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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 / 69
. . . . . 24 / 80
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 / 88
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 / 99
. . . . . . . . . . . 31 / 107
. . . . . . . . . . . 34 / 119


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 / 131
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 / 145
. . . . . . . . . 42 / 152
. . . . . . . . . . . . 44 / 161
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 / 171
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 / 184
. . . . . . . . . 50 / 194
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 / 198
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 / 211
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 / 224
. . . . . . . . . . . . 63 / 232
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. , : ) a2 .. (a + b), b2 .. (a + b); *)
.
x + y + z 6= 0, (x 3 + y 3 + z 3 3xyz) .. (x + y + z).
. ?
. p > 1 ,
1, 1, p p. , ,
.

. : C.

. , .
. , n n
.
*. n? ,
n. , n > 3 n? > n.
. ) p , p + 2 p + 4
.
**) ,
p, p + 2 .
( ). 2
1000. 2 ,
2, 2. ,

, .
, .
? ( .)
. , 100.


. , a ,
p a
- , a.
. , :
) , , ;
) x, ,
a

x = p1 1 p2 2 pnan ,
p1 < p2 < < pn , a1 , a2 , , an
;
*) ( ) x
,
a

bm
,
x = p1 1 p2 2 pnan = q11 q22 qm

, m = n 1 i n
pi = qi , ai = bi ;
) ai , x ,
y, x = y 2 .
. 1024, 57, 84, 91,
391, 101, 1000, 1001, 1543.

. : C.

.
/

. .
. , a b 6= 0 q r , : ) a = qb + r; ) 0 r < |b|.
. q r , ,
a b.
. : ) 17 4; ) 23
7; ) 1 5.
. 59?
. : ) n2 n + 1;
) n2 + n + 2 n 1; ) 2100 1 27 1; *) 2m 1 2n 1.
*. ) , a2k+1 + 1 a + 1
.
) a2k + 1 a + 1.


. a b .
.
d, a .. d, b .. d.
: (a, b).
. , a b (a 6= 0 b 6= 0) (a, b)
.
. , a, b c (a 6= 0 b 6= 0):
.
) (a, b) 1; ) (a, b) = |a| b .. a;
) (a, ca + b) = (a, b).
( ). .
(a, b) , a b.
(b, r), r a b. (b, r)
. ,
(d, 0). , :
) ;
) d = (a, b).
. :
) (91, 147); ) (144, 233).
. 0 < a < 1000, 0 < b < 1000. ,
, : ) 14; ) 13 ?

. : C.

. ,
a b k l, ak + bl = (a, b).
. , ax + by = d
.
, d .. (a, b). ,
(a, b) , ax + by.
. 32 25 . 1 .
. , p , a p,
x y, ax + py = 1.
.
.
. p . , ab .. p, a .. p
..
b . p.
. (
).
. a b .
.
d, d .. a, d .. b.
: (a, b).

. , a b (ab 6= 0):
) (a, b) ;
) (a, b) (a, b) = ab.

. (12, 15), (120, 45).


. (x0 , y0 )
ax + by = d.

a0 b0 , (a, b)a0 = a, (a, b)b0 = b.


, ax + by = d
x = x0 + b0 t,

y = y0 a0 t,

t Z.

. : ) 121x + 91 y = 1; ) 343x + 119 y =


= 42; ) 111x 740 y = 11.

*.
n, 1. . , , . ,
1, . , ,
. ?

. : C.

. M .
R {(a, b) | a, b M} M
() M. (a, b) R, a R b,
a b.

. :
) a R b, a b (mod 2) X = {0, , 9}.
) a R b, b | a X = {2, , 15} (
).
) A R B, A B
{0, 1, 2}.
) a R b, a = b X = {0, , 5}.
) a R b, a b X = {0, , 5}.

. M :
) , a M a a;
) , a, b M a b b a;
) , a, b, c M a b b c
a c.

. n ?
n ?

. ,
, .
. M , , .
. , , , , ( , a b):
) a b a, b M, M;
) M;
) a | b ;
) a b ;
) A B ;
) a b
;
) a b
;

. : C.

) a b ;
) a b
;
) a b ;
) a > b ;
) X M. M a a , a 6= b, a b, a, b X ;
) f : X Y . X a b f (a) = f (b);
) a b
;
) ;
) ;
) .
. ,
.

. M, a
M. Na = {x M | a x} a.
. ,
, . , M M .
. M.
M/ .
.
.
. Sn : a b,
c, c1 ac = b.
) , ( , ).
*) , a b, ,
.

. : C.

.
/

.
. a b m 6= 0, a b .. m.
: a b (mod m).
. , a b m
, a m b
m.
. , m .
. , a1 , a2 , b1 , b2 , c, m:
) a1 b1 (mod m), a2 b2 (mod m) a1 + a2 b1 + b2 (mod m);
) a1 b1 (mod m) ca1 cb1 (mod m);
) a1 b1 (mod m), a2 b2 (mod m) a1 a2 b1 b2 (mod m).
. , a b (mod m), :
) an bn (mod m) n;
*) f (x)
f (a) f (b) (mod m).


. , a b (mod m) a, b 0, 2a 2b
(mod m)?
. an an1 a1 a0 x. , :
) x a0 + + an (mod 3), x a0 + + an (mod 9);
) x a0 (mod 2), x a0 (mod 5);
) x a0 a1 + + (1)n an (mod 11).
. , x , x 2 1 (mod 8).
*. , : ) x 2 + y 2 = 3z 2 ; ) x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4t 2 .
*. , , ) ; )
.
. : ) 3x 1 (mod 7); ) 6x 5 (mod 9);
) 4x 2 (mod 10).
. ax b (mod m)
.
, b .. (a, m).

. : C.

. p , a 6 0 (mod p),
ax b (mod p) ,
p.
* ( ). a1 , a2 ,
, an . b1 , b2 , , bn
x ,
x bi (mod ai ), i = 1, , n,
, , a1 an .
*.

x 3 (mod 5)

x 1 (mod 7)

x 4 (mod 9).

. p . , :
.
) C pk .. p 0 < k < p;
) (a + b) p a p + b p (mod p);
.
) ( ) a p a .. p.

* ( ). p ,
(p 1)! 1 (mod p).
. ?
. ,
: ) 4n + 3; *) 4n + 1; **) an + b, (a, b) = 1.
*. x 2 1 (mod n):
) n; ) n.

. : C.

.
/

. , n > 1 :
.
.
.
.
) n3 + 5n .. 6; ) 2n3 + 3n2 + 7n .. 6; ) n5 n .. 30; ) 22n 1 .. 6;
.
) 116n+3 + 1 .. 148?
. : ) ; ) a1 , a2 , , an
(n > 2).
. a1 , a2 , an .
.
.
d, a1 .. d, a2 .. d, , an .. d.
. a1 , a2 , , an
.
d, d .. a1 ,
..
..
d . a2 , , d . an .
. , a, b c, a b c 6= 0:
) (a, b, c) = (a, (b, c)) = ((a, b), c);
) (a, b, c) =

|abc| (a, b, c)
.
(a, b) (b, c) (a, c)

. , 2, 3,
4, 5 6 :
) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; ) 0, 1, 2, 3, 4; ) 0, 1, 2, 3, 2?
. :
) 923 1207; ) 279 589; ) 693 2475;
) 697 1377; ) 1517 1591; ) 1134, 2268 1575.
. :
) 16 84; ) 819 504; ) 30, 56 72;
) 340, 990 46; ) 41, 85 36; ) 2, 5, 7, 9 11.
. n > 0 :
) 1 2 + 2 3 + + (n 1) n;
)

1
45

1
56

++

1
;
(n + 3)(n + 4)

*) 1 2 3 + 2 3 4 + + n (n + 1) (n + 2).
. :
) (n + 1) (n + 2) (n + n) = 2n 1 3 5 (2n 1);
1

=
+
++ ;
) 1 + +
2
3
2n 1
2n
n+1
n+2
2n


 


1
n+2
1
1
) 1
=
1
1
.
2
4

(n + 1)

2n + 2

. : C.

. :
) 7x + 5 y = 1; ) 27x 24 y = 1; ) 12x 33 y = 9;
) 56x + 91 y = 21; ) 344x 215 y = 86; ) 3x + 5 y + 7z = 1.
. , n 10n + 7
10n + 5 ?
. a b, ax + by = 1 :
) x = 7, y = 9; ) x = 17, y = 19; ) x = 27, y = 29;
) x = 37, y = 39; ) x = 47, y = 49.
. u(n) :
u(0) = 0, u(1) = 1, u(n) = u(n 1) + u(n 2) ( ).
) , u(1) + + u(n) = u(n + 2) 1.
) , (u(1))2 + + (u(n))2 = u(n) u(n + 1).
) ( ) u(n)
p n
p n
1+ 5
1
1 5
1
p
?
(n) = p
5

. : C.

. ,
p .
. M
M 2 = {(a, b) | a M,
b M} M, M .
(a, b) a b.

. (G, ), G
, ,
:
) a, b, c G : a (b c) = (a b) c ();
) e G a G : e a = a e = a ( );
) a G a1 G : a1 a = a a1 = e ( ).
G , G
. G
G |G|.
. , . .
. :
) (Z, +); ) (Z, ); ) (N, ); ) (Sn , );
) ;
) ;
) f : X X ;
) P(A) A ;
) (P(A), ); ) (P(A), \ );
) (P(A), ), A B = (A B)\(A B);
) (Z/nZ, +n ), Z/nZ = {0, 1, , n 1}, a +n b a + b n;
) (Z/nZ, n ), a n b ab n;
) (N, ), a b = ab ;
) (Z/nZ \ {0}, n );
) ((Z/nZ), n ), (Z/nZ) = {a Z/nZ | (a, n) = 1}?

. : C.

. G ( ), a, b G ab = ba.
. ?
. , :
) ; ) ;
) ba = e b = a1 ; ) ba = a b = e; ) (a1 )1 = a.
*. , :
) e G a G : ea = a ( );
) a a1 : a1 a = e ( ),
, .
. f : G H G H
, , x, y G f (x y) = f (x) f ( y).
, G H .
. : ) , , ;
) ; *) .


. H G, ,
.
. , :
) H G, e H;
) H G, H ;
) K H, H G, K G;
) ;
) ?
. , :
) N Z;
) An Sn , An
n ;
) Sn \ An Sn ?
. : ) S3 ; ) Z.
. k,
a G ak = e, a.
: ord a. , ,
ord a = 0.

. : C.

. , ord a > 0
a.
. , an = e , ord a | n.
. () G H aH = {ax | x H}
( Ha = {xa | x H}).
. , ()
, .
.
: ) Z/2Z; ) S4 /A4 ; ) S3 /(12).
( ). ,
G H G
.
(|G| .. |H|).
. , .
G G (|G| .. ord a).

. (n) ,
n n. (n)
.
. : ) (2), (6), (30); ) (p); ) (p n ).
. , m n
(mn) = (m)(n).
k

. (p1 1 pnkn ).
( ). , a,
n, a(n) 1 (mod n).
*. : ) ; ) ; ) n- ( Dn ).

. : C.

. n .
?
. , n ,
n1
, .

2

. . , .
. , , ( ).
. ,
, .

*. n n n n3 . , ,
(
). n
?
*.
. ?
n?
* ( ). n
( ). , nn2
, .
. , . .
, = (V, E)
V E, .
,
(),
( ), ( A B B A).
, ,
.

. : C.

. (!) .
. ,
, .
. ?

. ,
,
.
. ) ,
.
) , A B A B, B
A.


. ,
,
.
. ,
?
. -
. , ,
.
* ( * ). - . , (. . ,
).
*. - . ,
,
.

. : C.

. , ( ), ( ) .
( ).
. .
.
?
. .
( ). , ( ), ,
, .

?

. .
, . ,
,
.
. ,
( ) ,
( ) .
,
.
, .
,
. k, k
.
. ,
? ?
.
?
. ?

. : C.

* ( ). n .
k = 1, 2, , n k
k ,
k . ?
?
, ,
( n ) n , k
k ?
* ( ). , .
*. , k- k k ?

. , , , (
) . ,
, . ,
( )
.
. ,
?
( ).
, . + = 2.
. +
?
. , , . + ?
. ) ,
2 3.
) , 2.
. , :
) .
K5 ;

. : C.

)
,
(
). K3,3 ;
) ,
.
. ,
().
,
:
;

(, ).
* ( ). ,
,
, K5 K3,3 .

. : C.

. f . f (0) f (1),
f (x) = 0, f (x) = 1 f (x) = x; c,
f (x) = c ,
.
y


. x
, x. : [x].
. x {x} =
= x [x].

1, x > 0;
. sign x = 0, x = 0;

1, x < 0.

. ) [3,5], [2,2], {1,1}, {2,7}, [0], {0}, [5], {5},


sign(5,6), sign(2,4), sign(0).
) , sign xy = sign x sign y, [xy] = [x][ y], {xy} =
= {x}{ y}?
) , sign(x + y) = sign x + sign y, [x + y] = [x] + [ y],
{x + y} = {x} + { y}?
) , x = |x| sign x, x = [x] + {x}.

. 2x + 3, x 2 , 1/x, [x], {x}, sign x,


|x|
,
x

|x|.

. : C.

.

p
p p
x/2, x, 2x, x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 6 , x, 3 x, 4 x, 1/x, 1/x 2 .
y

. f p
g
1
f (x) + g(x), f (x) g(x), f (x) g(x),
.
f (x),
f (x)

.
f (|x|), | f (x)|, f (x + 1), f (x 1), f (x) + 1, f (x) 1, f (2x),
3 f (x), f (x/3), f (x), f (x), f ([x]), f ({x}), [ f (x)],
f .
y
y

x
x

. : C.

. :
) x 2 + 2x + 3; ) 2x 2 + 3x 1; ) x 2 2|x| + 1.
.
y = ax 2 + bx + c. sign a, sign b sign c
.
y

. x 2 2x + 3,
2x 2 4x + 3, x 2 + 4x + 3, x 2 + x + 1, x/2 + 3. ,
.

y



33
3
33

22
2
22
1,25
1,25
1,25
1,25
1,25
1
11
11
2

11

11
1

0,5
0,5
0,5

0,5

0,5

0,5
0,5
0,5
0,5 1
0,5

.
(p, q), x 2 + px + q = 0: ) ;
) ; ) .
*.
.

. : C.

.
/

.
. f : G H (G, ) (H, )
, a, b G f (a b) = f (a) f (b). G
H Hom(G, H).
. . G Aut(G).
G H , . : G
= H. ,
, .
H
. , G =
( ,
, ).


. ? ?
) ;
) ;
) f : Z Z, f (n) = 2n; ) f : Z Z, f (n) = n + 1;
) f : Z Z, f (n) = n2 ; ) f : Z/pZ Z/pZ, f (n) = n;
) f : (Z/pZ) (Z/pZ) , f (n) = n1;
) f : (Z/pZ) (Z/pZ), f (n) = n10 ;
) f : Sn Sn , f (x) = ax; ) f : Sn Sn , f (x) = x 1;
) f : Sn Sn , f (x) = axa1; ) sign : Sn Z/2Z.
. , f : G H
) f (eG ) = e H ; ) f (x 1) = f (x)1; ) f (x n ) = f (x)n .
. G , H .
: ) Hom(G, H), ) Aut(G).
.
) f : Z Z; ) f : Z Z/nZ; ) f : Z/nZ Z/mZ.
. ) Z/4Z, Z/7Z.
) , Z/nZ
Z/mZ.

. : C.

