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Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1

Motivation

WDM optical networks are the revolution in data transmission because of low loss,
high speed, better bandwidth and high capacity. So a lot of research is going on in
this field.
Information in the form of light transmits between transmitter and receiver in optical
communication via optical fiber. WDM provides virtual fibers, in that it makes a single Fiber
looks like multiple virtual fibers, with each virtual fiber carrying a single data stream.
Fibres also suffer from dispersion due to fibre material nonlinearities and distance the signal
travels inside the fibre. In WDM network, dispersion, Group velocity dispersion (GVD) and
nonlinear effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation (SPM/XPM) and four-wave
mixing (FWM) is observed at different data rates. So this dispersion and non linearity has to
be minimised by some methods like using DCF, FBG, electronic equalizer, different optical
modulation format and optical phase conjugation method. Installing the DCF fibres is one of
the methods to compensate the dispersion due to single mode fibres. The DCF is analysed
with various data rate and configurations for defining the optimum results. By
1

introducing varieties of optical modulation formats to minimize non linearity is also analyzed
at higher data rate and different frequency spacing.

1.2

Literature Survey

This section includes list of literatures and research paper referred for finding project
definition, problems and its possible solution.
M. I. Hayee and A. E. Willner compare non return-to-zero (NRZ) with return-to-zero (RZ)
modulation format for wavelength-division multiplexed systems operating at data rates up to
40 Gb/s. They find that in 1040-Gb/s dispersion-managed systems (single-mode fiber
alternating with dispersion compensating fiber), NRZ is more adversely affected by
nonlinearities, whereas RZ is more affected by dispersion. In this dispersion map, 10- and 20Gb/s systems operate better using RZ modulation format because nonlinearity dominates.
However, 40-Gb/s systems favour the usage of NRZ because dispersion becomes the key
limiting factor at 40 GB/s. [1]

Anu Sheetal, AjayK.Sharma and R.S.Kaler describes the simulative analysis of 40 Gb/s long
haul (5002000 km) DWDM system with ultra high capacity up to 1.28 Tb/s has been carried
out for carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ), duo binary return-to-zero (DRZ) and
modified duo binary return-to-zero (MDRZ) modulation formats. The DWDM system has
been analyzed for the pre, post and symmetrical dispersion compensation schemes for 16
Channels with 25GHz channel spacing in order to find the optimum modulation format for a
high bit rate optical transmission system. [2]
Bo-ning HU1, Wang Jing1, Wang Wei2 and Rui-mei Zhao1 analyzed Fiber-optic dispersion
and its effect on optical transmission system. In this paper, three schemes (pre-compensation,
post

compensation,

mix-compensation

of

dispersion

compensation)

of

dispersion

compensation with DCF are proposed. Mix-compensation gives best result among all of these
three. [3]
R.S. Kaler, Ajay K.Sharma and T.S. Kamala investigate pre-, post- and symmetrical
dispersion compensation methods for 10 Gb/s non-return to zero (NRZ) links using standard
and dispersion compensated fibers through computer simulations to optimize high data rate
optical transmission. The influence of EDFA power and increase in length of each type of
fiber has been studied to evaluate the performance of optical communication systems. [4]

Annika Dochhan, Sylvia Smolorz, Harald Rohde and Werner Rosenkranz investigate the use
of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) for in-line dispersion compensation in optical long-haul
wavelength division multiplex (WDM) transmission systems. They considered upgrade
scenarios contain the increase of the data rate from 10.7 Gb/s to 43 Gb/s and employment of
other modulation formats than conventional NRZ-ASK (non-return-to-zero amplitude shift
keying), such as optical duo binary (ODB) and differential phase shift keying (DPSK). [5]
Samy Ghoniemy, Karim F. George and Leonard Mac Eachern presented modelling and
design, simulation, characterization and performance evaluation of high data rate and high
capacity long-haul DWMD light wave systems. Results showed the superiority of the Duo
binary format over the other presented modulation formats. The effect of using different fiber
types (SSMF, LEAF, and TW-RS) on the proposed 42.7 Gb/s DWDM system`s performance
was discussed. The results showed that the superiority map of the different modulation
formats was changed by changing the fiber type. It was seen that using the LEAF made the
RZ-DQPSK the best modulation format of those considered. They also demonstrated that the
choice of the RZ-DQPSK modulation format over the LEAF type fiber resulted in a 50%
increase in the transmission distance of the DWDM system in spite of the reduced channel
spacing. [6]
M.D. Pelusi, F. Luan, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D.A.P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies and B.J.
Eggleton performed demonstration dispersion free transmission of a WDM 3 x 40 Gb/s (100
GHz spaced) using RZ-DPSK modulation format over a 162 km standard fiber link by using
optical phase conjugation via CW pumped four wave mixing in a As2S3 planar waveguide for
all channels and other approaches include using different chalcogenide glass compositions,
whose n2 can be quadruple that of As2S3. [7]
Saurabh Kumar, Prof. A. K. Jaiswal, Er. Mukesh Kumar, Er. Rohini Saxena investigated
post, pre and symmetrical/mix dispersion compensation methods for 40 Gb/s non-return to
zero link using standard and dispersion compensated fiber through FBG compensator to
optimize high data rate optical transmission. They found that fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) are
implemented instead of using dispersion compensated fiber (DCF)

for

dispersion

compensation in 40Gb/s WDM system is an effective solution. It is observed that the


compensation schemes reduced the dispersion appropriately but among them post
compensation scheme reduced the accumulated fiber chromatic dispersion to the maximum
possible extent. [8]
Devendra Kr.Tripathi, H.K.Dixit and N.K.Shukla have done comparative performance study
for four different optical systems, each of thirty two multiplexed channels and spaced
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100GHz. Multiplexed systems operating at 10, 20, 30 and 40Gb/s/channel with non
return-to-zero (NRZ) signal. The transmitted power is kept constant while the bit rate and the
length of the fiber are varied and the observations are based on the modelling and
numerical simulation of optimum dispersion-managed transmission link. Performance study
is done for variable fiber span length for NZDSF. It is observed that at low bit rate
(10Gb/s/ch)

per channel multiplexed optical system shows much

better

performance

matrices (Q, BER, eye pattern) for variable fiber span. But with increase in per
channel bit rate over 10Gb/s/ch viz 20 Gb/s/ch, 30Gb/s/ch and 40Gb/s/ch transmission
performance degrades on the increase of fiber length, it is much higher for 40Gb/s/ch
multiplexed optical system as compared to other systems operating on 20, 30Gb/s/ch bit
rate. They concluded by observing various results that that with increase of per channel bit
rate nonlinearities limits the fiber transmission length, while with lower bit rate system
performance parameters are very attractive, also for 40Gb/s/channel optical transmission
NRZ lacks of the necessary dispersion tolerance to accommodate. [9]
Kawal Preet Singh, Navpreet Singh, Gurinder Singh Dhaliwal have analyzed different WDM
systems using NRZ, RZ and CSRZ modulation formats and concluded that WDM system has
been effected by dispersion and non-linear effects. They also concluded that CSRZ signal is
far less sensitive to fiber Non linear effects and provides better robustness against
transmission impairments, RZ system has reduced dispersion tolerance and a reduced spectral
efficiency of RZ based WDM systems and the NRZ system has improved dispersion tolerance
but it has the effect of inter-symbol interference between the pulses this modulation format is
not suitable when high bit rates and distance. [10]
Malti, Meenakshi Sharma and Anu Sheetal have simulated 8-channel WDM-PON system for
downstream signals using carrier suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ), duo binary return-to-zero
(DRZ) and the modified duo binary return-to-zero (MDRZ) modulation formats by varying
input power from 0 to 20 dBm for different modulation formats and found CSRZ is
superior to DRZ and MDRZ and system gives optimum performance at input power
Pin=15dBm. [11]
Rajani, Raju Pal, Vishal Sharma investigate pre, post and symmetrical-dispersion
compensation methods for 10/15Gb/s using different modulation formats like NRZ, RZ and
RZ Super Gaussian using standard and dispersion compensated fibers through computer
simulations to optimize high data rate optical transmission. It is recommended to use
symmetric- and post-DCF schemes for all the simulated optical pulses rather than using pre

DCF scheme at high transmission rate in dispersion compensated optical communication


system in conjunction with laser line width of 100 MHz. [12]
Anandita joy Agarwal, Mukesh kumar and Rohini Saxena study and compare the various
methods of dispersion compensation like Dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) which
compensates dispersion at 1310nm and 1550 nm and Fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) which
compensate

dispersion at wavelength around 1550nm.They concluded that using DCF

techniques increase the total losses nonlinear effects and costs of optical transmission system
and FBG helps in decreasing the cost of the system and also have low insertion loss. [13]
Vjaceslavs Bobrovs, Sandis Spolitis, Girts Ivanovs describes that the possible transmission
distance of the Dense WDM-PON (DWDM-PON) transmission system can be restricted by
chromatic dispersion (CD).In this paper, various chromatic dispersion compensation
techniques are compared. The best results were obtained by using FBG for CD precompensation. It is preferable to use FBG for CD compensation in pre-compensation
configuration (before SMF fiber span) in future high speed long-reach DWDM-PON systems.
[14]
M. I. Hayee and A. E. Willner describe the group velocity dispersion (GVD) and nonlinear
effects, such as self- and cross-phase modulation (SPM/XPM) and four-wave mixing (FWM)
in wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems at 10 Gb/s that degrade the performance
of the system. In this paper, 10-Gb/s WDM systems that use pre-compensation, Post
compensation or dual-compensation of each channel to minimize dispersion and nonlinear
effects are explained. [15]
J. Vojtech 1, M. Karasekt'2, J. Radill describe that the low loss of fibers, together with the
availability of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's), makes the 1550nm window an
attractive wavelength range of operation at 10Gb/s. However the chromatic dispersion of
SSMF is relatively large (z 17 ps/nm/km) within this window, severely limiting transmission
distances unless compensating techniques are employed. In this paper, investigation on the
transmission tolerance to signal input power launched into the link for post compensation
Scenario with fixed value of compensated CD for different compensating devices is done. CD
Compensators available were: broadband FBGs, channelized FBGs, channelized tunable
FBGs (TFBGs). Comparison of different partial CD pre-compensation schemes has been
addressed. Both fixed and channelized FBGs perform nearly identically; performance of
tunable ones is a little worse due to higher Insertion loss. [16]

Xianming Zhu, Shiva Kumar, Srikanth Raghavan, Yihong Mauro and Sergey Lobanov
describe that the Fiber-optic communication systems operating at 10 Gb/s and beyond suffer
from severe inter-symbol interference (ISI)

caused by chromatic dispersion (CD),

polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and fiber Kerr nonlinearity. In this paper, Non-linear
Electronic dispersion compensation technique is proposed. Two different types of nonlinear
EDCs to cancel ISI caused by chromatic dispersion, nonlinearity from square-law detection,
and fiber nonlinearity are shown. [17]
Niels Neumann, Christian G. Schaffer, TU Dresden, Institut fur Nachrichtentechnik and
Dresden describes the estimation of the dispersion for different modulation formats using
nonlinear detection. [18]
Gaurang H Patel and Rohit B Patel simulate and compare dispersion compensation using
DCF and using electrical compensation (feed forward decision feedback equalizer) with
data rate of 1.28 Tb/s at fiber length of 300km. They have concluded that hybrid dispersion
compensation gives better performance than other compensation scheme. It means hybrid
compensation provides three times performance enhancement than mix optical compensation
scheme. [19]
Majid Moghaddasi and Assoc.Prof. Dr. Syuhaimi Bin Ab. Rahman compares the efficiency
of on-off Keying (OOK) modulation formats non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero
(RZ) in both electrical (using feed forward-decision feedback equalizer (FFEDFE) method)
and optical chromatic dispersion compensation (using Dispersion Compensation Fiber (DCF))
and concluded that in electrical compensation NRZ seems predominate in most parts of the
route compare to RZ 0.67 while RZ 0.5 produces the worst performances almost at all points
but in optical compensation RZ modulation with both duty cycle (0.67 and 0.5) gives us
definitely much better performance than NRZ especially in shorter distances. [20]
Vjaceslavs Bobrovs, Sandis Spolitis

and Girts Ivanovs present paper on dispersion

compensate using DCF or FBG as a dispersion compensate module for WDM PON network
for 16 channels each with 10 Gb/s.They concluded that by implementation of DCF fiber in
DCM unit the 16 channel DWDM-PON systems maximal link length between OLT and
ONT in pre-compensation configuration improved by 19.3% or 11 km in length from 57
km to 68 km, but in post-compensation configuration by 5.3% or 3 km in length from 57 km
to 60 km and by implementation of fiber Bragg grating pre-compensation solution in
dispersion compensation module DWDM passive optical network transmission line can

be improved by 26.3% or additional 15 km in length from 57 km till 72 km, but using


fiber Bragg grating in post-compensation solution transmission line can be improved by
15.8% or additional 9 km in length started from 57 km till 66 km. [21]

1.3

Thesis Organization

In this thesis total six chapters are included.

Chapter 2 gives the overview of optical fiber communication, WDM network and linear &
nonlinear impairments.

Chapter 3 includes explanation about different dispersion compensation techniques. In this


detail discussion about Dispersion compensating fiber, fiber bragg grating, optical phase
conjugation and electronic equalizer is done.

Chapter 4 includes the details of varieties of modulation formats used in optical


communication with frequency and time domain view.

Chapter 5 describes the simulation setup and result discussion of single link, 8- channel link,
16-channel link and finally 32-channels 1.28 Tbps data rate channel using different
modulation formats.

