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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

WASTEWATER ENGINEERING
Presented by:
Engr. Manny Anthony M.
Taguba
July 4, 2016

Overview
1

Course Requirements

Introduction

Population Projection

Physical & Chemical Characteristics

Biological Characteristics

1ST SEMESTER A.Y. 2016-2017


Tuesday 6:00 9:00 PM
ESE 161
Room 305 JMB
3 CREDIT HOURS

Periodical Exam : 40%


Class Standing : 60%
Quiz 70%
Seatwork/ Assignment 20%
Attendance 10%
Final Rating = 30% Prelim Grade + 30% Midterm
Grade + 40% Final Grade
NOTE: All based 50.

Water and Wastewater Technology


By: Mark J. Hammer and Mark J. Hammer Jr.

Water Supply and Sewerage


By: Terrence J. McGhee

Wastewater Engineering:
Treatment/Disposal/Reuse
By: Metcalf & Eddy,Inc.

Wastewater collected from municipalities and


communities must ultimately be returned to
receiving waters or to the land.
Pollution may be defined as the introduction of
a substance to the environment at levels leading
to lost beneficial use of a resource or
degradation of the health of humans, wildlife, or
ecosystems.

DAO 34 (DENR Administrative Order No. 34 Series of


1990) Revised Water Usage and Classification.
Water Usage and Classification For the purpose of maintaining the
quality of Philippine waters in a safe and satisfactory condition, all
waters are classified according to beneficial usages (i.e. Class AA,
A, B, C, D, SA, SB, SC and SD.

POINT AND NON POINT SOURCES


Point sources of pollution occur when harmful
substances are emitted directly into a body of water from
a pipeline or sewer.
Non Point source pollution occurs as water moves
across the land or through the ground and picks up
natural and human-made pollutants. These are
characterized by multiple discharge points.

Marine Waters
Cover an area of about 226,000 sq km,

including bays and gulfs


Coastline stretches to about 17,460 km
64 of 79 provinces are in coastal areas

Groundwater

B. Inland Waters
Lakes - 99
Major (minimum area of 4 km2)
Minor (minimum area less than 4 km2)

- 16
- 83

180 of 421 rivers


are polluted
50 are biologically
dead

4 rivers are from


Metro Manila

P3 billion for health costs


P17 billion for costs for fisheries
production
47 billion for tourism
Other non-quantifiable damage/loss
claims
A total of P67 Billion
Source: Phil Environment Monitor 2003

How do we determine
quality of our water
bodies?

Revised Water Usage and


Classification
Water Quality Criteria Amending
Section Nos. 68 & 69, Chap. III
of the 1978 NPCC Rules and
Regulations

Classification
Class AA

AA

Beneficial Use
Public Water Supply Class I
Intended primarily for waters having
watersheds, which are uninhabited
and otherwise protected, and which
require only approved disinfection to
meet the PNSDW
Public Water Supply Class II
For sources of water supply that will
require complete treatment
(coagulation, sedimentation,
filtration and disinfection) to meet
the PNSDW

Classification
Class B

Beneficial Use
Recreational Water Class I
For primary contact recreation
such as bathing, swimming, skin
diving, etc. (particularly those
designated for tourism purposes)
1. Fishery Water for the propagation
and growth of fish and other
aquatic resources
2. Recreational Water Class II
(Boating, etc.)
3. Industrial Water Supply Class I
(For manufacturing processes
after treatment)

Classification
Class D

Beneficial Use
1. For agriculture, irrigation, and
livestock watering, etc.
2. Industrial Water Supply Class II
(e.g. cooling, etc.)
3. Other inland waters, by their
quality, belong to this
classification

Classification
Class SA

SA

Beneficial Use
1. National marine parks and
reserves established under
Presidential Proclamation 1801,
other existing laws), and/or
declared as such by appropriate
government agency.
2. Waters suitable for the
propagation, survival and
harvesting of shellfish for
commercial purposes.
3. Coral reef parks and reserves
designated by law and concerned
authorities.

Classification
Class SB

SB

Beneficial Use
1.Fishery Water Class I
(Spawning areas for milkfish
(Chanos chanos) and similar
species
2.Tourist Zones For
ecotourism and recreational
activities

3.Recreational Water Class I


(Areas regularly used by the
public for bathing, swimming,
skin diving, etc.)

