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5, OCTOBER 2007

2697

Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter

Ren Vargas, Student Member, IEEE, Patricio Corts, Student Member, IEEE, Ulrich Ammann, Member, IEEE,

Jos Rodrguez, Senior Member, IEEE, and Jorge Pontt, Senior Member, IEEE

three-phase neutral-point-clamped inverter is presented. The algorithm is based on a model of the system. From that model, the

behavior of the system is predicted for each possible switching

state of the inverter. The state that minimizes a given quality function g is selected to be applied during the next sampling interval.

Several compositions of g are proposed, including terms dedicated

to achieve reference tracking, balance in the dc link, and reduction

of the switching frequency. In comparison to an established control

method, the strategy presents a remarkable performance. The

proposed method achieves comparable reference tracking with

lower switching frequency per semiconductor and similar transient behavior. The main advantage of the method is that it does

not require any kind of linear controller or modulation technique,

achieving a different approach to control a power converter.

Index TermsCurrent control, DCAC power conversion,

inverters, predictive control, switching frequency, voltage control.

I. I NTRODUCTION

widely used in industry for medium- and high-voltage

power conversion and drives [1], [2]. Topics related to power

losses due to commutations and quality of the output current

are relevant issues at this power range [3][5]. The neutral-point

balancing problem in this topology is another subject that has

been studied in recent years [6][8]. Between the most common

control methods for this converter, literature states nonlinear

techniques, such as hysteresis control, and linear methods,

such as the use of proportionalintegral (PI) controllers in

conjunction with pulsewidth modulation (PWM) [9][12].

Predictive control is a control theory that was developed

at the end of the 1970s [13]. Variants of this type of control

strategy have found application in power converters. Predictive

control has been used in current control [14], drives [15][17],

power factor correction [18], and active filters [19], [20]. All

of these works consider linear models and use modulation

techniques for voltage generation. As classic solutions, the

Manuscript received May 5, 2006; revised January 26, 2007. This work

was supported in part by the Chilean Research Fund CONICYT under Grant

1050549, by the Industrial Electronics and Mechatronics Millennium Science

Nucleus, by the German Academic Exchange Service, and by the Universidad

Tcnica Federico Santa Mara. This paper was presented in part at the Power

Electronics Specialists Conference, PESC05, Recife, Brazil, June 2005.

R. Vargas, P. Corts, J. Rodrguez, and J. Pontt are with the Department of Electronics Engineering, Universidad Tcnica Federico Santa Mara,

Valparaso 2390123 Chile (e-mail: patricio.cortes@elo.utfsm.cl; rene.vargas@

usm.cl).

U. Ammann is with the Institute of Power Electronics and Control Engineering, Universitt Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIE.2007.899854

inductiveactive load.

linear system instead of taking advantage of the discrete nature

of the inverter and its control processor. Many of those classic

methods, such as PWM, were adapted to be used with digital

control platforms but were originally conceived from analog

electronic devices.

Model predictive control (MPC) is a subset of predictive

strategies that generate predictions from a model of the system.

A quality function is evaluated based on those predictions over

a finite receding horizon. In [21] and [22], a new variant of MPC

is used to control a matrix converter and a three-phase twolevel inverter, respectively. In both cases, the idea is to apply

the switching state that minimizes a given quality function over

a one-step receding horizon, taking into account the discrete

nature of converters. In this paper, a similar technique is developed, achieving a new control method for a three-phase NPC

inverter. Several variations of the algorithm are studied and

compared with classic PWM control, including features such

as reference tracking, balance in the dc link, and reduction of

the switching frequency.

II. M ODEL OF THE S YSTEM

Fig. 1 shows a model of the system. It includes a three-phase

three-level inverter and a resistiveinductiveactive load. The

reason to use this load is because it represents one of the most

2698

be described as

L

Ts

i(k) + v(k + 1) e(k + 1) .

i(k + 1) =

RTs + L Ts

(6)

of the load current i(k + 1), considering all possible voltage

vectors v generated by the inverter and measured current at the

kth sampling interval.

The control strategy also uses an estimation of the future

reference current. Depending on the sampling time applied and

the computational constrains, the estimation can be obtained by

a second-order extrapolation given by

i (k + 1) = 3i (k) 3i (k 1) + i (k 2)

inverter.

machine [21], [22]. Also, with this model, it is possible to characterize a wide range of applications, including passive loads

and grid-connected converters. The source of the reference

current will depend on the specific application. For example,

for field-oriented control of an induction machine, the reference

current is generated from speed and flux controllers [21].