Chapter 6 gives the conclusion from the above discussed chapters and discussed possible
future work in dispersion compensation fields.

In the next chapter, we will discuss about the optical fiber communication and different types
of linear and non-linear impairments.

Chapter 2

Optical fiber communication

2.1 Overview
The world telecommunication consists two parts: the Greek word tele which means the over
a distance, and communication which means the exchange of information. We can define
telecommunication as Exchange of information over a certain distance using some type of
medium.
One of these mediums that really had a big impact on data transmission was coaxial-cable
system. The first coaxial-cable system, deployed in 1940, was a 3MHz system which could
transmit 300 voice channels [33]. But these coaxial-cables, they mostly suffer from high cable
losses and repeater spacing is also very limited and is costly for a longer transmission length.
And these shortcomings led to the development of microwave communication system.
Microwave communication system uses electromagnetic carrier waves in the range of GHz to
transmit signals with different techniques to modulate the carrier waves. The microwave
communication system allowed larger repeater spacing but suffered from limited bit rate.

As we begin the new millennium, we are seeing dramatic changes in the telecommunications
industry that have far-reaching implications for our lifestyles. There are many drivers for
these changes. First and foremost is the continuing, relentless need for more capacity in the
network. This demand is fueled by many factors like growth of internet and the World Wide
Web, both in terms of number of users and the amount of time, and thus bandwidth taken by
each user, is a major factor.
The Shannon-Hartley theorem states that information carrying capacity is proportional to
channel bandwidth, the range of frequencies within which the signals can be transmitted
without substantial attenuation. [32]
The frequency of the carrier signal limits the bandwidth. The higher the carrier frequency, the
greater the channel bandwidth and the higher the information carrying capacity of the system.
Fiber optical communication system use light as a carrier with the highest frequency among
all the practical signals and this is what makes these systems the linchpin of modern
telecommunications.
Then Optical fiber was first developed in the 1970s, which revolutionized the
telecommunications industry and played a major role in the Information era. Because of its
advantages over electrical transmission, optical fibers have largely replaced copper wire
communications in core networks in the developed world [34]. Optical communication
system use high carrier frequency (~100 THz) in the visible or near infrared region of the
electromagnetic spectrum. Because of its low loss, high capacity and capacity it become more
popular [32].
Consider the following statement from a leading telecommunication provider The explosive
growth of Internet traffic, deregulation and the increasing demand of users are putting
pressure on our customers to increase the capacity of their network. Only optical networks can
deliver the required capacity and the bandwidth-on-demand is now synonymous with
wavelength-on demand.

2.2 Optical Fiber Communication System


An optical fiber communication system has three basic components:
1. Transmitter
2. Receiver
3. Transmission path(Optical fiber)

Fig. 2.1 Block diagram of optical fiber communication system

2.2.1 Transmitter
The role of an optical transmitter is to convert the electrical signal into optical form and to
launch the resulting optical signal into the optical fiber. Fig. 2.1 shows the block diagram of
an optical transmitter. It consists of an optical source, a modulator, and an information signal
as an input signal. Semiconductor lasers or light-emitting diodes are used as optical sources
because of their compatibility with the optical-fiber communication channel. The optical
signal is generated by modulating the optical carrier wave with information signal (electrical
form).Then resulting modulated optical signal pulse propagates through optical fiber.

2.2.2 Receiver
An optical receiver converts the optical signal received at the output end of the optical fiber
back into the original electrical signal. Fig. 2.1 shows the block diagram of an optical
receiver. It consists of an optical detector, and a demodulator. Semiconductor photodiodes are
used as photo detectors because of their compatibility with the whole system which converts
optical signal to electrical signal and demodulator is used to convert modulated signal to
information signal.

2.2.3 Fiber Channel


The role of a communication channel is to transport the optical signal from transmitter to
receiver without distorting it. Most light wave systems use optical fibers as the
communication channel because silica fibers can transmit light with losses as small as 0.2
dB/km. Even then, optical power reduces to only 1% after 100 km.

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2.3 Multiplexing Techniques


In most applications it is much more economical to transmit data at higher rates over a single
fiber than it is to transmit at lower rates over multiple fibers. There are fundamentally two
ways of increasing the transmission capacity on a fiber, as shown in Fig. 2.2 and Fig. 2.3.
1. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
2. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)

2.3.1 Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)

Fig. 2.2 Block diagram of TDM or OTDM Multiplexer [34]


The first is to increase the bit rate. This requires higher-speed electronics. Many lower-speed
data streams are multiplexed into a higher-speed stream at the transmission bit rate by means
of electronic time division multiplexing (TDM). The multiplexer typically interleaves the
lower-Speed streams to obtain the higher-speed stream. Today, the highest transmission rate
in commercially available systems is 40 Gb/s TDM technology. Researchers are working on
methods to perform the multiplexing and demultiplexing functions optically. This approach is
called optical time division multiplexing (OTDM). Laboratory experiments have
demonstrated multiplexing/demultiplexing of several 10 Gb/s streams into/from a 250 Gb/s
stream, although commercial implementation of OTDM is not yet viable.

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2.3.2 Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)

Fig. 2.3 Block diagram of WDM Multiplexer [34]


Second way to increase the capacity is by a technique called wavelength division multiplexing
(WDM). WDM is essentially the same as frequency division multiplexing (FDM), which has
been used in radio systems for more than a century. For some reason, the term FDM is used
widely in radio communication, but WDM is used in the context of optical communication.
The idea is to transmit data simultaneously at multiple carrier wavelengths (or, equivalently,
frequencies or colors) over a fiber. To first order, these wavelengths do not interfere with each
other provided they are kept sufficiently far apart. Thus WDM provides virtual fibers, in that
it makes a single Fiber looks like multiple virtual fibers, with each virtual fiber carrying a
single data stream. WDM systems are widely deployed today in long-haul and undersea
networks and are being deployed in metro networks as well.

2.4 Benefits of WDM


Wavelength Channel Multiplexing (WDM) is important technology used in todays
telecommunication systems. It has better features than other types of communication with
client satisfaction. It has several benefits that make famous among clients such as:

2.4.1 Capacity Upgrade


Communication using optical fiber provides very large bandwidth. Here the carrier for the
data stream is light. Generally a single light beam is used as the carries. But in WDM, lights
having different wavelengths are multiplexed into a single optical fiber. So in the same fiber
now more data is transmitted. This increases the capacity of the network considerably.

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2.4.2 Transparency
WDM networks supports data to be transmitted at different bit rates. It also supports a number
of protocols. So there is not much constraint in how we want to send the data. So it can be
used for various very high speed data transmission applications.

2.4.3 Wavelength Reuse


WDM networks allows for wavelength routing. So in different fiber links the same
wavelength can be used again and again. This allows for wavelength reuse which in turn helps
in increasing capacity.

2.4.4 Scalability
WDM networks are also very flexible in nature. As per requirement we can make changes to
the network. Extra processing units can be added to both transmitter and receiver ends. By
this infrastructure can redevelop to serve more number of people.

2.4.5 Reliability
WDM networks are extremely reliable and secure. Here chance of trapping the data and
crosstalk is very low. It also can recover from network failure in a very efficient manner.
There is provision for rerouting a path between a source-destination node pair. So in case of
link failure we will not lose any data.

2.5 Linear and Nonlinear impairments in WDM network


In WDM networks optical fibers are employed to transmit information in form of light pulse
between the transmitter and the receiver. WDM systems have the potential to transmit
multiple signals simultaneously. When an optical signal is transmitted through long haul
communication systems (the transmission of a light signal over fiber for distances typically
longer than 100 km) of optical fiber, a significant distortion will be seen in the received
signal. Distortion could be result of chromatic and polarization mode dispersion and fiber
nonlinearitys

in Wavelength

Division

Multiplexing (WDM) impact transmission

performance. Nonlinear effects play a major role in optical fiber with respect to transmission
capacity and performance of the system.
Impairments in optical fiber are broadly classified in to two categories: linear and non-linear
impairments. The terms linear and non-linear in fiber optics mean intensity-independent and
intensity-dependent, respectively. The linear impairments are static in nature and non-linear

13

impairments are dynamic in nature. The non-linear impairments strongly depend on the
current allocation of route and wavelength, i.e., on the current status of allocated light paths.
Linear impairments are independent of the signal power and affect each of the wavelengths
(optical channels) individually, whereas nonlinear impairments affect not only each optical
channel individually but they also cause disturbance and interference between them.

2.5.1 Linear impairments


The important linear impairments are: fiber attenuation, component insertion loss, amplifier
spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, chromatic dispersion (CD) (or group velocity dispersion
(GVD)), polarization mode dispersion (PMD). Optical amplification in the form of EDFAs
always degrades the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR). The amplifier noise is quantified by
noise figure (NF) value, which is the ratio of the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) before
the amplification to the same ratio after the amplification and is expressed in dB.
Chromatic dispersion causes pulse broadening, which affects the receiver performance by:
(1) Reducing the pulse energy within the bit slot
(2) Spreading the pulse energy beyond the allocated bit slot leading to inter-symbol
interference (ISI). CD can be adequately (but not optimally) compensated for on a
per link, and/or at transmission line design time.
PMD is not an issue for most type of fibers at 10 Gb/s, however it become an issue at 40 Gb/s
or higher rates. In general, in combination with PMD there is also polarization dependent loss
(PDL). It can cause optical power variation, waveform distortion and signal-to-noise ratio
fading.
2.5.1.1 Power Losses

Fig. 2.4 Power loss effect on signal

14

Power loss can be defined as the optical loss that is accumulated from source to destination
along fiber links and is normally made up of intrinsic fiber losses and extrinsic bending
losses. Intrinsic fiber losses are due to attenuation, absorption, reflections, refractions,
Rayleigh scattering, optical component insertion losses, etc. Let
the input of a fiber of length L; then the output power
=

be the power launched at

is given by

(2.1)

Where is the fiber attenuation coefficient.


The loss introduced by the insertion of optical components, such as couplers, filters,
multiplexers/ de multiplexers, and switches, into the optical communications system is called
insertion loss and is usually independent of wavelength.
The extrinsic losses are due to micro and macro bending losses. Additional losses occur due
to the combined effects of dispersion resulting from inter symbol interference (ISI), mode
partition noise, and laser chirp as discussed later in this section.
2.5.1.2 Chromatic Dispersion (CD)

Fig. 2.5 Chromatic dispersion


The degradation of an optical signal caused by the various spectral components travelling at
their own different velocities is called dispersion. CD causes an optical pulse to broaden such
that it spreads into the time slots of the other pulses. It is considered as the most serious linear
impairment for systems operating at bit-rates higher than 2.5 Gb/s. CD depends on bit-rate,
modulation format, type of fiber, and the use of dispersion compensation fiber (DCF)
modules. The total dispersion at the end of a light-path is the sum of dispersions on each
fiber-link of the considered light-path, where the dispersion on a fiber-link is the sum of
dispersions on the fiber-spans that compose the link. Most commonly deployed compensation
techniques are based on DCF. Dispersion compensation techniques are useful in long-haul as
well as metro networks. A fiber of length Lf and dispersion Df can be compensated by using a
spool of DCF of length Lc and dispersion parameter Dc such that the dispersion at the end of

15

the fiber is close to zero and satisfies

= . Due to imperfect matching

between the dispersion slopes of CD and DCF, some wavelengths may be over-compensated
and some others may be under compensated.
Moreover DCF modules may only be available in fixed lengths of compensating fiber. Hence,
sometimes it may be difficult to find a DCF chat exactly compensates the CD introduced by
the fiber, leading to residual CD. A typical value of dispersion compensation tolerance in
commercial receivers is around 800 ps/nm for non-return-to-zero (NRZ) 10 Gb/s, while it is
160 ps/nm for optical duo binary (ODB) 40 Gb/s.
2.5.1.3 Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

Fig. 2.6 PMD effect


Anywhere along a fiber-span, fiber could be non-circular, contain impurities, or be subject to
environmental stress such as local heating or movement. These irregularities present obstacles
to an optical pulse along its path. These obstacles cause different polarizations of the optical
signal to travel with different group velocities resulting in pulse spread in the frequency
domain, known as PMD. The differential group delay (DGD) is proportional to the square
root of fiber length L, i.e., = DPMD , where DPMD is the PMD parameter of the fiber
and typically measured in ps/

. Because of the dependence, the PMD-induced pulse

broadening is relatively small compared to CD. The PMD on a fiber link is a function of PMD
on each fiber-span. The PMD values vary from fiber to fiber in the range of 0.01-10 ps/

PMD becomes a major limiting factor for WDM systems designed for longer distances at
higher bit-rates. The effect of second and higher order PMD becomes prominent at high-bit
rates exceeding 40 Gb/s. PMD induced problems can be reduced by shortening the optical

16

transmission distance by placing OEO regenerators between two optical nodes. However, as
most long-haul DWDM systems are multi-wavelength, the transmission link must first be demultiplexed, then regenerated, and then multiplexed again, which is a very expensive
operation. Another alternative is to use dispersion compensation modules (DCM) at optical
add/drop multiplexers (OADMs), optical cross-connects (OXCs), or amplifier sites to
compensate for accumulated PMD on an optical path. Because PMD effects are random and
time-dependent, this requires an adaptive/active PMD compensator that responds to feedback
over time. Hence, the most reliable and efficient PMD compensation technology is the use of
adaptive optics to realign and correct the pulses of dispersed optical bits.

