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Study Guide

Vilnius Technika 2002

UDK 621.18(075.8)

Boilers and Boiler houses. Study Guide. Vilnius: Technika, 2002. 84 p.

Katilai ir katilins (angl k.). Mokomoji knyga
General information about the steam generating and water heating boilers, boiler houses and
their equipment is presented in this book.
This book is predestinated for students of different specialities of technical universities.

Sudar ir angl kalb vert Petras Urbonas ir Virginija Urbonien.

Rengdami darb P. Urbonas ir V. Urbonien naudojosi ir angl kalb ivert G. Gimbuio, K.

Kajuio, K. Krukonio, A. Pranckno, P. veniano vadovl ilumin technika (Vilnius:
Mokslas, 1993) ir P. veniano, T. Narbuto vadovl ilumin technika
(Kaunas: Technologija, 1997).

Leidin rekomendavo VGTU Aplinkos ininerijos fakulteto Studij komitetas.

VGTU leidyklos Technika 557 mokomosios metodins literatros knyga.

ISBN 9986-05-546-6

P. Urbonas, V. Urbonien.
Boilers and Boiler houses
(vertimas), 2002
VGTU leidykla Technika, 2002

1. GENERAL INFORMATION .................................................................... 5
1.1. Purpose and sorts of boiler houses ...................................................... 5
1.2. Scheme of a boiler house .................................................................... 5
2. FUEL ......................................................................................................... 8
2.1. Fuel conception and classification ...................................................... 8
2.2. Fuel composition ................................................................................. 8
2.3. Fuel combustion heat ........................................................................ 10
2.4. Solid fuel ........................................................................................... 12
2.5. Liquid fuel ......................................................................................... 13
2.6. Gaseous fuel ...................................................................................... 14
3. TECHNICAL CALCULATIONS OF FUEL BURNING ....................... 16
3.1. The amount of air for fuel burning ................................................... 16
3.2. The amount of combustion products ................................................ 17
3.3. Controlling of combustion process ................................................... 20
3.4. Enthalpy of the combustion products and H-t diagram .................... 21
4. HEAT BALANCE OF A BOILER .......................................................... 24
4.1. Equation of the heat balance ............................................................. 24
4.2. Description of heat balance terms ..................................................... 25
4.3. Coefficient of the boiler efficiency ................................................... 27
5. FUEL BURNING AND COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT ....................... 29
5.1. Clasification of furnaces and their operating indices ....................... 29
5.2. Combustion of gas ............................................................................ 30
5.3. Combustion of liquid fuel ................................................................. 33
5.4. Combustion of solid fuel .................................................................. 35
6. BOILERS ................................................................................................. 41
6.1. General information. The main elements of a boiler ........................ 41
6.2. Water circulation in a boiler .............................................................. 43
6.3. Steam boilers of natural circulation .................................................. 45
6.4. Forced circulation and single-pass steam boilers ............................. 49
6.5. Water heating boilers ........................................................................ 51


PROCESSES ........................................................................................... 54
7.1. Operating conditions of water and its setting ................................... 54
7.2. The treatment of feeding water ......................................................... 57
7.3. The improvement of steam quality ................................................... 60
7.4. The corrosion of boiler surfaces ....................................................... 63
7.5. Draught and air blowing ................................................................... 65
8. OPERATION OF A BOILER HOUSE .................................................... 68
8.1. General requirements for a boiler house ........................................... 68
8.2. Maintenance of a boiler .................................................................... 69
8.3. Control and regulation of a boiler ..................................................... 70
9. POLLUTION OF BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT ............................. 73
9.1. The main sources of pollution and toxins ......................................... 73
9.2. The influence of toxins upon biological environment ...................... 74
9.3. Setting of throwing out of toxins ...................................................... 76
9.4. Means of diminishing toxins formation and throwing out ............... 79
10. EXAMPLES OF PROBLEM SOLUTIONS ........................................... 82
11. TASKS FOR SELF-DEPENDENT WORK ............................................ 83
12. BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................... 83

1.1. Purpose and sorts of boiler houses
A boiler house consists of the complex of equipment applied to
produce steam or hot water. Steam is used in the power engines, technology. Steam and hot water heat industrial premises and lodgings, both
ones are used in private life.
Boiler houses are divided into:
1. Power, supplying turbines of the power stations with produced
2. Industrial-heating, producing steam and providing technology,
equipment of heating and ventilation with hot water;
3. Heating, furnishing industrial and domestic premises with steam
and hot water;
4. Mixed, supplying power engines, steam and hot water technology, equipment of heating and ventilation with produced steam.
Power boiler houses produce high pressure and temperature superheated steam (to 25 MPa and 560 oC), industrial and heating saturated
or little superheated steam (to 4 MPa and 450 oC) and hot (till 200 oC)
The main installation of a boiler house is a boiler, manufacturing
steam or hot water. According to the form of a produced coolant in a
boiler house steam and water heating boilers can be installed. Basic and
auxillary elements of the steam (water heating) boilers, usually, are united
by common framework and casings. The main elements are: furnace,
heating surfaces of the boiler itself, air heater, smoke ducts. In addition,
steam superheater and water heater (economizer) are installed in the
steam boilers.
In boiler houses solid, liquid or gaseous fuel, high temperature combustion products (smoke) thrown out of industrial furnaces or other equipment are used as heat sources. Also, in a boiler house there is machinery, attending to the boilers, supplying furnace and water-boiler with
fuel and air. Combustion products and waste (soot and slag) are removed
out of the furnace. Equipment for fuel keeping, providing a boiler, water
treatment are indispensable in a boiler house.
1.2. Scheme of a boiler house
The scheme of a medium output power boiler house heated by gas5

eous or liquid fuel is shown in Fig 1.Burner 1 is supplied with fuel by

pipes mixes with air and burns in the furnace. A fan is pumping out the
air necessary for fuel burning from inside of the boiler house or outside
and furnishing a tubular air heater with it. Burner is provided with the
air heated to the proper temperature.
Combustion products deliver a part of heat to the shield pipes, covering walls of the furnace. Water and water-steam mixture is circulating
in these pipes. The external surface of pipes warmed by the hot combustion products is called heating surface. As heat pipes receive the most
quantity of heat by radiation, they are called radiation heating surfaces.
Other heating surfaces, receiving heat mostly by convection, are called
convection ones.
Smoke, cooled to 9501150 oC in the chamber of a furnace, passes
through a rare bank of tubes festoon 3, steam superheater 5, to water
economizer 6 and air heater 7. In the air heater smoke chilled to
120160 oC is thrown out by the chimney into atmosphere.
Utilized in the steam engines and equipment of industrial consum-

Fig 1. Scheme of a medium output boiler house: a fuel; b superheated

steam; c air; d low pressure steam; c condensate; f chemically treated
water; g untreated water; h flue gas (smoke); 1 burner; 2 shield pipes;
3 festoon; 4 drum; 5 steam superheater; 6 water heater (economizer);
7 air heater; 8 blower fan; 9 deaerator; 10 feeding pump; 11 water
preparation equipment; 12 suction fan; 13 chimney

ers and sent back condensate of the steam e is mixed with chemically
treated complementary water f in deaerator 9.
In deaerator mixture called feeding water is warmed by the low
pressure steam to remove aggressive gas. Economizer 6 is supplied witth
water by feeding pump 10 from deaerator. It is heated almost to boiling
temperature in this installation (a part of it even evaporates) and gets
into the drum of boiler 4.
Feeding water mixed with that in the boiler drum flows down into
the headers of shield pipes by external tubes. These headers supply shield
pipes with water, it boils up and turns into the water-steam mixture rising up in the shield ones. In the drum steam separates from the water,
flows into the superheater, then-into the steam engines or industrial enterprises. Separated water flows again by the same circuit: external
downcoming pipes headers shield pipes drum. Mostly in the boiler
house a few units connected with common communications of the fuel,
water supply, steam distribution and smoke removing are installed.
Smoke carries many fine ash parts out of the furnace because a
boiler is heated with ashy solid fuel. These parts use up a smoke exhaust
fan violently and thrown out they pollute environment. Ash catchers are
installed in front of the smoke fan to avoid pollution. Ash, slag of burnt
fuel from furnace and ash from the catcher pour into the sluiceway and
are washed down into the slag grinder by water flow. Grinded slag, ash
and water mixture are removed out of the boiler house.

2.1. Fuel conception and classification
Fuel stuff is any material, which burning gives great quantities of
heat justified technically and economically.
Nowadays fossil and nuclear fuel is used. Burning fossil heat is
produced due to the oxidation of combustible fuel elements. Utilizing
nuclear fuel it is got during the disintegration of nuclei of some heavy
elements isotopes. Meanwhile the main source of heat is fossil.
According to physical state fossil is distributed into solid, liquid
and gaseous. Wood, peat, coal of different sorts (brown, stone), anthracite, coke, oil shale and others are numbered among solid ones. Liquid
fuel is oil, mazut (black oil), kerosene, gasoline, solar oil, pitches of the
coal and so on. Natural, generator, coke-furnace, blast-furnace gas are
reckoned among gaseous fuel.
Fuel is natural and artificial. Natural one is called the fuel extracted
from natural sources, e.g. peat, coal and brown one, from anthracite, oil
shale, natural gas, oil, wood. Natural fuel processed chemically or mechanically is called artificial e.g, timber coal, coke, gasoline, kerosene,
mazut, generator, blast-furnace, coke-furnace gas, blocks of solid and
oil waste and so on.
According to the use fuel is distributed, conditionally, into power
and technologic. Power fuel is used to produce heat and electric energy,
technologic fuel is used in different industrial furnaces and as raw material in chemical industry.
2.2. Fuel composition
Usually the composition of solid and liquid fuel is expressed in per
cents of the mass of its components. Combustible elements of solid and
liquid fuel are carbon, hydrogen and sulphur. Their amount in the fuel is
marked in mass per cents C, H and S%. In almost all sorts of fuel combinations of these elements consist of oxygen (O%) and nitrogen (N%).
Internal fuel ballast consists of both of them. External fuel ballast consists of moisture (W%) and mineral dash (A%).
Carbon is the main combustible element of the fuel. Its amount is
various in different sorts of fuel and depends on the carbonizing extent.
It means that this amount depends on the age of fuel., e.g. combustible
mass of peat and wood consists of 5058% of carbon, 8090%

coal and mazut. Burnt 1 kg of coal gives 33500 kJ of heat. Increasing

carbon amount in the fuel its combustion heat is rising up. In this case
fuel can be ignited with greater difficulty, a flame is shorter.
Hydrogen is the second, according to importance, combustible element of fuel. Burnt 1kg of hydrogen gives 4,4 times more heat, than
1kg of coal. Different sorts of fuel consist of 25% of it. Increasing
carbonizing extent of fuel, the amount of hydrogen is decreasing. The
least amount of it is in anthracite, more-in liquid fuel.
Organic combinations (Sor), sulphide (Ssd) and sulphite (Sd) consist
of fuel sulphur.Organic and sulphide sulphur burns, so it is called combustible (Sor+ Ssd= Sd). Burnt 1kg of this one exudes 9050 kJ of heat.
Sulphite sulphur doesnt burn, therefore it is called incombustible and
numbered among ash. Solid fuel consists of about 8%, of liquid one-to
3,5% of sulphur. Oxygen and nitrogen do not exude any heat, thats
why they are undesirable fuel elements. Different sorts of fuel consist of
0,540% of oxygen. Solid fuel and mazut consist of 0,52% of nitrogen. Burning fuel, nitrogen turns into combustion products.
Incombustible mineral dashes decrease combustion heat of fuel and
the operation economy of furnace and boiler. Describing fuel usually
fuel ash content (A%) is pointed, not the amount of mineral dashes
itself. Ash is incombustible remainder consisting of completely burnt
fuel mineral dashes. Ash content can be various, e.g. in case of wood it
makes about 1% of dry mass, peat-10%, coal 1030%, brown coal
1040%, oil shale-even 6070%. Liquid fuel (mazut) consists of
0,3% of mineral dashes. Fuel, consisting of great ash content, is employed
usually as local one because it is inexpedient to convey it long distances.
Moisture of fuel makes also its external ballast. Humid fuel is difficult
to ignite, combustion heat becomes less. Fuel dampness decreases the
temperature of the furnace, therefore heat exchange becomes worse.
Moisture amount is slight in liquid fuel. Solid fuel consists of 560%
of humidity. Fuel of less carbonizing extent-peat, brown coal consists
of much moisture, the least amount is found in coal, anthracite (315%).
Conditionally fuel composition can be expressed with respect to
the part of its different mass. According to it usable, analytic, dry and
combustible mass is marked out. Every mass is described by certain
components of fuel. Cell composition in% of usage mass can be written down:
C n + H n + S dn + O n + N n + A n + W n = 100


Dry mass is obtained removing moisture from humid fuel:

C s + H s + S ds + O s + N s + A s = 100


In addition to removing ash, combustible fuel mass is obtained:


C d + H d + S dd + O d + N d = 100

Nitrogen, oxygen and combustible elements are chemically combined, so they are considered as components of combustible mass.
Analytic mass is obtained under natural conditions having dried
fuel samples in the laboratory to constant humidity (Wa%).
Combustable mass is the most stable therefore its composition is
usually pointed out in different manuals and tables. Usable mass is
employed in thermal rating. Combustible mass of fuel composition reevaluating it into usable one, [100-(An+Wn)]/100 factor must be used.
Then any component of usable mass will be:


X n = X d 100 An + W n / 100


Gaseous fuel is a mechanical mixture of different gas. The main

combustible components of natural gas are methane CH4, ethane C2H6,
propane C3H8 and other higher rate hydrocarbons CmHn. The main combustible elements of artificial gas are carbon monoxide CO, hydrogen
H2, methane CH4. Ballast of gas consists of incombustible components:
oxygen O2, nitrogen N2, carbon dioxide CO2 and water vapor H2O. Particularly a lot of ballast is in artificial gas.
The amount of gaseous fuel is measured in cubic meters under natural
conditions. Its composition is expressed in per cents of its components
volume in respect of dry gas:
CO2s + O2s + N 2s + CO s + H 2s + CH 4s + C2 H 6s + C3 H 8s + ..... = 100


Burning hydrocarbons give the most amount of heat, e.g. burnt 1kg
of methane exudes 35800 kJ of heat, ethane 63700 kJ, propane
91200 kJ, carbon monoxide-only 12640 kJ, hydrogen 10800 kJ.
2.3. Fuel combustion heat
The amount of heat released due to perfect combustion of 1kg of
solid and liquid fuel or 1 nm3 of gaseous one is called combustion heat
(caloric value). Two conceptions of fuel combustion heat are used: up10

per combustion heat of usable fuel mass Qan and lower Qn (kJ/kg,
kJ/m3). The difference between them is only that heat exuded due to the
condensation of water vapor existing in the combustion products, forms
a part of upper combustion heat and is not included into the lower one.
Qn = Qan 2500 M H



where 2500 heat of water vapor condensation, kJ/kg; M H 2O

water vapor amount kg, formed due to combustion of 1kg of fuel.
In the laboratories fuel combustion heat is established by the special devices-calorimeters. It is possible to calculate approximately the
combustion of the fuel from empiric formula. Mendeleyevs one is the
most exact:
Q n = 339 C n + 1035 H n 109 (O n S dn ) 25 W n ;


It is possible to count up accurately enough the combustion heat of

gaseous fuel, if its composition and combustion heat of the components
are known. Lower combustion heat of dry gas is calculated so:
Q s = 108 H 2s + 126 CO s + 358 CH 4s + 591 C 2 H 4s + 637 C 2 H 6s +
s ;
+ 912 C3 H 8s + 1186 C 4 H10


where H 2s , CO s and so on - amount of gas components expressed

in volume per cents.
Conventional fuel conception is employed comparing one of the
different sorts, solving the problem of changing one sort fuel to another,
forming standards of fuel expenditure. Fuel which combustion heat is
29300 kJ/kg (7000 kcal/kg) is called conventional.
The amount of usable fuel B n is evaluated into the conventional
one B sk so:
B s k = B n

where E =

Q n
= B n E;
Q n


thermal equivalent of the fuel.


