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MICROSOFT VISUAL C++

III

230201 (071900)
()

2010

32.973.26-018.2
26

.. Microsoft
Visual C++. : , 2010, - 52 .


III 230201 (071900)
()

..., . ..

., 2010
, 2010


++.

Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 -
III 1-5 , Microsoft Visual C++ 2008.


1. Microsoft Visual C++ 2008.
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .

1
Microsoft Visual C++ 2008
: Microsoft Visual C++ 2008, C++.
1.
1.1. MS Visual C++ 2008
Microsoft Visual Studio ,
, . Visual C++ Visual Studio. (Integrated Development Environment, IDE) Visual
Studio , Microsoft #.
Microsoft Visual
C++ 2008. .
.
(. 1.1),
(Start Page),
, , , .

. 1.1.

.
Win32, !. (Win32 32- Windows)

(File=>New=> Project) <Ctrl+Shift+N>.
New Project,
Visual Studio.

. 1.2. New Project

. Visual C++. (Win32)


(Win32 Console Application). (Hello), ( Browse). OK,
(Application Wizard),
. 1.3. Next > . . 1.4
Win32.
( windows, , (dll)
), .
- ,
Finish
(. 1.5).
5

. 1.3.

. 1.4. Win32

(. 1.5).
6

. 1.5.

Visual Studio ,
,
View.
(Solution Explorer), , . : (Header Files), (Resource
Files) (Source Files).
,
.
, .
. , , , . ( ).
Build Solution (<F7>) .
.
Rebuild Solution (<Ctrl + Alt + F7>) .
Clean Solution . ,
,
.
Compile (<Ctrl + F7>) . .
7

Start Debugging (<F5>) . .


Start without Debugging (<Ctrl + F5>) .
.
Step Into (<F11>) .
Step Over (<F10>) .
Toggle Breakpoint (<F9>) / .
Breakpoints (<Alt + F9>) .
, F1.
).
1.2. MS Visual C++ 2008
1.2.1.
, .
.
, . ,
.
, .
,
:
. ;
: , , .
, 25-30 ,
;
. ,
, .
1.2.2.
: ,
.

, C++. Visual C++ ,
8

. ,
, Output , ,
.
.
(), , ,
( ) .

.

, , - . , , - . , .
Visual C++ ,
,
, :.


.
, - , , .
, IDE , . , IDE
, .
, , .
.
1.2.3.
, - ,
, .
.
, 9

. .


() , , .
,
F9
.
:

( F9)
. .
Debug=>Windows=>Breakpoints Ctrl+Alt+B.

Debug => Start Debugging ( F5).
,
. Editor
, ,
(. 10.2),
.

.
Debug => Stop Debugging Shift+F5 , , .

Step Over ( F10) Trace
Into ( F11) Debug . ,
.


. .
10

F10, . , , func1().
, F11,
, ,
F10.
, funcl(), F11,
, ..
. Shift+F11
Debug => Step Out.

, ,
, , . ,
.
:
Ctrl+F10.
.
, ,
. F5.


, ,
.
, .
.
.
,
Locals, .
, Visual C++.

, Watch 1 ( , ) , .
11

Watch 1 Add Watch.


Watch 1 .

, , , ,
.


. ,
. , Breakpoint :

:
Location ( );
Condition ( -
);
Hit Count ;
Filter ;
When Hit .
1.3. C++
, C++, ,
main. , , ( ) main,
..
:
12

_
int main()
{
_;
;
return 0;
}

_
void main()
{
_;
;
}

(main),
( main
). .
, void. , .
return 0; , 0.
main
, , . , . , ;.
,
, .
,
, - , .
//
. , ,
.
1.4.
, , ,
.. .
C++ ,
.
, .
. .
, . , ,
. .
C++ , .
x : int x;
int ( ), x . , . , .. x , .
13

