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DEFINATION OF BLUEJ-2013

1. Objects Oriented Programming- It is modular approach


programming which allows the data to be applied within
stipulated program area. It provides reusability feature to
develop of code and gives emphasis on data.
2. Dynamic Binding- It is the process of linking function call
with function signature during run-time.
3. Encapsulation- It is the process of wrapping data and
functions into a single unit.
4. Polymorphism- It is the process in which a function having
same name but working differently.
5. Inheritance-It is the process in which an object acquires the
property of another object.
6. Messages- Software objects interact and communicate with
each other using messages.
7. Abstraction- Is to represent essential features of a system
without getting involved with the complexity of the entire
system.
OBJECT/CLASS
8. Object- An object is a software bundle of variables and
related methods.
9. Class- A class is a blueprint or prototype, which defines the
variables and the methods common to all objects of a certain
kind.
10.
Attribute- attribute or variable or state is data
structure when an object is mapped into software
representation.
11.
Byte Code-The Java Byte Code is a machine instruction
for a java processor chip.
12.
Internet Applets- Are small programs that are
embedded in web pages and are run on the viewers
machine in a secured manner.

13.
Standalone Application/Application-It is generally a
software application that does not require low level
operating system or hardware access.
CONCEPT OF DATATYPES
14.

Tokens-It is the small individual unit of a program.

15.
Identifier- Are the building blocks of a program that is
used as general terminology for the names given to different
parts of the program.
16.
Keywords Keywords are reserved words that convey
special meaning to the compiler.
17.
Constants or Literals A data item, which does not
change its value during the execution of a program, is called
a constant or a literal.
18.
Operators An operator is a symbol or letters,that
triggers the operation on the operand and perform
mathematical operation.
19.
Operator Precedence- it determines the order in
which expressions are evaluated.
20.
Expression- An expression is a legal combination of
operator or a construct made up of variables, operators and
method invocations that evaluates to a single value.
21.
Relational
operatorsA
relational
operators
compares and determines the relationship between them.
22.
Comments A comment is a remark from the
programmer to explain some aspect of the code to someone
who is reading the source code.
23.
Unicode - Unicode defines a complete international
character set that can represent all the character found in all
human languages.
24.
Data type- means to identify the type of data and
associated operations handling it.

25.
Primitive Data Types- A primitive data type is
predefined by the language and is named by a reserved
keyword. There are eight primitive data types supported by
JAVA int, byte, Short, long, float, double, Boolean, and char.
26.
Reference or Composite Data types- Are the data
type defined by the user derived from fundamental primitive
data type. eg. class, objects, arrays etc.
27.
Pure Expression- Are all the operands are of same
type.
28.
Mixed Expression- Are all the operands are of mixed
types.
29.
Type Conversion- The process of converting one
predefined type into another is called type Conversion.
30.
Explicit Type Conversion Conversion from one
primitive type to another type after user intervention using
typecast operator ( ) in a java program is done using
programmers intervention.
31.
Type Promotion- The java compiler converts all
operands upto the type of the largest operand.
32.
Coercion-The implicit type conversion wherein data
types are promoted.
33.
Type Casting- It is the explicit conversion of an
operand to a specific data type
34.
Dynamic Initialization Java allows variables to be
initialized dynamically, i.e. during execution of the program.
35.
The Scope and Lifetime of Variables The scope
determines what objects are visible to other parts of the
program and the lifetime of the objects.
36.
Variable- It is a memory allocation area where data is
stored.
37.
Local variable A local variable is a variable that is
used or defined within a function. Its scope is limited to that
function.

38.
Global Variables A Global Variable is a variable
which is similar to instance variables and are defined within
the class outside the method definition.
39.
Access Control- Access Control is referred to control
the access of the members of a class and prevent misuse.
40.
Public access When a member of a class is specified
as public it means that the members can be accessed from
anywhere. Be it the own class member-functions, inherited
member-functions, other package members or any other
class, all can have access to the public members.
41.
Private access: When the members of a class are
specified as private it means that the member is accessed
only by the member function of its own class.
42.
Protected access: this kind of access specifies is used
when inheritance takes place while writing computer
programs. The protected members are somewhat like the
private members which are not available to the outside class
member function.
43.
Object Reference can be defined as a variable of
class type which is used to access the memory location of
member variables of object using dot operator.
44.
Escape Sequence- it is the non-graphical character
that cannot be type with the help of the keyboard. Eg-\t,\n,\\.
FLOW OF CONTROL
45.
Dangling-Else Problem The ambiguity that arises in
a nested if statement due to presence of more number of if
than the number of else clause is called dangling else
problem.
46.

THE switch STATEMENT

47.
The switch statement is javas multiway branch
selection statement. It provides an easy way to dispatch
execution to different parts of the code based on the value of
an expression.

