Switch off the devices, which you have used for the

measurement. Pull out the red banana pin from the outlet of the power amplifier.

At first, evaluate the calibration record, determine the constant of the conversion of the

registered quantity (digital values of the voltage, which are reordered on the paper of the

recorder) to the investigated mechanic quantity (vertical acceleration of the end of the

cantilever beam)

M kal

kp =

,

(18.8)

C kal U kal

where Mkal is the amplitude of the used calibration mechanic quantity acceleration (the

change of the measured acceleration between two positions of the transducer in the first and in

the second steps of the calibration (a half turn of the transducer) corresponds to the double

gravity acceleration Mkal = 2 g = 2 9.81 = 19.62 m s-2), Ckal is the sensitivity set on the

bridging amplifier during recording the calibration record and Ukal is the difference between

the levels of the record, which correspond to the first and to the second steps of the calibration

(Figure 18.5). Ukal is obtained from the calibration record as the average of the correct values.

Calculate the efficiency of the dampers and the real RMS value of the measured

acceleration aRMS,i during measurement of the resonant curve for each step of measurement

according the equation

a RMS,i = k p C mer ,i U RMS,i

,

(18.9)

where i is the step of the measurement, Cmer,i is the sensitivity set on the bridge during the

measurement and URMS,i is the RMS value of the voltage registered by the recorder.

Compare the calculated (f(Z),TEOR) and measured (f(Z),EXP) basic natural frequency in the

efficiency assessment of your model of the investigated steel cantilever beam. According the

SN 73 2044 Dynamic tests of building structures (Dynamick zkouky stavebnch

konstrukc), the agreement between the theoretical calculation and the experiment is reached,

when the difference between theoretical and measured natural frequency f(j) is within the

prescribed range. f(j) is determined based on the equation

f ( j),TEOR f ( j),OBS

f ( j) =

100

[%] ,

(18.10)

f ( j),MIN

where f(j) ,TEOR is j-th calculated natural frequency, f(j) ,OBS is the corresponding measured

natural frequency and f(j) ,MIN is the lesser of the previous compared values f(j) ,TEOR and

f(j) ,OBS. The f(1) for the first natural frequency f(1) has to be lesser than 5.0%.

Consider the basic natural frequency f(Z) as the first natural frequency f(1) of the

investigated steel cantilever beam.

Summarize the measurement results:

1) In the prepared table.

2) Plot the resonant curve to the graph.

3) Characterize the efficiency of the designed vibration dampers.

4) Assess the aptness of your model of the investigated steel cantilever beam, on which you

have determined the theoretical basic natural frequency.

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