The converter applies to the load 19 voltage vectors, which

are generated from 27 switching states, as presented in Fig. 2.

The center of an MPC algorithm is the model of the plant

from which predictions are obtained. In this case, it corresponds

to the equation of a three-phase resistiveinductiveactive load,

which fulfills

L

di(t)

= v(t) Ri(t) e(t)

dt

(1)

where R and L are the load resistance and inductance, respectively, v is the voltage vector generated by the inverter, e is the

electromotive force (EMF) of the load, and i is the load current

vector. These vectors are defined as

2

v = (Va0 + aVb0 + a2 Vc0 )

3

2

i = (ia + aib + a2 ic )

3

2

e = (ea + aeb + a2 ec )

3

computational efforts, it is possible to consider i (k + 1)

i (k); thus, no extrapolation is necessary.

The current prediction in (6) also requires an estimation of

the future load back EMF e(k + 1). That value, which is analog

to the future reference current case, can be estimated using

a second-order extrapolation from present and past values or

considering e(k + 1) e(k). As mentioned, that will depend

basically on the sampling time and the platform used for implementation. Present and past estimations of e can be obtained

from the load (6) shifted backward in time and load current

measurements, as follows:

(k) = v(k) +

e

RTs + L

L

i(k 1)

i(k).

Ts

Ts

(8)

dynamic equation:

Vc (k + 1) = Vc (k) +

1

ic (k)Ts

C

(9)

voltage, and C is the capacitance. Currents through the capacitors are obtained based on the load currents and the present

switching state; thus, no additional measurements are needed.

Using (9), it is possible to obtain predictions for the future

value of the capacitors voltage based on its present current and

voltage.

(2)

III. PWM C URRENT C ONTROL M ETHOD

(3)

(4)

where a = ej(2/3) .

Applying a sampling period Ts , the derivative form di(t)/dt

is approximated by

di(t)

i(k) i(k 1)

.

dt

Ts

(7)

(5)

Replacing (5) in (1) and shifting the discrete time one step

forward, the relation between the discrete-time variables can

short review of classic PWM current control applied to a threephase NPC inverter is presented to obtain suitable comparisons.

The selected method involves linear controllers and a modulation strategy known as level-shifted phase disposition PWM.

This alternative was selected among other PWM strategies

because it is widely used on this kind of inverter and provides

the best harmonic profile [2].

The PWM scheme is shown in Fig. 3. The load current is

measured and compared with its reference value. Next, a PI

controller generates the reference load voltages that enter a

modulator. In this stage, each reference voltage is compared

with two triangular carrier signals (superior and inferior) that

2699

is to take advantage of the state redundancy of a three-level

inverter, from the fact that the tracking cost f depends only on

the voltage vector selected. Its composition is as follows:

h(V c12 (k + 1), nc ) = dc |V c1 (k + 1)

V c2 (k + 1)| + n nc .

Fig. 3.

Fig. 4.

applied to the inverter is selected according to the results of the

comparisons. For more details, see [2] and [9][11].

IV. P REDICTIVE C URRENT C ONTROL M ETHOD

(10)

where nc is the number of commutations of the power semiconductors to get to the switching state under evaluation. The

first term in (10), i.e., f (i , i), is dedicated to achieve reference tracking, quantifying the difference between the reference

current and current prediction on the next sampling time, for

a given switching state. The following composition of f , or

tracking cost, is proposed:

f (i (k + 1), i(k + 1)) = |i (k + 1) i (k + 1)|

+ i (k + 1) i (k + 1)

the absolute difference between both capacitors voltage predictions. A switching state that generates smaller differences

will be preferred. The second element in h is proportional to

the number of commutations to get to the next switching state

nc . A switching state that implies fewer commutations of the

power semiconductors will be preferred. In this manner, the use

of h will have a direct effect in the switching frequency of the

converter. The weighing factors dc and n handle the relation

between terms dedicated to reference tracking, voltage balance,

and reduction of switching frequency within g. A large value of

a certain implies greater priority to that objective.