( ) const.
, const int BITS_IN_WORD = 32;
BITS_IN_WORD 32.
1.5.
,
. C++
( ), . ,
.
.
,
C++-
32-

int
unsigned int
signed int
short int
unsigned short int
signed short int

-32 768 32 767


0 65 535
-32 768 32 767
signed int
unsigned int
int

16

long int
signed long int
unsigned long int
float

-2 147 483 648


2 147 483 647
long int
0 4 294 967 295

32

1E-37 1E+37,

long double
char
unsigned char
signed char

1E-37 1E+37,

double
-128 - 127
0 - 255
char

wchar_t

0 65 535

bool

TRUE (
)
FALSE ( )

double

14

32

64

16

1.6.
.
, . .
.
C++ . :
+

%

++
-

. :
x = x + 1;
y = y - x;
x = x * y / 5;
y = (5 - x) * y;
C++ :
x += 1;
y -= x;
x *= y / 5;
y *= 5 - x;
, () -
- ++ (--):
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int x = 0; // x, 0
x++;
// 1
cout << x; // x
}
1.7. -

- C++ ,
.
15

- (iostream.h)
: cout, cin cerr.
using namespace std;
cout , cin , cerr . cout cerr ostream, cin istream .
<<, >>.
: cout << " : " << 34;
" ",
34.
:
int x;
cin >> x;
x. (, ,
, - .)
-
#include <iostream>.
1.8. -
, , .
:
-

endl

ends

( );

flush

dec

( );

oct

hex

setw (int n)

n (n );

setfill(int n)

-,
;

setprecision(int n) ;
setbase(int n)

; n 0, 2, 8, 10, 16, 0 , .. 10.


16

.
, :
int x=67;
cout << " : "
<< dec << x << endl
<< " : "
<< oct << x << endl
<< " : " << hex << x << endl;
. :
double x;
// 6 :
// 3 ,
// 2
cout << setw(6) << setprecision(2) << x << endl;
( endl ends)
. .

2.
1. ,
, .
:
1. Hello.cpp ( ) ,
:
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void main()
{
//
setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "Russian");
//
cout << ", " << endl;
}

2. .
Ctrl+F7 Build=>Compile.
3.
exe- ( Hello.exe
17

Debug)
Ctrl+F5. :

:
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>

include

.
setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "Russian") ,

. setlocale
Visual C++.
cout << ", " << endl; - .

2. ,
,
.
:
1. ,
:
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void main()
{
//
setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "Russian");
int x; // x
//
cout << " x: ";
cin >> x; // x
x++;
// 1
18

//
cout << ": " << x << endl;
}

4. .
.
5. , .

3.
1. .
2. ?
3. IDE MS Visual C++?
4. - ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. MS Visual C++?
9. (breakpoint)?
10. ?
11.
?
12. ?
13. ?
4.
1. Microsoft Visual C++.
2. .
3. , ,
.
4. .
5. , , , .
6. .

19

2

: ++ .
1.

<math.h> :
int abs (int ) ; double fabs(double x);
(abs) (fabs) ,
.
double acos (double x);
double asin (double x);
double atan (double x);
, ,
.
-1 1.
double cos (double x);
double sin (double x);
double tan (double x);
, . .
:
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <math.h>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main(void)
{
double result;
double x = 0.5;
setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "Russian");
result = cos(x);
cout << " " << x << " ", result;
return 0;
}
20

double exp(double x); long double exp(long double lx);


, (*,
).
double pow (double x, double y); long double powl(long double (x), long double (y));
, .
:
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <math.h>
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main(void)
{
setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "Russian");
double result;
double x = 4.0;
result = exp(x);
cout << " " << x << " ", result;
return 0;
}

double sqrt(double );
, .
double log(double x);
double log10(double x);
log, logl . log10,
log10l 10.
<stdlib.h> .
int rand(void);
0 RAND_MAX.
rand . srand:
void srand(unsigned );
.
,
, .
21