2.4. Solid fuel

Volatile substances of the fuel are called gaseous products of the
decomposition taking place heating thermal unsteady molecules of solid
fuel organic combinations. More volatile substances exude due to the
less carbonizing extent of the fuel because more thermal unstable molecules exist in it. The most ones exude out of the wood about 85% of
its combustible mass, the least of anthracite (29%). Remainder of
solid fuel left after the isolation of volatile substances is called coke.
The largest part of it consists of coal (about 9598%).
Volatile ones burn down in the furnace, making up a flame. Their
igniting temperature is lower than that of coke, therefore these substances
ignite first and assist coke during burning. The main properties characterizing the fuel are: combustion heat, ash content, amount of exuded
volatile substances.
Wood as fuel is used only in small boiler houses. Mostly the waste
of the wood proccesing enterprises is burnt. Composition of different
trees combustible mass is approximately the same. It consists of ash to
1% and sulphur does not exist in it. Just now cut down wood consists
of 50% or more of moisture. Combustion heat of wood depends on the
kind of trees less and very much on their moisture. Combustion heat of
wood is usually about 12500 kJ/kg. Wood exudes a great amount of
volatile substances (85%), so it is easy to ignite and burn it.
Peat is the youngest, according to geological point of view, fossil
fuel. It is considered the first stage of vegetation remainders carbonization. According to the way of digging peat can be lumpy and crumby.
The latter one is dug most effectively and economically. In the combustible mass of peat the amount of carbon is larger, the quantities of oxygen and volatile substances are less than in the wood (70%). Peat contains a comparatively small amount of ash (about 10%), however, it is
very humid. The moisture of just dug peat is of 85-90%, so it is always
dried up in the open air. Combustion heat of peat depends on its humidity and is not large (850012000 kJ/kg).
Coal is divided into brown, stone and anthracite.This division is
approximate because distinct limits between these sorts of coal do not
Brown coal is a product of the subsequent carbonization of vegetation remainders, that, compared to the peat, contains less hydrogen and
oxygen, than coal. This sort of coal exudes rather many volatile sub12

stances (4050%), much moisture (to 50% and more). Brown coal
contains much ash (1040%). Combustible heat is between 6300 and
17000 kJ/kg due to a large external ballast. Brown coal as other sorts of
stone coal inclines to flame itself in the stacks. Brown coal is not valuable, so it is used near the extraction place.
Stone coal is the product of a larger carbonization extent. It contains much carbon ( C d = 75...90%), less humidity (415%) due to
small hygroscopic extent, volatile substances (1045%). Conbustion
heat is large Qn = 2100029300 kJ/kg.
The product of the largest carbonization extent of initial material is
called anthracite. Combustible mass contains 9094% of carbon. It
releases the least amount of volatile substances (29%), so it is difficult to ignite it. Anthracite contains less humidity (about 6%), ash content is to 20%, combustion heat is rather large 2500027200 kJ/kg
(only some thin coal sorts containing more hydrogen have larger combustion heat).
Oil shale releases many volatile substances (to 80%). Characteristic feature is that it contains a great amount of mineral dash to 70% of
dry mass. Burning oil shale they decompose exuding CO2 and much
ash. Combustion heat of oil shale is small Qn = 580010300kJ/kg.
Information about some sorts of solid fuel is presented in Table 2.1.
2.5. Liquid fuel
Liquid fuel of different sorts is obtained during the processing of oil.
Heated to 300370C oil is distilled and fractions condensating at different temperatures are distinquished: liquified gas (output about 1%),
gasoline (about 15% at 180350C temperature), kerosene (about 18%
at 180350C ). Heavy remainder with the beginning of boiling temperature of 330350C, is called mazut (black oil). It is thick liquid,
which properties depend very much on those of initial oil. The density of
mazut decreases rising its temperature, so it is neccesary to warm it before
pouring it out of tanks or transporting by pipes. In boilers mostly mazut of
40 and 100 sort is used.
Mazut contains much carbon (8486%) and hydrogene (1012%),
little ash (to 0,3%) and moisture (13%). Combustion heat of mazut is
very large 3850041000 kJ/kg due to a small amount of ballast. Mazut
is divided into thinly sulphury (to 0,5%), sulphury (0,52,0%) and highly
sulphury depending on the amount of sulphur (Table 2.1).

Table 2.1. Parameters of solid fuel and mazut

Amount of
C H Sd O N A W kJ/kg
Composition of usage mass %


Different wood

30,3 3,6

Q n

25,1 0,4 0,6 40 10 100

Lumpy peat

30,9 3,2 0,2 17,8 1,3 6,6

Crumby peat

25,7 2,7 0,1 14,9 1,1 5,5 50

40 10 800

Oil shale (Estonia)

23,6 3,0 1,6 3,7

8 500


0,1 54,5 13,5 9 800


Brown coal (Pamaskve) 29,1 2,2 2,9 8,7 0,6 23,5 33 10 600


Coal (Donbas)
long flame



Anthracite (Donbass)

76,4 1,5 1,7 1,3

0,8 13,3

27 200

little sulphurous
bighy sulphurous

85,3 10,2 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,3

83,4 10,0 2,9 0,2 0,2 0,3


39 000
38 500



8,0 1,1
6,4 1,2
4,3 1,1
1,9 1,2

19,6 13
15,8 7
18,8 6
15,2 5



Liquid fuel is used in engines of external combustion. Fuel is divided into light and heavy according to the characteristics of evaporation. Gasoline, ligroine, kerosine belong to the light fuel. Aircraft fuel is
called the lightest gasoline.Heavier one is used in cars. Its sort corresponds to the octane number. Heavy fuel (light diesel and solar oil) is
used in diesel engines.
2.6. Gaseous fuel
Natural and artificial gas is used as energy fuel. Natural gas is divided
into two groups: pure gas field and oil gas (side gas). The composition of
the different fields of natural gas is not the same, but in all cases it contains
very much propane (7598%). Natural gas contains a small amount of
higher hydrogens ethane, propane, butane and their total quantity is not
more than 10%. Internal ballast forms a little part in the natural gas: carbon
oxide CO2 0,11,0%, nitrogene 114%. Combustion heat of natural
gas is very large (about 35000 kJ/m3).
Artificial gas (gas of generators, blast - furnace, coking etc.) contains

much internal ballast, combustion heat is smaller (400016000 kJ/m3), so

it is used as local fuel. Gaseous fuel in comparison with solid and liquid fuel
has many advantages: transportation to the consumers is convienient, easy
mixing with air in the furnaces, service and control of burning process.
Natural gas is the cheepest fuel, its price is less than that of coal and oil.
Liquified gas consisting of low pressure propane and butane is used to satisfy everyday needs.
Parameters of different fields of natural gas are presented in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2. Parameters of gaseous fuel

Composition %







Q s
k j /m3








35 680









35 410








33 280








36 930






35 170



3.1. The amount of air for fuel burning
For the burning of fuel in the furnace of a boiler it is necessary to
use as less air as possible. The least amount of air necessary to burn a
unit of fuel and combustible components of fuel will react with oxygen
existing in the air is called a theoretical air amount. Making use of burning equations of fuel combustible components at first it is possible to
define the amount of air to burn fuel perfectly. Course of definition is
presented in Table 3.3. In it further volumes of air and combustion products are calculated under normal conditions (T=273,15 K, p=1013 hPa).
1kg of the fuel contains C n /100 kg of carbon, H n /100 kg of hydrogen, S dn /100 kg of sulphur. The burning of 1kg of such fuel requires this
amount of air oxygen:
M O2 = 2,66

H n S dn O n
+ 8

100 100 100


The amount of oxygen in the air is 23%, counting according to

mass%. Air density under normal conditions is q=1,293 kg/m3. That is
why the amount of air theoretically necessary for burning is:
Vot =

100 M O2
23 1,293

= 0,0889 (C n + 0,375 S dn ) + 0,265 H n 0,0333 O n ;


The volume of all gas of 1 mole is the same according to Avogadro

Table 3.3. Burning of combustable elements of solid and liquid fuel

Equation of combustion reaction

amounts of stuff

Amount of oxygen
necessary to burn 1
kg of combus table

Amount of combustion
products obtained
during burning of 1 m3
of gaseous fuel

C + O2CO2
12kg C + 32 kg O2 44 kg CO2

= 2,66

= 3,66

2H2 + O2 2H2O
4kgH2 + 32 kg O2 36 kg H2O



S + O2 SO2
32 kg S + 32 kg O264 kg SO2




law. Making use of the equation of gas burning the amount of oxygen
necessary to burn gaseous fuel (m3/m3) is established:
VO2 = 0,5

n C H s Os
CO s
+ 0,5 2 + m + m n 2 ;
4 100


In this formula CO s , H 2s , O2s and C m H ns are the amounts of volume

of carbon oxide, hydrogen, oxygen and corresponding hydrocarbon in
the dry burning gas in per cents.
The amount of oxygen is 21%, counting according to per cents of
volume. So theoretical amount of air necessary for burning of gaseous
fuel, is:
Vot =

100 VO2

= 0,04760,5CO s + 0,5 H 2s + m + C m H ns O2s ;


The theoretical amount of air is not enough to burn fuel due to imperfect construction of furnace and insufficient mixing of the fuel and
air. That is why the amount of air Vo supplied into furnace is always
larger than necessary theoretical amount of air Vot. The ratio of real
amount of air supplied into furnace to the theoretical amount of air is
called air excess coefficient:



The magnitude of air excess coefficient depends on the sort of fuel,

combustion method, construction of the furnace, other factors and equals
to 1,031,4. Burning fuel mixing well with air, e.g. gas, sprayed liquid
fuel, dust of solid one less air amount ( =1,11,25) is necessary. Burning solid lumpy fuel on the stoker much more excess air ( =1,31,4)
is necessary. The amount of excess air must be as small as possible
during burning of fuel because the more air the more heat is necessary to
warm air. That is why the burning temperature decreases together with
the economy of the boiler. The amount of air Vot B m3/s is required to
supply into the furnace burning B kg or m3 of fuel per second.
3.2. The amount of combustion products
During perfect combustion of the fuel with the theoretical amount
of air in the combustion products such as smoke there are products of
perfect combustion CO2, SO2, H2O, air and nitrogen of the fuel. In the
combustion products oxygen of excess air exists, burning with excess air.

Due to imperfect combustion of the fuel in the combustion products

carbon oxide still exists. Burning gas there are hydrogen, methane and
other gaseous components. It is accepted that combustible components
burn completely, counting combustion processes in the furnaces of boilers.
Usually the volume of combustion products is divided into two
parts: volume of the dry smoke Vs.d . and volume of the water vapor VH 2O :
Vd = Vs.d . + VH O ;

Volume of the dry smoke consists of total sum of volumes of these

Vs.d . = VCO2 + VSO2 + VN 2 + VO2 ;


Total amount of threeatomic gas is established analysing gas.

Threeatomic gas is marked by symbol RO2, (16) equation can be rewritten thus:
Vs.d . = VRO2 + VN 2 + VO2 ;


Theoretical amount of the dry gas formed using theoretical amount

of air asigned to burn fuel, consists of the volumes of threeatomic gas
and nitrogen:
V st.d . = V RO2 + V Nt 2 ;


Volume of the smoke increases forming the excess of air (while

>1) by the volume of excess air:


V s.d . = V st.d . + ( 1) Vot ;

m3/kg, is molecular mass,
If specific volume of gas v =

burning solid or liquid fuel formed volume of threeatomic gas is counted

V RO2 = M CO2 v CO2 + M SO2 v SO2 = 3,66

S n 22,4
C n 22,4

+ 2 d
100 44
100 64


= 0,01866 (C n + 0,375 S dn );

here M CO2 and M SO2 mass of corresponding component formed having burnt 1kg of fuel; vCO2 and v SO2 are specific volumes.
In case of complete combustion of the fuel the volume of threeatomic gas existing in the combustion products is constant and does not
depend on the air excess. Air consists of 79% nitrogen, fuel itself con18

sists of Nn% of nitrogen, so theoretical volume of nitrogen exuded

burning 1kg of solid or liquid fuel is:
V Nt 2 = 0,79 V ot + 0,008 N n ;


In case of air excess,

V Nt 2 = 0,79 V ot + 0,008 N n ;


Burning solid and liquid fuel water vapour appears in the combustion
products due to burnt hydrogen of the fuel, evaporation of the moisture
and it gets into with atmosphere air:
9 H n W n
Vot o
V H 2O = M H 2O v H 2O =
100 1000


= 0,111 H n + 0,0124 W n + 0,0161 Vot ;

here - moisture amount in the air (usually d= 10 g/kg); o =1,293 kg/m3

air density.
If steam is used to spray burnt mazut and Mg kg of the steam is
consumed to spray 1 kg of mazut, additional term 1,24Mg is inserted
into the equition (23).
Making use of the equations of gas combustion reactions presented
in Table 3.4. the amount of exuded threeatomic gas due to burning of
Table 3.4. Burning of combustable components of gaseous fuel
Equation of
comb ustion

Amount of
oxygen, necessary
to b urn 1m3 of
gaseous fuel

CO+0,5O2 CO2


CO s

H 2 + 0,5O2 H 2 O


H 2s

C m H n + m + O2

mCO2 +

H 2O

Amount of comb ustion products

ob tained during b urning of 1m3 of
gaseous fuel



CO s

m + n Cm H n

4 100


C m H ns

H 2s
n C m H ns

2 100

1nm3 of gaseous fuel is found:

V RO2 = 0,01 (CO 2s + CO s + m C m H ns );


Nitrogen amount in the smoke is:

V Nt 2 = 0,79 V ot + 0,01N 2s ;


Amount of the water vapour is:

V H 2O = 0,01 H 2s + C m H ns + 0,124 d d + 0,0161 Vot ;


here dd amount of the moisture in gaseous fuel g/m3.

Total volume of the combustion products (m3/kg or m3/m3) is:
V d = V s.d . + V H 2O = V st.d . + ( 1) V ot + V H 2O =
= V RO2 + V Nt 2 + ( 1) V ot + V H 2O ;


If the total volume of the smoke and the volumes of all components
are known, it is possible to find their partial pressures. Partial pressure
of the water vapour (kPa) is:
p H 2O =

V H 2O



here p pressure of the smoke in the ducts of boiler (p=101,3 kPa).