To measure the effect of the control strategy on the switching

frequency and reference tracking performance, it is important to define some performance variables. In the first place,

the average switching frequency per semiconductor fs will

be defined as the average value of the switching frequencies

of the 12 controlled power semiconductors in the converter

circuit. Thus

fs =

control strategy. The future value of the load current and

voltages in the capacitors are predicted for the 27 switching

states generated by the inverter, by means of (6) and (9). For

this purpose, it is necessary to measure the present load current

and voltages in the capacitors. After obtaining the predictions,

a quality function g is evaluated for each switching state. The

switching state that minimizes g is selected and applied during

the next sampling period.

The proposed quality function has the following composition:

(12)

4

fsai + fsbi + fsci

12

i=1

(13)

interval of the power semiconductor number i of phase k, with

i {1, 2, 3, 4} and k {a, b, c}. A reduction of the switching

frequency of the inverter will imply a reduction of fs . As the

reader can observe, fs was defined as an average between

switching frequencies. Not all 12 power semiconductors will

present the same switching frequency. Moreover, transitions

will occur in general with different current values; thus, fs will

not be directly proportional to the power losses in the converter.

However, it will allow us to measure or have indication of the

switching frequency of the inverter and the power losses due to

commutations.

The mean absolute reference tracking error e will be defined

as the mean value of the absolute difference between the reference current and the load current, within a given time interval.

As a difference between current variables, it will be measured in

[A] and will also be expressed as a percentage of the amplitude

of the reference current.

V. S IMULATION R ESULTS

(11)

current vector i, respectively, and i and i are the real and

imaginary components of the reference current vector i .

strategy are presented. Within this section, the total dc-link

voltage will be maintained at 533 V, following a previous

rectification stage. The sampling period applied is Ts = 100 s.

Values of the dc link and load parameters (Fig. 1) are shown in

Table I.

2700

TABLE I

CIRCUIT PARAMETERS

Fig. 6.

Fig. 7.

A. Reference Tracking

The performance of the proposed strategy was analyzed

and compared with PWM current control. The algorithm was

implemented using the following quality function:

g = |i (k + 1) i (k + 1)|

+ i (k + 1) i (k + 1) + n nc .

(14)

factor applied was n = 0.001, which is small enough to select

switching states within a given voltage vector. To generate

the same average switching frequency fs as the predictive

method of about 690 Hz, the PWM carrier frequency was set at

1380 Hz.

Waveforms obtained for the load currents, load voltage, and

voltage spectrum for both methods are presented in Figs. 57,

respectively, with a sinusoidal reference current of 10-A amplitude and 50-Hz frequency. In terms of tracking performance,

the mean absolute reference tracking error e achieved was

0.089 A or 0.89% for the predictive method and 0.113 A

or 1.13% with the PWM strategy. The load voltage spectrum

obtained with the PWM method presents the characteristic side

bands near the carrier frequency. The predictive method, on

the other hand, presents a spread spectrum, with energy in a

wider range of frequencies. However, the peak amplitude of the

spectral content of the predictive method is evidently lower.

To observe the decoupling between both components of

the load current, the amplitude of i (real component of

the reference current) was reduced from 10 to 5 A at time

t = 0.035 s. The amplitude of the imaginary component i was

left at 10 A. Results for the load current are presented in Fig. 8

(b) Predictive.

for the PWM and predictive methods. From the presented results, it is clear that the predictive method achieves comparable

performance on reference tracking during transient response.

In addition, note that the proposed method presents no interaction between i and i . This decoupling is a consequence of

independently considering both components of the current vector, as shown in (14).

Note that the method does not require any kind of linear controller or modulation technique, achieving a different approach

to control a power converter.

The basic predictive strategy presented, applying quality

function (10) with dc = n = 0, requires no parameter adjustment, but only knowledge of the load. Nevertheless, to

take advantage of the possibilities offered by this method, it is

necessary to adjust parameters dc and n . No design criteria

have been established thus far for this purpose. Further research

is required. However, some hints can be mentioned. First,

the designer should consider the magnitudes of the variables

involved in g. Terms included in f (11) will usually be smaller

than terms included in h (12). According to that, if the designer

wants to give equal importance to each objective, dc and

n should be less than 1. If the designer wants to maintain

voltage balance in the dc link only by selecting the appropriate

switching state within a given voltage vector, then a small value

of dc should be used. The smallest value allowed by the implementation platform will work for that purpose. In that way, the

control method will use the state redundancy of a three-level

inverter as most established methods. The same criteria can

be applied to n . With a small value, the method will choose

the switching state that implies fewer commutations within a

voltage vector. When increasing n , the method could choose

switching states that are not within the optimal voltage vector

in terms of reference tracking but imply fewer commutations.