2.5.2 Non-Linear Impairments


The important non-linear impairments are Self phase modulation (SPM), Cross Phase
Modulation (CPM), Four wave mixing (FWM), Stimulated Brillion Scatter and Stimulated
Raman Scattering. The following sections describe the all non linear impairments in detail.
2.5.2.1 Self-Phase Modulation (SPM)

Fig. 2.7 SPM effect


Self-phase modulation (SPM) is a nonlinear optical effect of light-matter interaction. An ultra
short pulse of light, when travelling in a medium, will induce a varying refractive index of the
medium due to the optical Kerr effect. This variation in refractive index will produce a phase
shift in the pulse, leading to a change of the pulse's frequency spectrum. Self-phase

17

modulation is an important effect in optical systems that use short, intense pulses of light,
such as lasers and optical fiber communications systems. Where The Kerr effect, also called
the quadratic electro-optic effect (QEO effect), is a change in the refractive index of a
material in response to an applied electric field.
For an ultra short pulse with a Gaussian shape and constant phase, the intensity at time t is
given by I(t):
( )=
Where

exp( )

(2.2)

the peak intensity and is is half the pulse duration. If the pulse is travelling in a

medium, the optical Kerr effect produces a refractive index change with intensity:
( )=

(2.3)

Where n0 is the linear refractive index and n2 is the second-order nonlinear refractive index of
the medium.
As the pulse propagates, the intensity at any one point in the medium rises and then falls as
the pulse goes past. This will produce a time-varying refractive index:

( )

( )

(2.4)

This variation in refractive index produces a shift in the instantaneous phase of the pulse:

( ) =

Where

and

( )

(2.5)

are the carrier frequency and (vacuum) wavelength of the pulse, and L is the

distance the pulse has propagated.


The phase shift results in a frequency shift of the pulse. The instantaneous frequency (t) is
given by:
( )=

and from the equation for dn/dt above, this is:

18

( )

(2.6)

( )=

( )

(2.7)

Plotting (t) shows the frequency shift of each part of the pulse. The leading edge shifts to
lower frequencies ("redder" wavelengths), trailing edge to higher frequencies ("bluer") and
the very peak of the pulse is not shifted. For the centre portion of the pulse (between t = /2),
there is an approximately linear frequency shift (chirp) given by:
( )=

(2.8)

Where is:
=

It is clear that the extra frequencies generated through SPM broaden the frequency spectrum
of the pulse symmetrically. In the time domain, the envelope of the pulse is not changed,
however in any real medium the effects of dispersion will simultaneously act on the pulse. In
regions of normal dispersion, the "redder" portions of the pulse have a higher velocity than
the "blue" portions, and thus the front of the pulse moves faster than the back, broadening the
pulse in time.
Hence, the primary effect of SPM is to broaden the pulse in the frequency domain, keeping
the temporal shape unaltered. As the chirping effect is proportional to the transmitted signal
power, the SPM effects are more pronounced in systems with high transmitted power. SPM is
the strongest among the Kerr effects for DWDM systems working at 100GHz spacing. The
chirp also depends on the input pulse shape. The appropriate chirping of input signals using
chirped RZ (CRZ) modulation can reduce the SPM effects. The effects produced by nonlinear
SPM and linear dispersion are opposite in nature. By proper choice of pulse shape and input
power, one effect will compensate for another, leading to undistorted pulse in both time and
frequency domains. Such a pulse is called a Soliton pulse and is useful in high-bandwidth
optical communication systems.
2.5.2.2 Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM)
The non-linear refractive index seen by an optical pulse depends not only on the intensity of
the pulse but also on the intensity of the other co- propagating optical pulses, i.e., the
nonlinear phase modulation of an optical pulse caused by fluctuations in intensity of other
optical pulses is called XPM. The result of XPM may be asymmetric spectral broadening and
distortion of the pulse shape. XPM hinders the system performance through the same

19

mechanism as SPM: chirping frequency and chromatic dispersion. XPM damages the system
performance even more than SPM and influences it severely when the number of channels is
large. The XPM-induced phase shift can occur only when two pulses overlap in time.
Due to this overlap, the intensity-dependent phase shift and consequent chirping is enhanced,
leading to enhanced pulse broadening. The effects of XPM can be reduced by increasing the
wavelength spacing between individual channels. Another way to reduce XPM effects is by
careful selection of bit-rates for adjacent channels that are not equal to the present channels.
For increased wavelength spacing, the pulses overlap for such a short time that XPM effects
are virtually negligible. XPM is more important at 50 (or less) GHz spacing compared to 100
GHz spacing.

2.5.2.3 Four Wave Mixing (FWM)

Fig. 2.8 Generation of new frequency components via four-wave mixing.


FWM originates from third order non-linear susceptibility ((3)) in optical links. If three
optical signals with carrier frequencies 1, 2 and 3, co-propagate inside a fiber
simultaneously, ((3)) generates a fourth signal with frequency 4, which is related to the
other frequencies by 4 = 123. In general for N wavelengths launched into a fiber, the
number of FWM channels produced is

M=

(2.9)

The FWM effect is independent of the bit-rate and is critically dependent on the channel
spacing and fiber dispersion. Decreasing the channel spacing increases the four-wave mixing
effect. FWM has severe effects in a WDM system, which uses dispersion-shifted fiber. If
there is some dispersion in the fiber, then the effect of FWM is reduced. This is why non-zero
dispersion-shifted fibers are normally used in WDM systems. Another way to reduce FWM
effect is to employ unequal channel spacing in such a way that the generated signals do not
interfere with the original signals.

20

2.5.2.4 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS)


SBS occurs when an optical signal in fiber interacts with the density variations such as
acoustic phonons and changes its path. In SBS, the scattering process is stimulated by photons
with a wavelength higher than the wavelength of the incident signal.SBS is recognized as the
most dominant fiber non-linear scattering effect. SBS sets an upper limit on the amount of
optical power that can be launched into an optical-fiber.
When input optical power exceeds the SBS threshold, a significant amount of the transmitted
light is redirected back to the transmitter leading to saturation of optical power in the receiver,
and introducing noise that degrades the BER performance. The SBS threshold depends on the
line-width of the optical source, with narrow line-width sources having considerably lower
SBS thresholds. The back-scattered signals can be measured using a Fabry-Perot
interferometer or pump probe or self-heterodyne techniques. Externally modulating the
transmitter provides one way to broaden the line-width of the optical source. Hence, it is
particularly important to control SBS in high-speed transmission systems that use external
modulators and continuous wave (CW) laser sources.
2.5.2.5 Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS)
In WDM systems, if two or more optical signals at different wavelengths are injected into a
fiber, the SRS effect causes optical signal power from lower wavelength optical channels to
be transferred to the higher wavelength optical channels. This can skew the power distribution
among the WDM channels- reducing the signal-to-noise ratio of the lower wavelength
channels and introducing crosstalk on the higher wavelength channels.
Both of these effects can lower the information carrying capacity of the optical transmission
system. SRS occurs at significantly higher optical powers than SBS, with threshold powers of
the order of watts for SRS compared to mW for SBS. Unlike SBS, SRS scatters in both
forward and reverse directions. The effect of SRS, i.e., Raman gain co-efficient, can be
measured using relative cross-section method or pulse-scanning technique or Raman
amplification method. Several optical filtering techniques are proposed to suppress SRS
interactions in optical fiber systems. The filters, when inserted appropriately into the
transmission link, can effectively suppress the SRS power flow from the WDM channels to
lower frequency noise. Furthermore, usage of a high-pass filter can enhance the SRS
threshold in an optical fiber.

21

2.6 Signal Propagation in optical fiber


Nonlinear Schrdinger Equation (NLSE)
The core of a light wave system is optical fiber. When an optical signal transmits over afiber,
it suffers from linear and nonlinear degrading effects in the fiber. Those linear and nonlinear
effects are properties of fibers. Before discussing system performance of advanced
modulation formats it is necessary to talk about the properties of fiber. Optical loss or
attenuation and chromatic dispersion are linear degrading effects; SPM (self-phase
modulation), XPM (cross-phase modulation), FWM (four-wave mixing), SRS (stimulated
Raman scattering) and SBS (stimulated Brillouin scattering) are nonlinear degrading effects.
SRS and SBS are different from the other nonlinear effects because they originate from
stimulated in elastic scattering not Kerr effect. Before getting into the detailed explanation of
each degrading effect above, I would like to present one of the most fundamental equations, nonlinear Schrdinger equation, which is often used to describe the signal propagation over
optical fibers in single mode condition.
From Ref [2], a generalized nonlinear Schrdinger equation which describes the evolution of
optical wave format the transmission distance z is shown as the following:

+
=

| +

1
6

(2.10)

Where T is a frame of reference moving with the pulse at the group velocity and

, |

attenuation constant;

and

| represents optical power; is the nonlinearity coefficient; is the


,

the first order, second order and third order derivative of

mode-propagation constant about the center frequency

is related to the slope of the

Raman gain and is usually estimated to be ~5 fs. Equation (2.1.1) includes the effects of fiber
loss through , of chromatic dispersion through linear delay
. The term which is proportional to

, of nonlinear effects through

accounts for the higher order of dispersion which

becomes important for ultra-short pulses. The last two terms on the right-side of the equation
are related to the effects of stimulated inelastic scattering such as SRS and SBS.
Equation (2.1.1) is a nonlinear partial differential equation which generally does not have an
analytical solution except for some special cases. A numerical approach is needed to

22

understand the nonlinear effects in fibers most of time. Many of simulators use Split-Step
Fourier Transform (SSFT) to simulate the evolution of optical waveform over fiber. In a
standard SSFT method, fiber span is divided into many short sections and the dispersion
operator and the nonlinear operator are treated separately in each section (Ref. [6]). If were
write the Equation (2.1.1) like this (Ref. [2, 6]):
( , )

=( + )

(2.11)

Where D and N are dispersion operator and nonlinear operator respectively. They are given
by:
=

|+

(2.12)

(2.13)

From Equation (2.1.2), we can get the evolution of the complex optical field along the fiber
from one section to the next section:
( + , ) = exp(

) exp(

) ( , )

(2.14)
Where, is the length of the

fiber section.
)

The execution of linear dispersion operator exp(

can be carried out in frequency

domain, so we can write:


exp(
Where

)=

) ( , )=

{exp[

)] [ ( , )]}}

(2.15)

is the dispersion operator in Fourier domain and F and

denote the Fourier and inverse Fourier transformations respectively. Finally, for SSFT
numerical method, the equation for the optical field evolution can be written as following:
( + , ) = exp(

{exp(

)) [ ( , )]}

(2.16)

In Equation (2.1.7), the dispersion acts with optical signal first in frequency domain, and
nonlinear effects interfere with optical signal in time domain separately. In general, the
simulation using SSFT starts with the known wave format the transmitter A(0,T) and finds the
optical field of each consecutive fiber section till the end of the transmission.

23

Chapter 3

Optical modulation formats

3.1. Introduction
To increase the capacity of light wave systems, or bit rate-distance product, high speed data
rate per channel and close channel spacing in DWDM systems are the possible solutions.
10Gb/s or 40Gb/s DWDM system would be the next generation of light wave systems. In
such high speed DWDM systems, linear and nonlinear impairments become severe. Those
linear impairments include chromatic dispersion (CD), and first order polarization mode
dispersion (PMD); nonlinear impairments include self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase
modulation (XPM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) as discussed in previous chapter. To
compensate both the linear and the nonlinear impairments over the transmission fiber, an
optimal modulation format is desired: A modulation format with narrow optical spectrum can
enable closer channel spacing and tolerate more CD distortion; A modulation format with
constant optical power can be less susceptible to SPM and XPM; A modulation format with
multiple signal levels will be more efficient than binary signals and its longer symbol duration
will reduce the distortion induced by CD and PMD. In addition, in an optical repetitive

24

amplified light wave system, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise is another concern
which requires modulation formats more tolerant to additive ASE noise. There have been
many optical modulation formats in the scope of this researching area. Because of its easy to
modulate and demodulate, most of them are binary signaling, e.g. duo binary, VSB/SSB, RZ,
phase-shift-keying (PSK) etc.. While, others are multi-level signaling, e.g. differentialQuadra-phase-shift-keying (DQPSK), and M-PAM etc.. It is impossible to cover all of those
modulation formats in this thesis. However, we will detail and compare several very
important modulation formats often used in recent years. The modulation formats covered in
this thesis are NRZ-OOK, RZ-OOK, CS-RZ, MDRZ and DRZ. Although this is not a
complete screening of the advanced optical modulation formats arena, the results in this thesis
and the mechanism under each modulation format are still valuable and can be extended for
the future research. In the following part, the basic waveform generation/detection and major
characteristics of these five modulation formats will be discussed. It will form a foundation
for the following parts of the thesis where system performance of different modulation
formats will be detailed.

3.2. Generation and Characteristics of Several Modulation format


3.2.1. NRZ-OOK

(a)

(b)

(c)

25

Fig. 3.1 NRZ (a) Schematic diagram of NRZ transmitter (b) time domain (c) frequency
domain visualize
For a long time, non-return-to-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK) has been the dominant
modulation format in IM/DD fiber-optical communication systems. For convenience we
would like to refer NRZ-OOK as NRZ. There are probably several reasons for using NRZ in
the early days of fiber-optical communication: First, it requires a relatively low electrical
bandwidth for the transmitters and receivers (compared to RZ); second, it is not sensitive to
laser phase noise (compared to PSK); and last, it has the simplest configuration of
transceivers. In recent years, as optical amplifiers, NRZ modulation format may not be the
best choice for high capacity optical systems. However, due to its simplicity, and its historic
dominance, NRZ would be a good reference for the purpose of comparison.