According to p H 2O the temperature of the water vapor existing in
the smoke called the temperature of a dew point can be found. It is
inadmissable for smoke to chill to this temperature because humidity
fallen on the heating surfaces will cause their intensive corrosion.
3.3. Controlling of combustion process
The furnace will operate economically, if combustion of the fuel is
perfect, the excess of the air and combustion losses are minimal.
Direct measurement of the excess air coefficient is impossible. It is
counted according to the composition of the smoke. Smoke analysis is
carried out to definite it, then the amounts of the smoke gaseous components in per cents of volume are found.
Smoke is analysed by chemical and physical analysers. The latter
are automatic, therefore they are used for constant control of the com20

bustion process. They measure not only continually, also write down
alterations of RO2 and O2 amounts. Chemical analysers are much more
exact than physical ones. The best are chromatographs being used recently. Amounts (%) of incomplete combustion products CO, H2, CH4
and others can be measured using these devices. Mentioned products
appear due to badly arranged combustion: bad mixing of air and fuel,
low temperature in the furnace, furnace is forced too much and so on.
Excess air coefficient, if CO exists in the smoke, is calculated thus:

O2 0,5 CO
21 79
100 ( RO 2 + O2 + CO )


Lacking of all data of the flue gas analysis, approximately coefficient of excess air could be calculated according to RO2 or O2 amount
(%). The maximum percentage amount of threeatomic gas (RO2max)
will be, when fuel burns using theoretical air amount e.g. =1. Numerical
meaning of RO2max depends on the fuel sort. Counting approximately
can be such RO2max meanings: for timber and peat 20%; coal 19%;
mazut 15,5%; natural gas 12%.
Total amount of the smoke making up air excess increases and concentration of threeatomic gas decreases. Coefficient of excess air, if its
meaning RO2 is known , is calculated thus:



Due to complete burning of the fuel oxygen exists in the smoke

only in such case, when there is air excess. Approximately coefficient of
excess air, if percentage amount of oxygen is known, is counted thus:

21 O 2


3.4. Enthalpy of the combustion products and H-t diagram

Heat exuded due to burning of the fuel at first is employed to warm
products of combustion, i.e. to increase their enthalpy.
Heat amount (kJ) necessary to increase the temperature of the combustion products of amount unit of the fuel from 0 to tC, during constant

pressure process, is called enthalpy of the combustion products. Specific

heat of different combustion products is unequal, so is necessary to count
their enthalpies separately and add up later on.
Enthalpy of theoretical smoke amount (kJ/kg or kJ/m3), if t temperature exists is:

H dt = V RO2 c CO2 + V Nt 2 c N 2 + V Ht 2O c H 2O t ;


In case > 1 , enthalpy of the flue gas increases by the amount of

excess air enthalpy:

H d = H dt + ( 1) H ot ;

In this equation H ot = Vot c o t , kJ/kg or kJ/m3 enthalpy of theoretical air amount.

Specific heat of the components of combustion products is presented
in the tables of different reference books.
Employing deduced formulas the table of the different available
meanings of the flue gas temperatures and excess air coefficients is made.
Often H t diagram is formed for easier counting. Excess air coefficient
varies in the system of a boiler, so lines of dependance of the combustion
products enthalpy on the temperature are drawn for several meanings of
excess air coefficient, f.e. 1 < 2 < 3 (Fig 2.).
Using this diagram it is possible to establish the temperature when
all heat exuded during combustion process is used to warm only these
ones and there is no heat
exchange with surroundings.
Then the total sum of heat
of the fuel combustion
products (Q) and supplied air
(Ho) is equal to the enthalpy
of combustion products:
Hd= Q +Ho;

Fig 2. Dependance of the combustion

products enthalpy on the temperature
having different coefficient of excess air


At first designate Hd in H
t diagram later draw a horizontal line to corresponding
line of a chosen coefficient of
excess air, this temperature is

called, in this case, adiabatic combustion temperature. Combustion

products during burning transfer a part of heat to the heating surfaces of
the boiler, so their temperature decreases to t. Line AB ( = const)
represents this process. Transferred heat amount equals to diminution of
the enthalpy:
Q = H d H d' ;


Coefficient of excess air increases from 2 to 3 , if air sucks through

the gaps of the boiler sealing. Enthalpy of the sucked air is nearly zero,
so enthalpy of combustion products almost does not alter. In this case
horizontal line H d' = const (line BC) represents this process, the temperature of the combustion products decreases to t " .



4.1. Equation of the heat balance
During fuel burning not entire exuded heat is used to produce steam
in the steam boiler or to warm water. Considerable amount of the heat is
lost in the furnace itself and other elements of the boiler. Especially
large amount of heat is removed by the flue gas of the boiler.
Equality between the heat introduced into the boiler and the heat
consumed to produce steam, warm water and cover heat losses is called
heat balance of a boiler. Balance is formed in case of settled operation of
the boiler, to 1kg of solid or liquid fuel or 1 nm3 of gaseous one and is
written thus:
Q d = Q1 + Q n = Q1 + Q 2 + Q3 + Q 4 + Q5 ;


here Qd given to the boiler by fuel disposed heat; Q n sum total of

all heat losses; Q1 useful employed heat; Q 2 heat of removed flue
gas; Q3 chemical heat losses of incomplete combustion; Q 4 mechanical heat losses of incomplete combustion; Q5 heat losses into surroundings.
If all terms of equation are expressed in per cents with respect to
Qd the received expression is:

q1 + q 2 + q 3 + q 4 + q 5 = 100;

Burning solid or liquid fuel disposed heat amount (kJ/kg) is:

Q d = Q n + Q k + Q g ;

here lower combustion heat of the fuel; Qk physical heat of the fuel;
Qg heat given by steam sprayed with liquid fuel itself.

The last terms ( Qk and Qg ) of the equation are small, so they are
not taken into consideration. Then:
Qd = Qn ;

Burning gaseous fuel disposed heat (kJ/m3) is:

Qd = Qs ;

4.2. Description of heat balance terms

Useful employed heat. If a boiler produces D kg/s of hg enthalpy
steam, enthalpy of feeding water supplied into the boiler is hm.v., so useful
employed heat amount will be D(hg- hm.v.) kJ/s. Due to burning of B kg/s
or m3/s of the fuel its mass or volume unit receives a useful amount of
heat (kJ/kg or kJ/m3):
Q1 =

D ( hg hm.v. )


If amount D kg/s of the water that enthalpy varies from h1 to h2, is

warmed in the boiler, so:
Q1 =

D (h2 h1 )


Counting in per cents with respect to the disposed heat we have:

q1 =



Heat of the removed flue gas. The temperature of the flue gas
removed from the boiler flue gas is higher than that of the external air.
Then smoke carries out a certain part of fuel heat, dissipating in the
atmosphere. Certain part of heat amount is carried into the boiler by
outer air, so during calculation of fuel heat losses heat of the mentioned
air is subtracted from the enthalpy of flue gas:
Q2 = ( H is H o ) 1 4 = (Vis cis tis is Vot co t o ) 1 4 ; (41)

here Vis volume of smoke m3/kg or m3/m3, if coefficient of excess air

is is behind the boiler; cis (kJ/m3K) and t oC specific heat and temperature of flue gas; c0 and t specific heat kJ/m3K and temperature oC

of supplied cold air into the boiler; 1

correction, estimating

heat losses of incomplete mechanical combustion.

Counting in per cents;
q2 =



Heat losses of flue gas are the more, the more is their volume and

the higher temperature tis These losses are the largest and can make even
1015%. In order to decrease them at first it is necessary to decrease
the temperature of flue gas i.e. to install economizers and air heaters.
The temperature of flue gas carried out of modern boilers is 120180
oC. It can be still higher, if heating surfaces are dirty with ash, soot and
other settlings. These surfaces must be cleaned regularly.
Volume of flue gas depends on excess air coefficient is :
Vis = Vdt + ( is 1) Vot ;

Heat losses of incomplete chemical combustion. If a furnace lacks

air it and fuel mix badly. In the furnace with too low temperature fuel
burns incompletely. Then incomplete combustion products CO, H2, CH4
and other hydrocarbons appear in the smoke. Heat could be exuded due
to the combustion of unburnt gas, it is not employed and forms chemical
heat losses of incomplete combustion.
Usually burning of solid and liquid fuel when incomplete
combustion product is carbon oxide, chemical heat losses of incomplete
combustion are:
Vs.d . QCO 1 4 ;
Q3 = VCO QCO 1 4 =


here VCO - volume of carbon oxide m3/kg; CO - amount of carbon

oxide in the volume of dry smoke%; QCO=12640 kJ/m3 combustion
heat of carbon oxide.
If H2, CH4 and others, besides CO, additionally exist in the smoke,
losses due to their incombustibility are calculated analogically. Percental
amount of these losses is such:
q3 =



Chemical heat loses of well designed and properly operated furnaces are not larger than 0,20,5%. In case of adverse circumstances
these ones could be several times more.
Mechanical heat losses of incomplete combustion. Amount of
solid fuel supplied into the furnace does not entirely burn in the furnace.
Some of its parts pour out through gaps of the stoker, others have not
enough time to burn and are removed out with slag. The finest ones are
carried out by smoke.
Heat amount due to incomplete combustion of solid parts of fuel is

lost and it makes mechanical heat losses of incomplete combustion (q4%).

Mechanical heat losses of incomplete combustion could be formed
also burning liquid and gaseous fuel. Heavy hydrocarbons at certain
conditions existing in it decompose, so rather large amounts of free carbon
soot arise. Burning of thick mazut forms especially great amount of
soot. However, mechanical heat losses of incomplete combustion even
in this case are small (less than 0,5%), so, burning liquid and gaseous
fuel they are not taken into consideration.
The greatest mechanical heat losses of incomplete combustion are
in the stoker furnaces sometimes more than 10%. In spatial ones q4 =
Heat losses in surroundings. The temperatures of steel parts of
external surface of the boiler casings and surfaces of pipes isolation are
always higher than the temperature of surroundings. These surfaces transfer heat to surroundings by convection and radiation.
These losses depend on masonry of the boiler and the quality of its
thermal isolation and the compactness, i.e. on the quantity of the boiler
external surface area, falling on the unit of its output. The more productivity of the boiler, the more compact it is , so heat losses of a large scale one, expressed in per cents are less than of a small boiler. Absolute
magnitude of these losses is almost independent on the output of the
boiler, so their percental quantity (q5), decreasing output, increases.
Heat losses in surroundings, calculating boiler, are defined according to practical data, e.g. these ones of a large steam boiler (output D =
55,5 kg/s or 200 t/h) are q5 = 0,5% , of a small one (D = 2,8 kg/s or 10 t/
h) are q5 = 2% .Approximately a half of these losses falls on the furnace.
4.3. Coefficient of the boiler efficiency
The ratio of usefully employed (to produce steam or warm water)
heat and the given one (usually heat of fuel combustion) is called the
coefficient of the boiler efficiency.
The first term (expressed in per cents with respect to heat of the
fuel combustion) of heat balance equation can be called coefficient of
the boiler efficiency:
k = q1 =


100 = 100 (q 2 + q3 + q 4 + q5 );



Coefficient k can be defined according to (45) equation by two

1. if useful employed heat is known, i.e. if in the boiler produced
steam or warmed water quantity D kg/s, enthalpies of steam hg
and water hm.v. or h2 and h1, amount of burned fuel B kg/s and its
combustion heat Qn are known.
2. calculating all heat losses.
The first is called direct because necessary parameters of the operating boiler could be measured directly. However, often it is impossible
to establish the output of the boiler and fuel input exactly. Then the
second, so-called reverse method is applied. Coefficient k of the
boiler indicates perfection of the latter and economy of its operation.
Coefficient k of modern powerful boilers is 8892% and 7080%
of simplest small output ones.
At first coefficient of the boiler efficiency influences input of the
fuel. The latter (kg/s or m3/s) is calculated, if k is known:
1) in the steam boiler:

D (hg hm.v. ) 100

Qn k


2) in the water heating boiler:


D ( h2 h1. ) 100
Q n k


Coefficient of the boiler efficiency of operating one depends on its

loading. Certain meaning of the boiler loading called the most economical boiler loading (output) corresponds the maximum mean of k . The
latter decreases when the boiler is overloaded or its load is too small.



5.1. Clasification of furnaces and their operating indices
Heat exuded in the furnace due to fuel burning is transferred to
water and steam, existing in the boiler. According to the way of fuel
burning furnaces are divided into the stoker- fired and pulverised fuelfired ones.
In the stoker- fired furnaces on the stoker of different design only
solid fuel is burnt. The largest part of it burns on the stoker and in the
space of furnace only volatile substances of the fuel incinerate.
In pulverised fuel-fired furnaces gas, liquid fuel, specially prepared
dust of the coal, crumby peat are burnt. In these furnaces fuel burns in
the space of the latter.
Furnaces of different design must satisfy these general requirements:
1.combustion process must be economic,
2.furnace must be of simple, reliable design and mechanized.
The first demand is the most important. It can be satisfied, as the
other requirements, incinerating gaseous or liquid fuel. In this case a
small amount of surplus air is sufficient and heat losses of incomplete
combustion (q3 and q4) are also small. Burning solid fuel it is more difficult to satisfy the first demand because more surplus air is necessary
and there are rather large heat losses of incomplete combustion. In this
case other demands are important, e.g. level of furnace mechanization,
its simplicity.
Thermal intensity of furnace space is an important thermal characteristic of the furnace describing its intensity of operation. It means heat
amount, exuding per time unit in one m3 of the furnace space (kW/m3):
qV =



Optimum of thermal intensity of the furnace space depends on sort

of the fuel and its combustion method. If qv is more than certain practically defined magnitude, exuded volatile substances will have no time
to burn in the space of stoker-fired furnace, and the same burnt fuel in
case of pulverised fuel-fired one. However, if thermal intensity of the
furnace space is too small, fuel will burn worse due to lower temperature
in it. In the stoker-fired furnace optimum qv magnitude is 250450
kW/m3, in the pulverised fuel-fired ones, burning coal dust, - 140240
kW/m3, burning gas or mazut, - 300450 kW/m3.

Stoker-fired furnaces are characterized by still one index thermal

intensity of combustion surface (stoker) (kW/m2):
qR =



here R surface area of active combustion m2.

This index is expressed by heat amount exuded per second, falling
to 1 m2 of combustion surface. The more qR , the more heat losses of
incomplete combustion, because air is blown more intensively. In this
case more fine, not burnt fuel parts are carried out of the furnace, incompletely burnt are removed with slag. Optimum of thermal intensity of
combustion surface depends on sort of fuel, its ash content, size of pieces,
design of the furnace and other factors, so it is different 8002200
5.2. Combustion of gas
Pulverised fuel-fired furnaces with gas burners are arranged, if boilers are heated by gas. Gas and air are supplied through burners into the
According to specific features of combustion burners are divided
into external mixing, internal mixing and partially internal mixing. In
the burners of external mixing (Fig 3a.) air and gas are supplied into the
furnace by separate channels and mix due to diffusion having flown out
of a burner. Combustion is delayed because some time is required to
form a mixture and rather a long torch is formed. Such combustion is
called diffusive and burners are called torcheous.
If gas and air mix in the burner (Fig 3b.) then already prepared
mixture flows out of it, burning right here. Then a torch is very short and
the duration of combustion depends on the chemical reaction rate. Mixture burns in case of high temperature for rather short time. Such combustion is called kinetic and burners are called unflamed
In the burner of partial internal mixing (Fig 3c.) gas mixes with a
part of air necessary for combustion and with the other one already
flown out of the burner. Two fronts of combustion: kinetic and diffusive
are formed near the nozzle of the burner.
Heating a boiler by gas of large combustion heat (natural) a small
amount of gas to mix with a large volume of air is necessary, e.g. burning
of 1m3 of gas requires about 10m3 of air. Gas is supplied into turbulent

Fig 3. Gas combustion principles:

a-external mixing of the gas and air; b-internal mixing; c-partially internal
mixing; D-front of the diffusive combustion; K-front of the kinetic

vortex flow by thin streams for better mixing with air. Such burner is
shown in Fig 4. Gas supplied by its central pipe mixes with air in the
chamber 1. Gas flows by streams into it through small gaps, making 300
angle with axis of the burner. Air gains speed turning round not only by
guiding blades, but also due to its tangential flow into the burner. Since
gas and air mix easily, little surplus air ( = 1,051,10) is enough.
Injection burners are often used in small boilers (Fig 5.). It is not
necessary to supply air by force into them. Gas flowing out of the nozzle
1 with great velocity sucks into air and mixes with it in the cylindrical
part of the burner and diffuser 4. Besides, in this diffuser velocity of
mixture decreases and its pressure increases, so mixture is blown (injected
) into the furnace. Mixture from the injection burner gets into the furnace
through stabilizer 5 fixed in the nozzle of a diffuser. Mixture flames up
easier due to existing stabilizer steel lattice. Flame does not jump over
into a diffuser, if loading of the burner decreases. Constant ratio of air
and gas amounts is kept, changing output of the burner because sucked
amount of air is approximately proportional to the gas quantity. Important

Fig 4. Gas burner with central pipe of gas supply:

1-mixing chamber; 2-gas outflow orifices; 3-blades

shortcoming of these burners is a great noise, diminished a little by

muffler 2, at the same time employed to adjust the air amount.
The opportunity of burning reserve fuel must be provided, if gas supplying is deranged. In most cases it is mazut. For this purpose combined
burners asigned for burning of two sorts of fuel are installed (Fig 6.)
Most of the gas is poisonous, besides it can explode mixing with air
in a certain ratio. So it is necessary to ventilate very well the premises of

Fig 5. Injection gas burner:

1-nozzle; 2-air amount regulator-muffler; 3-cylinder part of the burner;
4-diffuser; 5-stabilizer

Fig 6. Gas and mazut burner:

1-mazut pipe; 2-air spraying mazut; 3-air main flow; 4-gas outflow orifices;
5-vortical blades

the boiler house. Before heating a boiler must be ventilated also in

order to abolish the possibility to form explosive mixture of gas and air
in its ducts.
5.3. Combustion of liquid fuel
Liquid fuel (mostly mazut) is burnt in the pulverised fuel-fired furnaces in which as in gas ones ash removing equipment is not necessary
because this fuel forms a very small amount of ash. The bottom of the
furnace is made horizontal or slightly leaned.
Liquid fuel is burnt sprayed that it could evaporate rapidly. Mazut
is supplied and sprayed into the furnace by atomizers. Mazut is a very
thick liquid so, that it would flow in the pipes and be sprayed easier, it is
warmed to 100130C.
Mazut atomizers are mechanical and steam jet (or compressed air).
Into mechanical one (Fig 7a.) mazut is supplied of 11,4 MPa of pres33

sure. Its stream got into the head of an atomizer, flows through orifices
of distribution disc 3. Later mazut, turning in the vortex disc 4, runs out
through orifice (diameter 210 mm) of the disc 5. In the steam jet
(Fig 7b.) or compressed air atomizers kinetic energy of steam or compressed air flow is used to spray mazut.