*. : ) Z;
) Z/pZ G?
. : Z/2Z, (Z/3Z) , S2 ,
Z/6Z, S3 , (Z/7Z) ?
. f (G) f : G H. : Im f .
f 1 (e H ) f : G H.
: Ker f .
. .
. , Im f Ker f H G .
. , f : G H , Im f = H, Ker f = {eG }.
. Z,
.
.


. S3 , {e, (12)}?
. , a G
f : G H a(Ker f ) = (Ker f )a.
. ) ,
+ = + = ,
+ = + =
{{2n | n Z}, {2n + 1 | n Z}}.
) ,
{An , Sn \An }.
. , g
G H gH. G/H.
G H ( Hg) H\G. (
.)

. : C.

. H G , a G aH = Ha (,
, aHa1 = H). : H G).
. ,
.
. ?
. , H G
, G
H
.
. S3 .
. , H G,
2|H| = |G|, .

. aH bH
(ab)H.
) , ,
H .
) ,
.
. H G. , ,
( G H). : G/H.
. , f : G H Im f
= G/ Ker f ( , Ker f G).
.
. f G
A (. . A )
G . (
f g G
A .) ,
, f (g)(a) ga.
.
?

. : C.

.
)
)
)
)
)

f (g)(x) = gx ( );
f (g)(x) = g1 x;
f (g)(x) = xg ( );
f (g)(x) = xg1;
f (g)(x) = gxg1 ( ).

( ). ,
Sn .
. :
) Z ( );
) Z/nZ ( );
) Z/nZ ;
) Z/2Z Z ( Z/4Z),
f (g) ;
) Z/nZ ,
f (g) .
. Ga = {ga | g G}
a A.


. .
. , a
b .
. ) .
) .
) S3 A3 .
) Sn .
*) An .
. stab a = {g G | ga = a} ( : Ga ) a A.
. .
. , |G x | |Gx| = |G|.
. , p 2 (p
)
.

. : C.

. Fix g = {a A | ga = a} ( : A g ) g
( , , ,
, ).
.
Z/4Z: ) ; ) .
.
S3 : ) ; ) .
( ). |G| X . ,
X
1
|Fix g|.
|G|

gG

. ) n- .
) n
.


. : C.

. : C.

,
.

,
.
; ,

.
,
( ) , , , .
, ,
.

. ,
. .
x M x M,
x M x
/ M.

, , (, ). ,
, , , .
, , .
. :
) {1}, {1, 2, 3}, {}; ) {{1}}; ) {1, {2, 3}};
) ; ) {{1}, 1};
) ?

. ) : ; : , ;
: .
) : {1}.
, ,
, , {1, 2}.
) : 1 {2, 3}.

. : C.


) : , , , , , .
) : {1} .

, (, ) , , , , . ,
, , , ,
,
.
( ) ,
.
. A B , A B,
B A. : A = B.
. A B, A B.
: A B.
, : {x A | x
}.

,
,
, .
,
. . ,
,
: A = {x
/ x}. , , ,
A A, , A
/ A. .
,
.
. ) A .

{2, 4, 6, 8}.
) A .
{x A | x
1 000 000 }.

. ) : {2, 4, 6, 8} = {x A | x }.
.

. : C.

) , , - (
).
. , : {1}, {1, 2}, {1, 2, 3},
{{1}, 2, 3}, {{1, 2}, 3}, {3, 2, 1}, {{2, 1}}.

. , , .
,
( ) ,
.

.
(, ) , . ,
, ,
, ; ; (
);
, , .
, {1}
{{1}, 2, 3}, , {1, 2}
{{2, 1}}
{1, 2, 3}.
. , A
B, , B, A.

. :
) (A B) ( x, B, x A),
) ( x, B, x A)
(A B).
,
.
, ,
.

,
, .

.

. : C.

) . ,
A B, x, B,
A. , A B ,
, A, B.
, x B. . , , A,
B.
) ,
. ,
B, A, A 6 B. , A 6 B, , A B .
x, A,
B. . ,
.

.
, , , , . ,
,
.
. , A, B C:
) A A; ) A B B C A C; ) A = B A B B A.

. ) : x, A, A, , A A.
) , A
C. x A.
A B, x B. B C, x C. , ,
A C.
) . , , A B B A , A = B, -,
A = B , A B B A.
. A B,
A B, B A ,
B A. , , A = B.
. , A = B,
, , A
B, B A.
, A B B A.

. : C.

,
x, . , x, , x.
. , . : .
. ) , .
) , .

,
.
, .
.

. ) A,
. , x, ,
A. ,
. . ,
.
) , . , :
.
. , .
. : ,
{1}, {1, 2}, {1, 2, 3}, {{1}, 2, 3}, {{1, 2}, 3}, {}, {{2, 1}} ?

.
.
. , , , , , , , .
. )
.
) ?
? ?

, ( ).
,
.

. : C.

. ) : ; {1}: {1}; {1, 2}: , {1}, {2}, {1, 2};


{1, 2, 3}: , {1}, {2}, {3}, {1, 2}, {1, 3}, {2, 3}, {1, 2, 3};
{{1}, 2, 3}: , {{1}}, {2}, {3}, {{1}, 2}, {{1}, 3}, {2, 3}, {{1}, 2, 3};
{{1, 2}, 3}: , {{1, 2}}, {3}, {{1, 2}, 3};
{}: {}; {{2, 1}}: {{2, 1}};
) ; ; .
. ,
- ?
, - - ?

. - :
? ,

- .
.
, ?

. , - .
- ,
- ,
- . (
,
.)
. : ) ; ) ; ) ?

. -, , , ,
, , , ,
. :
, ,
.
. A B , x, x A x B. :
A B.
A B ,
x, x A x B. : A B.
A B ,
x, x A x 6 B. : A \ B.

. : C.

,
.
. A = {1, 3, 7, 137}, B = {3, 7, 23},
C = {0, 1, 3, 23}, D = {0, 7, 23, 2004}. :
) A B; ) A B; ) (A B) D; ) C (D B);
) (A B) (C D); ) (A (B C)) D;
) (C A) ((A (C D)) B); ) (A B) \ (C D);
) A \ (B \ (C \ D)); ) ((A \ (B D)) \ C) B.

. ) A B = {1, 3, 7, 23, 137}; ) A B = {3, 7};


) (A B) D = {0, 3, 7, 23, 2004}; ) C (D B) = {23};
) (A B) (C D) = {1, 3, 7, 23}; ) (A (B C)) D = {7, 23};
) (C A) ((A (C D)) B) = {1, 3, 7, 23};
) (A B) \ (C D) = {1, 3, 7, 137};
) A \ (B \ (C \ D)) = {1, 3, 137};
) ((A \ (B D)) \ C) B = {3, 7, 23, 137}.
,
, .
. A , B , . A B.

. , , ,
6, 2 3. :
, 2 3, 6.
. , A, B, C:
) A B = B A, A B = B A;
) A (B C) = (A B) C, A (B C) = (A B) C;
) A (B C) = (A B) (A C), A (B C) = (A B) (A C);
) A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C), A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C).

. , ,
,

.
. , , x ,

. : C.

, x .
,
.
.
. ) ).

) x A (B C) , x A
B C. , ,
x C ( x B ). x A x C, , x A C,
x (A B) (A C).
x (A B) (A C), , x
(A B) (A C). ,
, x (A B). , x A x B,
, x A x B C, x A (B C).
.

) x A \ (B C) , x A,
B C.
x A, B, x A \ B. , x A \ C. ,
x (A \ B) (A \ C).
, , x (A \ B) (A \ C). , x A \ B A \ C. , x A
x B C,
x A \ (B C).
.

. : C.

. , A, B, C:
) A = ; A = A; ) A A = A; A A = A;
) A B = A A B; ) (A \ B) B = A; ) A \ (A \ B) = A B;
) A \ (B \ C) = (A \ B) (A C); ) (A \ B) (B \ A) = A B?

. ),
. ,
. :

(A \ B) (B \ A)

AB

,
. -, ,
A B ,
.
(, A = B = {1}).


, , ,
( ).
. ), ), ), ), ) ,
. ) ) .
. ) . ,
, .
*)
. , , 1/7.

. ) . 1.
A, B C, ,
, X . , S(P)
P. S(A) + S(B) + S(C) 9.
S(A B) < 1, S(A C) < 1 S(C B) < 1,
S(A) + S(B) + S(C) S(A B) S(A C) S(C B) > 6.

. : C.

B
C

,
!

S(A B C) = S(A) + S(B) + S(C)


S(A B) S(A C) S(B C) + S(A B C).
, 6 < S(A) + S(B) + S(C) S(A B) S(A C) S(C B) =
= S(A B C) S(A B C) S(A B C). X , S(A B C) S( X ) = 6.
. , ,
.
, !, , .


) A1 , , A7 ,
X .
, S(A1 ) + + S(A7 ) 7. , 3. , S(A1 ) + + S(A7 )
A1 , , A7 . ,
,
. ,

. S(A1 ) + + S(A7 )
. ,
(!). , 4.
S(A1 ) + + S(A7 ) ( 7) 21
. ,
3/21 = 1/7, .
,
-.
n

. : C.

. .:
S(A1 An ) = S(A1 ) + + S(An )
+

1i1 <i2 <i3 n

1i1 <i2 n

S(Ai1 Ai2 Ai3 ) + + (1)k

S(Ai1 Ai2 ) +
X

1i1 <<ik n

S(Ai1 Aik ),

, , ,
+, ,
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?

. ) :
A B = (A B) \ ((A \ B) (B \ A)).
) . , A, B, A B A B
. ,

.
, A B
, A B.

. : C.

.
/

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.
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, .

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f (x) Y , ,
f X Y .
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f , x
y f . : f : X Y .

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.
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) X

13

) X

11

. : C.

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) .
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{7, 8, 9} {0, 1}.

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{0, 1} ( ,
A {0, 1} A),
n- m- ( ,
).

. f : X Y , y Y , A X , B Y . y f {x X |
f (x) = y}. : f 1 ( y). A X f { f (x) | x A}. : f [A].
B Y {x X | f (x)
B}. : f 1 [B].

, , , .
.
. f : {0, 1, 3, 4} {2, 5, 7, 18}, , f [{0, 3}], f [{1, 3, 4}], f 1 (2), f 1 [{2, 5}],
f 1 [{5, 18}].
) 0

) 0

) 0

18

18

18

. ) f [{0, 3}] = {5, 18}, 18, ;


f [{1, 3, 4}] = {5, 7}, , ,
;

. : C.

f (2) = , ;
f 1 [{2, 5}] = {3, 4}, ,
;
f 1 [{5, 18}] = {0, 3, 4}, 18 , .
) f [{0, 3}] = {5, 18}, f [{1, 3, 4}] = {2, 5, 7}, f 1 (2) = {1},
1
f [{2, 5}] = {1, 3}, f 1 [{5, 18}] = {0, 3}.
) f [{0, 3}] = {2, 7}, f [{1, 3, 4}] = {2, 7}, f 1 (2) = {0, 4},
1
f [{2, 5}] = {0, 4}, f 1 [{5, 18}] = .
. f : X Y , A1 , A2 X , B1 , B2 Y . ,
) f [X ] = Y ; ) f 1 [Y ] = X ; ) f [A1 A2 ] = f [A1 ] f [A2 ];
) f [A1 A2 ] = f [A1 ] f [A2 ]; ) f 1 [B1 B2 ] = f 1 [B1 ] f 1 [B2 ];
) f 1 [B1 B2 ] = f 1 [B1 ] f 1 [B2 ]; ) f [A1 ] f [A2 ] A1 A2 ;
) f 1 [B1 ] f 1 [B2 ] B1 B2 ?

. ) . , ) .
) . f 1 [Y ] = {x X | f (x) Y}. f (x) Y x X ,
{x X | f (x) Y } = X .
) . f [A1 A2 ] = { y Y | x A1 A2 : f (x) = y} = { y Y | x
, x A1 x A2 f (x) = y} = { y Y | x A1 : f (x) = y}
{ y Y | x A2 : f (x) = y} = f [A1 ] f [A2 ].
A1 = {1, 2}; A2 = {2, 3}.
) . :
X
Y
1

3
) . , f 1 [B1 B2 ] f 1 (B1 ) f 1 (B2 ).
, x f 1 [B1 B2 ] , f (x) B1
f (x) B2, x f 1 [B1 ] x f 1 [B2 ].
, f 1 (B1 ) f 1 (B2 ) f 1 [B1 B2 ]. , x f 1 (B1 ) f 1 (B2 ) , f (x) B1
f (x) B2, f (x) B1 B2 , , x f 1 [B1 B2 ].
) : .
( ),
, ,
, .
A = {1}, B = {2}.
) . :
X
Y
1

. : C.

) .
, y B1 y B2 .
. f : X Y g : Y Z , x X g( f (x)) Z. : g f . (
g f f g.)

, g f ,
f x, f (x)
g. g f (x).
. , f : X Y ,
g : Y Z h : Z W : h (g f ) = (h g) f
( h g f ).

, ,
.

. x X . f (x) = y, g( y) = z,
h(z) = w. (, ,
.) g f x z, h g y w. ,
h (g f ) (h g) f x w.
,
, , . , , ?
,
,
, .
: f g X
Y , x X f (x) = g(x), =
() .

, - x X ,
h (g f ) (h g) f .
, f (x) = y, g( y) = z, h(z) = w,
, x
w. .
,
-

. : C.

. .
. f : {1, 2, 3, 5} {0, 1, 2}, g : {0, 1, 2} {3, 7, 37, 137},
h : {3, 7, 37, 137} {1, 2, 3, 5} , :
0
g: 0
3
1
h: 3
f: 1
2

37

37

137

137

:
) g f ; ) h g; ) f h g; ) g h f .

. ) 1

) 0

) 0

37

137

) g h f (- , h(0)
).
. f : X Y , y Y x X , f (x) = y.
. , ,
, :
) 3

) 3

) 3

) 1

11

11

. ) ; ) ; ) ; ) .
. )
{1, 2} {3, 4, 5, 6}; ) {1, 2, 3}
{4, 5, 6}.

. ) {1, 2} {3, 4, 5, 6} , {3, 4,


5, 6} ,
{3, 4, 5, 6}, .

. : C.

.
) 1

. f : X Y , g : Y Z. , f g , g f ?

. . .
. f ,
, . . f (x) = f (x ) , x = x .
f : X Y ,
y Y , . . f 1 ( y) 6=
y Y .
. , f : X Y
:
) f ;
) f ;
) f , g : Y X ,
gf = Id X , fg = IdY , Id M : M M, m 7 m .

.
. , .
, , Y
,
, , .
, . g . y Y .
f f 1 ( y) x X .
g( y) = x. gf fg .
, , .
y Y . y g( y).
, y x, x = Id(x) =
= g( f (x)) = g( y).

, g f g = f 1 .

. : C.

. , :
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .

,
. .
.
,
, .

. :
,
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, () . ,

.
), ), ) )
A, B, C D :
A

2n

n +1

1
1

2n 2n +1

2
1

n
n

. : C.


- .
.
( ) . , -
() . .
, (
) . ,
( ).
, , ( ).
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, )
; ) ,
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, ),
.
( ) , , , ,
( )
n, n.
( ) .
.
?

: ) ; )

. ) , , , , .
, : , , , , , , ,
, . 9 = 3 3.

: ,
, , .
, , ,
, .

. : C.

,
.
, , ,
, . , , . .
, , .
, , . ,
, , 33 33 = 1089.
) : 33 33 33 = 35937.
) ()
. .
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. : ) ; ) ; )
?

, .
, .
, .


. ) :

; ) :

; ) :

.
?