The block diagram of a NRZ transmitter is shown in Fig. 3.1(a), where electrical signal is
modulated with an external intensity modulator. The intensity modulator can be either MachZehnder type or electro-absorption type, which converts an OOK electrical signal with data
rate of Rb into an OOK optical signal at the same data rate. The optical pulse width of each
isolated digital 1 is equal to the inverse of the data rate. To detect a NRZ optical signal, a
simple photodiode is used at the receiver, which convert s optical power of signal into
electrical current. This is called direct detection (DD). If there is no mention, same direct
detection scheme is used for other modulation formats. Fig. 3.1 (b), (c) shows the spectrum of
NRZ with10Gbps of data rate. In general, NRZ modulated optical signal has the most
compact spectrum compared to that with other modulate formats. However, this does not
mean that NRZ optical signal has superior resistance to residual chromatic dispersion in an
amplified fiber system with dispersion compensation. Also this does not mean NRZ is more
tolerant to XPM and FWM in crowded DWDM systems because of its strong carrier
component in the optical spectrum [36]. In addition, NRZ optical signal has been found to be
less resistive to GVD-SPM effect in transmission compared to its RZ counterparts. A simple
explanation is that different data patterns in a PRBS NRZ data stream require different
optimum residual dispersion for the best eye opening. For example, an isolated digital 1
would generate more self-phase modulation (SPM) effect than continuous digital 1s.Since
SPM can be treated as an equivalent signal frequency chirp; it modifies the optimum value of
the dispersion compensation in the system. The difference in the optimum dispersion
compensation between an isolated digital 1 and continuous digital 1s makes it impossible
to optimize the residual dispersion in the system and thus makes the system performance

26

vulnerable to the data patent-dependent fiber nonlinear effect. This effect is especially
important in long distance fiber-optic systems.

3.2.2. RZ-OOK

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 3.2 RZ (a) Schematic diagram of RZ transmitter (b) time domain (c) frequency domain
visualize
RZ means return-to-zero, so the width of optical signal is smaller than its bit period. Usually
a clock signal with the same data rate as electrical signal is used to generate RZ shape of
optical signals. Fig. 3.2(a) shows the block diagram of a typical RZ transmitter. First, NRZ
optical signal is generated by an external intensity modulator; then, it is modulated by a
synchronized pulse train with the same data rate as the electrical signal using another intensity
modulator. RZ optical signal has been found to be more tolerant to nonlinearity than NRZ
optical signal. The reason for its superior resistance to nonlinearity than NRZ is probably due
to its regular data pattern of optical signal. Because of characteristic of return-to-zero of RZ
optical signals, an isolated digital bit 1 and continuous digital 1s would require the same
amount of optimal dispersion compensation for the best eye opening. So with the optimal
dispersion compensation in the system, RZ format shows better tolerance to nonlinearity than

27

NRZ. The spectrum of RZ is also shown in Fig. 3.2 (b), (c). Compared to NRZ, it has a wider
spectrum because of its narrower pulse width. This would lead to less spectrum efficiency for
RZ in a WDM system.

3.2.3. CS-RZ

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 3.3 CSRZ (a) Schematic diagram of CSRZ transmitter (b) time domain (c) frequency
domain visualize
In general, the generation of a CS-RZ optical signal requires two electro-optic modulators as
shown in Fig. 3.3(a). In this configuration, the first intensity modulator encodes the NRZ data.
Then the generated NRZ optical signal is modulated by the second intensity modulator to
generate a CS-RZ optical signal. The second intensity modulator is biased at the minimum
power transmission point and driven by a sinusoidal clock at the half data rate of the electrical
signal. As illustrated in Fig. 3.3(b), a MZ intensity modulator biased at this condition doubles
the frequency of the modulating signal and the phase of output pulse train is alternated
between 0 and . This configuration only requires half data rate of bandwidth for the
second electro-optical modulator, which reduces the complexity of configuration. CS-RZ has
shown better tolerance to fiber nonlinearity and residual chromatic dispersion in recent

28

research. Its RZ intensity bit pattern makes it easy to find the optimum dispersion
compensation. In addition, carrier suppression reduces the efficiency of four wave-mixing in
WDM systems.

3.2.4. DRZ

(a)

(a)
(b)

(c)

Fig. 3.4 DRZ (a) Schematic diagram of DRZ transmitter (b) time domain (c) frequency
domain visualize
Fig. 3.4(a) illustrates the schematic of the 40 Gb/s duo-binary transmitter. The duo binary
was generated by first creating an NRZ duo binary signal using a duo binary precoder,
NRZ generator and a Duo binary pulse generator. The generator drives the first MZM, and
then cascades this modulator with a second modulator that is driven by a sinusoidal
electrical signal with the frequency of 40GHz Phase = -90 . The duo binary precoder
used here is composed of an exclusive-or gate with a delayed feedback path. DRZ formats

29

are very attractive, because their optical modulation bandwidth can be compressed to the
data bit rate B, that is, the half-bandwidth of the NRZ format 2B as shown in Fig. 3.4(b),
(c).

3.2.5 MDRZ

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 3.5 MDRZ (a) Schematic diagram of MDRZ transmitter (b) time domain (c) frequency
domain visualize
Duo binary data encoding has received much attention because of its advantages in
dispersion tolerance and reducing nonlinear effects in optical communication systems
[38]- [40]. Relative to non-return-to-zero (NRZ) format optical signals, return-to-zero
(RZ) format optical signals can tolerate high input power, and have small inter-symbol
interference and high receiver sensitivity [41]. Recently it has been shown [38], that
modified duo binary RZ (MD-RZ) signals show more advantages compared to regular

30

RZ, duo binary RZ, and alternating phase RZ signals because the MD-RZ has an
opposite-phase in the adjacent 1s, which leads to the fact that self-phase modulation in
single channel, cross-phase modulation and intra-channel four-wave mixing in WDM
transmission systems can be reduced. In a conventional scheme, generation of the duo- binary
RZ usually needs two modulators; one is used to generate duo binary signals and the other is
cascaded to this modulator for carving NRZ signals to generate RZ signals.
Fig. 3.5(a) displays the schematic for the production of the MDRZ modulation format. In
this, first NRZ duo-binary signal is generated that drives the first MZM and then
connecting this modulator with a second modulator that is driven by a sine wave
generator with the frequency of 40GHz and phase -95. Fig. 3.5(b), (c) shows the optical
spectrum of MDRZ signal. The generation of MDRZ signal is almost identical to the
DRZ signal, except the delay -and-add circuit is replaced by a delay-and subtract circuit. In
the duo binary signal used earlier where the phase of bits '1's are modified only after a bit
'0' appear whereas in the modified duo binary signal the phase is alternated between 0
and for the bits 1. The phase of all the "zero" bits is kept constant and a 180
phase variation between all the consecutive "ones" is introduced.

31

Chapter 4

Dispersion Compensation Techniques

4.1 Introduction
In WDM networks optical fibers are employed to transmit information in form of light pulse
between the transmitter and the receiver. WDM systems have the potential to transmit
multiple signals simultaneously. But the light signals degrade in intensity when they travel a
long distance inside the fiber. Fibers suffer from dispersion and other nonlinearities due to
fiber material nonlinearities and distance the signal travels inside the fiber. In WDM network,
dispersion, Group velocity dispersion (GVD) and nonlinear effects, such as self- and crossphase modulation (SPM/XPM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) is observed at different data
rates.
To support a high-capacity wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transmission, the
embedded standard single-mode fiber (SMF) should be upgraded to overcome the dispersion
limit. For this purpose, some dispersion compensation scheme must be employed periodically
at the amplification stages. There are several different methods that can be used to
compensate for dispersion, including dispersion compensating fiber (DCF), fiber Bragg
gratings, optical phase conjugation and electrical dispersion compensation.

32

4.2 Dispersion Compensation using Dispersion Compensating


Fiber
The use of dispersion compensating fiber is an efficient way to upgrade installed links made
of standard single mode fiber. Conventional dispersion compensating fibers have a high
negative dispersion -70 to -90 ps/nm.km and can be used to compensate the positive
dispersion of transmission fiber. Spans made of SMF and DCF are good candidates as their
high local dispersion is known to reduce the phase matching giving rise to four waves mixing
in wavelength division multiplexing systems. Signal degradation in such systems is due to
combined effects of group velocity dispersion, Kerr nonlinearity, and accumulation of
amplified spontaneous emission noise due to periodic amplification. Because of the nonlinear
nature of propagation, system performance depends on the power levels at the input of
different types of fibers, on the position of the DCF and on the amount of residual dispersion.
Of particular interests are the pre-, post- and symmetrical compensation techniques where
each link is made of spans where the DCF is located before, after the SMF or symmetrically
across the SMF. A DCF module should have low insertion loss, low polarization mode
dispersion and low optical nonlinearity. In addition to these characteristics, DCF should have
large chromatic dispersion coefficient to minimize the size of a DCF module since DCF
modules are generally mounted in a rack in a terminal office. However, there are design
tradeoffs among chromatic dispersion, effective area and bending loss. Large chromatic
dispersion coefficient gives small effective area and large bending loss. By placing one DCF
with negative dispersion after an SMF with positive dispersion, the net dispersion will be zero

(4.1)

Where, D and L are the dispersion and length of each fiber segment, respectively.

Fiber based Compensation is done by three methods


(i) Pre Compensation
(ii) Post Compensation
(iii) Mix Compensation

33

Pre-Compensation:
The optical communication system is pre compensated by the dispersion compensating fiber
of negative dispersion against the standard fiber. In pre-compensation, the dispersion
compensating fiber is placed before standard single mode fiber.

Post-Compensation:
The optical communication system is post compensated by the dispersion compensating fiber
of negative dispersion against the standard fiber. In post compensation, the dispersion
compensating fiber is placed after standard single mode fiber.

Mix-Compensation:
The optical communication system is symmetrically compensated by the dispersion
compensating fiber of negative dispersion against the standard fiber. This scheme is
combination of the pre and post compensation scheme.
The diagram of Pre, Post and Mix dispersion compensation is shown in following figure:

(a)

(b)

34

(c)

Fig. 4.1 (a) Pre, (b) Post and (c) Symmetrical/Mix Compensation

4.3 Dispersion Compensation using Fiber Bragg Grating

Fig. 4.2 Dispersion Compensation using FBG


Fiber gratings are already key components in optical communication links as filters and
dispersion compensators. Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) are very attractive components
because as well as being passive, linear and compact, they possess strong dispersion in both
reflection and transmission. In reflection, the dispersion arise when the edge of the band gap
varies with axial position along the grating such as in linearity chirped or ramped gratings.
Different wavelengths in a dispersed pulse are reflected at different positions in the grating,
leading to different optical path lengths and thus providing the possibility of compensating for
dispersion in long-haul fiber links. A more attractive solution would be a transmission-based
system in which the gratings are placed in line with the fiber. The figure shows the process of
compensating dispersion using fiber Bragg grating. Light propagating within the fibers with a
wavelength twice the grating period is reflected. Used as a dispersion compensator, the
grating period could be reduced linearly down the length of grating (i.e. chirped mode).

35

Therefore, the shorter wavelength (blue) is reflected at a point farther into the device than the
longer wavelength (red) as shown in fig.4.2, this wavelength-dependent time delay can be
used to compensate for dispersion.

4.4 Dispersion Compensation using Optical Phase Conjugation


OPC can be employed to compensate for chromatic dispersion as well as the Kerr-effect. OPC
is methods to simplify the transmission system and improve its robustness towards nonlinear
impairments. There are two ways in which we can place OPC in Transmission link.

4.4.1 Inline Optical Phase Conjugation

Fig.4.3 Inline Optical Phase Conjugation


An inline OPC link is created by adding an OPC module to a conventional transmission link.
In such a link, dispersion compensation is realized by DCF modules and the OPC unit is used
solely for the compensation of nonlinear impairments. The key advantage of inline OPC is
that the

dispersion map of

the

transmission link can be

optimized for the

compensation of nonlinear impairments in combination with OPC. The block diagram of


inline-OPC is shown in figure above [22].
OPC can be employed in a conventional link for the compensation of nonlinear impairments. This
configuration is referred to as inline-OPC. In such a transmission link, DCF modules are used to
compensate for the chromatic dispersion and an OPC is placed in the transmission line to conjugate
the signal and thereby invert the distortions in the phase, caused by nonlinear impairments. As
a result, phase distortions before conjugation that occur through the Kerr-effect are undone by
phase distortions after conjugation.

