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P2 Energy: Revision Questions

1.

The diagram below shows an experiment where a pendulum swings backwards


and forwards.
A pendulum is a small heavy weight suspended by a light string.

r ig id s u p p o r t

A
B

(a)

(i)

In which position, A, B or C, does the pendulum have least potential


energy?
Explain your answer.
B, as it doesnt have the potential energy to swing down.
(1)

(ii)

In which position, A, B or C, does the pendulum have greatest


kinetic energy?
Explain your answer.
B, as the pendulum is in the center of the swing, and hasnt started
going upwards yet.
(1)

(iii)

After a few minutes the size of the swings becomes smaller.


Explain why this happens.
Because the energy is converted into heat energy. The pendulum is
not efficient
(1)

(b)

If the experiment were repeated on the Moon the pendulum would swing
more slowly.
Suggest a reason for this.

Because the gravity is lower, there is less potential gravitational energy.


(2)

2.

The Boat is a theme park ride. The Boat swings backwards and forwards. The
diagrams show the Boat at the top and bottom of its swing.

A
(a)

As the Boat swings from its position in A to its position in B, a child on


the ride gains 5070 joules of kinetic energy. The child has a mass of 60 kg
and is sitting at the centre.
(i)

Write down the equation which links kinetic energy, mass and
speed.
K.E. = x m x v2
(1)

(ii)

Calculate the speed of the child as the Boat passes through B. Show
clearly how you work out your final answer.
5070= x 60 x v2
169 = v2

Speed = 13 m/s
(2)

(b)

Sketch a graph to show how the gravitational potential energy of the child
changes as the Boat swings from A to B to C. The axes have been drawn
for you.

7000
6000
5000
G ra v ita tio n a l
4000
p o te n tia l
e n e rg y
3000
in jo u le s
2000
1000
0

B
P o s itio n o f th e b o a t

C
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

3.

The diagram shows a diver diving from the end of a diving board.

4 m

The height of the diving board above the poolside is 4 m. The mass of the diver
is 50 kg. Gravitational field strength is 10 N/kg.
(a)

Calculate the gain of gravitational potential energy as the diver climbs

from the poolside to the diving board.


GP = 4x50x10
GP = 2000J
(4)

(b)

The diver enters the water at a speed of 8 m/s.


Calculate the kinetic energy of the diver as she hits the water.
KE= x 50 x 82
1600J
(4)

(c)

As she hits the water her kinetic energy is different from the potential
energy she gained as she climbed to the diving board. Explain why.
Her kinetic energy is different from the potential energy because some of
the energy was transferred to sound and heat energy.
(2)

4.

The diagram shows an orbiter, the reusable part of a space shuttle. The data
refers to a typical flight.

O r b ite r d a ta

(a)

M ass

78 000 kg

O rb ita l s p e e d

7 .5 k m /s

O r b ita l a ltitu d e

200 km

L a n d in g s p e e d

1 0 0 m /s

F lig h t tim e

7 days

Calculate the kinetic energy, in joules, of the orbiter while it is in orbit.

KE = x 78000 x 75002
Kinetic energy = 2,193,750,000,000 joules
(2)

(b)

(i)

Give the equation that links acceleration, force and mass.


(1)

(ii)

Calculate, in newtons, the force needed to bring the orbiter to a halt


2
after it has landed. After landing the orbiter decelerates at 2 m/s .
Show clearly how you work out your answer.

.............................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................
Force = .............................. newtons
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

5.

This question is about the use of wooden planks on building sites.


(a)

The diagram below shows a plank being used as a simple bridge across a
ditch.
The wheelbarrow is full and the plank sags in the middle.

(i)

At which of points A, B, C or D is the plank:


1 under compression;
2 under tension?

..............................................
...............................................
(2)

(ii)

Choose phrases from the list below to complete the following


sentences.
Each phrase may be used once, more than once or not at all.
less than

the same as

more than

If the wheelbarrow is empty the sag of the plank is.


................................... that shown in the diagram.
If the plank is thicker the sag of the plank is ....................................
that shown in the diagram.
(2)

(b)

The diagram below shows another plank being used as a simple machine.
The crate is slid up the plank into the back of the lorry.

c ra te
(7 0 k g )

0 .5 m

(i)

The mass of the crate is 70kg. Calculate the weight of the crate.
70 x earths gravity (10)
Weight 700 N
(2)

(ii)

Calculate the work done when the crate is lifted a vertical distance
of 0.5m.
700x.5
Work done 350J
(4)

(c)

The work done in pushing the crate up the plank is 1400 joules.
(i)

Calculate the efficiency of the process.


1400/350 x 100
Efficiency 25%
(3)

(ii)

Suggest one reason to explain why the efficiency is less than 100%.
Some of the energy would be lost due to friction force going the
opposite direction, and other forces, while energy would also
be used pushing the crate in the direction
(1)

(iii)

Write down one advantage of using the plank.


(1)