2.
2.1
:

a,b,c

(a+b+c)/3

#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void main()
{
setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "Russian");
int a,b;
double c;
//
cout << " a="; cin >> a;
cout << " b="; cin >> b;
cout << " c="; cin >> c;
//
cout << "=";
cout << (a+b+c)/3 << endl;
}

2.3 : Y

a sin( b)
w15

: a = 18.2, b =25 o , w .

pi=3.14159

#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
#include <math.h>
using namespace std;
void main()
{
setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "Russian");

a=18.2
b=25*pi/180

//
const double pi=3.14159;
const double a=18.2;
const double b=25*pi/180;

a*sin(b)/pow(w,15)

double w;
// w
cout << " w=" << endl;
cin >> w;
cout << "=";
//
cout << a*sin(b)/pow(w,15) << endl;
}
22

3.
1. C++.
2. .
3. ?
4. -
.
5. -.
6. .
7. math.h.
8. .
4.
:
1. =sin(x)*cos(x)-3x2
2. y=|x-tg(x)|
3.
4. a b, ,
5. y=tg(x)+5x3-4x2
6. y=|x-cos(x)|
7. y=cos|x3-x2|
8. (x5-x4+|x3|)
9. (sin(x)+cos(x))
10. y= tg(x3)+|x2-x5|
11. y = x2-sin(x)+cos(x)
12. y = x3-x5+|x-sin(x)|+x2
13. 2-+=0 , , .
14. y = x/cos (x) + x2/sin (x);
15. ;

23

3

: , . .
1.
. ++ : if...else switch.
- . ,
.. ,
. . 0, . 0 , .
1.1
if . :
if ()
_1;
else
_2;

. 3.1 -


. ( ),
_1.
_2. .
, (.. ):
24

if (x > 0)
{
x = -x;
fun(x*2);
}
else
{
int i = 2;
x *= i;
fun(x);
}

,
.
:
if (x < 0) cout << " ";
else if (x > 0) cout << " ";
else cout << "";

else if .
, else _2.
if (x > 0)

x = -x;

_1 _2 . else if.
1.2
if,
. switch
,
.
switch . :
switch (_)
{
case __1: _1;
case __2: _2;
case __n: _n;
default:
;
}
25

, switch ,
, ,
. . switch , case .
, .
.
switch .
, case, ,
, , default.
, . switch
.
case ,
.
break .
, .. , , .
:
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void main()
{
setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "Russian");
int ic;
cout <<"\n 10:";
cin >> ic;
cout << endl;
//
switch (ic)
{
case 0: cout << ""; break;
case 1: cout << ","; break;
case 2: cout << " "; break;
case 3: cout << ","; break;
case 4: cout << ""; break;
case 5: cout << ","; break;
case 6: case 7: cout << " ,"; break;
case 8: case 9: cout << " ."; break;
default: cout << "!":
}
}
26

1.3
,
() . :
!= ;
== ;
< ;
> ;
<= ;
>= ;
, ,
( 1), , 0, .
, 6 <= 44 1.
:
1) ! , .. ;
2) && , ..
3) || , .. .
, . , .
:

!
> >= < <=
== !=
&&
||

2.
1.
2.
3.
4.

case.
if.
break?
?

3.
:
1. 1 10 .
2. , ,
, , ,
.
27

4

: , ,
..
1.
1.1
. C++ :
;
;
( ).
1.1.1 (while)
while. :
while () _;
, . "" (true
) "" (fasle,
null). , "".
.
( ) , ( ). .

. 4.1 -

28

, ,
N, :
int digits = 0;
while (N > 1)
{
digits = digits + 1;
N = N / 10;
}

1.1.2 (do while)


do while, .
:
do
_;
while ();

while ,
.