Classification
Class SC

SC

Class SD

SD

Beneficial Use
1. Fishery Water Class II
(Commercial and sustenance
fishing)
2. Recreational Water Class II For
boating, etc.)
3. Marshy and/or mangrove areas
declared as fish and wildlife
sanctuaries
1. Industrial Water Supply For
manufacturing processes after
treatment, cooling, etc.)
2. Other coastal and marine maters,
by their quality, belong to this
classification

DAO 1990 - 35
Revised Effluent Regulations of 1990
Revising and Amending the Effluent
Regulations of 1982
This regulations shall apply to all
industrial and commercial wastewater
/ effluents

The effluent standards apply to industrial


manufacturing plants and municipal
treatment plants discharging more than
thirty (30) cubic meters per day.

Effluent
- a general term denoting any wastewater,
partially or completely treated, or in its
natural state, flowing out of a
manufacturing plant, industrial or treatment
plant
OEI Old and existing industry
( as of 1990)
NPI New and proposed industry
Strong Wastes wastewater whose initial BOD
value is equal or greater than 3,000mg/l

Parameters

Class A &B
OEI

Class A &B
NPI (95)

Class C
OEI

Class C
NPI (95)

Color PCU

150

100

200

150

pH ( pH range)

6-9

6-9

6-9

6.5-9.0

BOD5 mg/L

50

30

80

50

Total Suspended
Solids mg/l

70

50

90

70

Settleable Solids
mL/L

0.3

0.3

0.5

0.5

Surfactants (MBAS) 5.0

2.0

7.0

5.0

Parameters
Oil/Grease ,mg/l

Class A &B
OEI

Class A &B
NPI (95)

Class C
OEI

Class C
NPI (95)

5.0

5.0

10

COD, mg/l ***

100

60

150

100

Total Coliform.
MPN/100 ml

5,000

3,000

15,000

10,000

Parameters

Class A & B
OEI

Class A& B
NPI (95)

Class C
OEI

Class C
NPI (95)

Arsenic , mg/l

0.20

0.10

0.50

0.20

Cadmium, mg/l

0.05

0.02

0.10

0.05

Chromium,mg/l

0.10

0.05

0.20

0.10

Cyanide, mg/l

0.20

0.10

0.30

0.20

Lead,mg/l

0.20

0.10

0.50

0.30

PCB, mg/l

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.003

Industry Classification
based on BOD of raw
wastewater

BOD maximum allowable


limits mg/l in inland waters
Class C and D

BOD 3,000 10,000 mg/l

130 or 98 % removal
(whichever is lower)

BOD 10,001 to 30,000 mg/l 200 or 99 % removal


(whichever is lower)
BOD more than 30,000
mg/l

300 or 99 % removal
(whichever is lower)

To prevent fresh and saline water pollution


To prevent seashore pollution
To protect freshwater and marine life
Protection of public health
To reuse the treated effluent
Agriculture
Industrial recycle
recharge

Solving social problems caused or affiliated with


wastewater accumulation

Wastewater Engineering is the branch of environmental


engineering in which the basic principles of science and
engineering are applied to the problems of water-pollution
control, that is issues associated with the treatment and reuse
of wastewater.
The ultimate goal is the protection of the environment in a
manner commensurate with economic, social, and political
concerns.
Specific objectives:
To reduce the pollution loading i.e. Carbonaceous removal,
nutrients removal, heavy metals removal, etc.
Compliance with the government standards mandated by DENR
and/or LLDA (Laguna Lake Devt Authority)
Sustainable Development

it is the liquid (spent water) conveyed by a sewer. It may


consist of any one or a mixture of the following
depending on the type of collection system used and
may include:
Domestic Sewage also known as sanitary sewge, is the one
that originates in the sanitary convencies of a dwelling,
residences, commercial, institutional and similar facilities.
Industrial wastewater wastewater in which industrial wastes
predominate (i.e.waste from industrial process such as brewing,
dyeing,etc.)
Storm sewage liquid flowing in sewers during or folllowing a
period of rainfall and resulting from precipitation runoff.
Infiltration is the groundwater entering sewers and building
connections through defective joints and broken or cracked pipe
and manholes.
Inflow is water discharged into sewer pipes or service pipe
connections from sources such as roof leaders, etc.