4.4.2 Mid-link optical phase conjugation

Fig.4.4 Mid link Optical Phase Conjugation


36

In a mid-link OPC transmission link, the phase of the signals is conjugated mid-link. At
that point, the signal is severely distorted by chromatic dispersion and nonlinear impairments.
As a result, the distortions that occur in the second part of the link after the OPC,
revert the impairments that were accumulated in the first part. Full compensation for
nonlinear impairments occurs when the nonlinear effects before and after OPC are identical.
The use of mid-link OPC is twofold. Firstly, mid-link OPC can compensate for impairments
caused by the Kerr-effect. The Kerr effect causes a change in the refractive index of the
transmission fiber in response to an electric field. In fiber-optic transmission systems, the
Kerr effect leads to distortions in the phase of the signals and can significantly reduce the
system performance. Through the compensation for Kerr-effect, the feasible transmission
distance is significantly extended and the amount of required OEO repeaters reduced.
Secondly, OPC can be used to compensate for chromatic dispersion. In such a link, no inline
DCF modules are required. The omission of DCFs translates into reduced losses per span,
which enables the use of single stage amplifiers instead of two stage amplifiers required in
DCF-based transmission systems. As a result, mid-link OPC enables a simplified and cost
efficient amplifier design. The block diagram of mid-link OPC is shown in figure below.
A more cost-effective solution is to use mid-link OPC. In this configuration OPC is used for
both chromatic dispersion compensation and compensation of the Kerr-effect. Hence no inline
DCF modules are used in this configuration. Instead the dispersion accumulates along the
transmission line and is compensated for by placing an OPC mid-link.
Since the dispersion accumulates linearly along the fiber-optic transmission link, OPC must
be placed exactly in the middle of link to obtain full dispersion compensation. This way the
distortion that occurred in the first part of the transmission link before the OPC is cancelled
by distortions that occur in the second part of the link after the OPC. It should be mentioned
that it is not always possible to place OPC exactly in middle of fiber transmission link.
Therefore an extra DCF module can be employed to obtain full chromatic dispersion
compensation.
The propagation of a signal in a nonlinear, dispersive and lossy medium can be expressed by
the nonlinear Schrodinger equation assuming a slowly varying envelope approximation [23]

37

| |

(4.2)

where A represents the complex amplitude of the signal, z the propagation distance in km,
the attenuation coefficient in neper per kilometer, the nonlinearity coefficient (Kerr effect)
in 1/(Wkm), and T = t z/vg the time measured in a retarded frame. 2 in ps2/nm and 3 in
ps3/nm are terms for the group velocity dispersion (GVD) and dispersion slope, respectively.
Its complex conjugate can be expressed as [23]

(4.3)

Where * denotes the complex-conjugate operation. Note that in this equation the signal
evolution over the fiber after conjugation is still denoted by A. In this expression, it can be
seen that the sign of the chromatic dispersion term (2) and the Kerr effect term () are both
inverted. The chirp induced through GVD increases linear along the transmission link. Since
the sign of the GVD term is inverted by OPC, the GVD induced chirp that occurs after OPC
cancels the GVD induced chirp before OPC. Thus, in a transmission link with the same fiber
before and after OPC, full GVD compensation is obtained by placing the OPC mid-link.

4.5 Dispersion Compensation using electrical compensation


Technique
It is an attractive method to compensate dispersion at electrical part of receiver (or
transmitter). It is a simple technique that doesnt need any changes in optical transmitting or
receiving and also doesnt have considerable loss. Any network changes or adding new
devices in the network can be done easily because of adaptive capability of electrical
compensator. There are several techniques for Electrical equalizer, such as: Feed Forward
Equalizer (FFE), Feed Forward-Decision Feed Back Equalizer (FFE-DFE), Non Linear Feed
Forward- Decision Feedback Equalizer (NL-FFE-DFE) and Maximum Likelihood Sequence
Estimator (MLSE). In this method we need to add an electrical compensator and low pass
filter after photo detector. Also an electrical limiter is added exactly before our electrical
compensator.
The electrical compensation techniques have following advantages over optical dispersion
compensators [24]:
Reduction of first-installed cost by elimination of optical compensators and Supporting
amplifiers.

38

Simplification of deployment and reconfiguration as each channel discovers and


optimizes its own dispersion.
Reduction of linear channel impairments caused by optical filters.
The block diagram of dispersion compensation using electrical equalizer is shown in figure
below.
Signal
Generation

Optical
Trasmitter

Transmission
Link

Optical
Reciver

EDC

Fig.4.5 Block diagram of dispersion compensation using EDC


The detail explanation of above mentioned equalizers is as below.

4.5.1 Feed Forward Equalizer

Fig.4.6 Block diagram of feed forward equalizer


This type of equalizer is simplest form of the equalizer. In this equalizer, current and past
values of received signal are linearly weighted by filter coefficients and summed to produce
the output as shown in fig. 4.6 [25]. If the delays and tap gains are analog in nature, the
continuous output of equalizer is sampled at the symbol rate and the samples are applied to
decision device. The implementation is, however carried out in digital domain where the
samples are stored in shift register. The output of this equalizer before decision making is

d k

N2

n N1

*
n

39

y k n

(4.4)

Where C*n represents complex filter coefficients or tap weights, d k is the output of equalizer
and yi is the input received signal.

4.5.2 Decision Feedback equalizer

Fig. 4.7 Block diagram of FFE-DFE equalizer


The basic idea behind Decision feedback equalization is that once information symbols has
been detected and decided upon, the ISI that induced on the future symbols can be estimated
and subtracted out before detection of the subsequent symbols. The Direct form of the DFE is
shown in fig.4.7 [25]. It consists of feed forward (FFE) filter and feedback filter (FBE). The
FBF is driven by the decisions on the output of the detector, and its coefficients can be
adjusted to cancel the ISI on the current symbols from the past detected symbols. The output
of this equalizer before decision making is

d k

N2

N3

n N1

i 1

C*n y k n Fi d k i
40

(4.5)

Where C*n represents complex filter coefficients or tap weights, d k is the output of equalizer
and yn is the input received signal. Fi is the tap gain for feedback filter and di is the previous
decision made on detected signal.

4.5.3 Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimator (MLSE)

Fig. 4.8 Block diagram of MLSE equalizer


The block diagram of MLSE receiver based on DFE is shown in fig.4.8 [25] below. MLSE is
optimum in the sense that it minimizes the probability of sequence error. An optimum
receiver for a nonlinear channel consists of a matched filter with symbol rate sampling,
followed by Viterbi algorithm minimizing the error probability through selecting the most
probable sequence (MLSE). The matched filter, which is too complex to be implemented for
high-speed optical receiver, is generally replaced with a low pass filter with successive
oversampling. MLSE tests all possible data sequences (rather than decoding each received
symbol by itself), and chooses the data sequence with the maximum probability as the output.
MLSE requires the knowledge of channel characteristics in order to compute the metrics for
making decisions. MLSE also requires knowledge of the statistical distribution of the noise
corrupting the signal [25].

41

Chapter 5

Simulation Setup and Results Discussion


5.1 Review results and Discussion
5.1.1 Reference paper-1
Title: NRZ versus RZ in 1040-Gb/s Dispersion-Managed WDM Transmission Systems,
by M. I. Hayee, Member, IEEE and A. E. Willner, Senior Member, IEEE, IEEE
PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 11, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999.

42

Simulation setup:

Fig. 5.1 Simulation setup for reference paper 1


TABLE 5.1 SIMULATION PARAMETERS FOR 5.1.1
Sr.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Parameter
Data rate
Wavelength
Power
Modulation formats
No. of iterations
Frequency spacing
No. of channels

Attenuation
Dispersion
Dispersion slope
Differential group delay
Aeff
N2
Raman contribution

Attenuation
Dispersion

Value
10, 20 and 40 GBPS per channel
192.3 to 193.8 THz
0.1 to 1 mW
NRZ and RZ
20 x 50 km for and 10 and 20 Gbps, 6 x 50 km for 40 Gbps
100 GHz for 10 and 20 Gbps, 200 GHz 40 Gbps
16
SMF
0.2 dB/km
17 ps/nm/km
0.075 ps/nm^2/k
0.2 ps/km
70
^2
26E-21 m^2/W
0.18
DCF
0.5 dB/km
-0.85 ps/nm/km

43

10

Dispersion slope
Differential group delay
Aeff
N2
Raman contribution
Multiplexer

11

De-multiplexer

12

EDFA

13

Cut off frequency for


Low pass Gaussian filter

-3 ps/nm^2/k
0.2 ps/km
22
^2
26E-21 m^2/W
0.18
Idle
Bandwidth: 4 * Bit rate
Depth: 100 dB
Filter type: Bessel
Order: 6
SMF: Gain=10 dB
NF=6 dB
DCF: Gain=5 dB
NF= 6 dB
90 GHz

Results:
TABLE 5.2 FOR NRZ AT 16 X10 GBPS DATA R ATE
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

With nonlinearity
P avg.
EYE Height
126
59.3
235
131.7
350
224.2
470
273.1
550
320.2
680
360
760
462.8
860
443.7
1020
494.2
1100
525.8

ECP
3.273159
2.514821
1.934324
2.357762
2.349414
2.762064
2.154202
2.87409
3.146974
3.205721

Without nonlinearity
P avg. EYE Height
ECP
134
61.2
3.403534
245
146
2.248132
350
233.7
1.754093
460
323
1.535553
570
413.2
1.397145
670
504.2
1.23472
780
595.7
1.17067
880
687.5
1.0721
980
779.8
0.992428
1100
872.3
1.007268

TABLE 5.3 FOR RZ A T 16X10 GBPS D ATA R ATE


Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

With nonlinearity
P avg.
EYE Height
108
34
200
105.7
285
173.1
390
219.6
460
293.2
550
371.1
610
428.5
680
492.3
760
573.9
820
619

ECP
5.019448
2.76955
2.165478
2.494323
1.955939
1.708717
1.53379
1.402791
1.219774
1.221232

44

P avg.
118
205
290
375
460
545
630
710
800
880

Without nonlinearity
EYE Height
ECP
39
4.808174
103
2.989166
170.5
2.306736
239.9
1.94001
310.5
1.706962
382
1.543331
454
1.422847
526.6
1.297775
600
1.249387
673
1.164676

NRZ with N.L


NRZ without N.L

RZ without N.L
ECP(dB)

RZ with N.L.

3
2
1
0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Input Optical Power(mW)

Fig. 5.2 ECP for NRZ, RZ with and without Non-Linearity at 10 Gbps
TABLE 5.4 FOR NRZ AT 16 X20 GBPS DATA R ATE
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

With nonlinearity
P avg.
EYE Height
165
23.9
285
91.2
400
163.6
510
238.6
620
315.2
730
392.8
840
471.2
940
550.2
1050
629.6
1160
709.4

ECP
8.39086
4.9485
3.882767
3.298997
2.938055
2.691514
2.51074
2.326073
2.221246
2.135668

Without nonlinearity
P avg. EYE Height
ECP
140
39.5 5.495309
265
103.2 4.095662
390
160 3.869446
515
212.5 3.844483
575
304.7 2.757954
655
369 2.492149
820
411.7 2.99233
1040
418.1 3.957532
1070
479.1 3.489576
1070
525.8 3.085632

TABLE 5.5 FOR RZ A T 16X20 GBPS D ATA R ATE


Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

With nonlinearity
P avg.
EYE Height
160
10
260
41.9
350
95.4
440
152
530
210.7
620
270.8
690
331.9
785
393.9
870
456.5
960
519.7

ECP
12.0412
7.927593
5.645197
4.616091
4.006113
3.59743
3.178418
2.994837
2.800785
2.665185

45

Without nonlinearity
P avg. EYE Height
ECP
139
8.3
12.23937
210
66
5.026754
300
109.4
4.381039
410
157.9
4.144017
450
224.2
3.025769
560
304.3
2.648861
640
350.4
2.616159
800
366.3
3.392531
850
437.1
2.888381
860
530
2.102226

14

RZ with N.L.

12

NRZ with N.L.


NRZ without N.L.

ECP(dB)

10

RZ without N.L.

8
6
4
2
0
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Input Optical Power(mW)

Fig. 5.3 ECP for NRZ, RZ with and without Non-Linearity at 20 Gbps
TABLE 5.6 FOR NRZ AT 16 X40 GBPS DATA R ATE
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

With nonlinearity
P avg.
EYE Height
160
46.5
290
118.5
405
198
520
279.1
610
363.9
740
413.2
840
473.7
950
522.9
1075
553.8
1200
613.1

ECP
5.36667
3.886796
3.107898
2.702435
2.243478
2.530714
2.487759
2.59305
2.880555
2.916499

P avg.
155
275
395
510
630
740
860
980
1100
1210

Without nonlinearity
EYE Height
ECP
47.1
5.173108
121
3.565473
198
2.999319
276.6
2.65718
356.1
2.477686
436.3
2.294465
517.1
2.209239
598.2
2.143797
679.6
2.091393
761.4
2.011725

TABLE 5.7 FOR RZ A T 16X40 GBPS D ATA R ATE


Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

With nonlinearity
P avg.
EYE Height
98
1.1
165
27.2
220
56.7
280
91.3
330
128.3
375
174
420
216.6
480
259.8
530
300
600
342.7

ECP
19.49833
7.82915
5.888396
4.866873
4.102873
3.33482
2.875908
2.666021
2.471546
2.432371

46

Without nonlinearity
P avg. EYE Height
ECP
97
3.25
14.74888
165
32.9
7.00288
225
66.3
5.30669
285
101.4
4.488069
345
137.6
3.992007
400
174.4
3.605135
465
211.8
3.41527
520
249.6
3.187588
580
287.6
3.046391
640
326
2.929624

NRZ without N.L.

25

RZ without N.L.
20

RZ with N.L.

ECP(dB)

NRZ with N.L.