. 4.2 -

, 1
10 .
int i = 1, p = 1;
do
{
p *= i; // i (p = p * i)
i += 2; // (i = i + 2)
} while (i < 10);

while do while break


continue, .
29

1.1.3 (for)

.
, , .
.. ,
, .
.
, .
for, , . ( )
. . , . , , .
for (; ; )
_;

, . , , .
, .
for:
1. .
2. .
2.1. (), ,
2.
2.2. (),
, for.
, .
, ,
.
, 0 100.
for:
int sum = 0;
int i;
for (i = 1; i <= 100; i++)
sum = sum + i;

//
//

( ). :
30

int sum = 0;
int i = 1;
for ( ;i <= 100; )
{
sum = sum + i;
i = i + 1;
}

, , .
:
int sum = 0;
int i = 1;
for ( ; ; )
{
if (i > 100)
break;
sum = sum + i;
i = i + 1;
}

break,
.
for:
. .
1.1.4.
,
. .
.

. ,
.
.
.

n

1
n 1

( x ln a)
n!

x ln a ( x ln a)
1

1!

2!

...

10 .
- setw setprecision iomanip.
#include "stdafx.h"

31

#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>
#include <math.h>
using namespace std;
void main()
{
setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "Russian");
const int N = 10; //
// a x
// y .
// y0
// .
double a, x, y, y0;
// a x
cout << " a="; cin >> a;
cout << " x="; cin >> x;
y = 1; // y
//
for (int n = 1; n <= N; n++)
{
// nf .
int nf = 1;
//
for (int m = 1; m <= n; m++)
nf *= m;
//
y += pow(x*log(a), n)/nf;
}
//
y0 = pow(a, x);
cout << " 10 : "
<< setw(9) << setprecision(5) << y << endl;
cout << " :
"
<< setw(9) << setprecision(5) << y0 <<endl;
}

.
N a x . y (
1). n.
nf 1.
1.
: nf m. m
1 , m n, .. nf = 1*2*3**n.
32

y ( )
.
, ,
C++ , -.
1.2

goto, return, break continue.
1.2.1 (goto)
: goto ;
- , goto.
. ,
. , .
goto .
, :

;
;
;
.

1.2.3 (break)
break . .
,
:
while(i < j)
{
i++;
if (i == j) break;
j=--;
}

, break
.
33

1.2.4 (continue)

( ) continue.
. ( ) , .. .
, 0 100, 7.
int sum = 0;
for (int i = 1; i <= 100; i = i+1)
{
if ( i % 7 == 0) continue;
sum = sum + i;
}

2.
2.1. n! = 1*2*3**n
( ):
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void main()
{
setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "Russian");
int n, nf = 1;
cout << " n: " << endl;
cin >> n;
for (int i=1; i <= n; i++)
nf *= i;
cout << "n! = " << nf;
}

2.2. ,

x 3 3x, x 1,

y ( x 3) 3
, x 1 [0.5, 1.5] 0.1.

x
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>
#include <math.h>
using namespace std;
34

void main()
{
setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "Russian");
// :
// x0 - ; xn - ; dx -
double x0, xn, dx;
cout << " x0="; cin >> x0;
cout << " xn="; cin >> xn;
cout << " dx="; cin >> dx;
//
cout << setw(9) << " x " <<

setw(9) << " y " << endl;

for (double x=x0; x<=xn; x+=dx)


{
double y=0;
// y x
if (x > 1) y = pow(x-3, 3)/x;
else y = pow(x, 3) -3*x;
// x y
cout << setw(9) << setprecision(3) << x;
cout << setw(9) << setprecision(3) << y;
cout << endl;
}
}

3.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

.
.
.
.
.
break.
continue.
return.
goto.

4.
=0..15 :

x 3 3 x , x 1, x 0,2;

y ( x 3) 3
, x 1, x 0,5 .

35

5

: .
1.
1.1.
.
,
, .
.

. , .
. . .
.
, . ,
( ).
:
_ _ [];
. .