.
, , , (,
, , ).
, .
,
. .
, ,
.
(, , ),
(, , ),
(, , ),
(, , ),

(, , ),
(, , ),
(, , ),
(, , ),

12 .

(, , ),
(, , ),
(, , ),
(, , ),

. : C.

. .
, (
) . ,
, . , ,
10 9 8 = 720.
,
, . , ( , , )
: (, , )
(, , ).
.
. : ) ; )
; ) ?

. ) .
5 4 3 = 60 (
) .
. , .
, , , ,
: (, , ), (,
, ), (, , ), (, , ), (, ,
), (, , ). : 10 = 60/6.
) : 7 6 5/6 = 35.
) : 10 9 8/6 = 120.
.
, : ) ; ) ; ) ; ) ?

. )
.
, . , ,
, . , :
(, ),
(, ),
(, ),

(, ),
(, ),
(, ).

2 3 = 6.

. : C.

:
, ; 2 3 = 6 .
:
, , ,
. 5 4 3 2 = 120.
) 5 4 3 2 1 =
= 120.
) ,
, , , , ,
. 6 5 4 3 2 = 720
.
) : 2520 .

. :
) , ;
) , ;
) ;
) , .
?

) ) , .
) ) ) ) ,
, . ,
) ),
) ) . ,

, . ,
, :
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7), (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1),
(4, 5, 6, 7, 1, 2, 3), (5, 6, 7, 1, 2, 3, 4),
(7, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
.

(3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1, 2),
(6, 7, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5),

. ) 7! = 5040 ( n! = 1 2 (n 1) n); ) 5040/7 = 720;


) 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 = 604800; ) 604800/10 = 60480.

.
: ) 2 2; ) 3 3; *) 5 5,
?

. : C.

. :
,
. ,
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, ,
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?
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. 5, 10, 20
: ) ; ) ?

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, , , 3 = 2 + 1 3 =
= 1 + 2 .
.
. , ,
.
:
10 = 1 + 1 + 8 = 1 + 2 + 7 = 1 + 3 + 6 = 1 + 4 + 5 = 2 + 2 + 6 = 2 + 3 + 5 =
= 2 + 4 + 4 = 3 + 3 + 4.
, , ,
, ,
( ). , (7, 2, 1) (1, 2, 7).
, .
.
.
, . ,
.
,
.

. : C.

. , ,
.
:
;
,
.
.
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.
(- ). : (9 8)/2 = 36.
. a + b c d?

.
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: (((a + b c d)))?
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a + b c d
,
(a, b, c, d) .
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. , .
, ,
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(a + b c d),

a + (b c) d,

(a + b c) d.

, a, b, c d
.
, , a = 3,
b = 2, c = 1, d = 0.
. ) , {a, b, c, d, e}
,
{0, 1}. ) ,
.

. : C.

. M A = {a, b, c, d, e}
f A {0, 1} : x A
1 ( f (x) = 1), x M, 0,
. (
), .
) .
A = {a, b, c, d, e}
. ,
M = {a, c, e} (1, 0, 1, 0, 1); M = {b, c} (0, 1, 1, 0, 0); M = {a, d, e}
(1, 0, 0, 1, 1) . ,
, , 1,
, 0, .
*. , ?

-, , , . , {, ,
} {, , } , {, , } {, , } . ?
-, - .
. -, ,
{, , } {, , } .
-, ,
, .
,
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. :

. : C.

, . .
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18 = 9 + 9. . ,
,
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.

. ) .
37 . , . ,

. : C.

, 7 .
7 ,
. , , , , .
37 3


+ 3.
7
) .
: . ( ),
- .
1, 3, 7 9 . 2, 4, 6 8 ,
(
). 5
( , 25 2 = 30). , 10 210 2 2 30 = 990 .
990
+
,
+

30
5

10

2
2

+ + 2 = 99 + 6 + 1 + 2 = 108.

.
. - : ) ; *) ; *) ,
. ?

. )
: , , , . ,
, (), .
, ,
,
(. . ).
) : (. . ).
) : (. . ).

. : C.

)
. (
)?

:
,
.
,
.

, .
. ,
1 6, , ,
.
.
1 6
6 () 6 (), . . (. ) 6! = 720.
, 720
, . ,
720 ,
; -
, ?

. : C.

, (
). : 6
(, , , , , ),
4 (, ,
, ,
, ).
6 4 = 24.

,
24 . ,
720 : 24 = 30.

. : C.

.
/

, , .

, .
(, , ). , ,
: , ( ) , , () ,
- , .
. n {1, 2, , n} .


i1 i2 in
,
j1 j2 jn

i1 , i2 , , in {1, 2, , n}
j1 , j2 , , jn {1, 2, , n}, a, a(ik ) = jk k {1, 2, , n}.
n Sn . .
{1, 2, , n} i
i a(i). , ,
.

,
.
, . , n, ,

, .

i1 i2 in
j j j , 1, 2,
1 2

, n, - ( ),
1, 2, , n, ,
-. ,
. a(ik ) = jk , (ik ) ( ) jk .
, , {1, 2, , n} .

. : C.

n .
, .
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. : C.

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. : C.

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x, b(x), a a(b(x)) = ab(x).

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. : C.

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123
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123
= 312 . ab 6= ba. ,



12n
. e = 12n .

. :
) a Sn ae = ea = a;
) a, b, c Sn (ab)c = a(bc);
) a Sn b Sn , ab = ba = e.

. ) ,
. ,


i i i

: a = j1 j2 jn 1 2
n


12n
12n , .

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i i i
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1 2
n


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b .

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a(i) = j, a( j) = i, a(k) = k k 6= i, j, .
: (i j).
. i1 , i2 , , ik
{1, 2, , n}. a, i1 , i2 , , ik ,
, a(i j ) = i j+1 j {1, 2, , k 1}, a(ik ) = i1 a(s) =
= s s
/ {i1 , i2 , , ik }, k. :
(i1 i2 ik ). {i1 , , ik } ,
k .
. ) ,
?
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) S5 ?
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. , Sn . 

514632
) : 164253 .
 
12
S1 . S2 21 . S3 :
         
123
123
123
123
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, 132 , 321 , 231 , 312 .
213

) ,
. (
). , ,
( , ),
, . , 56!.
) S5 C52 = 10 (. . ): (1 2),
(1 3), (1 4), (1 5), (2 3), (2 4), (2 5), (3 4), (3 5), (4 5).
, S5 (3 1)! C53 = 2 10 = 20 :
(1 2 3), (3 2 1); (1 2 4), (4 2 1); (1 2 5), (5 2 1); (1 3 4), (4 3 1); (1 3 5),
(5 3 1); (1 4 5), (5 4 1); (2 3 4), (4 3 2); (2 3 5), (5 3 2); (2 4 5), (5 4 2);
(3 4 5), (5 4 3).
(4 1)! C54 = 3! 5 = 30 (
).
, , 5 4! C55 = 24. :
10 + 20 + 30 + 24 = 84.
) ,
( ),

. : C.

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= (1 6) (1 5) (1 2) (1 4) (1 7) (1 9) (1 8) (1 3).
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. : C.

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,
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B
( ).
B n > 1. ,
n 1 , .
, ,
. ,
. ,
B, . n , ,
,
.
. ,
,
. ,

.
, ,
, .
. A1 , A2 , , Ak , , :
) ( ) ,
) ( ) An An+1 .
An .
( . .)
*. .

, , , . ,
.
,
A1 . .
A2 . ( ).
.
.

. : C.

.
, , :
,

.
. . , . , ()
. ,
. , (!)
. n, An
. n
1.
An1 . An , An1 . , An
. .
.
. , ,
.

. . , , , .
. ,
n. n ,
,
.
n + 1 .
- . ,
n ,
. . , (n + 1)-
. ,
,
(n + 1) ( ).
, ,
.
. , , n , ,
( , )
.

. : C.

. . n = 1.
,
(, ), (, ).
. ,
n . n , , , ,
.
, n + 1 . ,
, ,
(
). : , ,
, , ,
. ,
(n + 1)- ,
.

- ,
:
) n (,
, n = 1),
) , n
( ), , , n + 1.
. , :
) 1 + + n =

n(n + 1)

) 1 + + n3 =

; ) 1 + + n2 =

2
n2 (n + 1)2
4

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6

. ) . n = 1.
1 = 1 .
. ,
n(n + 1)
n, 1 + + n =
. , 2
n + 1,
1 + 2 + + (n + 1) = (1 + + n) + (n + 1) =

(n + 1)((n + 1) + 1)
.
2

()

,
1++n =

n(n + 1)
.
2

()

. : C.

().
() n + 1.
1 + + n + (n + 1) =

n(n + 1)
2

+ (n + 1) =
=

) . 1 =

n(n + 1) + 2(n + 1)
=
2
(n + 1)(n + 2)
(n + 1)((n + 1) + 1)
=
.
2
2

1(1 1 + 1)(2 1 + 1)
.
6

. , 1 + + n2 =

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
.
6

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
+ (n + 1)2 =
6
(n + 1)(n + 2)(2n + 3)
(n + 1)((n + 1) + 1)(2(n + 1) + 1)
=
.
6
6

1 + + (n + 1)2 = 1 + + n + (n + 1)2 =
=

) .

. .
) , n > n + 1.
, n,
n > n + 1. , ,
(n + 1) > (n + 1) + 1, n + 1.
) , N
.
. , , .
. , N
. , N + 1
.
N + 1 .
. N .
B. N .
, , ,
( !) , (. ).
, , , .

. : C.


) , ,
. ,
. .
, , .
. - n .
, ,
. .
, ,
. ,
,
.

. ) . n = 1 1 > 2.
) . n, n = 2. n 2 0, ,
, . ,
n = 2,
, n.
) .
- n , .

n + 1 , ,
. , ,
, ,
, , , .
,
- n + 1 ,
n , ,
. ,
.
,
.
, .
,
.

. : C.

. n
? (, ,

.)

, , , , ,
n ,
, . ,
.
. n = 1, , , ,
, , .
. .
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (,
, , , n = 4).

4=2+2

7=4+3

11 = 7 + 4

16 = 11 + 5

2, 4, 7, 11, 16. , an = an1 + n. ( ) n


n(n + 1)

+ 1 . 2
.
. 1 + 1 = 2.
.
. , n n(n + 1)

+ 1 .
2
n + 1 .
. n n(n + 1)
+ 1 .
2
,
n
n 1 .

. : C.

,
.
n + 1. , n + 1
n(n + 1)
2

+ 1 + (n + 1) =

(n + 1)(n + 2)
2

+1 =

(n + 1)((n + 1) + 1)
2

+1

.
. , :
) 25n+3 + 5n 3n+2 ; ) n2m1 + 1 n + 1;
n
*) 23 + 1 3n+1 .

. ) . 251+3 + 51 31+2 = 256 + 135 = 391 =


= 23 17.
. n,
, n + 1:


25(n+1)+3 + 5n+1 3(n+1)+2 = 25 25n+3 + 5 5n 3 3n+2 =

= 32 25n+3 + 5 5n 3 3n+2 = (15 + 17) 25n+3 + 15 5n 3n+2 =

= 17 25n+3 + 15(25n+3 + 5n 3n+2 ).

, , 17. 17 .
) , : n m? , m.
. n211 + 1 = n + 1 n + 1.
. , m. , ,
m m + 1:
n2(m+1)1 + 1 = n2 n2m1 + 1 = n2 ((n2m1 + 1) 1) + 1 =

= n2 (n2m1 + 1) + 1 n2 = n2 (n2m1 + 1) + (1 n)(1 + n).

n + 1,
n + 1 .

. : C.

( ). , a > 1,
(1 + a)n 1 + na.

. . n = 1 : 1 + a 1 + a .
. n. , n + 1: (1 + a)n+1 =
= (1 + a)(1 + a)n = (1 + a)n + a(1 + a)n .
(1 + a)n 1 + na. , a(1 + a)n a, a > 1
( !). :
(1 + a)n+1 1 + na + a = 1 + a(n + 1).
, . ,
.
. , :
) 2n > n; ) 2n > n2 n > 4; ) n! > 2n n > 3;
*) k, 2n > n2004 n > k.

. . .
) 2n > n, 2n > 1, , 2n+1 = 2n + 2n > n + 1.
) 2n > n2 , 2n > 2n + 1 2n 2 > n2 + 2n + 1 2n+1 > (n + 1)2 .
) n! > 2n , n + 1 > 2 (n + 1)! > 2n+1.
.
,
. , ,
.

. .
n ; (n + 1)-.
,
. , - ,
, .
, , . , , , . ,
.

. : C.


.
A1 , A2 , , Ak , , :
) ( ) ,
) ( ) A1 , A2 , , An An+1 .
.
*. .

. , Ak
Bk : A1 , , Ak .
. , a +
k.

1
a

, ak +

1
ak

.
.
. k = 1 .
1
1
. a + , ak + k k,
a
a
K ( , k = K k = K 1).
1
, a K+1 + K+1 . :
a

a+

1
a

 
 

 
1
1
1
a K + K = a K+1 + K+1 + a K1 + K1 .
a

, ( ). ,
, . , .
*. . ,
-. ,
, .

. ,
. ,
,
.
. n = 3 .

. : C.

. ,
, N . ,
N + 1 . ,
, .
. . k
. , N k N k
.
M
2
k +1


2
M, M
k +1
N +1
N k
+
=
.
,
2
2
2
k +1


2
M, M
, h
,
i
N k
k +1
N +1

+
.
+1
2

* ( ). , , ,
. ,
.

!
).
. .
. ( ,
) ( X , a)
.

a
H

A1

A2

X a XH. ,
- H a A1 A2 (A1 H A2 ). A1
XA2 XH ( H XA2 ),
X a.

. : C.


*. , nn+1 > (n + 1)n n > 2.

. , . n , n + 1 ,
nn+1 > (n + 1)n

(n + 1)n+2 (n + 2)n+1 .

,
(n + 1)2n+2 = ((n + 1)2 )n+1 < ((n + 2)n)n+1,
.

. : C.

.
/

.
: , , , (
). -
, ,
- .
,
. ,
, ,
, . (
, ,
,
.)
, (
): ) ,
) .
, , ,
. , ,
, , , , - (
).
.
. , : n n ,
,
.

 ,

n
(k + 1)- (n + 1)- ,
.
k

. : C.

.
1
1

1
1

1
1
4
6
4
1
.................................


 
4
?.

 
5
3

 
a

.
 
n

.

, -

 
n
m

.
(m + 1)- (n + 1)- .


  m-
 (m + 1)-
n1
n1
n- ,

.
m
m1

 

n1
n1
.

.
m
m1
  
 

n
n1
n1
,
=
+
.
m

m1

. .

. ,

n
nk


.

 
n

. , ,
.

. : C.

, .
. n

 
 An : 0 k n

n
k

n
nk

   
1
1
. n = 1 ,
=
,
0
1
: .
. An .
A
n+1 . k = 0

 k = n + 1
n+1


k
1 k n. k

   
 
 
n+1
n
n
n
=
+
=
+
k

k 1

nk

n+1
n+1k

n
nk +1

= 1. -

n+1
nk +1

 
n
.

k

 (n k) k ,
n
,
nk
k (n k). - .

. ,
m n ,


n+m
,
.
m

.
m n
C(m, n) ( n 0 n).
,
, C(m, n) = C(m 1, n) + C(m, n 1). , ,
C(n, 0) = C(0, n) = 1. C(m, n). 135 ,
, , . ,
.
m + n, , .
. ?

. : C.

. 2n .
. 0, 1.
16 . (
?)
. ,
, , . ,
,
,
0 + 0 = 1 + 1 = 0, 0 + 1 = 1 + 0 = 1.