15
10
5
0
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Input Optical Power(mW)

Fig. 5.4 ECP for NRZ, RZ with and without Non-Linearity at 40 Gbps
Results Discussion:
In 10- and 20-Gb/s systems, the eye closure penalty is large for lower channel powers because
the EDFA noise is dominant [See Fig. 5.2 and 5.3]. For higher channel powers, the eye
closure penalty decreases since the signal power now overcomes the EDFA noise. However,
at the highest channel powers being considered, the eye closure penalty increases as a
function of power due to nonlinearity. The penalty due to nonlinearity is more severe in NRZ
as compared to RZ. Since RZ performs better than NRZ in both 10 and 20 Gb/s systems, we
can conclude that RZ is less affected by nonlinearity than is NRZ. This is because: 1) isolated
RZ pulses take advantage of Soliton-like pulse compression in SMF, whereas the variable
number of adjacent 1s in NRZ are non uniformly degraded by nonlinearity, thereby
causing the rail of 1s to spread and 2) long strings of 1s in NRZ as compared to RZ have
a much longer cross-wavelength interaction time, thereby producing more severe penalty
from nonlinearity.
In a 40-Gb/s system [see Fig. 5.4], the narrower RZ pulses are more susceptible to dispersion;
note that dispersion-based penalties grow inversely as the square of the pulse width.
Moreover, the required larger channel spacing of 1.6 nm for 40-Gb/s transmission produces
more dispersion in the end channels since the total wavelength range is increased. An
indication that RZ is more affected by dispersion can be derived from the fact that 40-Gb/s
RZ systems have a larger eye closure penalty as compared to NRZ systems for low and
moderate channel powers [Fig. 5.4]. For higher channel powers, the penalty for NRZ
increases because of nonlinearity, whereas no appreciable change in penalty is noticed for the
RZ system.

47

5.1.2 Reference paper-2


Title: Comparison between NRZ and RZ OOK Modulation Format in Chromatic Dispersion
Compensation in both Electrical and Optical Compensator, 2011 IEEE Symposium on
Business, Engineering and Industrial Applications (ISBEIA), Langkawi, Malaysia.
Simulation Setup:

Fig. 5.5 Simulation setup for reference paper 2

TABLE 5.8 SIMULATION PARAMETERS FOR 5.1.2


Sr.
1
2

Parameter
Data rate
Modulation format

Duty cycle

4
5

Wavelength
Power

Value
10 GBPS
NRZ and RZ
0.5 bit for RZ
0.67 bit for RZ
1550 nm
0 dBm
SMF

Attenuation
Dispersion
Dispersion slope
PMD
Aeff
N2
Length

0.2 dB/km
16 ps/nm/km
0.016 ps/nm^2/k
0
70
^2
26E-21 m^2/W
70 to 160 km
DCF

Attenuation
Dispersion
Dispersion slope
PMD

0.6 dB/km
-90 ps/nm/km
-0.075 ps/nm^2/k
0

48

8
9

Aeff
N2
Length
EDFA
GAIN
GAIN
Cut off frequency for Low pass Gaussian filter

22
^2
26E-21 m^2/W
12.4 to 28.4 km
NF: 4 dB
15 dB for different length of SMF FOR 1 span
Variable as a function of length of DCF for 1 span
0.75*Bit rate

Results:
This paper compares the efficiency of on-off Keying (OOK) modulation formats non-returnto-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ) in optical chromatic dispersion compensation using
DCF. I got the following result.
TABLE 5.9 RESULTS FOR DIFFERENT LENGTH OF SMF
NRZ
BER-NRZ
1.40E-22
6.30E-22
1.30E-21
3.00E-22
7.50E-22
8.00E-21
7.80E-19
2.60E-16
1.50E-12
1.00E-08

Length of
SMF(km)
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160

RZ 0.5
BER-RZ 0.5
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
2.50E-247
2.40E-109
2.40E-47
1.10E-20
1.90E-09

RZ 0.67
BER-RZ 0.67
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
0.00E+00
4.80E-271
1.40E-120
2.40E-52
2.60E-22
6.30E-10

0
-5

70

80

90

100 110 120 130 140 150 160

-10
log10(BER)

-15
-20

NRZ

-25

RZ 0.5

-30

RZ 0.67

-35
-40
-45

Length of SMF (km)

Fig. 5.6 CD Compensation with variable length of DCF

49

Results Discussion:
Optical compensation as we observe in the Fig. 5.6, NRZ gives acceptable quality to the
system and keeps the quality along the whole distance until 160 km which the signal quality
crosses the minimum acceptable line and we cannot achieve this distance. But if we use RZ
(0.67) modulation form, from 70 km until 140 km, we can get excellent signal quality at
receiver which can be considered as error free. After 140 km, the quality of signal is going to
be drops hugely. Since with DCF we should get rather zero dispersion, the reason for this
descent could be of decrement of Signal to Noise ratio that after this distance, the attenuation
of SSMF has caused this problem. On the other hand if we use RZ 0.5 we can attain same
result with RZ 0.67 with a slight difference.

5.1.3 Reference paper-3


Title: Comparison of pre-, post- and symmetrical-dispersion compensation schemes for 10
Gb/s NRZ links using standard and dispersion compensated fibers, Elsevier Optics
Communications 209 (2002) 107123.
Simulation setup:

Fig. 5.7 Simulation setup for reference paper 3

50

TABLE 5.10 SIMULATION P ARAMETERS FOR 5.1.3


Sr.
1
2
3

Parameter
Data rate
Wavelength
Modulation formats

Value
10 GBPS
1550 nm
NRZ
SMF

Attenuation
Dispersion
Dispersion slope
Aeff
N2
PMD

0.2 dB/km
16 ps/nm/km
0.016 ps/nm^2/k
88
^2
26E-21 m^2/W
0.1 ps/
DCF

6
7

Attenuation
Dispersion
Dispersion slope
Aeff
N2
PMD
EDFA
Cut off frequency for Low pass Gaussian filter

0.6 dB/km
-80 ps/nm/km
-0.075 ps/nm^2/k
59
^2
26E-21 m^2/W
0.1 ps/
Work as a power control device
0.75*Bit rate

Note: The values of Non linear co-efficient is given in the paper as following:
= 1.2

for SMF

= 1.8

for DCF

And from

= 88

for SMF

= 59

for DCF

Results:
In this paper, they investigate pre-, post- and symmetrical-dispersion compensation methods
for 10 Gb/s non-return to zero (NRZ) links using standard and dispersion compensated fibers
through computer simulations to optimize high data rate optical transmission. The influence
of EDFA power and increase in length of each type of fiber has been studied to evaluate the
performance of optical communication systems. Further, it has also been observed that system
needs proper matching between the EDFA power and length of the fiber for optimum
performance. Also, they increase simultaneously the lengths of dispersion compensated fibers

51

and standard single mode fibers in the original setups for pre-, post- and symmetrical
compensation methods for five different cases as shown in following Tables.
TABLE 5.11 RESULTS FOR DIFFERENT POWER LEVEL
POWER(dBm)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12

BER-Post
1.70E-50
1.40E-95
3.90E-144
1.80E-127
4.30E-60
2.00E-21
1.20E-07

BER-Pre
5.00E-59
1.70E-116
3.80E-153
5.10E-105
3.00E-44
3.00E-14
4.80E-04

BER-Symmetrical
1.30E-43
2.20E-70
3.00E-103
1.40E-128
1.90E-120
1.60E-78
3.00E-37

0
-5

10

12

-10

BER-Post

log10(BER)

-15

BER-Pre

-20

BER-Symmetrical

-25
-30
-35
-40
-45

Input Optical Power (dBm)

Fig. 5.8 Bit error rate vs. fixed output power of EDFA for pre-, post- and symmetrical
compensation methods

TABLE 5.12 DIFFERENT CASES FOR VARIATION OF EDFA POWERS AND LENGTHS FOR DCF
AND

CASE
1
2
3
4
5

SMF LENGTH

BER-Post
3.00E-298
4.00E-110
5.70E-82
7.30E-33
2.20E-09

BER-Pre
0
7.00E-96
4.00E-52
2.60E-27
5.30E-05

52

BER-Symmetrical
0
0
0
1.00E-155
2.00E-20

For the following Case


TABLE 5.13 DIFFERENT CASES FOR T ABLE 5.12
CASE
1
2
3
4
5

EDFA Power(dBm)
0
3
6
9
12

Length of DCF (km)


6
12
18
24
30

Length of SMF (km)


30
60
90
120
150

0
1

-5

log10(BER)

-10
-15
-20

BER-Post

-25

BER-Pre

-30

BER-Symmetrical

-35
-40
-45

CASE #

Fig. 5.9 Bit error rate for different cases indicated in Table 5.12 for pre-, post- and
symmetrical compensation methods
TABLE 5.14 DIFFERENT CASES FOR VARIATION OF LENGTHS FOR DCF AND SMF
CASE
1
2
3
4
5

BER-Post
4.50E-51
1.00E-30
1.20E-14
4.00E-10
3.60E-04

BER-Pre
1.00E-53
5.30E-27
3.30E-11
5.80E-07
4.10E-02

BER-Symmetrical
1.20E-102
3.60E-68
1.80E-42
1.90E-20
6.10E-15

For the following Case


TABLE 5.15 DIFFERENT CASES FOR 5.14
CASE
1
2
3
4
5

Length of DCF (km)


6
12
18
24
30

53

Length of SMF (km)


30
60
90
120
150

0
-5

log10(BER)

-10
-15
-20

BER-Post

-25

BER-Pre

-30

BER-Symmetrical

-35
-40
-45

CASE #

Fig. 5.10 Bit error rate for different cases indicated in Table 5.14 for pre-, post- and
symmetrical compensation methods
Results Discussion:
From the simulation results, it is found that as the EDFA power increases, the bit error rate
increases. The symmetrical compensation has the best performance followed by post- and precompensation. Also, the influence of transmission distance on the three compensation
methods has been discussed by simultaneously increasing the lengths of fibers and keeping
the EDFA power constant. As the lengths of the fibers are increased, the bit error rate
increases. The bit error rate for symmetrical compensation method is again minimum but for
pre- and post-compensation methods, the situation is not so good. For acceptable bit error rate
of 10^-12 , the maximum transmission distance for post-compensation is up to 288 km
whereas it is approximately up to 216 km for pre compensation method for this simulation.
Further, on varying the EDFA power and lengths of the fibers simultaneously, it is found that
there is need of optimization between these two parameters. If the EDFA power is small, the
length of the fiber should be small and if it is not so, the situation will deteriorate on account
of more nonlinear effects. For less EDFA power over larger length of the fiber, the situation
will be worse as predicted. This reflects the need of optimization and there should not be any
mismatch between the EDFA power and length of the fiber.

54

5.1.4 Reference paper-4


Title: Analysis on Dispersion Compensation with DCF based on Optisystem, 2010 2nd
International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems.
Simulation Setup:

Fig. 5.11 Simulation setup for reference paper 4


TABLE 5.16 SIMULATION P ARAMETERS FOR 5.1.4
Sr.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Parameter
Data rate
Wavelength
Power
Modulation formats
No. of iterations
Frequency spacing
No. of channels

Value
40 GBPS per channel
1550 to 1555.6 nm
0 to 12 dBm
CSRZ
2 x 80 km
100 GHz
8
SMF

Attenuation
Dispersion
Dispersion slope
Differential group delay
Aeff
N2
Raman contribution

0.22 dB/km
17 ps/nm/km
0.016 ps/nm^2/k
0.2 ps/km
80
^2
30E-21 m^2/W
0.18
DCF

Attenuation
Dispersion
Dispersion slope

0.55 dB/km
-0.8 ps/nm/km
-0.076 ps/nm^2/k

55

Differential group delay


Aeff
N2
Raman contribution
10

8 x 1 Multiplexer

11

De-multiplexer

12

EDFA

13

Cut off frequency for Low pass Gaussian filter

0.2 ps/km
20
^2
25E-21 m^2/W
0.18
Bandwidth: 75 GHz
Depth: 100 dB
Filter type: Gaussian
Order:
2
Bandwidth: 75 GHz
Depth: 100 dB
Filter type: Gaussian
Order: 2
SMF: Gain=17.6 dB
NF=5 dB
DCF: Gain=4.675 dB
NF= 5 dB
90 GHz

Results:
TABLE 5.17 R ESULTS OF TRANSMISSION INFLUENCE OF THREE COMPENSATION SYSTEM
POWER(dBm)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Q post
15.2
16.7
17.9
19.1
19.6
20.1
19.5
18.9
17.8
16.5
15.2
13.8
11.4

Q pre
12.1
14.1
15.6
18.1
19.5
20.7
21.6
20.1
18.7
16.7
14.2
11.4
9.1

56

Q symmetrical
14.9
15.9
17.8
19.9
19.6
20.1
20.3
22.1
25.7
26.1
22.5
20.1
16.6

30

Q value

25
20
15

Q post

10

Q pre
Q symmetrical

5
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Power (dBm)

Fig. 5.12 Comparison of transmission influence of three compensation system


Results Discussion:
On the basis of compared and analyzed the three system simulation results conclusions
are as the followings. Using DCF for dispersion compensation in 40Gb/s WDM system is
an effective solution. The attenuation of DCF fiber is not null. Thus, the attenuation of
DCF fiber will produce impairment to the signal quality as well as that of SMF. As the
previous discusses, the influence of attenuation can be compensated with optical fiber
amplifier such as EDF A. Mix-compensation scheme can greatly reduce the fiber
nonlinear effects, this program better than the pre-compensation and post compensation
program. For this compensation scheme, the effect of laser average power is just
contrary to the previous situations. A moderate bigger value of laser average power is
favorable to the performance of the transmission system the input fiber power is taken
as 9-10dB, the corresponding BER performance is better.