48.
Compound Statement: a compound statement is
collection of various statements within the curly brace. This
statement is also known as control constructs statement,
which is used to define a construct such as a loop or
decision-making statements.
49.
Statements A statement forms a complete unit of
execution.
50.
Block A block is a group of one or more statements
between a pair of curly braces and can be used anywhere a
single statement is allowed.
FUNCTIONS
51.
Function is a subprogram within a main program,
which processes data and returns a value.
52.
Pure Functions Pure functions or Accessor methods
return information to the caller about the state of an object.
They provide access to that state. Where a method contains
a return statement, it is always the final statement of the
method, because no further statements in the method will
be executed once the return statement is executed.
53.
Impure Functions The method that change the state
of their object are called impure function or Mutator
methods.
54.
Function Prototype- The first line of the function
definition.
55.
Function Signature-It is the number and types of
arguments present in a function.
56.
Static functions or Methods - can also be called
(invoked) with the help of class name and dot operator.
57.
Return Keyword is used to return a value to the caller
of the function.
58.
Parameter Is a variable defined by a method that
receives a value when the method is called.

59.
Argument Is a value that is passed to a function
when it is invoked.
60.
Function overloading The process of having two or
more methods or functions within a class, with same name,
but different parameter declaration is known as function
overloading.
61.
Recursive Function Are functions
themselves until the given condition is true.

that

call

62.
Call By Value As a copy of the argument is being
made and passed to the function, any changes made to the
parameter inside the function do not affect the original
argument.
63.
Call by reference- when you pass an object as an
argument to a function, it is passed by reference. In this
method, a reference to arguments is passed as parameters.
The value of the arguments is not passed. This method is
called call by reference.
64.
THE this KEYWORD it may sometimes be required
that a function refers to the object that invoked it. For this,
java defines the this keyword. this can be used inside any
method to refer to the current object.
CONSTRUCTORS
65.
A constructors is a specialized method of a class which
has same name as of the class name that get automatically
invoked whenever an object of the class is created and is
used to initialize the private data members.
66.
Parameterized constructors constructors that can
take arguments are called parameterized constructors.
67.
Constructors overloading When two or more
constructors functions are defined in a class, having same
name that of the class name with different parameters it is
known as constructor overloading.

68.
Temporary Object/Instance- Is the one that lives in
the memory as
it is being used or referenced in an
expression and after it dies.
LIBRARY CLASS
69.
WRAPPER CLASSES Wrapper classes from a part of
standard library Java. Lang package which provides many
methods which help to primitive data types into objects.
70.
Benefit of Wrapper Class- (a) The object can be used
to determined the nature of data in
71.

Primitive type.

72.
(b) The method in wrapper class converts the data to
other primitive datatypes or to string object data type.
73.
(c) The wrapper class using some of its statics methods
converts string values received from IO stream into
respective data type.
74.
Package A Package is a collection of related classes,
providing access protection and namespace management.
Eg-java.io,java.lang
75.
Stream-Stream is a class that responsible to either
brings in or sends out information through keyboard and
output through monitor. E.g.-Byte Oriented, Character
Oriented.
76.

ERRORS IN A PROGRAM

77.
Syntactical errors or complication errors
78.
Errors in program due to violation in syntax i.e.,
(grammar set as per the compiler).
79.
Logical errors
80.
Errors in a program due to error in logical approach of
the programmer and which does not meet and requirement
of the program.
81.
Runtime errors or Exceptions
82.
Errors detected during execution of the program are
called runtime errors or exceptions.
Exception

83.
An exception is an abnormal condition that arises in a
code sequence at runtime.
84.

Reasons for Exception

85.
Fundamental errors that violates the rules of java
language.
86.
Constraints of java execution environment.
87.

Try and Catch Block

88.
Try and Catch Block is a method used to handle various
runtime errors. The block of statements which needs to be
checked Is placed within the try block. During runtime the
exception object which occurs will be thrown by try block will
be handled by the catch block.
89.

THE ?: OPERATOR

90.
Java includes a special ternary operator that can be
used to replace certain types of if-else-if statements. It is
called ternary operator, as it requires three operands to work
on.
ITERATION THROUGH LOOP
91.
For loop: The for loop directs a program to perform a
set of operation again and again until a specified condition is
achieved.
92.
Entry controlled loops: In these loops constructs the
test expression is evaluated before each iteration.
93.
Exit controlled loops: in these loops constructs the
test expression is evaluated after each iteration.
94.

NESTED LOOPS

95.
Java allows loops to be nested. That is one loop can be
inside another loop. For each outer loop, the inner loop
executes n number of time until the condition of inner loop is
true.
96.
Using break to Exit a Loop: By using break, you can
force immediate termination of a loop bypassing the

conditional expression and the remaining code in the body of


the loop.
97.

Using continue

98.
Sometimes it may be required to force early iteration of
a loop. That is, you might want to continue running the loop,
but stop processing the remainder of the code in its body for
a particular iteration.
99.
Empty Loop-It is a loop whose body of the loop is
missing or which is incremented of decremented without
doing anything else.
100. Time delay loop-This loop is required in those
applications where a program needs to be temporarily
paused for some time.
101. Infinite loop-The loop whose test-condition is never
false.
ARRAYS
102. An array is a group of like-typed variable that are
referenced by a common name.