.
:
// 5
int array[5];
// 20
double x[20];

, :
_ _ [] = {_};
36

, ,
, .
, .
,
.
:
int a[3] = {1, 2, 3}; //a[0]=1, a[1]=2, a[2]=3
//
int b[5] = {1, 2, 3}; //b[0]=1, b[1]=2, b[2]=3, b[3]=0, b[4]=0
// (4 5)
int [3] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}; //c[0]=1, c[1]=2, c[2]=3
//
//
int d[] = {0, 2, 4}; //c[0]=0, c[1]=2, c[2]=4 ( 3)
// ,
// - ( \0)
char s[] = "Hi!"; //s[0]='H',s[1]='i',s[2]='!',s[3]='\0'( 4)


(), :
_ [];
: (, ), .
,
:
//
cout << a[1];
int i = 2;
cout << b[i-1];
cout << c[2*i];
int z;
a[2] = -1;
z = a[0] + (b[i] + d[i+1]) / c[2*i+1];
d[0] = z - d[i]) / c[2*i+1];

.
37

:
. .
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void main()
{
setlocale(LC_ALL, "Russian");
//
int a[10];
//
int s = 0;
//
for (int i=0; i<10; i++)
{
cout << " " << i <<"- : ";
cin >> a[i];
}
//
for (int i=0; i<10; i++)
s += a[i];
//
cout << " a: ";
for (int i=0; i<10; i++) cout << " " << a[i];
cout << endl << " : " << s << endl;
}

, .
. C++ . :
N = sizeof(array)/sizeof(array[0])

array , N , sizeof(array) , sizeof(array[0])


( ). , , , .. .
:
.
38

#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void main()
{
setlocale(LC_ALL, "Russian");
int b[] = {1, -5, 8, 7, 4, -7, 3, 0, -8, 6};
//
int n = sizeof(b)/sizeof(b[0]);
//
// ,
int max = b[0];
// 1-
for (int i=1; i<n; i++)
{
// i- ,
// . i-
if (b[i] > max) max = b[i];
}
//
for (int i=0; i<n; i++) cout << " " << b[i];
//
cout << endl << " : " << max << endl;
}

1.2

. . , .
.

, ( ), , .
:
// () 10
int vector[10];
// () 3x3
int matrix[3][3];
39

// 6x3x2x5x8x4
int z[6][3][2][5][8][4];
// ()
int mass1 [3][2] = { {1, 1}, {0, 2}, {3, 0} };

:
3x4 , . .
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void main()
{
setlocale(LC_ALL, "Russian");
const int N = 3, M = 4; //
// 3x4
int r[N][M];
// 0 9
//
for (int i = 0; i < N; i++)
//
for (int j = 0; j < M; j++)
// 10
//
r[i][j] = rand() % 10;
//
for (int i = 0; i < N; i++)
{
for (int j = 0; j < M; j++)
cout << r[i][j] << " ";
//
cout << endl;
}
cout << " :" << endl;
// 0
for (int i = 0; i < N; i++)
for (int j = 0; j < M; j++)
if (r[i][j] == 0)
cout << "a[" << i << "][" << j << "] == 0" << endl;
}
40

1.3
, int i = 10; (int) (10).
(i) ,
.
. .
. C++ , void . , - .
,
( ).
( ) :
*;
, .
, , , .
,
int *a, b, *c;
, b. .
..
void , , , (,
).
void ,
, -
, , .
, &.
.
,
. :
int *i;
//
const int *pci;
//
int * const = &i; //
const int * const =



-
&ci // -.

41


( . heap). ,
.
, , .
. C++ .
malloc C,
new delete.
,
. .
.
:
1. :
:
int = 5;
int* p = &a;

//
//

:
int* r = ;
, :
int b[10]; //
int* t = b; //

2. :
char* cp = (char *) 07000000;

07000000 , (char *)
: char.
3. :
int* sum = NULL;
int* rez = 0;
NULL,
C , . 0, int .
5.
new:
42

int* n = new int;


// 1
int* m = new int (10); // 2
int* q = new int [10]; // 3
1 new int
n. n (, ) .
2, ,
10.
3 new 10 int ( 10 ) q, . .
, new, delete, malloc
free.
:
delete n;
// 1
delete m;
// 2
delete []q; // 3
new[],
delete[]. .