57

5.2 Simulation Setup and Results Discussion


5.2.1 Simulation setup for the single channel optical link
5.2.1.1 Dispersion compensation using DCF
Simulation Setup

Fig. 5.13 Simulation setup 4


TABLE 5.18 S IMULATION PARAMETERS FOR 5.2.1.1
Sr.
1
2
3
4

Parameter
Data rate
Wavelength
Modulation formats
Compensation scheme

Span

Optical Input power

Attenuation
Dispersion
Dispersion slope
Aeff
N2

Value
10, 20 and 40 GBPS
1550 nm
NRZ and RZ
Pre, Post and Symmetrical
SMF: 10 x 50 km for 10, 20 Gbps
5 x 50 for 40 Gbps
DCF: 10 x 10.625 km for 10, 20 Gbps
5 x 10.625 km for 40 Gbps
-7 to +5 dBm
SMF
0.22 dB/km
17 ps/nm/km
0.016 ps/nm^2/k
80
^2
30E-21 m^2/W
DCF

Attenuation
Dispersion
Dispersion slope
Aeff
N2

EDFA

0.55 dB/km
-0.80 ps/nm/km
-0.076 ps/nm^2/k
20
^2
25E-21 m^2/W
SMF: Gain=11 dB
NF=4 dB
DCF: Gain=5.844 dB

58

NF= 4 dB
9

Cut off frequency for Low pass Gaussian


filter

0.7*Bit rate

Results:
TABLE 5.19 R ESULTS FOR NRZ AT 10 GBPS SINGLE LINK

POWER(dBm)
-7
-5
-3
-1
1
3
5
7

Q
12
15.5
18.7
19.5
16.6
11.8
8.2
5.8

10GBPS @500km
POST
PRE
ECP
Q
ECP
5.452989 11.8
5.62132
4.86949
15
4.958953
4.529402 17.6 4.669004
4.489772 17.5 4.720061
4.808672 13.4 5.026754
5.13772
8.1
6.23921
5.876795
4.3
9.988847
7.302841
2
#NUM!

SYMMETRICAL
Q
ECP
14.2
5.146062
18.8
4.633121
24.1
4.176623
29.3
3.976988
35.3
3.751686
42.2
3.815478
30.6
4.266126
9.4
6.306046

TABLE 5.20 R ESULTS FOR RZ AT 10 GBPS SINGLE LINK

POWER(dBm)
-7
-5
-3
-1
1
3
5
7

Q
10.3
13.7
17.9
22.7
28
33.2
36.7
30.4

10GBPS @500km
POST
PRE
ECP
Q
ECP
5.701708 10.3
5.8039
4.957265 13.5 5.001356
4.374485 17.4 4.546139
4.048765 21.9 4.145393
3.864602 27.2
3.88818
3.553877 33.6 3.700173
3.645522 42.3 3.525754
3.690639 50.2 3.448907

(a)

59

SYMMETRICAL
Q
ECP
12
5.44068
15.8
4.806378
20.4
4.272294
25.6
3.994719
31.1
3.859884
36.4
3.717571
44.2
3.539959
61.5
3.608306

(b)

(c)
Fig. 5.14 ECP and Q factor of the single channel versus average-power for NRZ and RZ
systems at 10 Gbps (a) Per (b) Post (c) Symmetrical compensation scheme
TABLE 5.21 R ESULTS FOR NRZ AT 20 GBPS SINGLE LINK

POWER(dBm)
-7
-5
-3
-1
1
3
5
7

Q
9.5
12
13.9
13.3
8.7
4.5
2.2
1.2

20GBPS @500km
POST
PRE
ECP
Q
ECP
5.956732
9.7
5.888985
5.372369 12.8 5.097457
4.957265 16.1 4.636188
5.277782
18
4.607845
6.46212
14.7 5.121065
10.09606
7.6
6.571289
#NUM!
2.6
#NUM!
5.260488
0
#NUM!

60

SYMMETRICAL
Q
ECP
8.7
6.114909
11.5
5.320221
14.9
4.727999
18.7
4.355141
22.5
4.119257
19.3
4.281618
8.6
5.791971
3.1
20.25285

TABLE 5.22 R ESULTS FOR RZ AT 20 GBPS SINGLE LINK

POWER(dBm)
-7
-5
-3
-1
1
3
5
7

Q
6.5
8.8
11.8
15.6
19.7
21.7
18.5
13.2

20GBPS @500km
POST
PRE
ECP
Q
ECP
7.518223
8.4
6.584365
6.276141 11.2 5.570928
5.428171 14.8 4.929155
4.774034 18.8 4.476278
4.37758
22.6 4.162549
4.161088 23.6 4.124494
4.356605 18.9 4.248977
4.831694 12.7 5.052272

(a)

(b)

61

SYMMETRICAL
Q
ECP
7.4
6.819367
9.8
5.789947
12.8
5.055046
16.9
4.5176
21.9
4.232081
28.4
3.88732
34.6
3.678428
31.9
3.658107

(c)
Fig. 5.15 ECP and Q factor of the single channel versus average-power for NRZ and RZ
systems at 20 Gbps (a) Per (b) Post (c) Symmetrical compensation scheme
TABLE 5.23 R ESULTS FOR NRZ AT 40 GBPS SINGLE LINK

POWER(dBm)
-7
-5
-3
-1
1
3
5

Q
9.1
11.5
13.8
14.7
12.3
8.4
4.9

40GBPS @250km
POST
PRE
ECP
Q
ECP
6.0206
9.5
6.298891
5.38673
12.3 5.477023
4.929155 15.4 4.881166
4.813518 17.3 4.592447
5.077354 16.1 4.740918
5.934598 12.3
5.0289
8.622486
8.2
6.257824

SYMMETRICAL
Q
ECP
9.4
5.856696
12.1
5.173463
15.1
4.760369
17.7
4.465919
17.4
4.621809
13
4.87246
7.6
6.076451

TABLE 5.24 R ESULTS FOR RZ AT 40 G BPS IN SINGLE LINK

POWER(dBm)
-7
-5
-3
-1
1
3
5

Q
8.2
10.7
13.6
16.7
19.4
19.2
15.9

40GBPS @250km
POST
PRE
ECP
Q
ECP
6.306155
8
6.276141
5.413622 10.5 5.371192
4.81212
13.7 4.789733
4.476278 17.3 4.329571
4.314948 21.3 4.064119
4.243632 23.8 3.881518
4.504049 22.8
3.93539

62

SYMMETRICAL
Q
ECP
7.6
6.320232
10
5.409968
13
4.817662
16.5
4.475151
20.4
4.142372
24
3.976299
23.7
4.034029

(a)

(b)

(C)
Fig. 5.16 ECP and Q factor of the single channel versus average-power for NRZ and RZ
systems at 40 Gbps (a) Per (b) Post (c) Symmetrical compensation scheme

63

5.2.1.2 Performance comparison between DCF and DCF + Equalizer for Dispersion
Compensation
Simulation setup:

Fig. 5.17 Simulation setup for 5.2.1.2


Parameters: Same as TABLE 5.18
Data rate:

10 GBPS

No. of Span: 25 x 50 km =1250 km for SMF and 25 x 10 km for DCF


Results (EYE Diagram):
1. Using DCF for 1250 km at 0 dBm Power level

(a)

64

2. Using DCF + Equalizer for 1250 km at 0 dBm power level

(b)

Fig. 5.18 Eye diagram for single channel (10 Gbps) using (a) DCF (b) DCF +
Equalizer at 1250 km at 0 dBm
TABLE 5.25 P ERFORMANCE C OMPARISON FOR DCF AND DCF + EQUALIZER IN SINGLE
LINK

Sr. No.
1
2

Compensation Scheme
DCF
DCF + Equalizer

BER
1.1 E -12
0

5.2.1.3 Dispersion compensation using coherent detection with DCF


Simulation setup:

Fig. 5.19 Simulation setup for 5.2.1.3

65

Q
7
140.5

Parameters: Same as TABLE 5.18


Data rate:

10 GBPS

No. of Span:

10 x 50 km =500 km for SMF and 10 x 10 km=100 km for DCF

Results:
TABLE 5.26 R ESULTS FOR COHERENT AND DIRECT DETECTION AT 10 GBPS
NRZ
Coherent
BER
3.80E-34
2.60E-56
4.40E-87
4.50E-135
7.50E-152
5.30E-73
6.70E-26
4.00E-03
1
1

-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
1
2
3
4

Q
coherent
12.1
15.8
19.7
24.7
26.2
18
10.5
2.61
0
0

Q value

NRZ

-20

Direct
BER
4.00E-13
2.80E-23
6.10E-37
4.80E-64
1.30E-114
1.60E-181
1.70E-208
2.80E-189
2.70E-128
4.10E-54

Coherent
Q
direct
7.1
9.9
12.6
16.8
22.7
28.7
30.78
29.3
24
15.4

BER
1.90E-24
6.00E-39
7.60E-64
2.80E-92
2.30E-123
3.70E-111
2.10E-68
3.90E-29
9.30E-06
1

Qcoherent

Direct

Q
coherent
10.1
13
16.8
20.3
23.6
22.4
17.4
11.1
4.3
0

RZ

Qdirect

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-10
10
-5 0
Input optical Power(dBm)

BER
9.00E-12
1.60E-19
1.20E-32
4.00E-58
1.80E-93
1.40E-152
5.30E-196
7.00E-248
2.60E-281
8.20E-290

Qcoherent
Qdirect

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Q value

Power(dBm)

RZ

-20

-10

10

Input optical Power(dBm)

(a)

(b)

Fig. 5.20 Power vs. Q value for single link (10 Gbps) using coherent and direct detection
(a) NRZ (b) RZ

66

Q
direct
6.7
8.9
11.8
16
20.5
26.3
30
33.6
35.8
36.4

5.2.1.4 Performance Comparison of Single link using different types of fiber for 40 Gbps
Data rate for NRZ and RZ
Parameters: Same as TABLE 5.18
Data rate:

40 GBPS

No. of Span:

5 x 50 km =500 km for SMF and 5 x 10 = 50 km for DCF

TABLE 5.27 PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF ALL KINDS OF FIBER [42]

Results:
TABLE 5.28 Q VALUES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FIBERS FOR NRZ AND RZ
40 GBPS Link @ 250 km
NRZ
POWER (dBm)
-7
-5
-3
-1
1
3
5

Q
SSMF
8.6
11.3
14.1
14.9
11.3
5.9
2.4

Q
TW
8.8
11.5
14.7
18.4
21.5
23.2
23

RZ

Q
TW-RS
8.8
11.5
14.8
18.7
22.2
23.5
21.5

67

Q
LEAF
8.6
11.3
14.7
18.9
23.2
26.5
27.2

Q
SSMF
7.2
9.6
12.5
16.1
20.2
22.1
17.3

Q
TW
7
9.2
12.1
15.8
20.8
27.5
37

Q
TW-RS
7.5
9.8
12.7
16.2
20.1
24.1
25.9

Q
LEAF
7.3
9.6
12.6
16.1
20.5
25.9
32.6

SSMF
TW
TW-RS
LEAF

NRZ
30

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

25
20

Q value

Q value

SSMF
TW
TW-RS
LEAF

RZ

15
10
5
0
-7

-5

-3

-1

-7 -5 -3 -1 1

Power (dBm)

Power (dBm)

(a)

(b)

Fig. 5.21 Power vs. Q value for single link (40 Gbps) using different fibers
Results Discussion:
From the above simulation results symmetrical compensation scheme performance is the best
than pre and post scheme. As data rate increases performance degrades and as power
increases up to certain limit performance enhance and then degrades due to non linearity as
power increase. RZ performs better comparatively NRZ for higher power level at all data
rates. I introduced many techniques like DCF and DCF+Equalizer and among these two,
DCF+Equalizer gives higher Q value at 1250 km for 10 Gbps and 0 dBm power level using
NRZ modulation. We also observed that direct detection using DCF performs better than
direct detection using DCF for NRZ and RZ at 10 Gbps data rate for lower input optical
power level. We also used different types of cable like SSMF, TW, TW-RS and LEAF and
analyzed that LEAF performs better at higher power level in NRZ modulation and TW and
LEAF performs better in RZ at 10 Gbps data rate.