Fig 7. Mazut atomizers:

a-mechanical:1-mazut pipe; 2-screw nut; 3-distribution disc; 4-vortical disc;
5-atomizing disc; b-steam jet: 1-steam pipe; 2-mazut pipe; 3-nozzle; c-rotary:
1-hollow shaft; 2-fan; 3-mazut distributor; 4-rotating plate

Thin stream of the fuel at a certain angle finding itself in a steam or

air flow of high velocity is broken into pieces by it. In this case pressure
of steam is 0,52,5 MPa, of air - 0,30,7 MPa. Steam jet and compressed air atomizers require large amounts of steam or air, so they are
installed in the boilers of small output. Mechanical atomizers are installed
in the boilers of larger output. The pressure of mazut is decreased in
order to decrease the output of these atomizers. In this case the quality
of atomizing deteriorates, so the range of regulation of mechanical atomizer output regulation is small. In this respect combined steam jet
mechanical and, especially, rotational atomizers (Fig 7c.) with a rotation
plate are better. Mazut got on the rotation plate disperses on its surface
in a thin layer and, affected by a centrifugal force, is thrown from of the
edge of the plate in the form of fine drops. The regulation range of rotational atomizers is very large. These ones are not spread widely.

All amount of air, using mechanical and steam jet atomizers and
necessary for combustion, is supplied through a round orifice, in the
center of which atomizer is installed. Air is turned round for better mixing with fuel, i.e. it is turned in the tangent direction or blades are installed. Velocity of its outflow is 2530 m/s.
The construction of the furnaces heated by mazut or gas is shown in
Fig 15. and Fig19.
5.4. Combustion of solid fuel
Furnaces heated by solid fuel are divided into the stoker-fired and
pulverised fuel-fired ones. The layer of the fuel can be thick and boiling. According to a aerodynamical qualities pulverised fuel fired furnaces are torcheous and vortex or cyclone ones (Fig 8.).
Stoker-fired furnaces are installed in the boilers of small and medium output. Air is blown from the bottom through the fuel laying on
the stoker. In thick layer furnaces the velocity of blowing is selected
such that bulk of the layer would not be disturbed. In this case it is useful
to increase the dimensions of the fuel pieces, but, if they are smaller,
surface and combustion velocity are greater. Usually in this kind of furnaces fuel pieces of 2030 mm size are burnt.
According to fuel supply and removal of the slag stoker-fired furnaces are divided into manual, partially mechanized and mechanized. In
the manual furnaces all operations of their service are nonmechanized.
In partially mechanized one or several operations are mechanized such
as fuel supply, its banking up on the stoker or slag removal. In mechanized ones all operations are mechanized.

Fig 8. Solid fuel furnaces:

a-thick layer; b-boiling layer; c-torcheous; d-cyclone

Fig 9. Hand-operated furnace:

1-stoker; 2-furnace chamber; 3-ash chamber; 4-fuel supply door; 5-ash
removing door; 6-casing

The simplest is a manual furnace with a horizontal stoker (Fig 9.).The

main element of the furnace is a stoker consisting of the beam or plate
links on which fuel burns. Stoker distributes supplied air evenly. Ash
and a part of the slag pour out through its openings. The biggest part of
the slag is removed through the orifice of the fuel supply. Fuel is thrown
on the stoker periodically every 510 min (periodicity depends on
speeding up of furnace and its quality). Primary air is called the air
supplied through the stoker. If primary one is insufficient for the burning
and in the flue gas products of incomplete combustion exist, into the
chamber of furnace additional secondary air is admitted through door 4.
Commonly all air is supplied through the stoker. Manual furnaces are
small and nowadays are used in the boilers to 0,28 kg/s (1 t/h) output.
Stoker-fired furnaces are attended easier, if the slag removal and
fuel supply are mechanized. Furnaces with the chain-driven stoker make
the most part of the completely mechanized stoker-fired ones (Fig 10.).

Fig 10. Chain stoker furnace:

1-fuel hopper; 2-sectoral bolt; 3-valve; 4-stoker tape; 5-slag scrapper;
6-pulley; 7-slag bunker; 8-air supply sections; 9-driving sprocket;
10-remainder bunker; 11-driving shaft

Fuel pours from the bunker 1 with a sector bolt 2 on the moving
tape 4 of the stoker, consisting of several articulated link chains. All
components of the stoker are fixed to these ones. Links of the fish-scale
shape are covering each other so that less amount of the fuel could be
poured through the gaps. In front part link chains are on the driving
sprockets 9, in rear on smooth pulleys 6. Sprockets are fixed on the
driving shaft 11 through gearhead rotated by the electrical motor. Velocity
of the stoker movement can be changed from 2 to 30 m/h. Bulk of the
fuel layer is regulated by valve 3. At the end of the stoker slag scraper 5
is installed, turning slag into bunker 7.
Fuel and stoker move together. At the beginning fuel dries, releases
volatile substances and ignites. The end of the furnace is reached only
by combustion remainders. Air gets into through gaps between the tapes
of the stoker. The space between the tapes is divided into several sections 8, where air is supplied differently because diverse air amount is
necessary along the length of the stoker. The most air is necessary in the

middle sections because the zone of active combustion is over them.

Increasing the velocity of air blowing the dynamic pressure of the
flow can be bigger than the weight force of fuel parts. The bulk will be
demolished and becomes boiling(Fig 8.). Fuel parts will jump up and
down in the air flow over the stoker. Burnt down light fuel parts will be
carried out of the bulk by the flow of the flue gas. The increase of the
velocity of the air increases the velocity of combustion. In this case
burnt fuel pieces must be approximately of the same size.
In the pulverised fuel-fired furnaces fuel buns in the whole space of
the furnace. At first fuel is pulverized because it must be overhung and
shaped like dust by air flow blown into the furnace. It is more economical to burn fuel dust than poured in the bulk because regulation and
automation of combustion are easy. All moving parts existing in the
pulverised-fuel fired furnaces are reliable, in addition, any solid fuel can
be burnt. However, these furnaces have many disadvantages: complicated, cumbrous and expensive equipment of dust preparing, use much
electric power, small thermal intensity of the space of these furnaces
(140240 kW/m3), so the furnace must be of large volume. These ones
are used in boilers of more than 5,511 kg/s (2040 t/h) output.
The system of the dust preparation consisting of the globe mill and
intermediate dust bunker is shown in Fig 11. Pulverised fuel is poured
from the hopper 1 on the automatic weighing-machine 2, out of it into
the feeder 3, dosing fuel supply into the mill. Fuel from feeder gets into

Fig 11. Dust preparing system with intermediate dust hopper:

1-fuel hopper; 2-automatic weighing-machine; 3-feeder;
4-drying pipe; 5-mill; 6-separator; 7-cyclone; 8-dust hopper;
9-fan; 10-burner; 11-hot air duct

the vertical pipe 4 where the air of 250400oC is blown from the hot air
duct 11, warmed in the air heater of the boiler. Though the pipe is short
(23m), falling down fuel dries in it. Finally it gets dry during milling
in the mill 5. Globe mill consists of a horizontal massive cylinder full of
the steel balls and rotated. Revolving the drum the balls grind fuel into
powder rolling down along the drum walls and falling down from certain
height. Great velocity air blown into the mill carries out the grinded fuel
parts into the separator 6. Larger parts of fuel detached in it are sent
back into the mill, the fine ones get into the cyclone 7 by air flow, where
they settle down and are poured into the dust hopper 8. Air and the finest
dust parts are supplied by fan 9 into the burner 10. The necessary dust
amount is supplied from the dust hopper into this air flow by special
weighing batchers. Through the burner the mixture of the air and dust
gets into the furnace and burns in it. However the primary air amount
supplied with the dust is insufficient for combustion process, so secondary air is blown through the air duct.
The dust of the anthracite or coal is prepared in the equipment with
a globe-mill. Burning fuel which releases many volatile substances simpler and cheaper dust preparing systems can be used. In this case dust
from the mill is directly supplied into the furnace. Such dust preparing
system is shown in Fig 16. The stream of hot air carries fuel dust out of
the bruising mill into the mill shaft, from it through a burner of rectangular shape into the furnace.
In the burners it is necessary to give everything to ignite fuel. Flame
torch must fill the whole space of a furnace. Round burner is the most
spread and universal (Fig 12.). Primary air and dust are blown through

Fig 12. Round dust burner:

1-central pipe; 2-dissipating rick; 3-external pipe

the central pipe of the burner 1, at the end of which dissipating rick 2 is
installed. Secondary air is blown in the tangent direction into the external
pipe 3, so flown out it causes intensive vortices.
Low temperature is maintained at the bottom of the furnace so that
got ash would be hardened. This part of the furnace is covered fully by
the shield pipes and is of a funnel shape (Fig 16.) where shield ones are
laied out close to each other. However, in such furnace only a small part
of ash (about 20%) settles down; other ash is carried out together with
smoke and beyond the boiler is gathered in the special catchers of ash.
In the boiler of medium and large output solid fuel only of dust
shape is burnt. However, the mentioned great disadvantages of this
method forced to search for new, more perfect designs of the solid fuel
furnaces. The most perspective is a cyclone (vortex) furnace. Fuel dust
and primary air are supplied into the cyclone chamber (Fig 8, d). Secondary air of 100200m/s velocity making up the main part of air is
blown through the orifice in a tangent direction, so its flow swirls helical.
Combustion is very intensive, thermal intensity of combustion space is
also large (25006000 kW/m3) because of the intensive movement of
the flow and high temperature. In the cyclon furnace, due to high temperature and centrifugal forces, 8590% of liquid ash-slag settles down
it flows out of the furnace.


6.1. General information. The main elements of a boiler
The first boilers were of a cylinder shape. The external surface of a
cylinder at the same time was the heating surface. The construction of
the boilers was improved in two ways (Fig 13.): 1) the internal heating
surface of the drum boilers of the burning pipe 2 and smoke pipe 3 was
increased; and 2) the external heating surface of water pipe boilers was
In the drum of the burning pipe boilers there are one or two pipes of
a large diameter burning pipes in front part of which furnaces are
installed. In the smoke pipe boilers flue gas flows in many pipes of
small (50130 mm) diameter. The increase of heating surface of these
boilers increased their output. Favourable conditions are formed for convection heat exchange, if smoke quickly flows in the pipes of a small
diameter. So nowadays these boilers are installed, if it is necessary to
employ the heat of low temperature smoke (e.g. smoke of industrial
furnaces). Sometimes, (e.g. in the locomotives) joint boilers made of a
short burning pipe and a smoke pipe are used.

Fig 13. Scheme of the steam boiler construction change:

1-cylinder boiler; 2-boiler of two burning pipe; 3-flue gas pipe boiler;
4-chamber boiler of the water pipes; 5-vertical several drums boiler of the
water pipes; 6-boiler of the shield water pipes

Boilers of 4 water pipes designed later than the boilers of the flue
gas pipes appeared more promising. These boilers consist of many pipes
of a small diameter filled with water. The external surface is heated by
smoke. At first pipes were joined to the special chambers, the latters-to
the drum. Later inconvenient pipe chambers were substituted by drums.
Almost vertical banks of the pipes were joined to the drums. Such boilers
were called boilers of the vertical water pipes.
Further development of the boilers was related with the method of
creation of the dust shape solid fuel combustion. Walls of the furnace so
that high temperature and liquid slag would not affect them were covered protecting the pipes-shields in which boiler water was circulating.
It proved that shield pipes not only protect well the walls of the boiler,
but are very effective heating surfaces getting radiant heat straight from
the burning torch. So the surface of the shield pipes was increased and
became the main element of the water evaporation. Only one drum in
the modern boiler of the water pipes (6) is installed.
Single-pass boilers without a drum were designed making an attempt to create cheaper, of simpler construction ones. In these boilers
water moving is forced because it flows due to the pumps. Nowadays
boilers of the shield water pipes and single-pass ones are used.
The improvements of the evaporation surfaces were made not only
improving the construction of the boiler. Already in the 19th century
heaters of the water-economizers, steam superheaters and air heaters
were used. Principle scheme of the shield tube boiler settled in
19371938 practically speaking is unchanged till nowadays. Scheme
of such boiler of the shield water pipe consisting of the main elements
(shield pipes, superheater, economizer, air heater) is presented in Fig 1.
In the boiler smoke at first rises up, then flows horizontally and goes
down, so its trajectory resembles letter . Such scheme of the smoke
moving is characteristic to the most modern boilers.
Every steam boiler is characterized by three main parameters: output, pressure and temperature. The output of the boiler is the amount of
the steam produced per time unit and measured in kg/s (or t/h).
Steam boilers are divided into low pressure boilers which produce
steam of 0,9 or 1,4 MPa pressure, medium pressure-2,4 or 4,0 MPa,
high pressure-10 or 14MPa and more than critical-25,5 MPa pressure
Steam boilers are small-up to 1,8 kg/s (6,5 t/h), medium-up to
2,820 kg/s (1075 t/h) and of very large output-more than 140 kg/s
(500 t/h).

According to purpose steam boilers are distributed into industrial

and power. Industrial ones are of low and medium output producing
steam of low parameters. Steam is overheated a little or not overheated
at all in these boilers. The produced steam is employed for industrial or
everyday needs. In the power boilers 4 MPa and larger pressure steam is
produced and it is always overheated. If 4,0 MPa pressure exists in the
boiler, the temperature of the overheated steam is 440C. In the higher
pressure one-it is up to 540560C. Such boilers are used in the thermal power stations and their largest output is 1100 kg/s (3950 t/h).
According to the character of the water moving boilers are divided
into three groups: of natural circulation, frequent forced circulation and
6.2. Water circulation in a boiler
The boiler operates effectively only when the tubes of its heating
surfaces are intensively cooled by water, steam or their mixture. So a
coolant must circulate at a certain velocity in the pipes. In economizers
or air heaters water and steam moving is forced due to a pump or the
difference of the steam pressure in the drum and superheater. In the
evaporating surfaces of the boiler water circulation can be natural and
The simplest scheme of the natural water circulation in the closed
circuit of the boiler is shown in Fig 14. Elements of the scheme are:
drum 1, lower header of tubes 3 and connecting them two rows of the
pipes 2 and 4. Circuit is filled up with water. Its altitude is h m, a half of
the drum. Tubes 4 are intensively heated, pipes 2 are outside the boiler
masonry and are not warmed. The bubbles of the steam formed in the
heated tube mix with the water and rise up into the boiler drum. Here
separated steam flows out of the drum and additional water is supplied
instead. Water comes down by unheated tubes; these pipes are called
downcomers, heated ones-upcomers or evaporation ones.
In the unheated pipes water density v kg/m3 is larger than density
of the water and steam mixture v kg/m3 in heated ones. Driving force
of the circulation (Pa) takes place due to density difference in the connected pipes:

p var = gh( v m );


here g = 9,81 m/s2 acceleration due to the gravity, h altitude of the

circulation circuit m.