An : 2n -
2 ,
2n1 < k < 2n k- .
. n = 0. .
. An . An+1 . , (2n + 1)-
, . , 2n < k 2n+1 k-
: (k 2n )- , (: k).
2n+1 - (2n , 2n
, ). .

. : C.

. n m
m- n . :
Cnm .

, Cnm m
n . ,
.
1
. : ) C100
, ) C42 , ) C52 , ) C64 .

1
= 100; ) C42 = 6; ) C52 = 10; ) C64 = 15.
. ) C100

. , .
) {1}, , {100}.
) {1, 2}, {1, 3}, {1, 4}, {2, 3}, {2, 4}, {3, 4}.
) {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
5, .
5, {1, 2, 3, 4}. {1, 2, 3, 4} 6 (. ). : {1, 5}, {2, 5}, {3, 5},
{4, 5}.
) {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} , .

( ), . ,
, .
,
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. , {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
: {1, 6}, {2, 6}, {3, 6}, {4, 6}, {5, 6}.
,
, .
m
m1
. , : ) Cnk = Cnnk ; ) Cnm = Cn1
+ Cn1
.

  )
n
Cnm =
.
m

. ) k , ?
)
,
.

. : C.

. ) k-
(n k)- , ,
, .
) , .
m- :
, , , . , m- , , m-
(n 1)- . , m1
. , m- Cn1
, , ,
, (m 1)- . ,
m1
m
m1
.
+ Cn1
. , Cnm = Cn1
Cn1
. ,

 
n
k

= Cnk .

. n
An
:
 k, 0 k n, n


= Cnk .
k
.
.
An . 



n+1
n+1
k
An+1 . k {0, n + 1},
.
= 1 = Cn+1
=
k
k
  

n
n
k
=
+
. = Cnk + Cnk1 = Cn+1
k
k 1
,
, ). .
. : ) (a + b)3 ; ) (a + b)4 ;
) (2a + 3b)4 .

. . : ,

.
. ) (a + b)3 = (a + b)(a + b)(a + b) = (a2 + ab + ba + b2 )(a + b) =
= (a2 + 2ab + b2 )(a + b) = a3 + a2 b + 2a2 b + 2ab2 + ab2 + b3 = a3 + 3a2 b +
+ 3ab2 + b3 .
) (a + b)4 = (a + b)3 (a + b) = (a3 + 3a2 b + 3ab2 + b3 )(a + b) = a4 +
+ a3 b + 3a3 b + 3a2 b2 + 3a2 b2 + 3ab3 + ab3 + b4 = a4 + 4a3 b + 6a2 b2 +
+ 4ab3 + b4 .

. : C.

.
4

) (2a + 3b) = (2a) + 4(2a) 3b + 6(2a) (3b) + 4 2a(3b) +


+ (3b)4 = 16a4 + 96a3 b + 216a2 b2 + 216ab3 + 81b4 .
. ) (a + b)3 = aaa + aab + aba + abb + baa + bab + bba + bbb =
= a3 + 3a2 b + 3ab2 + b3 .
) (a + b)4 = aaaa + aaab + aaba + aabb + abaa + abab + abba +
+ abbb + baaa + baab + baba + babb + bbaa + bbab + bbba + bbbb = a4 +
+ 4a3 b + 6a2 b2 + 4ab3 + b4 .
( ). )
(a + b), (a + b)2 , (a + b)3 , (a + b)4
. , .
) ,
 
 
 
 
n
n
n
n
(a + b)n =
an +
an1 b +
an2 b2 + +
bn .
0

. )
(a + b)(a + b) ank bk ?

. ) (a + b)(a + b). ,
nk k

  b. , a b
n
Cnk =
. , k
.
. ) n.
n = 1 .
. n = N .
n = N + 1.
 
  
n
n
(a + b)N+1 = (a + b)(a + b)N = (a + b)
an + +
bn =
0
n
 
   

  
 
n
n
n
n
n
n
=
an+1 +
+
an b + +
+
abn +
bn+1 .
0

n1

n+1
k

. , :
   
 
n
n
n
)
+
++
= 2n ;
0
1
n
   
 
n
n
n
)

+ + (1)n
= 0.
0

 
n
k

n
k 1

. a = 1, b = 1, ), a = 1, b = 1,
).

. : C.

. ) ,
.

. .


.


 
n1
n1
n
)
+

.
k
k 1
k
,
+ .
. ) n . , k- 0 k n,
. , 2n .
) :
   
   
n
n
n
n
+
+ =
+
+
0

, n , ,
. , ,
, , ,
. - a.
, , {a}, , ,
{a}. ,
, .
. ,
, .
.
. ,

 
n
k

n!
k!(n k)!

. k- n- .
.
k- n- . n ;

. : C.

(n 1) (
);
(n 2)
. . ,
n!
n(n 1)(n k + 1) =
. ,
(n k)!
k- k!
.
. n

An : 0 k n


n
k

n!
.
k!(n k)!

.
.

 An . An+1 . k {0, n + 1}
n+1

(n+1)!

(n+1)!

=1=
=
. 0 < k < n+1.
k
0!(n+1)!
k!(n+1k)!


   

n+1
n
n
n!
n!
=
+
=
+
=
k

k 1

k!(n k)!

(k 1)!(n k + 1)!
n!((n k + 1) + k)
=
k!(n k + 1)!

(n + 1)!
.
k!(n k + 1)!

. , An .
. , :
 2  2
 2  
n
n
n
2n
)
+
++
=
;
0
1
n
n


 
 

  
n+1
n+k1
n+k
n+k+1
n
+
++
+
=
;
)
0
1
k1
k
k
 
 
 
n
n
n
= n 2n1 ;
++n
+2
)
n
2
1
  
    
n
nk
m
n
)

.
k

mk

. ) .

. B = {1, 2, , 2n}, A1 = {1, 2, , n} A2 = {n + 1, , 2n}. n- X B : X A1 X A2 . ,


n- B A1
A2 , n. ,
      

  
2n
n
n
n
n
n
n
=
+
++
.
n
0
n
1
n1
n
0
  

n
n
,
=
.
k

nk

. : C.

) k- {1, 2,
, n + k + 1} , 1
l, l + 1. , , , A0 ; ,
1, 2, A1 , . .
, Al .
{1, , l} k l {l + 2, , n + k + 1}. ,

n+kl
. .
kl
)
{1, 2, , n} . ,
, . k- ,
k . , k-

 
n
k
. k,
k
.
, ,
.
n . , , 2n1 . ,
.
) n-
k- (m k)- . ,
,
. ,
.
,
,
. ,
.
 
2n
. )
n
n n ,
. ,
.
, k
.

. : C.



 
n

,


k






n
k

n
nk

. , ,
 2
n
k ,
. ,
k
.
.
) k.
k = 1 .
. k 1
.


 

 k. 

n+k +1
n+k
n+k
n+k
=
+
.
=
k
k 1
k 1
k
 
 
n+k 1
n+k 2
n
=
+
++
.
k 1

k 2

, .

. :
, ,
?

. , ,
.
. - : 1, 16, 120,
560, 1820, 4368, 8008, 11440, 12870, 11440, 8008, 4368, 1820, 560,
120, 16, 1. ,
26333, 12870.
. , ,
, , ,
. x. 8
= 12870. , 2x + 12870
x C16
,
2x + 12870 = 65536, x = 26333 > 12870.
.
, .

. , , .

. : C.

2
1
0
=
C16
C16
. , : 216 C16
= 65536 1 16 120 = 65399.

.
n k.
*.
x1 , x2 , , xm , x1 + x2 + + xm = n?

. m 1
n .
. , m 1 n . ,

: x1 , , x2 , , xm .
(!). m 1
n
 
n+m1
n ,
.
n

. : C.

, .
, -, , ( ). ,
( , ,
, ). , ,
.
, ,

( , , ).

.
, .
. = (V , E)
V E,
() .
,
.

. 1 2 , f : V(1 ) V(2 ), A B
1 , f (A)
f (B) 2 .
. ?

. , . , : , ; .
, . , ,
, , .

, .

. : C.

2
3

1
5

1
5

, , , NP- .
,
.
. . ,
,
( , ,
. .).
, ,
.
.
.

. ,
.
. , 0
, :
: , , , :
: , ,
:

, ,
:

. : C.

(, )
:

. ) ,
, .
) ,
2 15, ,
.

. )

. ) ,
, .
) ,
, .

. ) , .

) , ,
, .
. ,
, . ,
. -
,

. : C.

.
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
, ?

. , .
. , ,
( , , , , ), ,
.
.
n , ,
, .

. , , n
, ( ,
, ),
:
. ,
, : 2k,
k ;
2k + 1 , k ,
k + 1.
:
n ,
, , Mn .
, ,
, Mn = k k = k 2 , n = 2k, Mn = k(k + 1), n = 2k + 1.
, .
: n = 2k, Mn = k 2 .
n = 2k + 1, Mn = k(k + 1).
. n = 2 n = 3 .
. . n = 2k 1
. , M2k = k 2 . , .

. : C.

M2k > k (M2k < k ,


k 2 ).
( ). 2k
, c M2k (> k 2 ) . ,
( a)
, k .
, , k
: a1 , a2 , , ak , . , a1 .
, a. ,
k : b1 , b2 , , bk ,
( ) ai
b j . ,
2k + 1 , .

,
, , k .
, , 2k 1
, M2k k > k 2 k = k(k 1) .
.
.
. ( ) A . : deg A.
. , .

. :

1
1

3
3

1
1

2
2

2
2

0
0

1
3

0
0

. : C.

. ,
.

. , n > 1 ,
.
0 n 1, n .
, 0,
1, , n 1. 0
n 1. n > 1, . 0
, n 1 .
.
.
. , .

. ( , , ). ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
.
. ,
v0 e1 v1 e2 v2 en vn , vi , ei
vi1 vi . n . , .

. : C.

( ) ,
.
.


:
,
.
. , , .
. , .

. .


() ()
(
). ,
: ,
,
. ,
, : (
, ),
( , ), (
), ( ),
( ).
: , . , .
, . : ,
. ,

. : C.

. ,
.
. , , ,
, . .
. , ,
.

, ,
.
,
.
,
, ,
.
,
.
.


. , ?

. , . ,
:

. , , 1, , .
?

. , ,
1, 0. ,
, ,
.
, ,
:

. : C.

. ,
(. . , ),
.
. , : ) ;
) 1.

. ) .
, , .
, ,
, , n (n
) , .
, 1.
) , 1.
. , 1
.

. n
.
.
. n
. n + 1 .
n + 1 . 1 . ,
n .
n 1 . ,
n 1 + 1 = n .
.
XVIII . ,
?

. , .

. : C.

.
X . , , X ( ,
). , X , X
.
. ,
, .

, ,
,
, ,
.
. ?

. ,
.
:

. , ,
.

. ,
. . , ,
. ,
: , -
, - . ,
,
.
, . , .
, ,
, . - ,
,

. : C.

, . , , ,
,
.
, - A,
, ,
. ,
A ,
. ,
, .
, ,
.

*. n . . ,
1, , n, (i + 1)-
i- ( i = 1, , n 1).

. n. n = 1 . . n
.
n + 1 . , n
. ,
, (i + 1)- i-
i = 1, , n 1. (n + 1)- ,
n + 1. , (n + 1)-

, .
* ( ). ) ,
m, n k , k m
, n .
k R(m, n).
) R(3, 4).

. : C.

. ) m + n, R(m 1, n)
R(m, n 1) , ,
R(m 1, n) + R(m, n 1), m
, n .
, R(m, n) m, n R(m, n)
R(m 1, n) + R(m, n 1).
- v
R(m 1, n) + R(m, n 1) .
R(m 1, n) , R(m, n 1) .
, v, m 1
( v m ),
n . ,
v, m ,
n 1 ( v n ). , m
, n .
) R(3, 4) R(2, 4) + R(3, 3). ,
R(2, n) = n n. , R(3, 3) = 6.
, R(3, 4) 4 + 6 = 10. , 9
, ,
. , R(2, 4) = 4,
- R(3, 3) = 6 . , 4 8 6 = 2,
, 3. ,
3 9 = 27, , . , R(3, 4) 9.
,
,
:

, R(3, 4) = 9.
.
, (
).
.

. : C.

.
k, k.
. k, ,
k2 + 1.
*. ) , k
2 k2 + 1 .
) k = 1, 2, 3.
) k = 7?
**) k = 57?
) , k
.

. ) -
k 2. k ,
k 1 . ,
, ,
k + k (k 1) + 1 = k 2 + 1. 2,
.
)

k=1

k=2

k=3

) .
) . . .
(, .; . http:
//ium.mccme.ru/f98/combtop.html).
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. .

. : C.

. (
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. : C.

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, ()
).

. :

i1 i2 in
j1 j2 jn

, (k, l), ik > il , jk < jl , .


, , i (i).

. : C.

. , , . , ,
.
, . , ,
(k, l), ik > il , jk < jl .
{k, l}
( , k < l): ik > il , jk < jl
ik < il , jk > jl , , (,
(k, l),
(l, k)); ik > il , jk > jl il < il , jk < jl ,
, .
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123
, . 123 
 

514632
123456
. 164253 = 635412 . 12: (3, 6), (4, 6), (1, 6),

 
1
1

(2, 6), (1, 3), (2, 3), (4,


(1, 5),
 (2,5), (3, 5), (1, 4), (3, 4). ,
 5), 
1234
4321
. 1234 = 4321 . 6: (4, 3), (4, 2),
 
1
(4, 1), (3, 2), (3, 1), (2, 1). . 1
 
 
 
 
123
123
12
12
. 12 , 21 . 132 , 213
 
 
 
123
123
123
, 231 , 321 , 312 .

. a b , a = (1, 2, 3, 4), b = (1, 4, 3).


, :
) e; ) a; ) b; ) b2 = b b; ) b3 = b b b; ) ab; ) ba?





1234
1234
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1234
1234
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) b2 = 3241 ; ) b3 = 1234 ; ) ab = 1324


1234
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. , ) (
) ; ) k k.

. : C.

, , ,
.
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, 
1 2i j n
: .
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i
j
n


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1

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.
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k , b
l , ab
k + l . : .
) , an
n a.
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 1 2n
: a = a a a , b =




1 2
n
b b b
b b b
= 11 22 nn . ab = a1 a2 an . 1 2

a a1 , , an , b b1 , , bn , ab
.
. Sn : ?

. .
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(,
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. : C.

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. 1 12.
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. , a Sn , b Sn , ab = ba = e. : a1 .
. , a b
(ab)1 = b1 a1 .

. , b1 a1
ab , abb1 a1 = e = b1 a1 ab,
.
. a Sn , b Sn
: ) ba = b; ) ba = ab; *) ba = ab1 .

. : C.

. ) ba = b b . , b1 ba = b1 b, a = e.


1 2n
) a = i i i .




1 2
n
1 2n
1 2n

m.
(k
m)
=
(k
m)
i1 i2 in
i1 i2 in
, a , a(k m) a,
ik im (!); (k m)a
a,
k m ( !).
, a(k m) = (k m)a, k = ik m = im ,
k = im m = ik . k m ,
n > 2 a . n = 2
.
) , ,
b b = b1 .

* ( ). a, c
Sn , b = c1 ac.


i i
) , a a = j1 jn ,
1
n


c(i1 )c(in )
b = c( j )c( j ) .
1

) , a
a = (i1 ik ) ( j1 jl ) , b = (c(i1 ) c(ik ))
(c( j1 ) c( jl ))

. .
. . .
. ak
k.