More details regarding the selection of n will be discussed in

the following section.

B. Reduction of the Switching Frequency

Also, using (14) as a quality function and increasing the

value of n , it is possible to considerably reduce the average

switching frequency per semiconductor, i.e., fs . Applying the

strategy with n = 0, the method presented a switching frequency fs = 820 Hz. Using a value of n = 0.001, the method

presented fs = 690 Hz, as mentioned. Increasing n to 0.16

(emphasis in reducing the switching frequency), a frequency

of 229 Hz was achieved. That represents only 27.9% of the

original average switching frequency per semiconductor and

33.1% of the fs presented by the PWM method.

As expected, applying a greater n implies a reduction in the

switching frequency. In general, the tradeoff is a slight increase

in the reference tracking error. For example, increasing n from

0.001 to 0.16, the switching frequency fs drops from 690 to

229 Hz, but the reference tracking error e increases from 0.089

to 0.189 A. To expose the possibilities of the proposed method,

a graph showing the relation between the design parameter

n and the average switching frequency per semiconductor

fs and mean absolute reference tracking error e is presented

in Fig. 9. From the figure, which is built based on several

simulations for each value of n , it is possible to confirm the

mentioned relation. Increasing n implies a reduction in the

switching frequency and increases the reference tracking error.

2701

(b) Relation with the absolute error.

Fig. 10. Predictive strategy, passive load (simulation). (a) Load current on

phase a. (b) Load voltage on phase a.

terms of switching frequency and reference tracking.

The capability of the predictive method to maintain voltage

balance in the dc link was also tested in simulation, but that

topic and the performance of both methods at low switching

frequencies will be presented in Section VI.

C. Passive Load

Simulation results applying the predictive strategy on a passive load are presented in Fig. 10. The algorithm was tested

in this case with circuit parameters from Table I, with the

exception that the EMF amplitude (active component of the

load) was set to zero. The method was simulated with (14) as

a quality function, with n = 0.001. The system presented a

similar behavior than with the active load. The tracking error e

and switching frequency fs were practically the same. The main

difference can be observed in the load voltage [Fig. 10(b)]. The

waveform of that signal in this case has a lower amplitude or

fundamental component, as a result of the absence of the active

component of the load. Thus, the method adjusts that variable

to maintain a load current close to the reference signal.

2702

Fig. 12. Experimental results with fs = 720 Hz, load current on phase a.

(a) PWM. (b) Predictive.

The experimental prototype of the three-level NPC inverter

was built based on insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT)

APT25GP120BDF. The system includes an Altera Flex10K10

field-programmable gate array (FPGA) for the control and protection logic and Altera EPM7064 FPGAs for the inverter leg

logic and deadtime. The switching commands are transmitted

via an Agilent HFBR2521/1521 optic-fiber system.

The control strategy was implemented based on a dSPACE

DS1104 rapid prototyping system and MATLAB/Simulink 7.0

(R14) installed on a host personal computer. The sampling

period used with the predictive strategy was Ts = 100 s or

a 10-kHz sampling frequency. The predictive algorithm implemented with the control platform based on the dSPACE DS1104

is explained in a flow diagram presented in Fig. 11. The control

loop begins sampling the required signals. Then, the algorithm

estimates the active component of the load by means of (8)

and initializes the value of gop , which is a variable that will

contain the value of the lower quality function evaluated by

the algorithm so far. Then, the strategy enters a loop where,

for each possible switching state, the quality function (10) is

evaluated considering current and voltage predictions obtained

from (6) and (9), respectively. If, for a given switching state, the

evaluated quality function g happens to be less than gop , that

lower value is stored as gop , and the switching state number is

Fig. 13. Experimental results with fs = 720 Hz, load voltage on phase a.

(a) PWM. (b) Predictive.

stored as jop . The loop ends when all 27 switching states have

been evaluated. The state that produces the optimal value of g

(minimal) is identified by the variable jop and will be applied

to the converter during the next sampling interval, starting the

control algorithm again.