Fig 14. Scheme of the water circulation in the boiler:

1-drum; 2-downcomer pipes; 3-header; 4-upcomer pipes

Driving force is employed to overcome hydraulic resistance in

downcomer and upcomer pipes:

pvar = pk + pl ;


Resistance of the pipes depends on circulation velocity wo, so also

on the yield of circulation water Dc.
In the circuit only a part of moving water turns into steam. The ratio
of the moving in the circuit amount of water Dc and the amount D of
received steam is called circulation frequency:


Usually circulation velocity is wo = 0,51,5 m/s. In the shield circuits of the boilers circulation frequency is from 4 to 20; in the circuits,
consisting of evaporation pipes connecting two drums, k = 10100.
Circulation will be reliable only when sufficient water amount will
circulate in the evaporation pipes of the boiler, it will turn into steam

partially and walls of the tubes will be cooled intensively. Usually these
conditions are satisfied in case of k 3.
In the circuits of forced frequent circulation water, water and steam
mixture drives a pump, overcoming all resistance of the circuit. If forced
frequent circulation exists in the boiler, circulation frequency is 510.
Similarly water, water and steam mixture flow in the single-pass
boilers, though this one passes heating surfaces only one time (k=1).
In the water heating boilers water circulates by the ring: boilerdistrict network-boiler. In this case a pump is installed. Natural circulation is employed only in small heating systems of some houses.
6.3. Steam boilers of natural circulation
In Lithuania the most popular are steam industrial boilers DKVR
(reconstructed two drums boiler of vertical water pipes) made in Russia.
The output of these boilers is 1,04; 1,67; 2,71 and 4,17 kg/s (3,75; 6,0;
9,75 and 15 t/h), steam pressure-1,4 MPa. In most cases saturated steam
is produced in these boilers, but, if it is necessary, a part of the water
pipes can be taken out and instead of them a steam superheater is installed. Boilers are heated by gas or mazut.
The same construction scheme is characteristic to all DKVR boilers: they are two drums boilers of natural circulation with a shielded
furnace. Boiling pipes layed out in a corridor order are fixed to the drums
installed along. Construction of DKVR-6,5-14 GM boiler (output 2,71
kg/s, absolute pressure 1,4 MPa, superheating temperature 225oC) is
shown in Fig 15. Shield pipes of furnace (in front part) and boiling ones
8 are joined to the long upper drum 1 of a boiler. Only convection boiling
pipes are fixed to the lower drum 9. Diameters of the pipes and drums,
the distances between their centers are the same, so it is easier to produce them. Side walls of the furnace are entirely shielded. Front and
rear shields are installed in the boiler DKVR-10. Ceiling of the furnace
chamber consists of the bent ends welded to the upper drum of upper
shield pipes. Lower ends of the shield pipes are fixed to two headers 17
installed along side walls of the boiler. In order to form circulation circuit
a front part of the header is fixed to the upper drum by unheated
downcomer pipe 16. Other part of the header is joined to the lower one
by unheated short pipes. The bottom of the boiler leans on the steel
frame 18, so warmed it can get longer upwards. The furnace is installed

Fig 15. Steam boiler DKVR-6,5-14- GM:
1-upper drum; 2-side shield; 3-burner; 4-pipe of air supply into the burner; 5-feding water pipes; 6-steam pipe of the blasting
equipment; 7-blasting equipment; 8-boiling pipes; 9-lower drum; 10-blasting pipes; 11-final combustion chamber; 12-superheater; 13-cast-iron partition; 14-brick partition; 15-masonry; 16-downcomer pipes; 17-header; 18-beam of the breast-frame

under the projected out part of the upper drum. In front wall of this
boiler burner 3 for gas and mazut is installed.
Combustion products get into the final combustion chamber 11
through orifice of the furnace rear wall where gas burns down. Smoke
gets into the bank of convectional boiling pipes taking the roundabout
way of the brick partition 14. It makes two runs due to a cast-iron partition.
Flue gas leaves through a rear wall orifice of the boiler. Water circulates
in the pipes because the pipes installed nearby furnace are heated more
intensively than those at the end of the boiler heated by taking off smoke.
If it is necessary to overheat steam, superheater 12 is installed at the
beginning of the boiling pipes bank.
Settlings from the external surface of the boiling pipes bank are
removed by the steam blown through stationary blasting equipment 7 or
by compressed air supplied through the openings of the side walls.
Boilers DKVR entirely or partly assembled are transported by railway
to the mounting place.
Boilers KE (Russia) with stoker fired furnace are produced to burn
solid fuel. Their construction differs a little from DKVR ones, outputfrom 0,7 to 7 kg/s (2,525 t/h). Boilers DE (Russia) predestinated to
burn gas and mazut are manufactured of the same output range. Water
heaters-economizers and air heaters are installed in the exterior of the
boiler as separate blocks.
In the industrial boilers large convectional evaporating equipment
is installed which is not used in modern power ones. In such boilers
water boils and vapours getting heat from burning torch by radiation in
the shield pipes of the furnace. Such power boiler is shown in Fig 16. It
consists of all the elements characteristic to the modern water pipes boiler:
shield pipes, superheater, air and water heaters and so on. A boiler consists
of one drum, it is heated by different sorts of coal dust or crumby peat.
Heating by peat in front of the boiler two bruising mills 1 are installed.
All walls of the furnace 2 are shielded by pipes. In the funnel shaped
bottom part of the furnace slag gets colder and falls out into the slag
chamber. In the upper part pipes of the rare shield make up a bank of
four rarefied rows of pipes-festoon 3, behind it a convectional steam
superheater 5 of two grades is installed. In the upper part of the boiler
emergency exploding valves 7 are arranged necessary according to the
rules of the boiler operation burning gas, mazut and fuel dust. In the
convectional shaft economizer (8 and 10) and air heater (9 and 11) of
two grades are installed.

Fig 16. Power steam boiler:

1-mill; 2-furnacc; 3-festoon; 4-external cyclone; 5-superheater; 6-steam
cooler; 7-exploding valve; 8-second grade of the economizer; 9-second grade
of the air heater; 10-first grade of the economizer; 11-first grade of the air
heater; 12-slag chamber


6.4. Forced circulation and single-pass steam boilers

Principle scheme of the steam boiler of frequent forced circulation
differs from that of the natural circulation. A special pump in a circulation circuit behind the boiler drum is installed. It is possible to arrange
evaporation surfaces freely, e.g. in the shape of the coil or similarly
because circulation is forced. So in the boilers of forced circulation water
and steam mixture can flow not only upwards, but also downwards.
Besides evaporation surfaces can be made of many pipes of a small
diameter, so the heat transfer by convection from smoke to the wall of
pipes is more intensive.
In power engineering these boilers are not widespread, however
boilers of frequent forced circulation are especially used to employ the
heat of low temperature smoke such as flue gas removed from the industrial stoves or other equipment. Such boilers are called exhaust-heat
ones. In this case evaporation surfaces are installed in narrow flue ducts
sometimes rather far from the drum. Besides, utilizing the heat of low
temperature smoke convection heat exchange is the most important.
Scheme of exhaust-heat boiler KU (Russia) is presented in Fig 17.
There is no furnace in the boiler-smoke of 600900C temperature
gets into it from the industrial stove. Water heated in the economizer 5 is
supplied into drum 3, from that by circulation pump 2 it is driven through
evaporation coils 4. Water and steam mixture gets back from them into
the drum where steam separates from the water. The water gets again
into the circulation pump and the separated steam gets into the super-

Fig 17. Scheme of a exhaust-heat boiler:

1-superheater; 2-circulation pump; 3-drum; 4-evaporation surfaces;

heater 1 installed in the high temperature zone. In the boilers of this series
steam is produced of 1,84,5 MPa pressure, output is up to 11 kg/s.
In the single-pass boilers water and steam flow only once through
economizer, superheater and evaporation surface where water turns into
vapour entirely. So in the single-pass boiler the equipment to separate
steam from water, e.g. drum is not necessary. In the single-pass boiler
water, flowing in the tubes, warms, evaporates and overheats. Large
hydraulic resistance exists in the boiler due to long way of the water in
the pipes and its great velocity, so pumps use much power.
The construction of the single- pass boilers, as natural circulation
ones, is of the letter shape (Fig 18.).At first water is supplied into the
economizer 2 by a pump and out of it into the lower header, at which
shield pipes of evaporation 3 are joined, installed in different ways along
the furnace walls. Water boils in the lower part of these pipes and in the
upper part the most of it is already evaporated. From the shield pipes
water and steam get into the coils of intermediate zone 4, where it evaporates turning into dry saturated steam. At first steam is overheated in
radiant 5, later in convection part 6 of the superheater.
In the intermediate zone at the end of turning into the vapour salts
are separated from the water on the pipe surface, they make heat transfer

Fig 18. Scheme of a single-pass steam boiler:

1-air heater; 2-economizer; 3-shield evaporation pipes; 4-intermediate zone;
5-radiant part of the superheater; 6-convectional part of the superheater

worse. Shield pipes covered by salts can be shortly burnt. To avoid such
phenomenon this part of the tubes is transferred to the comparatively
low temperature zone. Boiler is washed up periodically to distinquish
settled salts in the intermediate zone.
In the powerful thermal stations single-pass boilers nowadays are
the main power ones. They are used mostly when steam pressure is more
than 10 MPa. Producing steam of very high pressure (more than 18 MPa)
only single-pass boilers are used because at such pressure densities of
the water and steam differ only a little, so natural circulation is impossible.
Single-pass boilers can be of unlimited output. E.g. a boiler of 1100 kg/
s (3950 t/h) output supplying steam of 25 MPa pressure to a turbine of
1200 MW power is used.
6.5.Water heating boilers
Hot water produced in the water heating boilers is used to heat
lodgings, premises and to satisfy technological demands. They can be
made of cast iron or steel.
Water heating boilers are characterized by thermal output Q MW
(Gcal/h), initial and final temperature. Cast iron boilers of different types
are produced of little output (to 1,21,6 MW), water is heated to 115C.
They are used in the heating systems of individual houses. Steel boilers
for water heating are used, if more heat is necessary.
These ones of large output are installed in the district boiler houses
supplying heat to large living districts. Water heating boilers of more
than 35 MW power are installed also in power stations. Thermal output
of the steel water heating boilers is 4,6209 MW (4180 Gcal/h),
water is heated from initial 70C to 200C . In the boilers of larger
output water can be warmed to 200C . Maximum water pressure is to
2,5 MPa.
In Lithuania boilers of KV type are used adopted to burn gas, mazut
and solid fuel. Boiler KV-GM-10 (Russia) of output 11,6 MW (10 Gcal/
h) and heated by mazut or gas is shown in Fig 19. Boiler consists of
furnace 1 and convection shaft 7, all their surfaces are covered with
compactly laied out pipes. Upper and lower parts of the tubes are joined
to the headers. Light masonry of the boiler is fixed to the same pipes.
Burner 10 for combined mazut and gas burning is installed in front wall
of the furnace. Partition 5 is arranged for the better filling of the space of

Fig 19. Water heating boiler V-GM-10 (Russia):

1-furnace; 2-front shield; 3-side shield; 4-rear shield; 5-partition; 6-festoon;
7-convectional shaft; 8-banks of the convectional pipes; 9-equipment of the
surfaces cleaning; 10-burner; 11-exploding valve

the furnace. Flue gas leaves the furnace through the bank of bent tubes
festoon 6, gets into the convection shaft, rising in it flows round the
banks of the convection pipes 8 and is removed out of the boiler.
Boiler is of single-pass type according to the scheme of the water
circulation. Partitions are installed in the headers so that water could
flow with sufficient velocity (about 1,3 m/s). They make water do several runs up and down in each shield. At first water flows by the left side
shield 3, later by front one-2, right side one back one 4, festoon 6 and

front wall pipes of the convection shaft. Later it flows in the consecutive
order through all the elements of the convection shaft.
Water heating boilers of greater thermal output are of the letter
shape. In the boilers of medium thermal output solid fuel is burnt on the
chain stokers, of large output in the pulverised fuel-fired furnaces. Air
heater is arranged at the end of the boiler flue gas duct.



7.1. Operating conditions of water and its setting
Operating conditions of the boiler water are formed by different
means, the task is to avoid scale formation on the boiler surfaces and to
produce clean steam. The quality of feeding and boiler water is the main.
Steam condensate sent back from the heat exchangers of the enterprises, heating equipment and steam turbine condensators is the best
feeding water of the boiler. Hence, a part of the steam and condensate is
lost, so it cannot be produced without additional water taken from natural water beds and water supply system and treated chemically.
In natural water bed there are always large scale mechanical dashes
(sand, clay etc.), thin colloidal parts (products of the plant decay and so
on), fused salts and gas. Dashes, salts and gas are injurious for the boiler, if their concentration in the feeding water is larger. Magnesium salts
and gas are particularly dangerous, causing water hardness and steel
corrosion. With respect to corrosion oxygen and carbon (IV) dioxide are
the most aggressive.
During heating and evaporating of water crystalyzed salts can settle
down on the internal surfaces of the boiler and form settlings. Hard ones,
tightly adhered to the surfaces, are called scales. Silt of the boiler is
usually salt crystals formed in the water mass or their conglomerations
circulating with the water at the same time or settling down in the drums
of the boilers and lower headers. Under certain conditions silt can also
bake to the surfaces. Thermal conduction of the scale and settling formed on the surfaces of the tubes is much less than the conduction of the
wall steel of the pipes, so walls of these tubes can deform themselves
and burst. Besides, worse heat transfer reduces the economy of the boiler and increases fuel consumption. Hardness salts form the most scale.
Water hardness is measured by miligramequivalents, sometimes by
milimoles per litre. Hardness of 1 mgekv/l corresponds to 20,04 mg of
calcium or 12,16 mg of magnesium in one litre of water, 1 mmol/l
40,08 mg of calcium or 24,31 mg of magnesium in one litre of water,
e.g.1 mgekv/l coresponds to 0,5 mmol/l. A thousand times smaller a
microgramequivalent per litre ( gekv/l) or a micromole per litre ( mol/
l) is a unit of the water hardness. Total water hardness is divided into the
calciferous Kk and noncarbonate Knk :


K= Kk + Knk

Calciferous hardness consists of hydrogen carbonates of calcium

and magnesium which are decomposed during heating of water forming
settlings or lee nonadhering to the surface. So calciferous hardness of
heated or boiled water is rather less. Noncarbonate hardness consists of
all other calcium and magnesium salts (chlorides, sulphates, silicates
and so on) existing in the water. For example, total hardness of the
Nemunas river is approximately 4 mgekv/l (2 mmol/l), calciferous 3,5
mgekv/l (1,75 mmol/l), noncarbonate 0,5 mgekv/l (0,25 mmol/l).
According to the operation experience of many years and the data
of scientific investigations the standards of the feeding water quality are
made. Here limiting quantities of the water quality indices are indicated,
if these indices are larger than permissible, scale can appear or steel
corrosion begins. Permissible feeding water hardness depends on the type
of the boiler and pressure in it. Feeding water hardness of the water tubes
boiler to 1,4 MPa heated by solid fuel must be less than 20 gekv/l, to
2,4 MPa pressure 15 gekv/l, to 4 MPa pressure 10 gekv/l. Permissible water hardness in the boilers heated by gas or mazut must be
less correspondingly 15, 10 and 5 gekv/l. Feeding water hardness
in the boilers with the pressure of more than 10 MPa, must be less than
1 gekv/l, oxygen less than 10 gekv/l, silicon acid less than
40 gekv/l.
Corrosion of the boiler steel causes oxygen, so its amount is to be
decreased as much as it is possible.
Silicon acid and its salts form not only hard heavily removed scale,
but also begin to fuse in the steam at approximately 7 MPa or larger
pressure. Carried out of the boiler silicon combines with steam, pollute
tubes of the superheater, settle down on the blades of a turbine, so different derangements of operation take place. The solubility of silicon acid
increases when pressure increases.
Natrium salts dissolve well in water. They settle down on the surface only from the solutions of large concentration or when water circulation is deranged., when water evaporates entirely. These settlings are
easily washed off. The quantity of natrium combines is standardized
only in the feeding water of single pass boilers that evaporates entirely
in its tubes. In the feeding water of the drum boilers the amount of natrium
salts is not standardized, but their concentration in the circulating water
must be such that to produce sufficiently clean steam.