. ,
, . , , ,
.
:
) ak := |a a{z
a}, k , ;
k

) a1 := a;

. : C.

) a := e;
) a1 , a;
) ak := (ak )1 , k , k > 2.
: a0 := e,
ak+1 := ak a k 0, ak , ak , k > 0.
ak : ak :=
:= (a1 )k . () .
. , a, b Sn k l : ) a0 = e; a1 = a; ak+l = ak al ; akl = (ak )l ; )
ab = ba, (ab)k = ak bk .

. )
. :
kl
k
(ak )l = |ak
{z a} = |a
{z a} = a , k l .
l

kl

k l ,
a a
a1 a1 .
) ,
k, . k > 0,

k k
(ab)k = |ab
{z ab} = |a
{z a} |b
{z b} = a b ,
k

ab = ba. k < 0,

1
1 1
1
1 1
(ab)k = |b1 a1
{z b a } = |a
{z a } |b
{z b } =
k

= (a1 )k (b1 )k = ak bk .

. ) , a, b Sn
x, y Sn , ax = b, ya = b.
x = y?
) , a, b, c Sn
(a = b) (ac = bc) (ca = cb).

. ) x = a1 b y = ba1 , , ,
. x

. : C.


  y. ,
 
123
123
a = 321 , b = 132 , .
) , ( )
.
. , a Sn
k, ak = e.

. n , a : an = am .
k n m.
. k, a Sn ak = e,
a.
.
c1 , , cn . ,
(|c1 |, , |cn |) ( |ci | ci ).

. k = (|c1 |, , |cn |). k |ci |, cki = e.


, , k = c1k ckn = e.
, l 6= e 0 < l < k. ,
i l |ci |, cli 6= e. l
. ,
.
. k a, an = e
, n k.

. n k ,
.
2007

1000

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).








 
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1234567
) 4657231 .

. : C.

.
/

.
(
).
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,
.
. : a b,
k, a = k b. ,

,
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.
a .. b, b 6= 0, b
, .
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5 7 5/7, ;
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.
(
).
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.
.

. : C.

RSA
, , ( ) m
, .
. .
. a
b, k, a = kb. b
a. , b a.
.
: a .. b b | a.
. , a:
.
.
.
) a 6= 0, a .. a; ) a .. 1; ) a 6= 0, 0 .. a.

. ) a = 1 a; ) a = a 1; ) 0 = a 0.

. , a, b, c, x, y:
.
.
.
) a .. b b .. c, a .. c;
..
) a . b a 6= 0, |a| |b|;
.
.
) c 6= 0, a .. b ac .. bc;
.
..
..
) a . b c . b, (a c) .. b;
..
..
.
) a . b c . b, ax + cy .. b;
..
..
) a . b b . a, a = b a = b;
.
.
) a .. b, ac .. b;
.
..
..
) a . b c6 . b, (a + c)6 .. b;
..
..
) ab = cd a . c, d . b.

.
. ) : a .. b k Z: a =
..
.
= kb, b . c l Z: b = lc. a = klc a .. c;
..
) a . b a 6= 0 k Z: a = bk |a| = |bk| = |b| |k| |a| |b|,
|k| 1;
.
) a .. b k Z: a = bk.
c. ac = bck. .
.
.
.
) a .. b c .. b k, l Z: (a = bk, c = bl) a c = bk bl =
..
= b(k l) . b.
.
.
) a .. b c .. b k, l Z: (a = bk, c = bl) ax + cy = bkx + bly =
..
= b(kx + ly) . b;
.
.
) a .. b b .. a k, l Z: (a = bk, b = al) a = bk = alk lk = 1
(l = 1, k = 1) (l = 1, k = 1);
.
.
) a .. b k Z: a = bk ac = bkc ac .. b;
.
.
.
) . a + c .. b, a .. b, c 6 .. b,
.
k, l Z: (a + c = bk, a = bl) (a + c) a = c = bk bl = b(k l) c .. b.
.

,
.

. : C.

.
.
) ab = cd a .. c k Z: a = ck ckb = cd. c 6= 0, c
. kb = d, .
. , a, b, c, d:
) b | a c6 | b, c | a;
) b | a c | a, bc | a;
) c | ab, c | a c | b?

. ) . , a = 6, b = 2, c = 5.
) . , a = 30, b = 10, c = 15.
, bc ( ) , a. , b c
5. , b
c , .
.
) . , a = 10, b = 15, c = 6.
, c
ab, a b.
(. ), c
.


. ( ): ) ; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) ; ) .

. ) 2, 2
( ).
) 3, 3.
) 4, ,
, 4.
) 5, .
) 9, .
) 11, , , , , 11.
. 2 5.
10k + l, k -
, l 0 l < 10.
, l
(, 2547 = 254 10 + 7). , 2 5 .
4.
, .

. : C.

3 9. , 5
abcde ( ). :
abcde = e + 10d + 100c + 1000b + 10000a =
= e + d + 9d + c + 99c + b + 999b + a + 9999a =
= (a + b + c + d) + 9(d + 11c + 111b + 1111a).
- .
11 :
abcde = e + 10d + 100c + 1000b + 10000a =
= e + 11d d + 99c + c + 1001b b + 9999a + a =
= 11(d + 9c + 91b + 909a) + (a b + c d + e).

11, : 11, ,
,
. , ,
. , 11 5658 = 62238.
. , 2004,
?

. , . 3
9, 3, 9.
,
,
(, 3 9,
).
*. a . ,
a 27.

. a b. a = 3b.
a , , , b = 3c,
a = 9c. a , , ,
b = 9d, a = 27d, .
.
.
. , ) a2 .. (a + b), b2 .. (a + b); *)
..
3
3
3
x + y + z 6= 0, (x + y + z 3xyz) . (x + y + z).

. : C.

.
.
.
. ) a2 .. (a + b) a2 b2 = (a b)(a + b) ..
..
2
2
2
2
. (a + b), , , a (a b ) = b a + b.
) , P(x, y, z) , P(x, y, z)(x + y + z) =
= x 3 + y 3 + z 3 3xyz. ,
( x, y z) , P(x, y, z) = a(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) +
+ b(xy + yz + zx). P , a = 1, b = 1.
.
?

. .
.
( ). , 30
: (1, 30), (2, 15), (3, 10), (5, 6).
. N {k, N/k}.
N ,
N, . N , ,
.


. p > 1 ,
1, 1, p p. , , .
. , .

. :
a b c + 1 a, b, c,
.
. . , . . a1 , a2 , an
. x = a1 a2 an + 1.
. , ,
, x, x, 1 1, , .
.
:
pn ; p1 pn + 1
. , .
( 2 3 5 7 11 13 + 1 = 30031 = 59 509.)

. : C.

. , n n
.

. n : (n + 1)! + 2,
(n + 1)! + 3, , (n + 1)! + (n + 1). .
, , , ,
. , n!
1 2 (n 1) n.
*. n? ,
n. , n > 3 n? > n.

. p1 , , pk , n. N = n? 1 = p1 p2 pk 1; m -
. N pi , m n.
, N + 1 > m. , n? > n.
. ) p , p + 2 p + 4
.
**) ,
p, p + 2 .

. ) .


. ) p 3k k.
. p 3k + 1
k, p + 2 = 3k + 3 , p . :
p = 3k + 2 k, p + 4 = 3k + 6
3, .
)
.
( ).
2 1000. 2
, 2, 2.
,
, .
,
. ? ( .)

. .
. , ,
,
,

. : C.

.
.
. , 100.

. : C.

. , a , a
p
- , a.

. (a ,
p
a - , a).
. a . , m
a = mn, m > 1,
p
p n ,
n > 1. , m > a, n > a,
, , mn > a. .
. ,
, , ,
.
. , :
) , , ;
) x, ,
a

x = p1 1 p2 2 pnan ,

p1 < p2 < < pn , a1 , a2 , , an


;
*) ( ) x
,
a

bm
x = p1 1 p2 2 pnan = q11 q22 qm
,

, m = n 1 i n
pi = qi , ai = bi ;
) ai , x ,
y, x = y 2 .

. ) , 1,
, (, )
, .
, . , ,

.
) : .
) .
.
.
: ab .. c, c , a .. c, b .. c.

. : C.

(.
). , .
, :
b b
a a
bm
. x = x x = p1 1 p2 2 pnan x = q11 q22 qm
: (p1 p1 )(pn pn ) = (q1 q1 )(qn qn ). p1 .
p1 , . ,
( ?), , q p1 .
q , , qi = p1 i.
p1 . , .
, , ,
, 1 -
, , . .

a a
a /2 a /2
) ai , x = p1 1 p2 2 pnan = p1 1 p2 2 pnan /2 2 .
. 1024, 57, 84, 91,
391, 101, 1000, 1001, 1543.

. 1024 = 210 , 57 = 3 19, 84 = 3 22 7, 91 = 7 13, 391 = 17 23,


101 , 1000 = 23 53 , 1001 = 11 13 7, 1543 .

. : C.

.
/



. :
,
.
.
, ,
, .
, (
), .
, , ,
(
).
. .

. , a b 6= 0 q r , : ) a = qb + r; ) 0 r < |b|.
. q r , ,
a b.

: ,
- . ,
. ,
. , ,
. . ,
, . ,
- .

: ?
- ,
?
, ? .

. ,
.
, : ,
?

. : C.

) 0 < r < |b|


(: ,
a b 6= 0 . :
, .)
) 0 < r |b|
(: .
,
, ,
, .)
) 0 r < 2|b|
(: ,
. , 7 = 2 3 + 1 = 1 3 + 4.
7 3
.)
) 0 r < b
(: b.)
) |b| r < |b|
(: - .)


. b < 0 b > 0 ,
b < 0. b(|a| + 1) < a <
< b(|a| 1), q, bq a,
. q0 . bq0 a, b(q0 1) > a, 0 a q0 b < b = |b|.
, q0 , r0 = a q0 b
.
. (q1 , r1 ) (q2 , r2 ): a = bq1 + r1 , a = bq2 + r2 .
, b(q1 q2 ) = r2 r1 , r2 r1
b. 0 r1 < |b|, 0 r2 < |b| r2 r1
a r2
a r1
=
= q2 ,
|b| 1, , r1 = r2 , q1 =
b
b
(q1 , r1 ) (q2 , r2 ) .
. : ) 17 4; ) 23
7; ) 1 5.

. ) q = 5, r = 3, 17 = 4 (5) + 3.
) q = 3, r = 2.
) q = 1, r = 4.

. : C.

. 59?

. 59, 59, 29, 29, 19, 19, 14, 14, 11, 11, 9, 9, 8, 8, 7,
7, 6, 6, 5, 5, 4, 4, 3, 3, 2, 2, 1, 1, 0.
1 60
. , 60,
.
. : ) n2 n + 1;
) n2 + n + 2 n 1; ) 2100 1 27 1; *) 2m 1 2n 1.

. ) n2 = (n 1)(n + 1) + 1. (n 1), 1.
) ,
:
n2 + n + 2 n 1
n2 n
n+2
2n + 2
2n 2
4


: n2 + n + 2 =
= (n 1)(n + 2) + 4. n > 5 n < 4 4,
(n + 2). , n 1 4, 3, 2, 1 (
).
) .
2100 1
27 1
100
93
2 2
293 + 286 + 279 + 272 + + 22
93
2 1
293 286
286 1
286 279
279 1
279 272
..
.
29 1
29 22
22 1

. : C.

) 2m 1 2n 1 : 2m 1 2mn (2n 1) =
= 2mn 1. ,
m n n. ,
2m 1 = (2mn + 2m2n + + 2mqn )(2n 1) + 2r 1,
q r m n. ,
2mn + + 2mqn 2r 1.
*. ) , a2k+1 + 1 a + 1
.
) a2k + 1 a + 1.

, , P(x)
x x0 P(x0 ).
. ) a2k+1 + 1 = (a + 1)(a2k a2k1 + + 1).
) , 2, a2k 1 a + 1.
, a2k 1 = a(a2k1 + 1) (a + 1).
a + 1 , , a + 1.


. a b .
.
d, a .. d, b .. d.
: (a, b).
. , a b (a 6= 0 b 6= 0) (a, b)
.

. , a, b, ,
. ,
, |b| (?), ,
a b. , ,
( ).
. , a, b c (a 6= 0 b 6= 0):
.
) (a, b) 1; ) (a, b) = |a| b .. a;
) (a, ca + b) = (a, b).

. ) . .
.
.
) , (a, b) = |a| b .. a. , b .. a
..
(a, b) = |a|. b . a, |a| a b.
, ,
a , , |a|.

. : C.

) ,
.
, . : d =
= (a, b), D = (a, ca + b), a = dx, b = dy. , a = dx,
ca + b = d(cx + y) d. , d
a ca + b. , D d ( D
a ca + b).
. a
D, ca D. , ca ca + b
D, , b D. , D
a b. , d D.
, D = d.
( ). .
(a, b) , a b.
(b, r), r a b. (b, r)
. ,
(d, 0). , :
) ;
) d = (a, b).

. ) , (
) . ,
,
, .
) ) , (a, b) (b, r) . ,
. , d =
= (a, b).
.
) (91, 147); ) (144, 233).

. ) (91, 147) = (147, 91).


: (147, 91) (91, 56) (56, 35) (35, 21)
(21, 14) (14, 7) (7, 0). , (91, 147) = 7.
) (144, 233) = (233, 144). : (233, 144) (144, 89) (89, 55)
(55, 34) (34, 21) (21, 13) (13, 8) (8, 5) (5, 3) (3, 2)
(2, 1) (1, 0). , (144, 233) = 1.

. : C.

.
. 0 < a < 1000, 0 < b < 1000. ,
, ) 14; ) 13 ?

.
, : (1, 0) (2, 1) (3, 2)
(5, 3) (8, 5) (13, 8) (21, 13) (34, 21) (55, 34) (89, 55)
(144, 89) (233, 144) (377, 233) (610, 377) (987, 610). ()
,
, 14 ( ,
).
(a, b) (c, d), a c
b d. , a b, ,
14 .
(). , i : i- () i- ().
.
: () (d, 0), ,
(1, 0).
: i- (m, n) () (k, l) ().
(m + n, m), (m, n) (),
(k + l, k), (k, l) ().
, , 15
(), (1597, 987), ,
a b 1000.
. ,
a b k l, ak + bl = (a, b).

. ,
ak + bl. (a, b) .
a = 147, b = 91:
(147, 91)
(91, 56)
(56, 35)
(35, 21)
(21, 14)
(14, 7)
(7, 0)

147 =
147 1 + 91 0
91 =
147 0 + 91 1
56 = 147 91 = 147 1 91 1
35 = 91 56 = 147 1 + 91 2
21 = 56 35 =
147 2 91 3
14 = 35 21 = 147 3 + 91 5
7 = 21 14 =
147 5 91 8
0 = 14 2 7 = 147 13 + 91 21

. : C.

. , ax + by = d
.
, d .. (a, b). ,
(a, b) , ax + by.

. () ax + by = d
. (a, b), ,
.
. d .. (a, b).
..
() d . (a, b), . . m (a, b) = d.
k0 l0 , ak0 + bl0 = (a, b).
x = k0 m, y = l0 m ax + by = d.
. 32 25 . 1 .

. , k l,
32k + 25l = 1: 7 = 32 25, 4 = 25 3 7 = 4 25 3 32,
3 = 7 4 = 4 32 5 25, 1 = 4 3 = 9 25 7 32. ,
25
,
32 .

. , p , a p,
x y, ax + py = 1.