Domestic

Coming from residential, commercial, institutio


nal and similar facilities
BOD range 300 500 mg/L
TSS
300 mg/L
COD
500 1000 mg/L

Industrial

Wastewater in which industrial wastewater pre


dominates
- Wastewater with extremely high or low pH
- Wastewater with color and high temperat

ures
- Wastewater with high heavy metals
- Wastewater with inorganic chemicals (Ph

enols)
Storm

Rain water

Sewage
Composition

Solid
Composition

Organic
Composition

Carbohydrates
(30-50%)
Proteins
(40-60%)
Organic
0.10 % Solids
Inorganic
-Sand, Grit &
Metal Chips

Sewage
99.9 % Water

Fats & Oil


(10%)

Nutrients

Black water is a domestic wastewter comprising toilet


wastes only.
Greywater is a waste flow originating from kitchen,
bath, shower and laundry excluding toilet wastes.
Stale sewage has a pronounced odor of hydrogen
sulfide (H2S), dark gray and occasionally contains
recognizable solids.

Precision refers to the reproducibility of an


analytic technique when it is repeated on a
homogeneous sample. It is without regard to
the actual value.
Accuracy correspondence between the
measured value and the actual value.
Relative Error %
Actual Value Measured Value x 100
Actual Value

1. Arithmetic Method the rate of growth is


always constant.
Pt = Po + Kt
where: Pt = Population @ t (time) projected
Po = Present Population
t = time in years
K = constant increase.

2. Geometric Method the rate of growth follows


a geometric or logarithmic relationship.
Pt = Po (1+r)t

Sample Problem
The population of Three Mile Island in 2000 was
43,128 and increased to 55,105 in 2009. The
2006 population is ______ using geometric
method and ______ using arithmetic method.
a. 50,781 ; 51,113
b. 51,113 ; 50,781
c. 50,781 ; 53,118
d. 53,118 ; 50,871

3. Curvilinear Method involves graphical projection of the


past population of the past population growth curve,
following whatever tendencies the graph indicates.
4. Logistic Method - the logistic curve used in modeling
population trends has an S shape. The hypothesis of
logistic growth may be tested by plotting recorded
population data on logistic paper.

P = [ P sat / (1 + e

(a+b dt)))

5. Declining Growth- assumes that the city has a limiting


saturation population, and its rate of growth is a function
of its population deficits.

P = P + ( Psat Po) (1 e

Kdt)

Size of the City


Industry and Commerce
Characteristics of the Population
Metering of Water
Miscellaneous factor (i.e. climate, quality,
pressure, system maintenance, and
conservation programs)

Physical
Chemical
Biological
Radioactive

1.
2.
3.
4.

Total Solids
Taste and Odor
Temperature
Color

Chemical Characteristics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

pH
FOG (Fats, Oil and Grease) and other organic matter
BOD5
COD
Nutrients
Heavy Metals

Total Solids is defined as all the matter that


remains as residue upon evaporation at 103 to
105C.
mg of dried residue x 100
ml of sample
mg/l total solids =
Types of Solids according to Chemical Property:
Organic
Inorganic include salts and minerals

Ignition at 103 C
Total Solids

Sample

Ignition at 550 C

Inorganic
(FS)

Imhoff
Cone
Settleble
Solids

Organic
(VS)

NonSettleble
Solids

Filter

Dissolved
Solids

Suspended
Solids

Types of Solids according to Size:


Suspended solids greater than 1 mm (larger than
bacteria)
Colloidal solids range size between 1 mm and
0.001 mm
Dissolved solids less than 0.001 mm

Dissolved
10 -5

10 -4

10 -8

10 -7

Colloidal
10 -3

Suspended or non-filterable

10 -2
10 -1
1
10
Size of particles, microns

100

10 -6
10 -5
10 -4 10 -3 10 -2
Size of particles, millimeters

10 -1

Removed by
coagulation

Settleable

Total Suspended Solids


Sources

-clay, silts, and soil contaminants


-Human waste
-Organics

Impact

-aesthetic displeasing
-contains disease causing organisms
-can lead to the development of sludge
deposits and anaerobic conditions whe
n untreated wastewater is discharged in
the aquatic environment