Mostly pureness of the steam depends on the amount of natrium

and silicon combines existing in it. Top level is such that turbine using
steam would be capable of economic operation for a sufficiently long
time (12 years) and would not lose power. Permissible amount of
natrium and silicon combines in the steam depends on the type of power
station and boiler, steam pressure.
Feeding water standards of the single pass boilers are especially
strict because getting in water dash settles down on the heating surfaces
or is carried out by the steam. The most part of the water dash is carried
out by blasting of natural and forced circulation drum boilers, that at
least one drum is installed.
Certain boiler water of large salt concentration amount is carried
out of the boiler blasting and removing such amount of salts as was
brought in by the feeding water. At that time certain concentration of
salts settles in the water of a boiler. Blasting of the boiler can be carried
out constantly and periodically. Boilers of small output are blasted periodically (settlings and silt are carried out), also periodically lower drums
and headers of medium and large output boilers are blasted, constantly
higher drum is blasted, in this way dashes fused in the water of a boiler are
removed. The amount of boiler blasting is expressed in per cents (p% ) in
respect of the steam quantity produced in the boiler.
Blasting amount can be established according to the balance of salts,
if quantity of salts in the feeding water Sm.v. mg/l and their permissible
quantity Sk.v. mg/l in the boiler water (Fig 20.) are known. Balance of
salts is expressed by the equality between the amount of the salts carried

Fig 20. Balance of salts in the drum boiler


in by feeding water and their amount removed by the steam and blasting
(100+ p)Sm.v.=100Sg+ pSk.v


In the balance equation amounts of blasting water and feeding one

are expressed in per cents in respect of boiler output. During standard
operation of the boiler the amount of salts is very small (Sg 0), so
blasting quantity (%) is:

S m.v.
S k .v. S m.v.


As it is seen from the received equation percental amount of the

blasting water will decrease, decreasing the amount of the salts in the
feeding water and increasing their permissible quantity in the boiler water. Usually blasting water amount makes 0,53%, sometimes even
5% of boiler output. It is larger in such boilers where feeding water
consists of less condensate and more chemically treated water.
7.2. The treatment of feeding water
Water is cleared, softened and deaerated to remove dashes. Selecting the means of water treatment or its combination characteristics of
the water and the requirements raised for the feeding water are taken
into consideration.
Water with mechanical dashes and colloidal parts is cleared. Mechanical dashes are removed from the water by limpiding filters, e.g.
water is passed through the layer of fine anthracite (0,51,5 mm) or
quartz sand. Filter does not keep off the same thin colloidal parts. These
parts are carried out adding coagulators, e.g. substances, stimulating thin
colloidal parts to stick together into the flakes that are held in the filters
more effectively. Aliuminium and iron sulphates are the most effective
Water softening consists of calcium and magnesium cations causing
scale removing. The most prevalent method of water softening is the
chemical interchange of the cations. Softened water is passed through a
cation exchanger fine substance undissolving in water. Cation exchanger possesses the property to change its cation into the cations of

hardness salts fused in water. Cations of calcium and magnesium remain

in the cation exchanger and water hardness decreases to 1520 gekv/l.
In the water treated by cations other soluble salts appear among salts of
calcium and magnesium forming no settlings on the surface.
Usually natrium, hydrogen and ammonia cations are used. The simplest are natrium cation exchangers where Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations are
interchanged into natrium cations, so corresponding natrium salts appear. It is possible to write down interchange of water salts, if Na cation
is marked as NaR, so:
2NaR + Ca(HCO3)2 CaR2 + 2NaHCO3
2NaR + Mg(HCO3)2 MgR2 + 2NaHCO3
2NaR + CaSO4 CaR2 + Na2SO4
2NaR + MgSO4 MgR2 + Na2SO4
2NaR + CaCl2 CaR2 + 2NaCl
2NaR + MgCl2 MgR2 + 2Nacl

In the boiler carbonate of natrium hydrogen decomposes into:

2NaHCO3 Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

later on
Na2CO3 + H2O 2NaOH + CO2

So, if calciferous hardness of the softened water is large, then

water treated by Na cation exchanger will be alkaline and can foam in
the boiler. It is possible to decrease alkalinity in two ways:neutralising
water by acid or using combined interchange of the cations.
It is possible to avoid alkalinity caused of hydrogen carbonates softening water by cation exchangers of hydrogen and ammonia. In this
case water becomes sour because sulphur and hydrochloric acids are
formed instead of sulphates and chlorides:
2HR + Ca(HCO3)2 CaR2 + 2H2O + 2CO2
2HR + MgSO4 MgR2 + H2SO4
2HR + CaCl2 CaR2 + 2HCL

These cations are adjusted to the natrium ones in order to obtain

feeding water of necessary alkalinity.
Cation exchanger dissipates having softened a certain amount of
water. It is regenerated by certain solutions: Na cation exchanger-with

table-salt (NaCl) 6-8% solution, H -solution of sulphur acid, NH4- solution of ammonia salts.
The simplest scheme of the water treatment by Na cation exchanger
is shown in Fig 21. Cation exchange filter 3 is of the vertical cylinder
shape. Drainage system is at its bottom. Cation exchanger layer of
1,52,5 m height is poured on this system. Water is exuding through
cation exchanger (valves b and f are opened) from the top to the bottom;
velocity depends on the hardness of treated water. It is possible to regenerate filter, if valves a, c, g are opened, by salt solution, turned on of
dissolver 2. Cation exchanger is loosened before regeneration: water is
turned on from the vessel 6 (valves e and d are opened) through its layer
from the bottom to the top. Regenerated filter is flushed through (valves
b and g are opened).
The volume of the cation exchanger (m3) is established during the
calculation of cation exchange filter:


here D-yield of the treated water m3/h; z-time between periods of regen-

Fig. 21. Scheme of the water softening by Na cation exchanger

1-softened water; 2-salt dissolver; 3-cation filter;
4-drainage; 5-soft water; 6-water vessel

eration (824 h); K-total hardness of the treated water mgekv/l; Ereceptivity of cation exchanger gekv/ m3.
If the height of the cation exchanger layer is selected, the diameter
of the filter is calculated and the velocity of the water filtration is checked.
It must be less than indicated previously.
Cation exchange filters are connected in the consecutive order to
receive soft feeding water. Even at that time a little amount of the salts
gets into the boiler, which form a hardness and accumulates when water
vapours. So special reagents are supplied (mostly natrium phosphates)
into the boiler, which form settlings reacting with these salts. Accumulated settlings form silt of the boiler carried out of it by blasting.
As it is seen salts are not carried out of the water only their amount
and sort change Such water does not correspond to the requirements of
the feeding water of single pass and natural circulation high pressure
boilers, so it is neccesary to treat it better; e.g. not only cations of the
salts, but also anions must be removed out of it. Water is strained through
anion exchange filters. They contain anion exchanger, possessing a
property to interchange anions with acids. So water, strained through a
layer of anion exchangers, is filtered by H cation exchanger before that.
In such water, acids of sulphur, hydrochloric, silicon and carbon are
formed instead of salts (sulphate, chloride, silicon, hydrogen carbonate).
Anion exchanger and treated water interchange anions HO-, CO 32 and
HCO 3 ,so anions of acids are kept off in the filter.
Soft water from which salts are removed is deaerated, e.g. fused
oxygen and other aggressive gas are eliminated. Water is deaerated thermally, because rising the temperature the solubility of gas decreases in
the water. Gas removes entirely from the water, if it is heated to boiling
temperature. Deaeration equipment is called deaerator. Sometimes reagents (Na2SO3 or hydrazin N2 H4) are put into the thermally dearated
water to dismiss the remainders of oxygen.
7.3. The improvement of steam quality
Strict demands are made for the pureness of the steam used in power
energetics. Dashes existing in it settle down on the tubes of a superheater, fittings of the steam ducts, elements of the turbines decreasing
their economy and operating reliability.
Steam is contaminated with substances fused or floating in the wa60

ter of the boiler. They get into the boiler in two ways: when steam flow
carries out drops of the moisture and substances existing in the water of
the boiler at the same time and when salts fuse in the steam. If pressure
is low, salt solubility in the steam is small; then steam is made dirty by
the drops of humidity. So,if it is necessary to produce pure steam, it is
necessary to decrease the amount of carried out drops of dampness in
the low pressure boilers and to reduce the quantity of dashes fused in the
steam in the high pressure boilers.
Humidity of the steam flowing out of the boiler drum first of all
depends on the steam velocity.The bigger velocity of the steam flux, the
larger drops of moisture it carries out. Also the dampness of the steam
depends on the height of steam space of the drum. If pipes of the steam
outlet of the drum are arranged near the water level, drops will rise into
such height from which they would be carried into the tubes. It could
happen due to sufficient initial kinetic energy of the drops. The increase
of concentration of salts in the boiler water alters physical properties of
the water, that is why much more fine drops appear in the space of the
steam. The increase of pressure in the boiler diminishes the difference
between densities of water and steam, so at that time steam carries out
larger drops of humidity.
In order to reduce the dampness of the steam and the amount of
salts in it at the same time, at first it is necessary to create natural conditions for the steam detachment-separation. So it is necessary to maintain
small velocity of the steam in the steam space of the drum and to create
its sufficient height. But usually these means are insufficient and the
equipment of mechanical separation (latters of shutters, cyclones) is arranged in the drums.
Some separation equipment is shown in Fig 22. The mixture of the
water and steam flows out of the rising tubes with great velocity. In the
drum lower than the water level holey steel sheet is installed, constraining flow of the mixture to lose its kinetic energy in the water space of
drum, so splashing is avoided. A compact layer of the steam under the
sheet penetrates with small velocity through the holes of the sheet evenly
distributing on all the evaporation surface. Clean feeding water is poured
out from the pipe 3 on the sheet.
Steam gushing through its layer leaves a large amount of carried
dashes. The same holey sheet 5 installed in front of the pipes of the
steam outlet 4 makes velocity in the steam space uniform, so less drops
are carried out into the steam ducts. Separator 6 consisting of many

Fig 22. Separation equipment:

1-upcomer pipes; 2-holey sheet; 3-pipe of the feeding water; 4-steam pipes;
5-upper holey sheet; 6-shutter; 7-downcomer pipes.

corrugated sheets-shutters is installed lower this sheet. Steam flux flowing in zigzags, centrifugal forces appear, that is why drops of the dampness are separated, adhere to the surfaces of sheets and stream down.
Cyclon separators of a vertical cylinder shape arranged in the drum
detach steam effectively. Water and steam mixture supplied into this
cylinder along tangent direction starts to rotate. Water presses itself to
the wall and flows down, at the same time the separated steam is rising
into the steam space of a drum.
The amount of the salts fused in the steam is diminished washing it
with clean feeding water. In the steam space of drum special holey sheets
are arranged. Feeding water is poured on them, so steam washes itself
gushing through its layer. In the single pass boilers feeding water is
sprayed into the little overheated steam to convert it humid. The most
dashes existing in the steam are accumulated in the drops of dampness.
The cleanest steam is produced having separated moisture.

7.4. The corrosion of boiler surfaces

The decay of metal effected by surroundings is called corrosion.
Corrosive processes are of two sorts: chemical and electrochemical. In
the first case the reciprocity of the metal and surroundings is chemical,
in the second one corrosion occurs due to the influence of metal and
galvanic cells, forming on the surface of the water contact. Corrosion of
the metal can be entire and localized.
In case of entire even corrosion all the surface contigous to aggressive surroundings is demolished by the uniform intensity; then walls of
the tubes become thin from inside or outside evenly. In case of localized
corrosion certain spots of the surface or areas are demolished and pipes
or other equipment break down much rapidly, though absolute losses of
the metal are less. Steel heating surfaces of the steam and water heating
boilers corrode due to the influence of the heating medium and combustion products. Corrosion from the side of heating medium is called internal, from the side of combustion products-external.
Internal corrosion is often caused by oxygen. Corrosion of this sort
takes place both during boiler operation and keeping it in reserve. According to the character oxygen-type corrosion is localized-rather deep
seats of the corrosion form on the steel surface. During the operaton of a
boiler corrosion arises when oxygen exists in the feeding water, so at
first its seats appear at the beginning of economizer. Later, if the concentration of oxygen in the water is big-corrosion appears in the drum of
a boiler and even in the downcomer pipes. All the elements of a boiler
kept in reserve can corrode.
Feeding water is deaerated to protect boilers from oxygen-type corrosion. Standby boilers are laid up and air can not get into them.
Mere chemical interaction begins between steam of high temperature (more than 500C) and steel. Alloying additions increase the resistance of steel to corrosion caused by steam. So tubes made of the alloyed steel are used always in the superheater part of high temperature.
So called alkaline corrosion occurs in the evaporation elements of
the boiler when mechanical stresses of steel are near to yield ones and
the surface is affected by high concentration alkali (mostly NaOH). Solutions of concentrated alkali after the water vaporisation form in the
different gaps, splits, under the layer of settlings. Aggressive surroundings reduce the connection between crystals of the steel, therefore a metal
becomes brittle. Similar phenomena are noteceable in the elements of a

boiler that mechanical stresses vary due to their temperature, fluctuate

periodically, e.g. in adjunction of the feeding water tube of a boiler drum
when the yield and temperature of the supplied water vary. In order to
avoid the corrosion of this sort measures are taken that elements of the
boiler would not be affected by great stresses and water operation in the
boiler is changed in such a manner that large concentration of natrium
alkali could not form.
External corrosion can be of low and high temperature. Sulphur acid
and oxygen cause low temperature corrosion. Corrosion caused by
oxygen is possible burning any fuel and sulphur acid-burning fuel,
containing sulphur. High temperature corrosion takes place burning
mazut when ash contains vanadium.
Elements of a boiler which temperature of the tube wall can be
equal to the dew point temperature or less corrode due to the influence
of oxygen. Cold water supplied into economizer or convectional part of
the water heating boiler causes condensation of the water vapour existing in the combustion products on their surfaces. Oxygen fused in the
moisture begins to demolish steel. The more humidity and hydrogen in
the fuel, the more possibility of corrosion. E.g. burning anthracite in the
boiler, dew point temperature is 2728C, burning natural gas or peat,
it is 5560C.
The reason of high temperature corrosion, caused by sulphur acid,
is sulphur (VI) oxide SO3, forming sulphur existing in the mazut or coal
during burning. Burning sulphur makes SO2 and a little amount of SO3.
Water vapour, existing in the combustion products and combining with
sulphur (VI) oxide SO3, forms vapour of sulphur acid H2SO4 . In this
case dew point temperature is much higher than it is if pure water vapour
exists in the combustion products (increases to 100140C). Vapour
of sulphur acid condenses on the comparible high temperature surfaces
and its solution demolishes steel intensively.
It is neccesary to increase the temperature of water supplied into
economizer or water heating boiler and the temperature of air blown
into the air heater in order to increase the temperature of the tube surface.
In addition, sometimes it is neccesary to rise the temperature of the flue
gas of a boiler, e.g. to increase heat losses.
Larger amount of sulphur (VI) oxide SO3 is formed when a sufficient quantity of uncombined oxygen exists in the combustion products.
Therefore, the decrease of the coefficient of surplus air in the furnace (to
1,021,03) diminishes SO3 amount, dew point temperature and the

intensity of low temperature corrosion. Burning sulphuric mazut special

additions neutralize sulphur oxides.
High temperature corrosion affecting the elements of a boiler with
the temperature more than 600C is caused even by a small amount of
vanadium in the ash of mazut. Uncooled elements of the boiler (hanger
brackets, supports and so on) are heated to such temperature and they
quit the ranks during several years.
7.5. Draught and air blowing
It is neccesary to supply air into operating boiler indispensable to
burn and remove combustion products. Certain external forces are necessary to overcome aerodynamic resistance of air and smoke channels.
Draught and air blowing depending on their quantity can be natural and
Chimney full of hot flue gas which density is d kg/m3, causes natural draught (Fig 23). It joins with the atmosphere air of density d kg/