. p a p, ,
a p (. . ),
, x y, ax + py = 1.
.
.
. p . , ab .. p, a .. p
..
b . p.

.
.
. . ab .. p, a6 .. p
..
b6 . p. x1 , x2 , y1 y2 ,
: ax1 + py1 = 1, bx2 + py2 = 1. :
.
abx1 x2 + py1 bx2 + py2 ax1 + p 2 y1 y2 = 1; ab .. p,
p, . .
. (
).

. , .
:
x = p1 p2 pn = q1 q2 qm

. : C.

( p1 , p2 , , pn , q1 , q2 , , qn
),
.
, , p1 .
.
.
q1 q2 qn = q1 (q2 qn ) .. p1 , q1 .. p1 (
.
q = p1 , ), q2 qn = q2 (q3 qn ) ..
.. 1
..
. p1 . , , , q2 . p1
( q2 = p1 , ), q3 qn =
.
= q3 (q4 qn ) .. p1 . ,
, p1 c qi .
. a b .
.
d, d .. a, d .. b.
: (a, b).
. , a b (ab 6= 0):
) (a, b) ;
) (a, b) (a, b) = ab.

. ) , a
b, , |ab| .
, , a b. ,
.
) (a, b) d. a1 b1 ,
a = d a1 , b = d b1 . (a, b)/d D. D
a1 , b1 . a1 b1 , D
a1 b1 , , (a, b) a1 b1 d,
(a, b) a1 b1 d. a1 b1 d a b. ,
(a, b) = a1 b1 d (a, b) (a, b) = d a1 b1 d = ab.
. (12, 15), (120, 45).

. (12, 15) = 3 4 5 = 60, (120, 45) = 3 5 23 3 = 360.


. (x0 , y0 )
ax + by = d.
a0 b0 , (a, b)a0 = a, (a, b)b0 = b.
, ax + by = d
x = x0 + b0 t,

y = y0 a0 t,

t Z.

. , x y . , . (x, y) -

. : C.

. , ax0 + by0 = d ax + by = d, a(x x0 ) + b( y y0 ) = 0.


(a, b), a0 (x x0 ) + b0 ( y y0 ) = 0.
k l , a0 k + b0 l = 1. a0 (x x0 ) +
+ b0 ( y y0 ) = 0
0 = a0 k(x x0 ) + b0 k( y y0 ) = (x x0 ) + b0 (k( y y0 ) l(x x0 )).
, x x0 b0 , x x0 = b0 t.
, a0 b0 t + b0 ( y y0 ) = 0, y y0 = a0 t.
. :
) 121x + 91 y = 1; ) 343x + 119 y = 42; ) 111x 740 y = 11.

. ) (. ): 30 = 121 91, 1 = 91 3 30 = 4 91 3 121,


(3, 4) .
,
x = 3 + 91t,


y = 4 121t,

)
: 105 = 343 2 119, 14 = 119 105 = 3 119 343, 7 =
= 105 7 14 = 8 343 23 119. , (343, 119) = 7 =
= 8 343 23 119.
x = 8 6 = 48, y = 23 6 = 138 343 = 49 7, 119 = 17 7.
,

x = 48 + 17t, y = 138 + 49t.
) 37,
, .
*. n, 1. .
, ,
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( : . . ., ., , ).
. , .

. : C.

- ( )
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b a). ,
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a b, a < b.
a.
b a b.
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.

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. : C.

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a b.


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. (a, b)
, (a, b) R.
,
: a b ,
a R b; , a R a,
, .
. :
) a R b, a b (mod 2) X = {0, , 9}.
) a R b, b | a X = {2, , 15} (
).
) A R B, A B
{0, 1, 2}.
) a R b, a = b X = {0, , 5}.
) a R b, a b X = {0, , 5}.

. . .

. : C.

, 1}
{0

)
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}
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}
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, 1,
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. : C.

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. : C.

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a 6= b.
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a > b (,
).

. : C.

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a, c).
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a b.
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.

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,
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. , , , , ( , a b)
) a b a, b M, M;
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. : C.


) a b
;
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;
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;
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a b f (a) = f (b);
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b a ( a b !).
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a | b b | c, a | c), (2 | 4, 46 | 2).
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) , . , A B B C, A C.
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.
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. : C.

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. : C.

. A B. B R. R A A? ,
a1 R A a2 , a1 , a2 A, (a1 , a2 ) R. ,
R , A
(
!).
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M. Na = {x M | a x} a.

. , M , a b,
a b . Na a ( a).
. ,
, .
, M
M .

.


. , Na Nb , c, (.
). , .

d
Nb

Na

, Na Nb Nb Na .
. d Na , d a (
a d, !) a c,
, d c, , c b, ,
, , d b, d Nb .
: a Nb ,
Na Nb .
. M.
M/ .

. : C.

. , . , , .
.
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n ( n ) . {0} N {}.
, , .
, , . . ,
,
.
) M , X , X .
) Y . .

. : C.


,
M X . , , :
) M = [0, 1], X = {0, 1}? .

) M , X ? .

) M x 2 + y 2 = 1, X ? .

) M 1 x 2 + y 2 2, X , ,
x 2 + y 2 = 1? .
.

*) M , X ? .

) ,
,
( ).
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. Sn : a b,
c, c1 ac = b.

. : C.

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.

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.
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.
: a a .
: a b c, b a c1 . ,
. , b = c1 a c, ,
c1 c, : a = c b c1 .
: a b c1 , b
d c2 , a d c1 c2 . 1
: b = c1
1 a c1 , d = c2 b c2 ; ,
,
1
1
d = c1
a (c1 c2 ).
2 (c1 a c1 ) c2 = (c1 c2 )

d a c3 = c1 c2 .

. : C.

.
: , ,
c1 ,
c2 . ,
d, a,
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c1
1 ,
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. : C.

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. , .
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.
. a b m 6= 0, a b .. m.
: a b (mod m).
. , a b m
, a m b
m.

. , a b (mod m) ,
.
a b .. m, a b = km. b m : b = lm +
+ r. , a b (mod m) a (lm + r) = km,
b = lm + r, ( ) a = (l + k)m + r, b = lm + r.
a b
m.
. , m .

. .
. , a1 , a2 , b1 , b2 , c, m
) a1 b1 (mod m), a2 b2 (mod m) a1 + a2 b1 + b2 (mod m);
) a1 b1 (mod m) ca1 cb1 (mod m);
) a1 b1 (mod m), a2 b2 (mod m) a1 a2 b1 b2 (mod m).

. : C.

. ), )
:
.
.
a1 b1 (mod m), a2 b2 (mod m) a1 b1 .. m, a2 b2 .. m
.
a1 b1 + a2 b2 .. m a1 + a2 b1 + b2 (mod m);
.
.
a1 b1 (mod m) a1 b1 .. m c(a1 b1 ) .. m
.
ca1 cb1 .. m ca1 cb1 (mod m);

) a1 b1 (mod m), a2 b2 (mod m) a1 = b1 + k1 m, a2 = b2 +


+ k2 m. a1 a2 = b1 b2 + m(k1 b2 + k2 b1 ) + m2 k1 k2 b1 b2 (mod m).
. , a b (mod m),
) an bn (mod m) n;
*) f (x)
f (a) f (b) (mod m).

. ) ) n.
) )
.


. , a b (mod m) a, b 0, 2a 2b
(mod m)?

. . , m = 2, a = 0, b = 2.
. an an1 a1 a0 x. ,
) x a0 + + an (mod 3), x a0 + + an (mod 9);
) x a0 (mod 2), x a0 (mod 5);
) x a0 a1 + + (1)n an (mod 11).

. . , .
. , x , x 2 1 (mod 8).

. x .
. x ,
. x = 2n + 1,
x 2 = 4n2 + 4n + 1 = 4n(n + 1) + 1. ,
n, n + 1 , , n(n + 1) ,
x 2 1 .
*. , : ) x 2 + y 2 = 3z2 ; ) x 2 + y 2 + z2 = 4t 2 .

. : C.

. ) , . x, y z , , (x, y, z) = 1. ,
1 4. ,
(2n)2 = 4n2 , , 4. ,
x 2 , y 2 z 2 . ,
0, 1 2 4, 0 3,
4. 4
x y. , x, y z , (x, y, z) = 1.
.
) .
*. , , ) ; )
.

. ) .
) K(N) 1 N 3 ,
.
1 N 3
(, ,
).
, , ,
(, ). , K(N) N
. , 2(K(N) N).
1
N, , N 3 .
, 2(K(N) N) N 3 , K(N) 0,5N 3 + N,
0,5N 3 N 1 N 3
. ,
N 0,5N 3 N
.
.
) 3x 1 (mod 7); ) 6x 5 (mod 9); ) 4x 2 (mod 10).

. , (
) x. ,
( -

. : C.

). ,
.
) x = 5 + 7k;
) : , 6x 3,
5 + 9k = 2 + 3(1 + 3k);
) x = 3 + 10k, x = 8 + 10k, , x = 3 + 5k.
. ax b (mod m)
.
, b .. (a, m).

. ax b (mod m) ax b = ym ( (x, y)).


.
. p , a 6 0 (mod p),
ax b (mod p) ,
p.

.
; , p.
, x, y , ax ay (mod p),
.
a(x y) .. p. ( p ), a, x y
p; a p , , x y (mod p).
, . ,
, .
* ( ). a1 , a2 ,
, an . b1 , b2 , , bn
x ,
x bi (mod ai ),

i = 1, , n,

, , a1 an .

. n = 2.
. n = 2. ,
x = x1 + ya1 , x1 = b1 .
. ,
: b1 + ya1 b2 (mod a2 ), a1 y (b2 b1 ) (mod a2 ).
a1 a2 , ,
y = c + ka2 .
x , ()

. : C.

x = x2 + la1 a2 , l , x2 ( x2 = x1 + a1 c).
, , ,

x bi (mod ai ),

i = 1, 2,


x x2 (mod a1 a2 ).
:
,
a1 an (, , ).
, ,
(. ).

.
L
, : Z i Z/ai Z
( a1 , , an ) . ,
, ai , ai , Q

L a1 an ;

a
Z

Z/
i
i Z/ai Z.
i
, .
.
. , . , -
, ai ,
Q (
ai )
ai ;
.
, , ,
.
, (
, ), Q


L

a
Z

, Z/
i Z/ai Z.
i i

p k . , ,
x 2 = 1 (mod n) ( ).

. : C.

*.

x 3 (mod 5)

x 1 (mod 7)

x 4 (mod 9).

. x = 148 + 315k.
. ,
x0 + 5 7 9k = x0 + 315k, x0 - .
, (.
).
3 + 5k; - . k, ,
3 + 5 = 8 = 1 + 7. ,
: 8 + 5 7k = 8 + 35k,
-
. , k = 4,
x0 = 148 () .


. p . , :
.
) C kp .. p 0 < k < p;
) (a + b) p a p + b p (mod p);
.
) ( ) a p a .. p.

. ) , C pk =

p!
.
(p k)! k!

0 < k < p p

, ( n < p n!
p, ,
p ).
P
) (a + b) p = k C pk ak b pk . , ( ) ,
, 0 p.
) , p
( ). ,
a p = (1 + + 1) p 1 p + + 1 p = a (mod p), .
. ,
p , a . , .
, .
, ,
, .

. : C.

, , , , .
p a , ,
, a p .
. , p (
), a p p. :
, , ( , a p
p). ,
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(!).
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. ,
, p
, a , p, ,



ap a
p

+ a. , a p a p.

. . a 0 (mod p) , a. ,
p, x ax. ,
. , . , ,
k, ak 1 (mod p). ,
( , p 1) k,
p 1
a p1 (ak ) k 1 (mod p) a p a a(a p1 1) 0 (mod p).
* ( ). p ,
(p 1)! 1 (mod p).

. , p , 1, 1.
. a
p a1 , aa1 1 (mod p),

p , . , p ,
, , , ,
.

. : C.

.
1 1

(a ) = a. , , a 6= a,
, ,
(p 1)! mod p. , a1 = a, a2 1 (mod p),
(a 1)(a + 1) 0 (mod p), a {1, 1}.
, , 1 1, 1,
1 (1) = 1, (p 1)! 1 (mod p).
. ?

. n n-
2/n. n- , 2/k =
= n ( k , ),
2n = k(n 2), n > 2, k > 2. , k(n 2) > 2n
n > 6 ( k > 2). , n = 5 , 3-, 4- 6-
.
. ,

) 4n + 3; *) 4n + 1; **) an + b, (a, b) = 1.

. ,
.
. ) , . N
4n + 3.
M = 4N 1.
4n + 3, ,
4n + 1. 4,
.
) , . N 4n + 1 M =
= (2N)2 + 1. p
4n + 3. , p | (2N)2 + 1, (2N)2 1 (mod p),
p 1
p 1
, (2N)2( 2 ) (1) 2 = (1)2n+1 1 (mod p).
p 1
(2N)2( 2 ) = (2N) p1 1 (mod p). . , 4n + 1
. .
)

.

. : C.

(. )
, .
*. x 2 1 (mod n):
) n; ) n.

n-, , .
n.
. ) , n > 2; , n = 2;
n
n
) n 2n0 p1 1 pk k ,

k
n0 = 0, 1;
2 ,
k+1
2 , n0 = 2;

2k+2 , n0 > 2.

. ) , x 2 1 (mod n)
(x 1)(x + 1) 0 (mod n).
,
, x 1 (mod n).
, 2 : 1 1.
) (.)
,
Q ni
n = 2n0
pi ,

x02 1 (mod 2n0 );

x 2 1 (mod p n1 );
1
1
..................

n
xk2 1 (mod pk k ).

n = p k ( p
).
x 2 1 (mod p k ).
.
: (x 1)(x + 1) .. p k . , p > 2 p
, x = 1 (mod p k ). , p > 2
.
p = 2 , :
,

. : C.

; , x 1 (mod 2 ) (
k = 1), x 2k1 1 (mod 2k ) (
k > 1, k > 2).
, p = 2 k = 1,
k = 2 k > 2.

. R ( ) R ; .

2x = 0, x (Z/nZ)
.
L
(Z/a

i Z)
i
Q
( Na1 ,,an ; Na1 ,,an =
Nai , Nn n
!), , (Z/nZ) .
(Z/nmZ) = (Z/nZ)
(Z/mZ), (Z/p n Z) .
:

n
Z/(p 1)p , p > 2;
(Z/p n ) = Z/2 Z/2n2 , p = 2, n > 1;

0,
p = 2, n = 1.
n.

. : C.

.
/

.
.
. , n > 1 :
.
.
.
.
) n3 + 5n .. 6; ) 2n3 + 3n2 + 7n .. 6; ) n5 n .. 30; ) 22n 1 .. 6;
..
6n+3
) 11
+ 1 . 148?

.
. ) . n3 + 5n .. 6,
n3 + 5n = n3 n + 6n = n (n 1) (n + 1) + 6n.
(n 1, n, n + 1)
,
( , ). ,
n (n 1) (n + 1) 2 3 = 6.
) .

2n3 + 3n2 + 7n = n (2n2 + 3n + 1) + 6n = n (n + 1) (2n + 1) + 6n.


.
.
n, n + 1 2. , n .. 3, n + 1 .. 3,
n n = 3k + 1, k .
.
2n + 1 = 6k + 3 .. 3. , 3.
,
6.
) .
n5 n = n(n4 1) = n(n2 1)(n2 + 1) = (n 1)n(n + 1)(n2 + 1).
n, n 1 n + 1 , ,
. , 6.
, n5 n 5.
.
.
) . , n = 2: 22n 1 = 24 1 = 156 .. 6.
) .
. n = 0 113 + 1 = 1332 = 148 9.
.
. n : 116n+3 + 1 .. 148.