Measurement

-Gravimetric Method

Standards

-Class C Inland Water - < 70 mg/L


-Class SC Standards - < 140 mg/L

Total Suspended Solids solids in water that


can be trapped or retained in a standard glassfiber filter.
70% organic and 30% inorganic
Can be removed from the water by physical or
mechanical means
Consist of settleable and colloidal solids
Types of TSS:
1. Settleable Solids
2. Colloidal Solids

Settleable Solids suspended solids that will


settle to the bottom of a cone-shaped container
(Imhoff cone) in one-hour.
are approximate measure of the quantity of solids that
will be removed by sedimentation in clarifiers or
ponds.
approximately 75% organic

-1000 ml of
Graduated cylinder
-w/ graduations at
least 10 mL

Colloidal Solids not truly dissolved yet do not


settle readily.
are particulate matter with an approximate diameter
range from 1 millimicron to 1 micron.
important factor in treatment and disposal of
wastewater.

Total Dissolved Solids solids in water that can


pass thru a standard glass-fiber filter (pore size
of 0.45 m).
It is determined by subtracting TSS from TS:
TDS = TS - TSS
It consist of both organic (40%) and inorganic (60%)
molecules and ions that are present in true solution in
water.
About 90% in true solution and 10% colloidal

Volatile Solids are determined by igniting the residue


on evaporation, or the filtered solids at 550C in an
electric muffle furnace.
dried solids are burned for 15 to 20 min.
indicator of the organic content of wastewater since the organic
fraction will oxidize and will be driven off gas at 550C.
Volatile-solid analysis is applied most commonly to wastewater
sludges to measure their biological stability.

Fixed Solids are inorganic fraction that remains behind


as ash after ignition. It is the rough measure of the
mineral content of wastewater.
However, many inorganic salts volatalize during ignition.
CaCO3 Calcium Carbonate, the major component of the
inorganic salts, is stable up to a 825C

TS

Total Solids

TSS Total Suspended


Solids
TDS Total Dissolved Solids

VSS Volatile SS
FSS Fixed SS

TSS
VSS

FSS

TDS
VDS

FDS

The following test results were obtained for a wastewater


sample taken at the headworks to a wastewater
treatment plant. All of the tests were performed using
sample size of 50 ml.
Tare mass of evaporating dish
= 26.6238 g
Mass of Evap. Dish plus residue after
evaporation at 105oC
= 26.6415 g
Mass of evaporating dish plus residue after
ignition at 550oC
= 26.6406 g
Tare mass of whatman glass filter
= 1.4621 g
Residue of Whatman glass filter after drying at 105oC = 1.4725 g
Residue of Whatman glass filter after drying at 550oC = 1.4705 g

Determine: TS, VS, SS and VSS


Answer: TS = 354 mg/L; VS = 18 mg/L
SS = 208 mg/L; VSS = 40 mg/L

2. Odors - caused by gases produced by


the decomposition of organic matter. The
most characteristic odor of stale or septic
wastewater is H2S, which is produced by
anaerobic microorganisms that reduce
sulfates to sulfides.
Offensive odors can cause poor appetite
for food, lowered water consumption,
impaired respiration, nausea and vomiting
and mental perturbation.

Major Categories of offensive odors:

Compounds may be found or may develop in domestic


wastewater, depending on local conditions.

Compound

Amines
Ammonia
Diamines

Hydrogen
Sulfide
Mercaptans
Organic
Sulfides
Skatole

Typical Fmla.

Odor quality

CH3NH2 , (CH3)3N Fishy


NH3
NH2(CH2)5NH2

H 2S

Ammoniacal
Decayed Fish

Rotten eggs

CH3SH ,
CH3(CH2)3SH

Decayed
cabbage, skunk

(CH3)2S ,
(C6H5)2S

Rotten cabbage

C 9H 9N ,
C8H5NHCH3

Fecal matter

3. Temperature

The temperature of wastewater is commonly higher than water


supply.
Mean annual wastewater temperature: 10 to 21.1C
Representative value: 15.6C
Impacts:
Effect on the aquatic life
Chemical reactions and reaction rates (serious depletions in
dissolved oxygen, DO concentrations, in the summer
months
Suitability of the water for benefical use
Abnormally high temperatures can foster the growth of
undesirable water plants and wastewater fungus.
Standards: Class C Inland Water - it should be ambient not
to raise 3C above river