Fig 23. Scheme of natural draught boiler:

1-chimney; 2-smoke ducts of the boiler

m3 with the help of the boiler ducts 2. Draught of the chimney p (Pa),
when its height is H m turns up due to the difference of air column
pressure gH o Pa and smoke column pressure gH d Pa:

p = gH ( o d )

In case of known densities of air oo , do of smoke under normal

conditions, their densities, if temperatures to , t d and barometric pressure
B hPa exist, are calculated in such a manner:
o = oo


d = od

273 + t o 1013
273 + t d 1013

Then draught of a chimney (Pa):


p = gH
273 + t o 273 + t d




This equation shows that natural draught is bigger, if chimney is

higher, the smoke temperature is higher and air temperature is lower.
Natural draught must overcome all aerodynamic resistances of the boiler
system. According to them the neccesary height of the chimney can be
rated (58).
Natural draught is used only in the boilers of small power. Even a
high chimney can not overcome aerodynamic resistances of a medium
capacity boiler. Then exaust fans sucking smoke out of the boiler are
installed between a boiler and a chimney and they throw it out into the
atmosphere. In this case a chimney is necessary only to throw out combustion products into the sufficient height established according to sanitary standards.
Steel, brick and reinforced - concrete chimneys are built. Corrosion
has a rapid effect upon the steel chimneys, especially due to the burning
of sulphurous fuel, therefore such ones are arranged only in the small or
temporary boiler houses. Sometimes brick chimneys are built up to 120
m, reinforced concrete up to 300 m or more height. These ones are of
a tapering cone shape, so that they would be more resistant. Cross-section
area of the chimney socket is calculated according to smoke velocity. In
the socket of an artificial draught chimney the smoke velocity is 1535
m/s. If smoke flows with bigger velocity, rather great aerodynamic
resistance of the chimney itself would be arised. If natural draught exists,

the smoke velocity is necessary not less than 610 m/s ( that it would
not depend on the wind).
Burning wood, lumpy peat or large pieces of coal, air gets into the
furnace due to rarefying in it created by draught equipment. Aerodynamic resistance of the modern boiler air channel (air heater air ducts
furnace) is rather great, so one or parallel several blower fans are
installed. Then aerodynamic resistance of air channel is overcome by a
blower fan, of smoke channel by a suction fan. However their operation
is to be adjusted in such a manner that pressure in the furnace would be
a little (2040 Pa) less than the surrounding pressure and combustion
products could not penetrate to the boiler house.
Suction and blower fans differ only that parts of a suction fans are
produced evaluating more wear margin, because these parts are worn
out by ash fractions existing in the smoke.
Heating surfaces and smoke ducts of a running boiler must be regularly cleaned, e.g. settled down and accumulated ash must be removed
that draught would not deteriorate.



8.1. General requirements for a boiler house
The main requirements for a boiler house are:
1.Labour protection, that service staff would not suffer trauma;
2.Operation reliability, that a boiler house would be capable of running for a long time without accidents and forced shutdowns.
3.Operation economy, that steam of necessary parameters woul be
made using the least amount of fuel. Boiler economy is characterized best by its efficiency coefficient.
A boiler house should be well designed, its equipment must be produced of materials of necessary quality, well mounted and correctly
maintained in order to satisfy these requirements. A boiler house is designed according to the construction standards and regulations. Enlargement possibility is provided constantly, so one wall of the boiler house
is reserved. The main equipment of the boiler house is steam boilers,
therefore the whole operation first of all depends on their correct
installation and maintenance. Elements of the boiler must withstand great
mechanical loads due to the internal pressure. Resistance of the steel
reduces at a high temperature and thermal strains occur in it due to
uneven heating of the boiler elements. Besides, water and steam effect
the metal chemically. Boiler can explode due to the mentioned reasons.
The Public service of technics supervision and State power energetics supervision inspectorate control the keeping of the regulations of
the boiler and other pressure equipment installation and maintenance.
Their issued regulations are compulsory for all ministries, departments
and private owners. The requirements for the boiler construction, used
materials, resistance, their production, installation and maintenance are
presented in the corresponding standards and regulations. These also
state the requirements for the boiler space: it should be fireproof, have
not less than two exits between boilers and between them and walls
certain distances should be reserved for comfortable maintenance of the
boiler, staircase landings must be installed, illiumination of the boiler
house must meet the requirements of standards.
The staff of the boiler service should be prepared according to special theoretical and practical program, pass examinations and have a
certificate allowing to maintain the boilers of corresponding type.


8.2. Maintenance of a boiler

Maintenance of a boiler consists of these operations : its putting into
operation and stopping, operation control and regulation, selection of the
optimum operation, repair, maintenance checkup of the damages and so
on. Requirements for these operations are given in the above mentioned
regulations. Additional requirements for the steam boilers of the power
stations are pointed out in the corresponding regulations. Concrete directions which service staff must strictly execute are drawn up on the basis
of these requirements taking into consideration existing local conditions.
Regulation of the boiler operation, putting into operation and stopping are especially significant operations. Procedure of their fulfilment
is indicated in the special directions.
The state of the boiler itself and auxiliary equipment are controled
before putting it into operation. Having engaged a suction fan, smoke ducts
must be ventilated well, so that gas accumulated inside would not explode.
A boiler is filled with warm water to its lowest level in the drum. A boiler
is heated gradually due to get even warming of all its elements.
During the heating of the boiler a superheater and an economizer are
cooled. A superheater is chilled by the steam, blown through it, an
economizer by water provided by recirculation pipe installed between
the boiler drum and the supply header of the economizer.
Staff on duty is watching the state of the operating boiler and exactly
keep the established conditions of the running boiler.
Stopping the boiler first of all fuel supply is cut off. At the end of fuel
burning a blowing fan is turned off, later the draught. A boiler is cooled
slowly. Water is removed only when its temperature reaches 7080 oC.
A boiler stopped for a longer time should be protected from the
internal corrosion, e.g. measures are to be taken, that oxygen should not
get into it. The method of excess pressure is rather good when the whole
boiler is filled with deaerated water and attached to the feeding watermain, maintaining the pressure in the boiler system. A certain amount of
hydrazin, reacting with the remainders of the water, is mixed into it. A
boiler is filled with deaerated and more alkaline water, if alkaline method
of preservation is used. Oxide film formed on the steel surface protects
metal from further corrosion. Other methods of the boiler preservation
are also applied.
A boiler can be repaired only when internal pressure in it is not
bigger than the atmospheric one. Approximately major overhaul of the

boiler is carried out every 13 years, routine repairs-12 times a year

according to the circumstances. Precise terms are presented in the documents of a manufacturer of concrete boiler. The repair of a boiler must
last as shortly as possible, so maintenance operation is to be arranged
best and , if possible, mechanized.
The mentioned above organizations control technical condition of
the boiler. It is examined from inside every 4 years and not rarely as 8
years it is tested hydraulically to check-up its mechanical resistance.
During a hydraulic test the pressure is 25% more than the pressure p of
running boiler, but not less than p + 0,3 MPa. Exact periods of examination and a pressure during a test are presented in the main documents of
a boiler.The results of examinations and functional tests are inscribed in
the main document of the boiler-a card of technical and operation data.
Boiler description in details, its drawings and other documents are added
to this card.
8.3. Control and regulation of a boiler
A sufficient number of measuring devices is necessary to be in the
boiler for its safe, reliable and economic operation. The main meters of
the boiler are:
1. Manometers to measure pressure of the feeding water, steam in
the drum and the main lines, gas and mazut;
2. Devices of water level reading;
3. Thermometers to measure temperature of the feeding water, su
perheated steam and removed flue gas;
4. Flow meters measuring yields of the steam (boiler output), feed
ing water and fuel;
5. Draft gauges measuring thinness at the top of the furnace and
boiler smoke ducts;
6. Smoke analysers measuring amounts of CO2 and O2 in the flue
Mode of the boiler operation, if all the parameters of the steam,
feeding water and flue gas are not altering, is called settled. Having
changed the steam demand, the settled operation conditions of the boiler
are deranged and steam parameters begin to alter. In order to restore
them it is necessary to change the amount of supplied fuel, air, feeding
water, draught and so on. Boiler regulation is called manual, if the mentioned changes are carried out by a man. However, in the modern steam

boilers these parameters alter so rapidly, that manual regulation is almost

impossible, so the facilities for automatic regulation, protection, signalling and blocking of the boiler operation are used.
The regulation system of the drum boiler is divided into several
independent parts. The main ones are of burning process and feeding
adjustments. The principal parameter, giving an impulse to regulate the
boiler combustion process, is steam pressure depending on the boiler
loading. Increasing the steam demand, pressure decreases and a regulator
should increase the supply of the fuel and air into the furnace. Blowing
air more intensively the thinness in the furnace top decreases, so this is
the impulse constraining the guide device of a suction fan to increase
the amount of the removed smoke. The process is of a reverse direction,
if the steam demand decreases.
Safe operation of the drum boiler depends especially on the suitable
water level in the drum. The settled level indicates that the steam amount
supplied to the customers corresponds to the feeding water level. So,
drum water level is the the basic impulse to adjust the boiler feeding.
However, water level in the drum also depends on the other factors, so
regulator of the feeding water amount supplied into the boiler receives
three impulses mostly: the water level in the drum, the amount of produced steam and the quantity of supplied feeding water.
Some more regulators of fuel preparation, blowing through and other
processes can be arranged in the boiler.
Principles of the single-pass boilers adjustment rather differ from
those of the drum boiler regulation. In the single-pass boilers the processes are much more rapid, in addition, closely connected among themselves, so their regulation system can not be divided into independent
Every boiler must contain not less than two emergency valves-basic
and control. Increasing boiler pressure more than permissible, emergency valves must open, let out a part of the steam and pressure.
Decreasing to normal they close again. Lever and spring emergency
valves are represented in Fig 24. In the boilers with the pressure more
than 4 MPa indirect acting pulsed emergency valves are installed.
Outburst emergency valves are arranged at the top of pulverised
fuel-fired furnace of the boiler and in smoke ducts. They open when
pressure in the boiler or smoke ducts increases, so protecting the boiler
masonry from falling into pieces when the mixture of fuel and air bursts.
Failure warning devices prevent the staff on duty of inadmissible

Fig 24. Emergency valves:

a-lever; b-spring

alterations of the basic parameters. In the drum boilers signalling indicators (sound and light) of water level, superheated steam temperature
and alteration of feeding water pressure are arranged.
Blocking appliances are necessary for the starting and stopping of the
equipment, so that due to staff errors the procedure order would not be
lumped together. For example, blocking ones prevent the altering of
the procedure of installation combination, putting boiler in the motion:
at first, it is necessary to set suction fans into the motion, laterblowing ones and only then the equipment of the fuel supply can be
set on. Blocking equipment stops blowing fans, the fuel supply, if
suction ones are out of order or stop.
In the boiler house a regulation panel is assembled where the
devices of the boiler itself, automatic regulators, protection, blocking
equipment operation control and measuring devices are mounted. A
control panel with switches commutating automatic driving into remote
control and on the contrary, commutators of remote control and so on is
arranged before this panel. At the panel the place of the boiler stoker is
located, from which he is observing and, if it is necessary, regulating the
operation of the boiler and automatic regulators.


9.1. The main sources of pollution and toxins
In the atmosphere there are always dashes of natural and anthropogenic origin. The dust of vegetable, fauna and space origin, mist, smoke
of the forests and steppes fires, the dust and gas of volcanic origin are
ascribed to the first group.
Sources of the natural contamination are dispersed (e.g. falling space dust) and formed for a short time (fires, eruptions of the volcanoes).
The pollution of the atmosphere by these sources is one- coloured and
changes a little within time. More stable and larger pollution zones appear due to human industrial activity. Anthropogenic contamination depends on the sort of pollutant, its source and it is various. At the beginning of the 20th century 19 chemical elements were used, in the middle
of the century already 50 and nowadays almost all the elements of D.
Mendeleyev table are in circulation.
According to the data of World health organization in practice about
500 thousand chemical combines (all together more than 6 millions are
known) are used, 40 thousand of them have unhealthy effect on the man.
Due to this influence the composition of industry and agriculture waste
altered greatly and qualitatively new pollution of the biological environment has begun. E.g. it is contaminated by synthetic combines, unforming in the nature so they were not earlier, also by radioactive, cancerogenic and bacteriological substances. The pollution of the biological environment became intensive particularly lately by heavily developing
power engineering, industry and transport.
Every power station influences the biological environment throwing
out into it:
1. Large quantities of heat with the cooling water or supplying heat
and electricity for customers;
2. Great amounts of flue gas containing toxic substances (sulphur,
nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons);
3. Large amounts of contaminated water;
4. Great amounts of ash and soot containing oxides of heavy metals
and vanadium oxides.
A modern power station with the power of 2400 MW, consumes to 20
thousand tons of coal per day and throws out 680 tons of SO2 and SO3 into
the atmosphere, if fuel contains 1,7% of sulphur, 200 tons of nitrogen oxides,
120-240 tons of soot and ash, if effectiveness of ash catchers is 94-98%.

Burning coal a thermal station throws out into the atmosphere ash
and soot, oxides of sulphur, nitrogen, carbon, burning mazut, - soot,
oxides of sulphur, nitrogen, cabon, heavy metals. Burning natural gas it
throws out only nitrogen oxides, so gas is the cleanest fuel in respect of
All spheres of human activity are related with the usage of energy,
therefore the history of mankind is the history of power engineering too,
from the usage of horse power to nuclear fission. In the world from 1900
till 1970 consumption of energy increased 12 times. During the same
time in our planet the number of people increased only 3 times, that is
why the energy consumption per one person rose on an average 4 times,
so labour productivity increased very much. Organic fuel is the main
source of energy in the past and nowadays. In the opinion of the United
Nations organization experts absolute consumption of organic fuel will
increase and till the middle of the 21th century it will double, only later
it will decrease and gain the present level. So there is no foundation to
expect that the pollution of the atmosphere burning organic fuel will
decrease in the nearest decades. That is why it is necessary to create and
introduce effective systems for the decrease of the formation of toxins
and the cleaning of flue gas formed during fuel burning. Then the pollution of the atmosphere will not increase and in future it will be possible
to decrease it.
9.2. The influence of toxins upon biological environment
The part of the globe where life exists is called biological environment. Here exist all animals, a man as the main component, plants of
different kinds, material wealth, monuments of art and architecture created by a man. However all the waste due to industrial activity of a man
is thrown out here. It more or less affects different components of biological environment. Let us investigate the influence of toxins (SO2,
NO2, CO, CmHn, V2O5) forming during the combustion of fuel upon a
man, plants and material wealth.
Sulphur oxides. The influence of sulphur dioxide upon a man depends on its concentration in the air of atmosphere and the duration of
1. If average annual concentration is 0,08 mg/m3, visibility diminishes and the irritation of eyes, respiratory organs begins.