1.4
, ,
. new
. , .
:
int n = 10:
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43

delete[].
delete [] - .
.
, ,
, . , . .
, , .

, , , . .
:
. . .
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void main()
{
setlocale(LC_ALL, "Russian");
//
int N;
cout << " : ";
cin >> N;
//
int *a = new int[N];
//
for (int i = 0; i < N; i++)
{
cout << " " << i << "- : ";
cin >> a[i];
}
//
int s = 0;
//
for (int i = 0; i < N; i++)
s += *(a + i);
//
cout << "a:";
for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) cout << " " << i[a];
cout << endl << " : " << s << endl;
//
delete[] a;
}
44

1.4
:
, .
.
: .
#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void main()
{
setlocale(LC_ALL, "Russian");
int N=4, M=3, Sum=0;
// N
// ( [], - *)
int **a = new int* [N];
for(int i=0; i < N; i++)
{
// M
//
a[i] = new int[M];
//
for(int j=0; j < M; j++)
{
// (%)
// 0 9
a[i][j] = rand()%10;
// i
// , j -
cout << a[i][j] << "
";
}
cout << endl;
}
//
for (int i=0; i < N; i++)
for (int j=0; j < M; j++)
Sum += a[i][j];
cout << " : " << Sum << endl;
//
for(int i=0; i < N; i++)
//
delete [] (a[i]);
//
delete [] a;
}

:
45

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47

2. f(x) dx, (dx


: 0.01 dx 0.1 ).
f(x)

.
1

f(x)

f(x)

0.25 x 3 x 2
x [ 0, 2 ]

e x 1 x 3 x
x [0, 1]
1
3 sin(3.6 x )
x [0, 1]
x

arccos

1 x
1 x

f(x)

1 0.4 x 2 arcsin x

x [ 0 ,1 ]

2
2

-x

3x 14 e x e x

x [ 1, 3 ]

2, 3]

3 x 4 ln x 5

arccos x 1 0.3x 3

x [0, 1]

2 x 2 1.2 cos x 1
x [ 0 ,1 ]

9, 0

x [ 2, 4 ]

3. , ,
=10-3 x=1,5. f ( x) n f ( x) n1 .
, , c ++:
f(x)

f(x)=
2 k 1
x
k
Sin(x)= (1) (2k 1)!
k 0

e
2

Artn(x)=

k 0

2k

k 0

x 2 k 1
( 2 k 1)!

x ( 2 k 1)
( 2 k 1)

Sh(x)=

k 0

(1)k
Arctg(x)=
2 k0 (2k 1) x(2k1)

k 1

1 x
(2k )!

x 2k
Cos(x) = (1) (2k )!
k 0

f(x)=

(1 x) ex =

k 0

xk
k!

48

( k 1) x k
k!

1 x
ln(1+x)= k ( x 1)
k 1

x2

( 1) k x 2 k

k!
k 0

4. , :

.

, N :
a) .
b) .
c) .
d) .

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a) .
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c) .
d) .

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51

1. .., .. , - .: , 2007 178 c.


2. . . Visual C++ 2008. , - .: , 2009. 1280 .
3. . . C/C++ MS Visual C++ 2008 , - .: , 2008 624 .
4. . , . Visual C++ MFC, - .:-. 2002
1040.
5. .., .. : , - , 1995.- 169 .
6. .. /++ , .: -, 2006.
288.: .
7. . Visual C++ 6. . .: , 2006. 570.
8. ., . ++. (2- ), .:
, 2005


Microsoft Visual C++
6084 1/16 . . . 2,95 100 .

241020, , . , 13

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