4. Color
Fresh wastewater : Gray
Anthropogenic sources:

Septic / Stale: Black

Paper mills
Textile mills
Food Processing
Chemical compounds : humic acid (yellow); Iron oxides (red)
and Manganese oxides (brown)

Impact:

Aesthetic displeasing and unacceptable


May be an indication of toxicity
May stain textiles and fixtures

Types of Color:

Apparent Color due to suspended solids


True Color due to dissolved solids that remain after
suspended solids

Measurement: Colorimetric (Visual Comparison Method)


Unit Measurement of Color:
1. True Color Unit (TCU)
2. Platinum Cobalt Unit (PCU)
o
o
o

Standard color solutions: Potassium chloroplatinate (K2PtCl6)


tinted with small amounts of cobalt chloride.
Color produced by 1 mg/L of Pt plus mg/L of Cobalt = 1
standard color unit
Comparison tubes : Nessler tubes

1. pH
is negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration.
1
+
pH = - log [H ] or pH = log [H+]
[ H+] = antilog pH
0

Acid

Base

14

pH + pOH = 14
Water dissociates to only a slight degree yielding a
concentration of hydrogen ions equal to 10-7 mole/L
Low or high pH is undesirable in wastewater
pH range 6.5 to 9.0 (standards)

2. Alkalinity

Is the ability of water to neutralize acids.


CO32
HCO3
OH
H SiO3
H2BO3
HPO4
and NH3
These compounds result from the dissolution of mineral
substances in the soil and atmosphere.

3. Hardness
is caused by divalent or multivalent cations or positively
charged metallic ions princippaly Ca+2 and Mg+2,
others include Iron, Strontium, Manganese and Barium.
Anions are bicarbonates, chlorides and sulfates.
Like alkalinity, it is expressed in terms of mg/L of CaCO3

Cations
Ca 2+
Mg 2+
Sr 2+
Fe 2+

Anions
HCO3
SO4-2
ClNO3 -

Classification of hardness
Nature of water Range of hardness
Soft 0 75 mg/ as CaCO3
Moderately hard 75 150 mg/ as CaCO3
Hard 150 300 mg/ as CaCO3
Very hard > 300 mg/ as CaCO3

4. FOG (Fats, Oil and Grease)


A variety of organic substances including hydrocarbons,
fats, oils, waxes, and high-molecular weight fatty acids
are collectively referred as FOG.
Source are animal and vegetable matter
Objectionable because of the following:

it adheres to sewer pipe;


it is detrimental to the bacteria;
it form excessive scum in sedimentation tanks
it clog filter media, it reduces reaeration capacity of natural body
of water.

DENR Standards is less than 5 mg/L;


Instrument used: ?

5. Organic Matter
These solids are derived from both the animal and plant
kingdoms and the activities of man as related to the
synthesis of organic compounds.
Are normally composed of a combination of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen, and nitrogen in some cases.
Proteins are the principal constituents of the
animal organism. They are complex in chemical
structure and unstable, being subject to many forms
of decomposition. When present in large quantities,
extremely foul odors are apt to be produced by their
decomposition.
Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, cellulose
and wood fiber.

Organic Matter
Surfactants are large organic molecules that are
slightly soluble in water and cause foaming in
wastewater-treatment plants and in the surface
waters into which the waste effluent is discharged.
Historical note:

Before 1965, ABS was typically present in synthetic


detergents. ABS alkyl-benzene-sulfonate is resistant
to biological decomposition.
LAS linear-alkyl-sulfonate replaced ABS since it is
biodegradable.
Surfactants are determined by measuring the color
change in a standard solution of methylene blue dye.
- Methylene blue active substance (MBAS)

Organic Matter
Phenols (C6H5OH) cause taste problems
drinking water, particularly when the water
chlorinated. They are produced primarily
industrial operations.
Phenols
can
be
biologically
oxidized
concentrations up to 500 mg/L.
Measurement of Organic Matter :
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Total Organic Compound (TOC)
Theoretical Oxygen Demand (ThOD)

in
is
by
at

5-day BOD (BOD5)


Involves the measurement of the dissolved oxygen
(DO) used by microorganisms in the biochemical
oxidation of organic matter.
Within a 20 day period, the oxidation is about 95%
to 99% complete, and in the 5-day period, the
oxidation is from 60 to 70% complete.
The 20oC temperature used is an average value for
slow-moving streams in temperate climates and is
easily duplicated in an incubator.
the kinetics of the BOD reaction are, for practical
purposes, formulated in accordance with 1st order
reaction kinetics as:

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)


Aquatic aerobic organisms need
oxygen to survive.
Maximum amount in clean water
is about 9 mg/L.