2. If average annual concentration is 0,1 mg/m3, the disorder of

respiratory organs begins.
3. If average annual concentration is 0,25-0,5 mg/m3, the state of
the persons, having diseases of respiratory organs becomes worse.
4. If average annual concentration is 0,5 mg/m3, the number of patients increases, mortality grows.
SO2 is more harmful for plants. It demolishes chlorophyll in the
leaves and needles, therefore their surface is injured. Deciduous trees
are injured by SO2 less. Confusions of their assimilation are noticeable,
if SO2 concentration is more than 0,5-1 mg/m3. The decrease of photosyntesis process, taking place in unshedding coniferous forests, is conspicuous, if concentration is 0,08-0,23 mg/m3. The trees dry off in 2-3
years, if concentration varies in the limits of 0,23-0,32 mg/m3. In the
atmosphere existing SO2, due to the influence of ultraviolet sun rays and
ozone, converts into a more dangerous combination SO3. Vapor of the
water and SO3 form a sulphuric acid causing corrosion. There are some
data showing more intensive corrosion in the industrial centers in comparison with country-side, e.g. steel 20, aliuminium 100 times. The
detriment of steel due to corrosion it is supposed to, makes up 10% of
annual production.
Nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen monoxide NO is formed during combustion process and it is thrown out through a chimney. In atmosphere it
converts into NO2 due to the influence of solar radiation and ozone. The
combination of NO2 and atmospheric moisture forms nitric acid, influencing respiratory organs, pulmonary air cells and causing bloating of
lungs. NO2 existing in the air joins haemoglobin of blood easier than O2
and takes the place of oxygen. Therefore haemoglobin carries less oxygen and excretes a by-product of oxidation CO2 worse. Organism is
being poisoned and a man can die. Particularly dangerous pollution of
the atmosphere smog occurs due to nitrogen oxides. It deteriorates
vision, irritates eyes, makes general condition of a man worse. Especially due to mist, the situation becomes worse and considerable increase of
mortality is perceptible. Sometimes such situations arise in London,
Los Angeles, Tokio.
Nitrogen and sulphuric oxides, combining with the dampness of
the atmosphere, form nitric and sulphuric acids. They contaminate the
earth surface and water with precipitation. Sour rains acidify soils decreasing their fertility. They are particularly dangerous for the lakes, because they stimulate the growth of seaweeds. Fishes are choked off, life
is dying due to oxygen dissipation during their decay.

Carbon monoxide CO (charcoal fumes).It is a product of unperfect combustion influencing man as nitrogen oxides. Slight concentrations of CO can disturb mentality, during 2-3 hours 200-220 mg/m3
provoke headaches, throbbing, augment sensitiveness. Larger concentrations making prolonged effect are deadly. Charcoal fumes are sometimes the reason of poisoning.
Hydrocarbons CmHn. They irritate respiratory organs, cause vomiting, dizziness, sleepiness, confusion of respiratory organs and circulation of the blood. Some hydrocarbons such as benzopirene are cancerogenic substances diminishing immunologic resistance of the constitution
and causing malignant tumours cancer.
Vanadium oxides. Mazut is the waste of oil processing, so all former mineral substances of oil vanadium, nickel, natrium, potassium,
iron and silicon are accumulated in it. Burning mazut all these metals
are converted into oxides. Vanadium pentoxide V2O5 existing in the soot is particularly toxic. Part of the soot adheres to the heating surfaces,
part is thrown out through chimney. V2O5 increases toxicity of soot and
9.3. Setting of throwing out of toxins
Maximum permissible concentrations of toxins (MPC) in the atmosphere are established in order to avoid atmospheric pollution by toxins
and to protect the health of people, biological environment and material
wealth. Concentration, influencing the constitution of a man daily for a
long time which does not cause any pathological changes or diseases
and does not modify biological conditions of a man, is called MPC.
These indices are used to estimate sanitary conditions of the atmosphere:
1. MPCms is a maximum single action concentration of toxins in
the atmosphere established exploring air for 20 minutes. Thus, a
man can not be longer than 20 min. in the air contaminated with
toxins of greater concentration ;
2. MPCad is the greatest permissible average daily concentration.
Breathing so contaminated air for unlimited time must not be
inju rious, directly or not, for the man.
MPC of some toxins existing in the products of fuel burning is presented in Table 9.1.
MPCms is a sanitary standard, thus, it is necessary to keep it in designing and operation of power units. As the concentration of toxins in

Table 9.1. MPC of some toxins


MPC mg/m3


Untoxic dust






Sulphur dioxide SO2



Nitrogen dioxide NO2



Carb on monoxide CO

Vanadium pentoxide V2O5


Benzpyrene C20H12


aboveground air layer could not be larger than MPCms not restricting the
quantity of the throwing out of toxins, special means were found. Such
a means was the dispersion of toxins making use of high chimneys. In
this case toxins existing in the smoke and thrown out into the certain
altitude are diluted by large quantities of the air and their concentration
near the earth surface at the level of our respiratory organs becomes
less. For example, increasing the height of chimneys from 100 m to 300
m, it was possible to throw out 10 times larger quantities of toxins, keeping
up concentrations less than MPCms. In this case toxins are widely spread
and larger territories are contaminated, but the pollution of biological
environment is not diminished.
In 1980 new sanitary standard- the greatest permissible pollution
(GPP) was introduced. Specific quantity is measured in g/s, g/per day,
kg/per year and so on. Every enterprise is counting it according to complicated methodics. The direction of enterprises knows the kind and quantities of toxins to be thrown out.
Environment protection department of Lithuania was quided by ecological standards of European Community and introduced in 1993 new
standards of MPC of toxins for the smokes of steam and water heating
boilers. As a matter of fact these standards are changing the principles
of environment protection. Complementary sanitary standard, besides
MPC of toxins in aboveground air layer, for the calculation of chimneys
in case of installed pollutant cleaning equipment of toxins behind the
boiler is introduced. Standards of emission depend on the thermal power
of boiler furnace Q (MW), defined by formula:

Q = B Qn ;

here B fuel consumption (kg/s, m3/s), indicated in the registration or

adjustment documents; Qn lower combustion heat of the used fuel (MJ/
kg, MJ/m3). In 1996 01 01 introduced MPC are presented in Table.9.2.
Table 9.2. Standards of MPC (mg/m3) of pollutants for the steam and water
heating boilers (at standard ast)

Fuel sort

Thermal power
of the boiler
furnace (MW)

MPC (mg/m3)
SO2 NOx- CO fraction

Gaseous fuel
(natural and liquefied oil gas)

1- 50
50 - 300

350 400
350 300
350 200




400 1200
400 1000
400 800
400 700


Liquid fuel (mazut and furnace)

1 - 50
50 - 300

2700 450
2700 450
2700 450

Solid fuel
(coal, anthracite, coke, peat, straw,
wood and products of its processing
without chemical additions)

0,5 - 1
1 - 20
20 - 50


Table 9.2. presents the standards of pollutants of MPC (mg/m3) for

the smoke of steam and water heating boilers at standard excess air
coefficient st (or oxygen amount O2 in the smoke). For gaseous and
liquid fuel standard excess air coefficient st 1,17 (O2 3%), while
solid fuel st 1,4 (O2 6%).
The concentration of pollutants in the smoke is diminished due to
its dilution with excess air. Thus, it is necessary to count again measured
actual concentrations of pollutants into the concentrations available at
standard excess air coefficient:


C(SO2, CO, NOx, solid parts)st = C(SO2, CO, NOx, solid parts)real

Actual excess air coefficient is counted according to concrete O2,
CO, CH4 and H2 concentrations% measured in the smoke by volume:

real / st

real =

21 (O2 2CH 4 0,5CO 0,5 H 2 )


It is possible to calculate real if there is no opportunity to measure

concentrations of CH4 and H2 in the smoke in accordance with concentrations of O2 and CO:
real =

21 O2 0,5CO


In most cases the sum of CH4, CO and H2 concentrations does not

exceed 0,1%. So, these concentrations can not be estimated and it is
possible to account real by data of O2 concentration measurement:
real =

21 O2


It is possible to measure RO2 (CO2+SO2) concentration by some

smoke analysers. In this case actual excess air coefficient can be calculated approximately:
real =



RO2max depends on the fuel sort and it is of different importance. In

practice these means can be put: RO2max 16,1% (mazut), RO2max

11,8% (natural gas), RO2max 19% (coal) and RO2max 20% (peat).
9.4. Means of diminishing toxins formation and throwing out
Let us investigate the possibility to diminish the formation and throwing out of the main toxins SO2 and NO2 available in the smoke.
Sulphur, existing in the fuel, is the source of sulphur oxides thrown out
by smoke. During fuel burning it is converted into SO2 (more than 99%)
and SO3 (less than 1%). Therefore, there are two means for diminishing

of sulphur oxides thrown out: 1. to use fuel with the least available sulphur
quantity; clean smoke from sulphur oxides.
The first means the use of solid fuel is impossible from the practical
point of view. By a hydrocleaning method using hydrogen and catalysts
it is possible to clean mazut from sulphur.Hydrogen is a by-product of
oil processing. Its quantity is sufficient to clean easily vaporing fractions,
but it is inadequate for heavy ones. That is why expensive equipment of
hydrogen production is necessary and the cost of purified mazut increases
very much. In the oil processing plant the extraction of sulphur is connected with large capital investments. Applying the process of deep (from
2.5% to 0.5%) cleaning the cost of mazut increases very much, so
meanwhile this means is expensive and is not applied. This technical
decision would be radical, more effective than installing the equipment
of smoke cleaning at the place of mazut burning. The second means is
the cleaning of smoke from sulphur oxides. The process divided into the
wet and dry consists of sulphur oxide chemical absorption by various
solutions or solid sorbent. In the first case water solutions or suspensions
of diverse (lime, soda, ammonium sulphide, magnesium oxide) sulphur
absorbing substances are used. Smoke is blown through the load poured
on the above- mentioned water solutions and sulphur is absorbed. Characteristic features of this way: smoke is cleaned very well (to 90%),
cheap reagents, soot catching is possible. Shortcomings: cleaning
schemes are complicated, it is necessary to warm up smoke got into
contact with water solutions and chilled. Due to the heating process the
draught is getting better, water vapor, existing in smoke, does not
Aluminium, ferric, manganic oxides, activated coal, coke are used
as sorbents applying a dry cleaning way. During this process SO2 reacts
with the sorbents grinded fine and sprayed with air into the smoke.
Smoke is cleaned in the catching devices, picking up solid products of
reaction. The usage of dry method is more costly than wet due to numerous expenses consisting of large quantities of sorbent, necessity of its
regeneration equipment.
Smoke purification of sulphur (nitrogen) oxides is difficult due to:
1. Large volumes of purificated smoke (mln. m3/hour);
2. Small concentration of sulphur oxides in smoke (0,1-0,3%);
3. Cumbrous equipment of the smoke purification, which size is
similar to the thermal power station;
4. Increase of installed kW price in 30-40%. and cost of electricity
in 15-20%.

Nitrogen oxides form in the smoke from nitrogen existing in the

fuel and air nitrogen used in the burning process. At the high temperature
of the torch a molecule of oxygen dissociates into atoms reacting with
the molecule of air nitrogen and forms NO. That is why burning liquid
and gaseous fuel the quantity of nitrogen oxides in the smoke depends
on the torch temperature and the amount of free oxygen in it.
Technological means regulating the burning of the fuel such as the
decrease of excess air coefficient, torch cooling sending back a part of
chilled smoke into it, water sprinkling, the usage of long-flame burners,
the application of two-step burning, decrease the formation of nitrogen
The means for purification of nitrogen oxides from smoke are created
and applied. According to formula 4NH3 + 4NO + O2 = 4N2 + 6H2O
NO is reducing, therefore concentration of nitrogen oxides in the smoke
Industrial and power enterprises working in the developed countries
where drastic demands of nature protection are raised are compelled to
introduce systems for the purification of smoke from sulphur and nitrogen oxides systems operating quite effectively.



In the furnace of a steam boiler Pamaskve brown coal is burnt. It is
necessary to rate the coefficient of a boiler efficiency and the amount of
consumed fuel, if boiler output D, produced steam of pressure p and
temperature tg, feeding water temperature tmv, smoke removed out of
boiler volume Vd, temperature ti, volumetric specific heat cpi. Chemical heat losses of incomplete combustion q3, mechanical q4, heat losses
into surroundings q5. D=6,5 t/h, p=1,4 MPa, tg=250C, tmv=100C,
Vd=4,86 m3/kg, ti=160C, cpi =1,4 kJ/(m3 K), q3=0,5%, q4=4%,
Pamaskve brown coal Qn =10600 kJ/kg. Since fuel is not heated,
Qd = Qn .

Smoke removed out of boiler smoke carried the heat according to

the equation (41):
Q2 = Vi ti c 'pi 1 4 = 4,86 1,4 160 1
= 1045 kJ/kg

This heat in per cents of Qd makes:

q2 =

= 0,098 = 9,8 %.
Qd 10600

Coefficient of boiler efficiency according to the equation (42) is:

k = q1 = 100 (q 2 + q3 + q 4 + q5 ) = 100 (9,8 + 0,5 + 4 + 2 ) = 83,7 %

Fuel consumption is established according to (47) equation. Table 8

Dry saturated steam and water on the saturation curve (according to
pressures) (2, p.206) enthalpy of 1,4 MPa pressure dry saturated steam
h" = 2790 kg/kJ, temperature ts = 195C is found. So, steam is over-

heated, superheating degree t-ts = 250-195 = 55C. Enthalpy of superheated steam is found in the h-s diagram or according to the equation:
h= h" +cpm(t-ts).

Average mass specific heat of water vapor, if t = 200C, cpm = 1,90

kJ/(kgK) (2, p.202), Table 4 Average mass specific heat of gas at the
constant pressure:
hg= h" +cpm(t-ts)=2790+1,955=2895 kJ/kg.

Feeding water enthalpy is found in Table 9 (p.208) Dry saturated

steam and water on the saturation curve (according to temperatures)
hmv = 419 kJ/kg.
Fuel consumption is:

D (hg hmv )

6500 (2895 419) 100

= 1,814 t/h.
10600 83,8


1. Let us rate the useful consumed heat in the water heating boiler, if D
amount of water is heated in it from t1 to t2. Fuel consumption
B = 1,2kg/s, D = 70 kg/s, t 1 = 70 C, t 2 = 150 C. Answer:
Q1 = 19775 kJ/kg.
2. Dashava natural gas is burnt in the steam boiler of D output. Let us
calculate the coefficient of boiler efficiency, if fuel consumption is B,
superheated steam pressure p, temperature tg, feeding water temperature t mv . D = 4,2 kg/s, B = 0,32 m 3 /s, p = 4 MPa, t g = 400 C , tmv
= 130 C . Answer: hk= 93%.

1. Gimbutis G., Kajutis K., Krukonis K., Prancknas A., venianas P. ilumin
technika. Vilnius: Mokslas, 1993.
2. venianas P., Narbutas T. ilumin technika. Kaunas: Technologija, 1997.



Study Guide
Sudar ir angl kalb vert Petras Urbonas ir Virginija Urbonien
Redagavo M. Zabielskien

SL 136. 2002 08 12. 5,25 apsk. leid. l. Tiraas 100 egz. Usakymas 229
Leido Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto leidykla Technika,
Saultekio al. 11, LT-2040 Vilnius
Spausdino B Baltijos kopija, Kareivi g. 13b, LT-2012 Vilnius