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Materials and

and Structures
Structures for
for Aerospace
Aerospace
Materials
Propulsion Systems
Systems
Propulsion

Scramjets

Rocket

X-43b

Aeroturbine

Image courtesy of ATK

High By-pass Aeroturbine

Air flow

http://www.aip.org/tip/INPHFA/vol-10/iss-4/p24.html
Scramjets integrate air and space by Dean Andreadis

Efficiency of Various Propulsion Cycles:


Specific Impulse (Thrust/weight)
8000
Hydrogen Fuel
Hydrocarbon Fuels
Turbojets

6000

Rocket
RBCC

Isp

TBCC
Ramjets

4000

Scramjets

Turbojets
2000

Ramjets
Scramjets
Rockets

0
0

10
MACH NUMBER

20

Specific Fuel Consumption for Various Concepts


10

Conventional Rocket
9

Turbine Engines

TSFC (Lbm/Lbf/Hr.)

6
5
4

Scram/Rocket

Ramjet Take Over


3

Rocket Off
2

Ram/Scram Operation

0
0

Hydrogen Fuel

Flight Mach Number

10

11

12

Fuel Efficiency In the Aero-turbine Industry:


JT3C

Turbojet

Low Bypass
Turbofan

2nd Gen High Bypass


Turbofan

High Bypass
Turbofan

JT3D-1

Specific Fuel
consumption

CJ805

JT8D-9

JT8D-217

TAY 620

JT9D-7A
JT9D-3A
CFM56-2
CF6-6D

RB-211-524D

JT9D-7R4G2
CF6-80A

V2500 A1

CFM56-5A

BR 715

RB-211-535E4 CF6-80C2-B6F
CFM56-5C4
CF6-80E1-A2
PW4168
PW4098

PW2037 PW4056

PW4084

TRENT 895

GE90-85B
GE90-115B

R. SHAFRICK, GE Aircraft Engines

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

Certification Date

2000

2010

2020

Engine Temperature Trend

GE90-115B

Gas Temperature, FRT

GE90-94B
Trent 892
CFM56-5C4

GE90-90B
Trent 772

CFM56-5C2

V2533 CFM56-7B

CF6-50E2

CF6-80C2A5

PW 4062
CF6-80C2D1F

CFM56-2B

CF34-8C1
BR 710

CFM56-5A
CF6-80C2B1F

JT9D
TF33

BR 715

CF6-80E1

PW 2037

CF6-80A3

CF34-10

PW 6024

CFM56-3C
CF6-50E

Trent 556

PW 4090

CFM56-5B

CF34-3B

CF34-3A

CFM56-3B2

CF6-80C2A1

CFM56-3B1

JT8D-219

RB 211

62

64

66

68

70

72

74

76

78

80

82

84

86

88

90

92

94

Engine Certification Date

96

98

00

02

04

06

08

10

12

Role of Airfoil Materials


CMCs

Increased
Temperature
Capability(K)
1600
ed
c
n
va
d
A

m
er
h
T

ar
B
l

st
y
rS
e
ri

1300

em

GEN4
GEN3

Superalloys
GEN2
GEN1

1000
1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Introduction Date

Turbine Airfoil Material Advancements

Specific Strengths of Metallic Systems

Superalloys &
Refractories

More High Temperature Materials

Role of Airfoil Materials


CMCs

Increased
Temperature
Capability(K)
1600
ed
c
n
va
d
A

m
er
h
T

ar
B
l

st
y
rS
e
ri

1300

em

GEN4
GEN3

Superalloys
GEN2
GEN1

1000
1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Introduction Date

Turbine Airfoil Material Advancements

Superalloy Turbine Air Foils

Equiaxed (EQ)

Dir. Sol. (DS)

Single Xtal (SX)

Ni Superalloy Improvements

1020

980
960
940
920

1988

142

1984

80

880

125

900

80

Temperature Capability - C

1000

860
840
1969

1972

1982

1989

1994

2000

Year of Introduction
ASM-TMS NY042198

16

Modeling at the scale of the grains


Single crystal turbine
blade

Role of Airfoil Materials


CMCs

Increased
Temperature
Capability(K)
1600
ed
c
n
va
d
A

m
er
h
T

ar
B
l

st
y
rS
e
ri

1300

em

GEN4
GEN3

Superalloys
GEN2
GEN1

1000
1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Introduction Date

Turbine Airfoil Material Advancements

Airfoil Technology
Technology
Airfoil

H
Tra eat
nsf
er

High Performance Coating Systems:

Enabling technology for advanced gas turbines

Transverse Section

Thermal Barrier Multilayer

Al Reservoir

Nanoscale Porosity

Deposition Effects
Effects on
on Microstructure
Microstructure
Deposition
Airfoil Mode

Platform Mode

Interplay with
with
Interplay
Component
Component
Geometry
Geometry

Reduced coating thickness within recess,

20 m

2 m

quantitatively consistent with reduction


in integrated flux due to shadowing by
corners.
Reduced inter-columnar gap widthand
increased propensity to sinteringdue
to elimination of most oblique vapor flux.

5 m

Role of Airfoil Materials


CMCs

Increased
Temperature
Capability(K)
1600
ed
c
n
va
d
A

m
er
h
T

ar
B
l

st
y
rS
e
ri

1300

em

GEN4
GEN3

Superalloys
GEN2
GEN1

1000
1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Introduction Date

Turbine Airfoil Material Advancements

Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC)

CMC Combustor Liner


Cooling Air Reduction
Weight Reduction
20% NOx Reduction

CMC Vane

CMC Blade

Weight Reduction
Reduced Cooling Air
Increased Efficiency

CMCs Reduce Weight and Improve Performance

(MI) SiC/SiC (DENSE MATRIX)


T = 1400C (Metals < 1100C)
High Thermal Conductivity
Inter-laminar Shear Strength
Reduced Sensitivity to Pesting

Transition duct
Nozzles

Integrally woven
CMC Structures

Alumina anchor tube in


CMC skin for pin joint

Braided SiC/SiC
Hyper-Therm Inc.

Metallic struts
with CMC skin

Angle Interlock
Sylramic/SiC

45

CMC Combustor
Liners
Hi-Nicalon, Slurry Cast
Successful Engine Testing
Pre and Post Engine Test NDE

Revealed Degradation
Additional Engine Testing

CMC Inner Combustor Liner After Engine Testing

CMC Combustor Liner Rig & Engine Testing Successful

CMC Applications in Utility Gas Turbines


Benefits:
NOx reductions (50%)
CO reductions (50%)
Improved stability
Life improvement

Annular Combustors

Shroud
Segments
Benefits:
90% cooling air reduction
0.2% efficiency gain
Reduced tip clearance

These
These efficiency,
efficiency,
power,
power, and
and emissions
emissions
benefits
benefits translate
translate to
to
$M
$M in
in annual
annual savings
savings
for
for each
each installation.
installation.

Benefits:
>90% cooling air reduction
0.4% efficiency gain
Cost savings over SOA technology

Vanes
Benefits:
90% cooling air reduction
Efficiency gains of >1%
NOx reductions (50%)

Hybrid CMC Concept


The "hybrid" concept involves use of a moderate temperature (~1100 1200C) CMC structural member bonded to a ceramic insulating material
having good stability at 1600C and good erosion resistance.
Hot Face Temp
1600C
Ceramic
Adhesive
Bond Line
Temp.
1100C

FGI Insulation Layer

~3mm

Structural CMC

~4mm

Cold Face Temp


750C

Oxide fiber available


Insulating material technology available
Reduces cooling needs drastically

Role of Airfoil Materials


SiC/SiC CMCs

Increased
Temperature
Capability(K)
1600
ed
c
n
va
d
A

m
er
h
T

ar
B
l

st
y
rS
e
ri

1300

em

GEN4
GEN3

Superalloys
GEN2
GEN1

1000
1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Introduction Date

Turbine Airfoil Material Advancements

Thermal Barrier Multilayer:


Challenging Thermo-Chemo-Mechanical System

Thermal Property Interplay

RESIDUAL STRESS IN TGO

Thermal Property Interplay

Slide 24

Thermal Barrier Multilayer:


Challenging Thermo-Chemo-Mechanical System

YSZ Compatibility
Compatibility with
with TGO
TGO
YSZ
EB-PVD on FeCrAlY substrate