68

5.2.2 Simulation setup for the 8-channel optical WDM link


5.2.2.1 8 x 40 Gbps = 320 Gbps data rate using different modulation formats
Simulation setup:

Fig. 5.22 Simulation setup for 5.2.2.1


TABLE 5.29 SIMULATION PARAMETERS FOR 5.2.2.1
Sr.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Parameter
Data rate
Wavelength
Power
Modulation formats
No. of iterations
Frequency spacing
No. of channels
Compensation scheme

Attenuation
Dispersion
Dispersion slope
Differential group delay
Aeff
N2
Raman contribution

10

Attenuation
Dispersion
Dispersion slope
Differential group delay

Value
40 GBPS per channel
192.7 to 193.4 THz
-15 to 10 dBm
NRZ, RZ 0.5, RZ 0.67, CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ
6 x 50 km
100 GHz / 200 GHz
8
Symmetrical
SMF
0.2 dB/km
17 ps/nm/km
0.075 ps/nm^2/k
0.2 ps/km
70
^2
26E-21 m^2/W
0.18
DCF
0.5 dB/km
-0.85 ps/nm/km
-3 ps/nm^2/k
0.2 ps/km

69

11

Aeff
N2
Raman contribution
Multiplexer

12

De-multiplexer

13

EDFA

14

Cut off frequency for


Low pass Gaussian filter

22
^2
26E-21 m^2/W
0.18
Idle
Bandwidth: 2 * Bit rate for NRZ
4 * Bit rate for RZ
Depth: 100 dB
Filter type: Bessel
Order: 6
SMF: Gain=10 dB per Span
NF=6 dB
DCF: Gain=5 dB per Span
NF= 6 dB
0.8 * Bit rate

Results:
TABLE 5.30 Q VALUES FOR DIFFERENT MODULATION FORMATS 200 GHZ SPACING
40GBPS System NRZ,RZ 0.5,RZ 0.67CSRZ,DRZ,MDRZ for 200GHz spacing
POWER(dBm)
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10

NRZ
Q nrz
3.8
7.2
12.6
17.8
11.8
0

RZ0.5
Q rz0.5
0
3.8
7
12.5
18.2
10.4

RZ 0.67
Q rz0.67
2.6
5.1
8.8
18.5
17.6
5.8

CSRZ
Q csrz
2.6
5.4
11
12.1
13
5.7

DRZ
Q drz
2.1
4.4
8.3
15.5
23
10

NRZ
RZ0.5
RZ 0.67
CSRZ
DRZ
MDRZ

200 GHz spacing


25
20
Q value

MDRZ
Q mdrz
0
3.9
7.8
14
20.1
16

15
10
5
0
-15

-10

-5
0
5
Input Optical Power (dBm)

10

Fig. 5.23 Power vs. Q for 8-channel (320 Gbps) using different modulation formats at 200
GHz spacing
70

TABLE 5.31 Q VALUES FOR DIFFERENT MODULATION FORMATS 100 GHZ SPACING
40GBPS System NRZ,RZ 0.5,RZ 0.67CSRZ,DRZ,MDRZ for 100GHz spacing
POWER(dBm)
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10

NRZ
Q nrz
3.5
6
8.5
10.4
8.3
0

RZ0.5
Q rz0.5
2.7
5.7
10.8
18.5
23.9
10.1

RZ 0.67
Q rz0.67
3.7
7
11.1
14.6
16.8
4.3

CSRZ
Q csrz
3.8
7.5
13.8
22.3
22.7
4.9

DRZ
Q drz
3.1
6
11.6
19.9
19.8
9.3

MDRZ
Q mdrz
2
4.1
7.5
14.4
23
16.2

NRZ
RZ0.5
RZ 0.67
CSRZ
DRZ
MDRZ

100 GHz spacing


30
25
Q value

20
15
10
5
0
-15

-10

-5

10

Input Optical Power (dBm)

Fig. 5.24 Power vs. Q for 8-channel (320 Gbps) using different modulation formats at 100
GHz spacing

71

5.2.2.2 Performance comparison between DCF (direct detection), DCF + Equalizer and
DCF (coherent detection) for 8-channel WDM Link
Simulation Setup:

Fig. 5.25 Simulation setup for 5.2.2.2


Parameters: Same as TABLE 5.29
Data rate:

40 GBPS per channel

No. of Span:

2 x 50 km =100 km for SMF and 2 x 10 km = 20 km for DCF

Equalizer Parameters are as following:


Forward tap space:

Forward taps coefficients:

Feedback taps coefficients:

Results (EYE Diagram):


1. Using DCF (direct detection) for 100 km at 0 dBm Power level

(a)

72

2. Using DCF (coherent detection) for 100 km at 0 dBm Power level

(b)
3. Using DCF + Equalizer for 100 km at 0 dBm Power level

(c)
Fig. 5.26 Eye diagram for 8-channel (320 Gbps) (a) Using DCF (direct detection) (b) Using DCF
(coherent detection) (c) DCF + Equalizer

TABLE 5.32 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FOR 8- CHANNEL


Sr. No.
1
2
3

Compensation Scheme
DCF (coherent
detection)
DCF (direct detection)
DCF + Equalizer

BER
2 E -38

Q
12.9

3.1 E -109
0

22.2
83.76

73

Results Discussion:
we have simulated 8 channel 40 Gb/s WDM channel with 100 and 200 GHz spacing
over 300 km transmission distance using various modulation formats like NRZ, RZ 0.5,
RZ 0.67, CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ and analyzed performance of the system for the
symmetrical

dispersion compensation using DCF by varying signal input power. The

outcome of the analysis is that for different power level and channel spacing, each
modulation format gives the different performance. For 200 GHz spacing, NRZ gives better
for lower power level up to 0 dBm but for higher power level MDRZ and DRZ gives the best.
For 100 GHz spacing, CSRZ gives better for lower power level up to 5 dBm but for higher
power level RZ 0.5 and MDRZ have the superior performance. We have also analyzed each
modulation formats for 100 and 200 GHz spacing. For 200 GHz spacing, NRZ for all power
level, RZ 0.67 for moderate power level and DRZ for higher power level gives better than 100
GHZ spacing. For 100 GHZ spacing, RZ 0.5, CSRZ and MDRZ gives better for all power
level but RZ 0.67 and DRZ gives better Q value for low power level. We also analyzed the
performance for DCF+Equalizer, DCF using coherent and DCF using direct detection and
DCF+Equalizer performance is best among these three techniques.

74

5.2.3 Simulation setup for the 32-channel optical WDM link


32 x 40 Gbps = 1.28 Tbps data rate using different modulation formats
Simulation setup: Like 8-channel Link as shown in Fig. 5.22 but using 32-channel each of
40 Gbps data rate.
TABLE 5.33 SIMULATION P ARAMETERS FOR 5.2.3
Sr.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Parameter
Data rate
Wavelength
Power
Modulation formats
No. of iterations
Frequency spacing
No. of channels
Compensation scheme

Attenuation
Dispersion
Dispersion slope
Differential group delay
Aeff
N2
Raman contribution

11

Attenuation
Dispersion
Dispersion slope
Differential group delay
Aeff
N2
Raman contribution
Multiplexer

12

De-multiplexer

13

EDFA

14

Cut off frequency for


Low pass Gaussian filter

10

Value
40 GBPS per channel
191.4 to 194.5 THz
0.1 to 1 mW
NRZ, RZ, CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ
10 x 50 km
100 GHz
32
Symmetrical
SMF
0.2 dB/km
17 ps/nm/km
0.075 ps/nm^2/k
0.2 ps/km
70
^2
26E-21 m^2/W
0.18
DCF
0.5 dB/km
-0.85 ps/nm/km
-3 ps/nm^2/k
0.2 ps/km
22
^2
26E-21 m^2/W
0.18
Idle
Bandwidth: 2 * Bit rate for NRZ
4 * Bit rate for RZ
Depth: 100 dB
Filter type: Bessel
Order: 6
SMF: Gain=10 dB
NF=6 dB
DCF: Gain=5 dB
NF= 6 dB
0.8 * Bit rate

75

Results:
TABLE 5.34 Q VALUE USING DIFFERENT M ODULATION FORMAT FOR 1.28 TBPS
POWER(mw)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1

Q nrz
4.3
8.3
7.5
7.4
8.9
8.4
7.5
8.1
6.7
6.6

Q rz
2.3
3.5
4.7
5.7
6.5
6.2
5.5
6
6.3
6.2

Q mdrz
2.8
3.6
4.2
4.5
4.6
4.5
5.4
5.5
5.8
6.5

Q drz
2.7
3.9
4.6
5
5.03
5.2
5.4
6
5.7
5.2

Q csrz
3.4
4.5
6.1
6.5
6.2
5.8
5.8
6.1
6.2
5.5

Q nrz
Q rz
Q mdrz
Q drz
Q csrz

10
9
8

Q value

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Input optical power (mW)

Fig. 5.27 Power vs. Q at 1.28 Tbps

76

TABLE 5.35 BER VALUE USING DIFFERENT MODULATION FORMAT FOR 1.28 TBPS

POWER(mw)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0

-log(BER)
nrz
5.2
15.4
13.7
13.5
18.8
16.7
13.7
15.9
11.0
10.9

-log(BER)
rz
2.0
3.7
6.0
8.4
10.4
9.7
7.8
9.0
9.9
9.7

-log(BER)
mdrz
2.7
3.8
4.9
5.4
5.7
5.6
7.6
7.7
8.5
10.4

-log(BER)
drz
2.5
4.3
5.7
6.6
6.7
7.0
7.6
8.9
8.3
7.0

20

-log(BER) nrz
-log(BER) rz
-log(BER) mdrz
-log(BER) drz
-log(BER) csrz

18
16
14
-log10 (BER)

-log(BER)
csrz
3.6
5.6
9.2
10.4
9.5
8.5
8.5
9.5
9.6
7.9

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Input optical power (mW)

Fig. 5.28 Power vs. BER at 1.28 Tbps

77

TABLE 5.36 ECP (dB) V ALUE USING DIFFERENT MODULATION FORMAT FOR 1.28 TBPS
POWER(mw) ECP(dB)NRZ
0.1
7.3
0.2
3.5
0.3
3.6
0.4
3.5
0.5
2.8
0.6
3.0
0.7
3.5
0.8
3.2
0.9
3.6
1.0
3.8

ECP(dB)RZ
12.4
7.8
6.3
6.0
6.1
6.7
6.2
5.8
5.8

ECP(dB)MDRZ ECP(dB)DRZ ECP(dB)CSRZ


11.5
9.6
8.2
6.7
8.3
6.1
4.7
7.6
5.9
4.5
7.1
6.2
4.6
6.7
6.7
4.8
5.5
7.1
4.7
6.1
6.7
4.7
5.3
6.6
4.8
5.0
6.7
5.1

14.0

ECP(dB)NRZ

12.0

ECP(dB)RZ

10.0

ECP(dB)DRZ

ECP(dB)MDRZ

ECP(dB)

ECP(dB)CSRZ
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Input optical power (mW)

Fig. 5.29 Power vs. ECP (dB) at 1.28 Tbps


Results Discussion:
We have simulated 32-channel optical link as given in 5.1.1 and used different modulation
formats and analyzed the results as shown above in fig. 5.27, 5.28 and 5.29. I got the results
by modified the link as I have implemented in section 5.1.1. And extended the range from 300
km to 500 km, reduced the channel spacing from 200 to 100 GHz for 40 Gbps data rate per
channel, increase the number of channels from 16 to 32 and apply different modulation
formats for the same link and analyzed the results in terms of Q value, BER and Eye closure
penalty. From observation NRZ gives better performance than all other modulation formats.

78

Chapter 6

Conclusion and future scope

6.1

Conclusion

Our main objective of this dissertation is to reduce dispersion and non linearity. In this work,
we have investigated the performance of single link and WDM link at different data rates and
frequency spacing using different optical modulation formats like NRZ-OOK, RZ-OOK,
CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ and analyzed the results for single channel, 8 channels and 32
channels.
From analysis for single channel the conclusion is as following. Symmetrical compensation
scheme performance is the best than pre and post scheme. As data rate increases performance
degrades and as power increases up to certain limit performance enhance and then degrades
due to non linearity as power increase. RZ performs better comparatively NRZ for higher
power level at all data rates. I introduced many techniques like DCF and DCF+Equalizer and
among these two, DCF+Equalizer gives higher Q value at 1250 km for 10 Gbps and 0 dBm

79

power level using NRZ modulation. We also observed that direct detection using DCF
performs better than direct detection using DCF for NRZ and RZ at 10 Gbps data rate for
lower input optical power level. We also used different types of cable like SSMF, TW, TWRS and LEAF and analyzed that LEAF performs better at higher power level in NRZ
modulation and TW and LEAF performs better in RZ at 10 Gbps data rate.
For 8-channel (8 x 40 Gb/s = 320 Gbps) WDM link with 100 and 200 GHz spacing over
300 km transmission distance using various modulation formats like NRZ, RZ 0.5, RZ
0.67, CSRZ, DRZ and MDRZ and analyzed performance
symmetrical

of

the

system

for

the

dispersion compensation using DCF by varying signal input power. The

outcome of the analysis is that for different power level and channel spacing, each
modulation format gives the different performance. For 200 GHz spacing, NRZ gives better
for lower power level up to 0 dBm but for higher power level MDRZ and DRZ gives the best.
For 100 GHz spacing, CSRZ gives better for lower power level up to 5 dBm but for higher
power level RZ 0.5 and MDRZ have the superior performance. We have also analyzed each
modulation formats for 100 and 200 GHz spacing. For 200 GHz spacing, NRZ for all power
level, RZ 0.67 for moderate power level and DRZ for higher power level gives better than 100
GHZ spacing. For 100 GHZ spacing, RZ 0.5, CSRZ and MDRZ gives better for all power
level but RZ 0.67 and DRZ gives better Q value for low power level. We also analyzed the
performance for DCF+Equalizer, DCF using coherent and DCF using direct detection and
DCF+Equalizer performance is best among these three techniques. Only disadvantage is that
it introduces jitter effect because of the equalizer.
For 32-channel (32 x 40 Gb/s = 1.28 Tbps) WDM link with 100 GHz spacing over 500 km
transmission distance using various optical modulation formats and concluded that NRZ gives
best performance than all other modulation formats those I have introduced in terms of Q
value, BER and ECP.

6.2 Future Scope


There is still a lot of work to be done in this field. In future, dispersion compensation
techniques like fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and optical phase conjugation (OPC) can be
implemented for 32 channel link. The analysis carried out in this thesis can be employed in
DWDM optical network to achieve better performance and it can be functionally verified.
Analysis of the network with 32 channels using electronics compensation techniques can also
be done using different modulation formats. I will also introduce advanced modulation

80

formats like NRZ-DPSK, RZ-DPSK, OFDM, and QPSK in the same link and analyze the
results.

81

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84

Publications
[1] Bhumit P. Patel, Prof. Rohit B. Patel, Comparison of Different Modulation Formats for
8-Channel WDM Optical Network at 40 Gbps Data rate with Non-Linearity,
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology
(IJARET),Volume:5,Issue:2,Pages:37-51. [PUBLISHED].
[2] Bhumit P. Patel, Prof. Rohit B. Patel, NRZ Vs. RZ Based on Eye Closure Penalty and
Q factor for Long Haul Optical Communication Link at Different Data rate with Nonlinearity, 2014 Seventh International Conference on Contemporary Computing (IC3),
IC3-2014. [UNDER REVIEW].

85

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