If you determine the BOD after 5 days, this is


called the 5 day BOD (BOD5). If you determine
the BOD after 20 days, this is called the 20 day
BOD (BOD20). These are really BOD exerted
values.

The ultimate BOD is the amount of oxygen


required to decompose all of the organic
material after infinite time. This is usually
simply calculated form the 5 or 20 day data.

Mathematically,
dLt

BOD exerted,

---- = - k dt
Lt
Integrating,
ln Lt/ Lo = - k t
Lt = Lo e -kt

Yt = Lo - L

Yt = Lo (1 e

kt

Where:
Yt = BOD exerted @ time t
Lo = ultimate BOD, mg/L
Lt = BOD remaining @ time t

k = reaction constant (per day)

Typical Values of reaction constant

Water Type
Tap Water
Surface Waters

K, d-1
<0.10
0.1 0.23

Weak Municipal Water

0.35

Strong Municipal Water

0.40

Treated Effluent

0.12 0.23

Vant Hoff Arrhenius


Relationship
kT = k20 (T-20)
where:
= varies, often quoted in
literature is 1.047

Comparison between two First Rate BOD Formulas:

Yt = Lo (1 e kt )
Yt = Lo (1 10 Kt )
K; k = deoxygenation constant; is not exactly constant but
varies with temperature
Lower case k = is used for the reaction rate in the base e
Upper case K = is used for the reaction rate in the base 10
To some literatures (i.e. Davis & Cornwell), the relationship
between two:
k = 2.303K

Similarly, Ultimate BOD or Initial Oxygen Equivalent is


temperature dependent:

[Lo]T = [Lo]20 (0.02T + 0.6)


[Lo]T= Ultimate BOD or Initial Oxygen equivalent at
temperature T
[Lo]20= Ultimate BOD or Initial Oxygen equivalent at
temperature 20oC

Sample Problems on BOD


1. If the 5 day BOD at 37oC is 200 mg/L and if the rate of
deoxygenation (base 10) is 0.17/day, what is the
ultimate BOD and BOD remaining after 5 days?
Answer : 232.9 mg/L ; 32.9 mg/L

2. If the 5 day BOD of a sample is 276 mg/L and ultimate


BOD at the same temperature is 380 mg/L, at what rate
is oxidized?
Answer : 0.1125/day

3. If the 3-day, 15oC BOD is 200 mg/L, what will be its 7


day BOD at 25oC? Assume k20 (base 10) = 0.1/day
Answer : 502 mg/L

CBOD versus NBOD

CBOD carbonaceous BOD; oxygen consumption


due to carbon
NBOD nitrogenous BOD; oxygen consumption
due to nitrogen oxidation

The organism that oxidize the carbon in organic


compounds to obtain energy cannot oxidize the
nitrogen in these compounds

COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)

It is the amount of (dissolved) oxygen required to oxidize


and stabilize organic and inorganic content of the sample
solution.
Potassium dichromate is used as a strong oxidizing
agent.

BOD5/COD = is called Biodegradability Index

Varies from 0.4 to 0.8 for domestic wastewaters


BOD5/COD > 0.6 = waste is fairly biodegradable
0.3>BOD5/COD > 0.6 = seeding is required to treat it
biologically
BOD5/COD < 0.3 = can not be treated biologically

ThOD (Theoretical Oxygen Demand)

Based on the stoichiometric arrangement of organic matter in


wastewater, which is generally a combination of carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen and nitrogen.

TOD (Total Oxygen Demand)

In this test, organic substances and to minor extent, inorganic subst


ances are converted to stable end products in a platinum-catalyzed
combustion chamber. TOD is determined by monitoring the amoun
t of oxygen content present in the nitrogen carrier gas.