116n+9 + 1 = 116 (116n+3 + 1 1) + 1 = 116 (116n+3 + 1) 116 + 1 =


.
= 116 (116n+3 + 1) + (1 113 )(1 + 113 ) .. 148.

. : C.

. : ) ; ) a1 , a2 , , an
(n > 2).
. a1 , a2 , an .
.
.
d, a1 .. d, a2 .. d, , an .. d.
. a1 , a2 , , an
.
d, d .. a1 ,
..
..
d . a2 , , d . an .
. , a, b c, a b c 6= 0:
) (a, b, c) = (a, (b, c)) = ((a, b), c);
) (a, b, c) =

|abc| (a, b, c)

(a, b) (b, c) (a, c)

. , , (a, b, c) = (a, (b, c)).


.
.
) (a, b, c) .. p, p - . .
..
..
..
, a . p, b . p c . p. , (b, c) .. p. ,
..
..
(a, b, c) . p. , (a, (b, c)) . (a, b, c).
.
) (a, (b, c)) .. p, p - . ..
..
.
.
.
a . p, (b, c) . p. , a .. p, b .. p c .. p. ,
..
..
(a, (b, c)) . p. , (a, b, c) . (a, (b, c)).


. , 2, 3,
4, 5 6 :
) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; ) 0, 1, 2, 3, 4; ) 0, 1, 2, 3, 2?

. ) : , 59.
(. ,
).
) : , 58.
) . , 6
2, 6k + 2 k. ,
2, 1.
. :
) 923 1207; ) 279 589; ) 693 2475;
) 697 1377; ) 1517 1591; ) 1134, 2268 1575.

. ) 71; ) 31; ) 99; ) 17; ) 37; ) 63.


. :
) 16 84; ) 819 504; ) 30, 56 72;
) 340, 990 46; ) 41, 85 36; ) 2, 5, 7, 9 11.

. ) 336; ) 6552; ) 2520; ) 774189; ) 125460; ) 6930.

. : C.

.
. n > 0 :
) 1 2 + 2 3 + + (n 1) n;
)

45

56

++

(n + 3)(n + 4)

*) 1 2 3 + 2 3 4 + + n (n + 1) (n + 2).

. ) :
1 2 + 2 3 + + (n 1) n = (2 1) 2 + (3 1) 3 + + (n 1) n =

= (22 + 32 + + n2 ) (2 + + n).

(. ).
) :
1
45

1
56

++

1
(n + 3)(n + 4)

1
4

1
5

1
5

1
6

+ ++

1
n+3

1
.
n+4

. :
) (n + 1) (n + 2) (n + n) = 2n 1 3 5 (2n 1);
1

) 1 + +
=
+
++ ;
2
3
2n 1
2n
n+1
n+2
2n
 




1
1
n+2
1
.
1
1
=
) 1
2
4

(n + 1)

2n + 2

. .
. :
) 7x + 5 y = 1; ) 27x 24 y = 1; ) 12x 33 y = 9;
) 56x + 91 y = 21; ) 344x 215 y = 86; ) 3x + 5 y + 7z = 1.

.
13
.
. ) x = 2 + 5t, y = 3 7t;
) , ;
) x = 9 + 11t, y = 3 + 4t;
) x = 15 + 13t, y = 9 + 8t;
) x = 1 + 5t, y = 2 + 8t;
) x = 2 14l + 5t, y = 1 + 7l 3t, z = l.
. , n 10n + 7
10n + 5 ?

. : C.

. . , 2.
,
, 2, 2
, .
. a b, ax + by = 1
) x = 7, y = 9; ) x = 17, y = 19; ) x = 27, y = 29;
) x = 37, y = 39; ) x = 47, y = 49.

. ,
. - . , , ).
17 19: (19, 17) (17, 2)
(2, 1). : 1 = 2 1 = 2 (17 2 8) = (19 17)
(17 (19 17) 8) = 19 9 17 10, a = 10, b = 9.

. ) a = 5 + 9t, b = 4 7t;
) a = 10 + 19t, b = 9 17t;
) a = 15 + 29t, b = 14 27t;
) a = 20 + 39t, b = 19 37t;
) a = 25 49t, b = 24 + 47t.
. u(n) :
u(0) = 0, u(1) = 1, u(n) = u(n 1) + u(n 2) ( ).
) , u(1) + + u(n) = u(n + 2) 1.
) , (u(1))2 + + (u(n))2 = u(n) u(n + 1).
) ( ) u(n)
p n
p n
1
1+ 5
1 5
1
(n) = p
p
?
5

. ) ) n. , u(n) (n) ,
n ( , , , ;
).

. : C.

() .
,

(, ). ,
. .
,

, ,
.
,
(
) .
. ,
p .

. M
M 2 = {(a, b) | a M,
b M} M, M .
b (a, b) a b.
. (G, ), G
, ,
:
) a, b, c G : a (b c) = (a b) c ();
) e G a G : e a = a e = a ( );
) a G a1 G : a1 a = a a1 = e ( ).
G , G
. G
G |G|.

.
, . ,
. , , , ,

. : C.

,
, .
,
(. . a b b a),
.
. ,
. .

. :
) (Z, +); ) (Z, ); ) (N, ); ) (Sn , );
) ;
) ;
) f : X X ;
) P(A) A ;
) (P(A), ); ) (P(A), \ );
) (P(A), ), A B = (A B)\(A B);
) (Z/nZ, +n ), Z/nZ = {0, 1, , n 1}, a +n b a + b n;
) (Z/nZ, n ), a n b ab n;
) (N, ), a b = ab ;
) (Z/nZ \ {0}, n );
) ((Z/nZ) , n ), (Z/nZ) = {a Z/nZ | (a, n) = 1}?

, A
, .
.
, , ,
. ,

.
, A
B . .
.
. ) , .
,
.

. : C.

) ; . , 1 (1 2) (1 1) 2.
) ,
, .
2, 2,
1/2 .
.
, ,
, .
) , . . Sn , , ,
a b = b a. : S3 , (12) (123). (12)(123) (23),
(123)(12) (13).
) , . , ).

,
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.
, H G ,
H,
H .
) .
.
) ,
X .
, . ,
-
.
, (.
, ). ,
.
: ,
.

. : C.

) A , P(A) .
,
.
) A , P(A) .
A,
.
) A , P(A) .
,
. , .
) , P(A) . A (B C) = (A B) C,
.
, .
.
) . ,
(a + b) + c a + (b + c) n .
0, , .
n.



( ab = ba a b), Z.
.
) . ,
.
) , .
) n , , . , n .
0 < a < n, 0 < b < n , a b = n. ,

.
n , , , 0 < a < n b, ab 1
p. , , .
) , n. 0 < a < n (a, n) = 1,
0 < b < n , ab 1 n ( ,
ax + by = (a, b)
). , b n. ,

. : C.

(
).
.
-
.
Z Z/nZ, Sn
.
. G ( ), a, b G ab = ba.
. ?

. .
. ,
, ,
2 ,
, .


. , :
) ; ) ;
) ba = e b = a1 ; ) ba = a b = e; ) (a1 )1 = a.

. ) . ,
e e . , e = ee = e , , e = e .
) , a
b c, ba = ca = ab = ac = e. ab = ac
b. , b = bab = bac = c, b = c.
) , ab = e.
ba = e b, b1 . , ab = b1 bab = b1 b = e.
) ba = a a1 , ,
b = baa1 = aa1 = e.
) aa1 = e, ) a = a1 .
*. ,
) e G a G : ea = a ( );
) a a1 : a1 a = e ( ),
, .

. : a G ae = a a G
aa1 = e. . (a1 a)e =

. : C.

1 1

1 1 1

= ee = e = a a (a ) : (a ) a (ae) =
= (a1 )1 a1 a. (a1 )1 a1 b,
bae = ba. b1 , ae = a.
, aa1 = e. a1 aa1 = ea =
1
= a (a1 )1 , , (a1 )1 a1 aa1 = (a1 )1 a1 . (a1 )1 a1 , aa1 = e,
.
, .

: a b = b.
. f : G H G H
, , x, y G f (x y) = f (x) f ( y).
, G H .
. : ) , , ;
) ; *) .

. ) )
.

, , ( ) .
, , G, G. ,
. , , ( ); ,
( )
.
. ) e. ,
a e :
aa = e, ae = ea = a. .
e, a b, .
ab: a, b,
ab = e b = a1 . , a2 a, e,
b a2 . ,

. : C.

- , , , . ,
.
) . , . x
, x 2 = e, , x 4 = e x 2 6= e.
x 2 = e, Z/2Z Z/2Z
2. x,
x 2 6= e, Z/4Z ( k
x k ).
) - x G. x . , , , .
, . , x , . . G
= Z/13Z.
, ) , , ,
.

. H G, ,
.

. .
. , :
) H G, e H;
) H G, H ;
) K H, H G, K G;
) ;
) ?

. ) , : g H, g1 H,
e = gg1 H.
) , .
) , K
H, , G.
) , .
.
, , Z.
) , . ,
. , B C

. : C.

A. , x, y B C, x y B, x y C,
x 1 B x 1 C, x y B C x 1 B C.
. , :
) N Z;
) An Sn , An
n ;
) Sn \ An Sn ?

. ) , : N .
) . , , .
) . .
Sn \ An e,
, . , S3 (1 2)(2 3) =
= (2 3 1), (1 2) (2 3) S3 \ A3 e, (2 3 1)
.
. : ) S3 ; ) Z.

. :
G H a G, n an G.
. ) S3 . ,
- S3 , ,
S3 , S3
, 3.
, ,
, A3 ,
, , (
, , S3 ). , S3 : , ,
, A3 S3 .
) :
- Z,
.
: , nZ,
n 6= 0.
, A Z.
m .
, a A m . -

. : C.

a A m, , a = bm + r, 0 < r <
< |m|. r A, r m.
, m A. ,
A Z , m = 1.
. k,
a G ak = e, a.
: ord a. , ,
ord a = 0.
. , ord a > 0
a.

. a .
, ak = al k l, k < l.
, alk = e.
. , an = e , ord a | n.

. n ord a : n = m ord a + k. k , k < ord a. an = e aord a = e,


ak e. ord a.


. () G H aH = {ax | x H}
( Ha = {xa | x H}).
. , ()
, .

,

. , .
. (
).
aH bH , , ah1 = bh2
- h1 , h2 H. , b = ah1 (h2 )1 = ah,
h H. x bH, x = bh3 =
= (ah)h3 = a(hh3 ), , x aH. aH
bH .
.
: ) Z/2Z; ) S4 /A4 ; ) S3 /(12).

. ) 2Z
( ). . ,

. : C.

- (, )
( , ). ,
.
) (
). : A4 ,
A4 .
) .
, .
: {(e), (12)}, {(13), (132)} {(23), (123)},
{(e), (12)}, {(13), (123)} {(23), (132)}.
( ). ,
G H G
.
(|G| .. |H|).

. , G
H.
, h 7 ah, a
, H . ,
, H.
, |G| |H|.
. , .
G G (|G| .. ord a).

. a G
a = {an | n Z}, .
. a. ( ) ord a, a0 = e, aord a = e ak 6= e
0 < k < ord a.
G.
. (n) ,
n n. (n)
.

(n) Z/nZ.
. : ) (2), (6), (30); ) (p); ) (pn ).

. ) (2) = 1,
(6) = 2, (30) = 8.
) p , ,
, p. (p) = p 1.

. : C.

) , p n
, p. p n1 ,
p n . (p n ) = p n p n1 .
. , m n
(mn) = (m)(n).

. mn m
n . , n
, : , ,
, n.
(n). , , k, k + n, k + 2n, ,
k + (m 1)n m . m n ,
m. , (
, ) (m) m.
k

. (p1 1 pnkn ).

.
k

k 1

(p1 1 pnkn ) = (p1 1 ) (pnkn ) = (p1 1 p1 1




) (pnkn pnkn 1 ).
k

. n = p1 1 pnkn , 



1
1
1
, p1 , p2 , , pn
(n) = n 1
p1

n.

pn

( ). , a,
n, a(n) 1 (mod n).

. , (n) (Z/nZ) .
, a (Z/nZ) , ord a |(Z/nZ) |.

aord a 1 (mod n), a|(Z/nZ) | 1 (mod n).


*. : ) ; ) ; ) n- ( Dn ).

. ,
, . : ,
.
) .
, ,
, -

. : C.

S3 . ,
S3 . , S3 . ,
, .
- A B, C,
ACB.
A B, B C, C A,
120 , A
B ( A B, ).
) A, B, C, D .
f , .
, f (A) f (B) f (D). A, B D f .
g , 90 , f (A) A. g( f (A)) = A, B D
: g( f (B)) = B g( f (D)) = D, ,
g( f (B)) = D, g( f (D)) = B.
g f A, B, D, , . ,
f = g1 , 90 .
b AC. b g f , ,
. f
AC , 90 .
. a
90 . ,
, a, a2 , a3 , a4 ( ). , , b AC. ,
ak , b ak
k = 0, , 3. .

, , a b. ab = ak k, b = ak1 , , . ab = bak . k.
ab = bak ak = b1 ab. b , b = b1 .
b a b. ,
90 , a3 . , ab = ba3 .
) . A n-, B D .

. : C.

, A n-,
. ,
90 , 360/n.
2n a
b, , , .
a n, b ,
ab = ban1 .

. : C.

,
(
),
, .
.
, . ., ,
.

.
. n .
?

. ,
n ,
.
. ,
n 1.
. , n ,
n1
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2

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, , ,

n
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1,

n1
2

. . , .

. ,
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.
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.

. : C.


. , , ( ).

. .
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, (, ).
, ,
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.
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.
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*. n n n n3 . , ,
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*.
. ?
n?

. : C.

. n , n/2.
n , (n 1)/2 (n + 1)/2.
. n. , . ,
, , .

.
, ,
.
, .
,
( ) ().
* ( ). n
( ). , nn2
, .

. , . n.
,
n 2 .
.
n , ( )
,
, . n 2 ,
, n 2 ,
, . ,
, n 2 n .
. , . .
, = (V , E)
V E,
.
,
(),
( ), ( A B B A).
, ,
.

. : C.

, , .
. (!) .

. ( (a1 , b1 ), , (an , bn )),


(ai , bi ) E ,
, ai bi1 i = 2, , n.
(a1 , b1 ),
, (an , bn ), a1 bn .
. ,
, .
. ?

. , , .
. ,
,
.
. ) ,
.
) , A B A B, B
A.

. )

; )

. ,
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.

. . ,
, A.
, A ( ,
B C, B A, C,
C B).

. : C.

, , . ,
A .
. ,
?

. . n
,
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.
. -
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.

. : n = 2 . n ,
.
A. n 1 B,
.
B A, B , .
A B, ,
A .
* ( * ).

- .
, (. . ,
).

. .
, .
A , n 1.
. A ,
, . A
n 1, ,
.
,
A A n 1. ,
k ( ), k
A A k + 1. k k + 1
k A A k + 1. ,
.

. : C.


*.
- . ,
,
.

. .

. ,
, , , . ,
.
. , ( ), ( ) .
( ).
. .

. . (a, b), a , b . (1, 1). (2, 0), (1, 1), (1, 1),
(0, 2). (2, 1), (1, 2), (1, 1), (1, 1). (1, 1),
(1, 1), (1, 1), (1, 1), (0, 0). (1, 1), (1, 1), (2, 1), (1, 2). (1, 1), (1, 1), (2, 2), (2, 2).
.
?

. , -
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. .