The PWM method was implemented with carrier frequencies

of 1440 and 400 Hz. The total dc-link voltage was maintained

at 533 V by a dc source that also maintained voltage balance

during initial tests. A passive load was connected to the inverter,

with the same parameters and characteristics of the load used in

Section V-C in simulations. A sinusoidal reference current of

10-A amplitude and 50-Hz frequency was applied.

The predictive strategy was tested using the quality function presented in (14) with n = 0.001. The PWM method

was implemented with a carrier signal of frequency fc =

1440 Hz. Both implementations presented an average switching frequency per semiconductor fs = 720 Hz. Results can

be observed in Fig. 12 for load current on phase a and in

Fig. 13 for load voltage. The resemblance of the signals for

both methods is clearly observed and matches the results

presented in simulations for the same situation in Fig. 10.

2703

TABLE II

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF PWM AND PREDICTIVE METHODS

Fig. 14. Experimental results with fs = 200 Hz, load current on phase a.

(a) PWM. (b) Predictive.

Fig. 15. Experimental results with fs = 200 Hz, load voltage on phase a.

(a) PWM. (b) Predictive.

Nevertheless, a mean absolute error of e = 0.184 A was measured for the PWM strategy. The predictive method presented a

mean absolute error of e = 0.165 A.

The second step was to increase the frequency reduction

weighing factor to n = 0.16. The predictive method presented

a switching frequency of fs = 200 Hz. The PWM method was

adjusted to match the switching frequency, with a carrier signal

of frequency fc = 400 Hz. Results on the load current for

both methods can be observed in Fig. 14. The load voltage

signals for PWM and predictive methods can be observed in

Fig. 15. Comparing Figs. 14 and 15 with Figs. 12 and 13, it

is possible to verify the reduction in the switching frequency,

as well as an increase in the reference tracking error for

both methods. Analysis of the mean absolute error, however,

reveals a significant difference in the performance of both

methods. The PWM strategy presented a mean absolute error of

e = 0.406 A, whereas the predictive method achieved a value

of e = 0.283 A, both working at fs = 200 Hz.

Table II presents a review summarizing the most relevant

characteristics and results for both methods, including average switching frequency per IGBT fs , mean absolute tracking

Fig. 16. Experimental test regarding voltage balance in the dc-link capacitors

applying the predictive strategy.

The theoretical maximum switching frequency that each

method can reach will depend basically on the sampling frequency. For the PWM method, the theoretical maximum fs

is equal to the sampling frequency used, whereas for the

predictive strategy, the theoretical maximum fs is equal to

half the sampling frequency. Those values limit the switching

frequency. The real fs presented by each method will depend

on specific aspects of the method, such as the n parameter of

the predictive strategy, and the behavior of the reference signal.

Finally, one of the most interesting aspects of the predictive

method is the simplicity to implement voltage balance in the dc

link. This feature was tested disconnecting the middle point of

the dc link from the source and applying the predictive control

method with the following quality function:

g = |i (k + 1) i (k + 1)| + i (k + 1) i (k + 1)

+ dc |V c1 (k + 1) V c2 (k + 1)| .

(15)

succeeded in maintaining voltage balance, using the same

reference signal and parameters used in previous experimental

implementations. To show the capabilities of the method, the

voltage balance section of the quality function was disabled,

setting dc = 0 at time t = 0.67 s, as presented in Fig. 16. The

method then will not consider the voltage unbalance within

g. As expected, both voltages in the dc link quickly began to

separate until the circuit protection stopped the system when

the unbalance reached 40 V.

Summarizing, the predictive current control method was

implemented, confirming observations made in simulations.

The strategy succeeded in maintaining voltage balance in the

dc link and reducing the switching frequency. Working at the

same switching frequency, the presented method achieved better reference tracking than the carrier-based method. However,

the proposed method requires a greater sampling frequency

or data acquisition frequency. The previous fact should not

be a problem, considering the new technologies available in

2704

that the sampling instant is always located in a fixed position

within the sampling period, making easy the acquisition of

measurement data, avoiding problems with switching the power

devices. The dSPACE system used to obtain the results had no

problem running the algorithm at the sampling time selected,

i.e., Ts = 100 s. In fact, it took only 52 s to execute the

entire algorithm, including voltage balance and reduction of

the switching frequency. The algorithm was also implemented

on a DSP Texas Instruments TMS320F2812, using the same

sampling frequency and achieving similar results in terms of

processing times.