TOC (Total Organic Carbon)


Applicable to small concentration. The test is performed by injectin
g a known quantity of sample into a high temperature furnace. The orga
nic carbon is oxidized to CO2 in the presence of catalyst, the CO2 is me
asured by means of infrared analyzer.

Nitrogen

Is a constituent of proteins, chlorophyll and many other


biological compounds.
Proteins are converted to amino acids and further reduced to
ammonia (NH3)

Sources: Protein, Amines, Amino Acids, Urea.

Objectionable: promotes :Eutrophication


TKN (Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen) is a measure of the total organic
and ammonia nitrogen in the wastewater.
TKN gives a measure of the availability of nitrogen for building
cells.

Protein

atmosphere

Org N

N2 gas

NO2

NO3

Phosphorous
Source: Detergents, Fertilizer ; Form: Phosphate (PO4-3)
Measurement: Colorimetric
Important in bacterial propagation
Promotes eutrophication or algal bloom

Heavy Metals
Non-Toxic Metals
Sodium, Iron, Manganese, Aluminum, Copper and Zinc.

Toxic Metal
Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Mercury and Silver
Cumulative toxins : Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead and Mercury

Standards are set in DAO no. 35


Treatment by precipitation, coagulation, ion
exchange, reverse osmosis

Depending on sewage age and the


quantity of dilution of water, bacterial
counts in raw sewage may be
expected to range from 500,000 to
5,000,000 per mL.
Bacteria single-celled plants which
metabolize soluble food and
reproduce by binary fission.

Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Bacteria


Cell
mass

End
Products

Energy

Anaerobic
Bacteria

End
Products

Cell
Mass

Energy

Aerobic Bacteria

Algae
Fungi
Protozoa
Rotifers
Crustaceans

Coliform Organisms bacteria include the genera


Escherichia and Aerobacter.
Other genera: Citrobacter, Hafnia, and Klebsiella
There is difficulty in determining E.coli to the
exclusion of the soil coliforms; as a result, the entire
coliform group is used as an indicator of fecal
pollution.
E.coli is the preferred pathogen indicator. Note: this
is not the pathogenic E.coli O157:H7 strain.
Properties of E.coli are:
Found in much higher concentrations than most
pathogens in fecal matter.
Non pathogenic
Easy detect, relatively fast and inexpensive analysis.
Its absence indicates absence of enteric pathogens.

Most Probable Number (MPN) is not an


absolute concentration of organisms that are
present.
Membrane Filter Technique (MFT) is
accomplished by passing a known volume of
water sample through a membrane filter that has
a very small pore size. The bacteria are retained
on the filter.

Fecal Coliforms (FC) vs. Fecal Streptococci (FS)


It has been observed that the quantities of fecal coliforms
and fecal streptococci that are discharged by human
beings are significantly different from the quantities
discharged by animals.
FC/FS ratio

Fecal streptococci

Domestic Animal

Less than 1.0

Human being

Greater than 4.0

Unit operation the treatment or removal of


contaminant is brought about by the physical or
mechanical sources.
Unit process The treatment occurs predominantly
due to chemical and biological reactions.

With these, the classification of treatment methods:


Physical unit operations treatment methods in which
the application of physical forces predominate.
Because most of these methods evolved directly
from mans first observations of nature, they were
the first to be used for wastewater treatment.

Important elements:
Flowsheet is a graphical representation of a
particular combination of unit operation and
processes.

Process loading criteria key criteria used as a basis for sizing the
individual unit operation and processes.
Solid Balance is determined by identifying the quantities of solids
entering and leaving each unit operation or process. Such
information must be available to (1) assess the need for sludgestorage facilities and their capacity, and (2) to determine the proper
size of the sludge piping and pumping equipment.
Hydraulic profiles used to identify the elevation of the free surface of
the WW. These profiles are prepared for (1) to ensure that the
hydraulic gradient is adequate for the WW to flow through the
treatment facilities by gravity, (2) to establish the head requirement
for the pumps where pumping will be needed, and (3) to ensure that
the plant facilities will not be flooded or backed up during periods of
peak flow.
Plant layout is the spatial arrangement of the physical facilities of the
treatment plant in the flowsheet. The overall plant layout includes
the location of the control and administrative buildings and other
necessary buildings.

Quiz next meeting!