1200C

TGO
TGO

Zirconate
reactive
with TGO

As Deposited
After
100h at 1200C

1 m

7YSZ compatible with TGO


(no inter-phases formed)
Limit of thermochemical
compatibility ~21%YO1.5

Degradation Modes In Engines


Delay Spalling By Understanding
Mechanisms
And Adjusting Constituent
Properties
TBC spallation

80%

Impact
Damage
TBC
spallation

40%

1820 engine cycles

Step I:Identify
I:Identify All
All Mechanisms
Mechanisms Limiting
Limiting Durability
Durability
Step

Step II: Develop Models that Relate Durability to Material Properties

Example II (Intrinisc):
(Intrinisc): Failure
Failure by
by TGO
TGO Rumpling
Rumpling
Example
Strain misfits cause cyclic

stresses that motivate


cycle-by-cycle crack
growth in TBC
Highly non-linear:
.Requires numerical code

Phenomena include TGO

lateral growth, thermal


expansion misfit
(martensite), cyclic
plasticity.

Swelling
Martensite

Fails at Oxide/Oxide Interface

LARGE SCALE BUCKLE: THE END OF LIFE


WHAT HAPPENED EARLIER?

DISPLACEMENT INSTABILITY

Multi-Parameter Phenomenon:
Relevant Phenomena:
Elongation/Thickening of TGO
Plastic Flow of Bond Coat
Strain Misfit of Bond Coat

Need Model
Plus
Critical Experiments
DESCRIBE CONJOINTLY

OBJECTIVE: DEVISE MECHANISM MAPS THAT SPECIFY SALIENT


NON-DIMENSIONAL PARAMETERS

UNDERSTAND THE FUNDAMENTALS

TGO

Deformation Mechanism Map

Synchotron Measurements

Synchotron Measurements

Thermal Expansion
Martensite
Swelling
Soften Bond Coat

STRAIN MISFITS: MARTENSITE TRANSFORMATION


600C

L10

41

650C
B2
41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

Model
Validation: Example
VALIDATION
EXPERIMENTS:
AN EXAMPLE

1.

Elastic properties of constituents

2.

Thermal expansion mismatch between layers.

3.

Power-law creep.

4.

Reversible phase transformation in bond coat.

5.

Growth stress in TGO.

6.

Thickening and lateral growth strain in the TGO

7.

Initial Interface Imperfections

ANIMATION OF TGO DISTORTION AND ELONGATION

QuickTime and a
GIF decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

Model
Model
Validation:
Validation:

Balint-Hutchinson Code
TGO
BC

Transition
Transition
to GE
GE
to

Substrate

Code now in use at GE

SENSITIVITY STUDY USING MECHANISM MAP:


CAN MECHANISM BE SUPPRESSED?

USE MECHANISM MAP TO ELIMINATE RATCHETING

Interface Toughness
Becomes Key
Parameter:

NEW INTERFACE
TOUGHNESS TEST
1

Gside = S +2D
b 4b
2 4b
4

f=0.26

f=1.0

= 20Jm-2

Mode I Adhesion Energy


of Metal / Alumina Interfaces

Work of Separation: Ni/Al2O3 interfaces


Expt.

Pure Ni/Al2O3 interface:

TBC Ni(Al)/Al2O3 interface:

Fracture in Alumina
Mode I toughness > 300 J/m2

Fracture at interface
Mode I toughness ~ 20 J/m2

Theo.
3.79 J/m2

1.30J/m2

6.84 J/m2

Al-termination

3.25 J/m2

O-termination

Failure Modes After Engine Test


Delay Spalling
By Understanding
Mechanisms
And
Adjusting Constituent
Properties

Two Basic
Basic Erosion
Erosion and
and FOD
FOD Mechanisms
Mechanisms
Two

I:Elastodynamic

50m

II:Viscoplastic

50m

Viscoplastic Domain

QuickTime and a
BMP decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

Simulations

LE

Soft at High Temperature

Erosion Threshold
Threshold Map
Map
Erosion

ELASTODYNAMIC
DOMAIN

Identify Importance of
Material Properties:
High Toughness
Soft at High Temperature