One of the aspects that must be mentioned is the simplicity

to implement the voltage balance strategy with the presented

method. There is no need to consider long lookup tables or

additional control blocks.

VII. C ONCLUSION

The predictive current control method presented does not

require any kind of linear controller or modulation technique.

It effectively controls the load current and compares well with

established control methods, such as PWM, achieves a comparable dynamic response and reference tracking, and works

at lower switching frequencies. If both methods are compared

at the same switching frequency, as exposed in Table II, the

predictive strategy presents lower tracking error. In addition,

the proposed method presents no interaction between both

components of the load current.

One of the remarkable aspects of the method is the use of

costs assigned to each objective to achieve reference tracking,

balance in the dc link, and reduction in the switching frequency.

The simplicity of the theory makes it easy to understand and

implement. The strategy allows the designer to adjust the parameters to fit his requirements in terms of switching frequency,

voltage balance, and reference tracking.

The method can be easily implemented taking advantage of

the present technologies available in DSPs. The higher sampling frequencies required should not be a problem nowadays.

This control strategy uses, in a very convenient way, the discrete

nature of power converters and microprocessors used in their

control.

These results show that predictive control is a very powerful

tool, with a conceptually different approach, which opens new

possibilities in the control of power converters.

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M.Sc. degrees in electronics engineering (with

honors) from the Universidad Tcnica Federico

Santa Mara, Valparaso, Chile, in 2005. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree at the same

university.

He worked at the Institute of Power Electronics

and Control Engineering, University of Stuttgart,

Stuttgart, Germany, during a scientific stay in 2006.

His main research interests include matrix converters and new control techniques applied to power

converters.

and M.Sc. degrees in electronic engineering from

the Universidad Tcnica Federico Santa Mara

(UTFSM), Valparaso, Chile, in 2004. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree at the same

university.

In 2003, he joined the Department of Electronics

Engineering, UTFSM, as a Research Assistant. His

main research interests are power electronics and

adjustable speed drives.

degree in electrical engineering from the University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, in 2002. He is

currently working toward the Ph.D. degree on the

field of discrete-time modulation schemes, including

predictive techniques, at the same university.

In 2002, he joined the Institute of Power Electronics and Control Engineering, University of Stuttgart,

as a Research Assistant. His fields of interest cover

electric drives, high-power current sources, and automotive power electronics.

Jos Rodrguez (M81SM94) received the Engineer degree in electrical engineering from the Universidad Tcnica Federico Santa Mara, Valparaso,

Chile, in 1977 and the Dr.-Ing. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Erlangen,

Erlangen, Germany, in 1985.

Since 1977, he has been with the Universidad

Tcnica Federico Santa Mara, where he is currently

a Professor and the President. During his sabbatical

leave in 1996, he was responsible for the Mining

Division, Siemens Corporation, Santiago, Chile. He

has a large consulting experience in the mining industry, particularly in the

application of large drives like cycloconverter-fed synchronous motors for SAG

mills, high-power conveyors, controlled drives for shovels, and power quality

issues. He has authored or coauthored more than 130 refereed journals and

conference papers and contributed to one chapter in the Power Electronics

Handbook (Academic Press, 2006). His research interests are mainly in the area

of power electronics and electrical drives. In the last years, his main research

interests are in multilevel inverters and new converter topologies.

2705

Jorge Pontt (M00SM04) received the Engineer and M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering

from the Universidad Tcnica Federico Santa Mara

(UTFSM), Valparaso, Chile, in 1977.

Since 1977, he has been with UTFSM, where he is

currently a Professor in the Department of Electronics Engineering, the Director of the Laboratory for

Reliability and Power Quality, and the Director of the

Nucleus for Industrial Electronics and Mechatronics.

He has authored more than 90 international refereed

journals and conference papers. He is the coauthor

of the software Harmonix used in harmonic studies in electrical systems

and also of patent applications concerning innovative instrumentation systems

employed in high-power converters and large grinding mill drives. He is a

Consultant to the mining industry, particularly in the design and application of

power electronics, drives, instrumentation systems, and power quality issues,

with management of more than 80 consulting and R&D projects. He has had

scientific stays at the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany

(19791980), the University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany (1990), and

the University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany (20002001).

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