. : , , .
, .
:
,
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. : C.

. .
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?

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bcd, a, b, c, d . ,

. ,
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, ( ,
). ,
1
1000 20 = 10000. ,
2
.
. 10003 .
. .
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.

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.
, ,

. : C.

, ,
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, , .
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. : C.

. , ,
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* ( ). n .
k = 1, 2, , n k
k ,
k . ?
?
, ,
( n )
n , k
k ?

. , . (n = 1) ,
. X ,
a( X ) , X .
, |a( X )| > |X | X ,
0 < |X | < n. A B,
, ,
, , .
, X , |a( X )| = |X |. X X .
, X a( X ) X a( X ),
, .
X , X . Y X ,
|X Y | |a( X Y )|. |X | + |Y | = |X Y | |a( X Y )| |a( X )| +
+ |a(Y )|. |X | = |a( X )|, |Y | |a(Y )|, .
.
, .
* ( ). , .

. .
, . ,
|X | |a( X )| X .
|X | < |a( X )| - |X |
k, , |a( X )|, k|X |.
|X | < |a( X )|, |a( X )|
k, .
, X |X | |a( X )|,
.

. : C.


*. , k- k k ?

. , . ,
, k. X
l( X ) , X ,
.
l(A) = k - A, .
, l( X ) k 1, -,
l( X ). ,
k-.
, :
,
.

. , , , (
) . ,
, . ,
( )
.
. ,
?

. , . ,

( ).
( ).
, . + = 2.

. , > 1.
. , , ,
+ .
, , = 1.
, (
), , , = + 1.
, + = ( + 1) + 1 = 2, .

. : C.

. +
?

. + = 2, ,
+ = 1 + K, K .
+ , , . . , g
2 2g.
.
. , , . + ?

. + = 2.

. ,
(
).
:
, .
-
. . ,
, ( ) . , ,
.
. Oxyz
z c. , c, , . z = c
, - (
, + ). ,

- ,
+ .
, , z = c
, ,

+ = 2.

. : C.


. ) ,
2 3.
) , 2.

. ) ,
, ,
.
) , , ,
, .
. , :
) .
K5 ;
)
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). K3,3 ;
) ,
.

. .
K5 ,
.
, K5 . -
A, B, C, D, E ( ).
A C . ,
, .
, B
D E , . BD BE , AD
CE ,
.
, .
, K5 ,
. K5
, . ,
K3,3 ,
.

. : C.

. , ().
,
:
;

(, ).
* ( ). ,
,
, K5 K3,3 .


.
( ). .: . . ,
// . . . . ().

. : C.

. -, : , f (x) = c
f (x) = g(x), .
. ,
([x], {x}, sign x) ,
. ,
.
,
(, ,
. .).
- , .


. f . f (0) f (1),
f (x) = 0, f (x) = 1 f (x) = x; c,
f (x) = c ,
.
y

. f (0) 1; f (1) 0,5; f (x) = 0 x 1,8; 0,5; 0,7; f (x) =


= x x 1,5; 0,7; 0,5; 1,6.

. : C.

f (x) = c c = 1,9, c (1,9; 0,8) (1; 5) c


{0,8; 1}.
. x , x. : [x].
. x {x} =
= x [x].

1, x > 0;
. sign x = 0, x = 0;

1, x < 0.

. ) [3,5], [2,2], {1,1}, {2,7}, [0], {0}, [5], {5},


sign(5,6), sign(2,4), sign(0).
) , sign xy = sign x sign y, [xy] = [x][ y], {xy} =
= {x}{ y}?
) , sign(x + y) = sign x + sign y, [x + y] = [x] + [ y],
{x + y} = {x} + { y}?
) , x = |x| sign x, x = [x] + {x}.

. ) [3,5] = 3, [2,2] = 3, {1,1} = 0,1, {2,7} = 0,3, [0] = 0,


{0} = 0, [5] = 5, {5} = 0, sign(5,6) = 1, sign(2,4) = 1, sign(0) = 0.
)
, : 1 = [0,8 1,5] 6= [0,8] [1,5] = 0 0,2 =
= {0,8 1,5} 6= {0,8} {1,5} = 0,4.
) : sign(1 + 1) 6= sign(1) +
+ sign(1), [0,9 + 0,9] 6= [0,9] + [0,9], {0,9 + 0,9} 6= {0,9} + {0,9}.
) {x} [x]
. , x = |x| sign x. , x > 0 |x| = x, sign x = 1, |x| sign x = x 1 = x, x < 0
|x| = x, sign x = 1, |x| sign x = (x) (1) = x, x = 0
0 = 0 0.
. 2x + 3, x 2 , 1/x, [x], {x},
sign x,

|x|
x

, |x|.
|x|

.
,
x
sign x x 6= 0 x = 0.

. : C.


.
p p p
x/2, x, 2x, x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 6 , x, 3 x, 4 x, 1/x, 1/x 2 .

. , : x/2, x 2x. : ,
0. .
. ,
1/x 1/x 2 . x < 0 (1/x < 0,
1/x 2 > 0). x > 0 , 0 < x < 1
1/x 2 > 1/x, x > 1 1/x > 1/x 2 . , . ,
( IV ) .
,
p
p
p
x < 1 x 3 < 3 x < 0 < x 6 < x 2 , x 4 x
;

. : C.

p
p
3
6
2
3
1 < x < 0 x < x < 0 < x < x , x
p
4
x ;
p
p
p
0 < x < 1 0 < x 6 < x 4 < x 3p
< x 2 <p x <p3 x < 4 x;
3
4
6
4
3
2
x > 1 x > x > x > x > x > x > x > 0.
. f g
p
1
.
f (x) + g(x), f (x) g(x), f (x) g(x),
f (x),
f (x)

. , , .
,
.
) , ,
.
) ,
.
.
)
, f
g, f g
.
p
) f (x) , f (x) 0.
, p f (x)
Ox, f (x) p
x, f
Ox -: ,
x 2 x 4 ,
|x| x 2 .
) f
1
.

f (x)

.
f (|x|), | f (x)|, f (x + 1), f (x 1), f (x) + 1, f (x) 1, f (2x),
3 f (x), f (x/3), f (x), f (x), f ([x]), f ({x}), [ f (x)],
f .
y
y

x
x

. : C.

x
f (| x | )

f (x +1)

f (x 1)

f (x)1

y
x

| f (x)|

f ( x)
y

f (2x)

f (x)
y

y


f ([x])
x
y

3 f (x)

f ({x})

y
x

f (x /3)

[ f (x)]
.

. : C.

. f (|x|) :
, , ,
, , (.
).
| f (x)| : , ,
, , , .
f (x + a) f (x)
a (, |a|
a).
f (ax) f (x) a ( a 1; 1/a ,
0 < a < 1; |a| ,
a 1; 1/|a|
, 1 < a < 0).
af (x) f (x) a ( a 1;
|a| , a 1 . .).
, ,
, {x} [x].


, - . , - , ,
.
.
) x 2 + 2x + 3; ) 2x 2 + 3x 1; ) x 2 2|x| + 1.

. ) x 2 + 2x + 3 = (x + 1)2 + 2,
x 2 1 2 .
) 2x 2 + 3x 1 = 2(x 0,75)2 + 0,125,
x 2 , ,
, 0,75 0,125 .
) x 2 2|x| + 1 = (|x| 1)2 ,
2
x , 1 , f (x) f (|x|).
.
y = ax 2 + bx + c. sign a, sign b sign c
.

. : C.

. , . -, a
, :
a > 0 , a < 0 .
, c = a 02 + b 0 + c, c
.
b
, ,
2a
b.
. x 2 2x + 3,
2x 2 4x + 3, x 2 + 4x + 3, x 2 + x + 1, x/2 + 3. ,
.
y

33
3
33

22
2
22
1,25
1,25
1,25
1,25
1,25
11
1
11
2

11
11
1

0,5
0,5
0,5

0,5

0,5

0,5
0,5 1
0,5
0,5
0,5

. ,
, x/2 + 3.
.
x 2 2x + 3 2x 2 4x + 3
. , , ,

. : C.

x :
2x 2 4x + 3 , x 2 2x + 3.
.
(p, q), x 2 + px + q = 0: ) ;
) ; ) .

. , x 2 + px + q = 0
p 2 4q < 0, p 2 4q = 0
p 2 4q > 0.
.
*.
.

. ,
.
,
,
.
, , .
:
,
;
, ;
(
), , , , (
) ;
, , , .
, . , 1
y = x sin .
x

. : C.

.
/

.
:
, ;
.
,
(. )

.
.
.

. f : G H (G, ) (H, )
, a, b G f (a b) = f (a) f (b). G
H Hom(G, H).
. . G Aut(G).
G H , . : G
= H. ,
, .
. , G
= H

( ,
, ).

,
f G H, f 1 H G.
. ? ?
) ;
) ;
) f : Z Z, f (n) = 2n; ) f : Z Z, f (n) = n + 1;
) f : Z Z, f (n) = n2 ; ) f : Z/pZ Z/pZ, f (n) = n;
) f : (Z/pZ) (Z/pZ) , f (n) = n1 ;
) f : (Z/pZ) (Z/pZ) , f (n) = n10 ;
) f : Sn Sn , f (x) = ax; ) f : Sn Sn , f (x) = x 1 ;
) f : Sn Sn , f (x) = axa1 ; ) sign: Sn Z/2Z.

. : C.

. ), ), ) . ), )
.
) : f (0) + f (0) = 2 6= 1 = f (0 + 0).
) : f (1) + f (1) = 2 6= 4 = f (1 + 1).
) :
(a + b) = (a) + (b) , p.
) ; , x 7 x 1
(, aba1 b1 = aa1 bb1 = e , a1 b1 = (ab)1 .
, (ab)1 =
1 1
= b a ( ).
) , . , (
) . , (ab)2 = abab = aabb =
= a2 b2 ; , (
).
.
) f , ( ),
x, y Sn axay = axy;
y 1 a1 xa = x, , a = e.
, , .
) n = 2. , (ab)1 = b1 a1 (, (b1 a1 )(ab) = 1),
( )
.
(
).
) ( ). ,
f (x) f ( y) = (axa1 )(aya1 ) = axya1 = f (xy).
, x 7 a1 xa.
.
Inn(G) Aut(G) (. ), G Inn(G).
) , .
( n 6= 2) .

. : C.

.
. , f : G H
) f (eG ) = e H ; ) f (x 1 ) = f (x)1 ; ) f (x n ) = f (x)n .

. ) , f (e) f (e) = f (ee) = f (e). x 2 = x


x = e ( , x 1 ).
) , f (x 1 ) f (x) = f (xx 1) = f (e) = e.
) n. :
f (x n+1 ) = f (x n x) = f (x n ) f (x) = f (x)n f (x) = f (x)n+1.
. G , H .
: ) Hom(G, H), ) Aut(G).

. ) ( fg)(x) = f (x)g(x);
) ( fg)(x) = f (g(x)).
. ? ?
( )?
) H?
. :
) f : Z Z; ) f : Z Z/nZ; ) f : Z/nZ Z/mZ.

. .
. . .
. ) Z/4Z, Z/7Z.
) , Z/nZ Z/mZ.

G, g,
. Z/nZ ; Z G, k 7 g k , ,
. (: Z,
n;
Z/nZ G.)
) , . ( ,
, ,
, .)
. ) Z/4Z Z/4Z, Z/2Z {0}. Z/7Z
( {0} Z/7Z) .
. . .

. : C.

) , H Z/nZ
. H x. , H y,
nx. ( )
y nx + r, r H,
( ), x. ,
H , , ,
Z/mZ.
*. : ) Z;
) Z/pZ G?

. ?
. ) Hom(Z, G) = G; ) Hom(Z/pZ, G) = (p) G := {x G : x p = e}.

. ) Z : f (n) = f (1)n (
G Z G),
Hom(Z, G) G, f 7 f (1) ( , ).
) , ,
Z/pZ . f (1)
G: ( Z/pZ) p 1 = 0,
f (1) p = e. .
, ,
g (p) G f (1) = g. , f Hom(Z, G) f(1) = g, f(pn) = e,
Z/pZ (Z/pZ
; f
.)
. : Z/2Z, (Z/3Z) , S2 ,
Z/6Z, S3 , (Z/7Z) ?

. .
. : S3 , Z/2Z
=

= Z/6Z.
= S , (Z/7Z)
= (Z/3Z)
2

, p (Z/pZ) ( , Z/(p 1)Z).


, n < p,

. : C.

x
= 1 x (Z/pZ) ; ,
Z/pZ , n 1
n 1 .
n1

. f (G) f : G H. : Im f .
f 1 (e H ) f : G H.
: Ker f .
. .

. ) Ker f = {e}, Im f = G;
) Ker f = G, Im f = {e};
) Ker f = 0, Im f = 2Z;
), ) ;
) Ker f = 0, Im f = Z/pZ;
) Ker f = 0, Im f = Z/pZ ;
) (. ), (Z/pZ)
=

= Z/(p 1)Z, :
p1

Z, 10 | p 1;
Z/
Z/10Z,
10
|
p

1;

10

p = 2;
Im = Z/pZ,
Ker f = 0,
p = 2;
p1

Z/2Z, 106 | p 1;
Z/
Z, 106 | p 1.
2

) ( a 6= e);
) n 6= 2 , n = 2 Ker f = 0, Im f = Sn ;
) Ker f = 0, Im f = Sn ;
) Ker f = An ( ), Im f = Z/2Z.

. , Im f Ker f H G .

. h1 , h2 Im f , h1 = f (g1 ), h2 = f (g2 )
g1 , g2 G; h1 h2 = f (g1 g2 ) Im f . g1 , g2 Ker f , f (g1 ) = e =
= f (g2 ); f (g1 g2 ) = f (g1 ) f (g2 ) = 0, , g1 g2 Ker f . ,
Ker f Im f .
, f (g1 ) = f (g)1 (. ), , Ker f Im f
.
, , f (e) = e ( . ), Ker f
Im f .
. , f : G H , Im f = H, Ker f = {eG }.

. : C.

. , .
, . Im f = H, f . , Ker f =
= {e} f . , f (g1 ) = f (g2 )
f (g1 g21 ) = e, g1 g21 Ker f .
. ,
, .
. Z,
.

. ( Z Z/2Z).
.
.
. S3 , {e, (12)}?

. , .


. a(12)a1 , a , (12).
. ,
h Ker f g G

ghg1 Ker f .

, f (ghg1 ) = f (g) f (h) f (g1 ) = f (g)e f (g)1 = e,


ghg1 Ker f .
, H
, G G/H ( . ).
, {e, (12)} , a(12)a1 .
, (. )
. .
.

. : C.

.
. , a G
f : G H a(Ker f ) = (Ker f )a.

. a(Ker f ) = (Ker f )a ,
a(Ker f )a1 = Ker f , .
. ) ,
+ = + = ,
+ = + =
{{2n | n Z}, {2n + 1 | n Z}}.
) ,
{An , Sn \An }.

, .

. , g
G H gH. G/H.
G H ( Hg) H\G. (
.)
. H G , a G aH = Ha (,
, aHa1 = H). : H G).

, , .
. ,
.

. , aH = Ha a
H G.
.
?

.
. ) ).
, ) .
, ) , (.
) sign : Sn {1}.

. : C.

. , H G
, G
H
.

. H . aH = Ha a G
H .
, ,
H . a G aH
Ha ( ae = a = ea), (

), . a , H .
. S3 .

. A3 ( {e} S3 ).

. , .
, (. ).
Sn . , ( )
, {e},
( , , A3 ).
. , H G,
2|H| = |G|, .

. , G/H
H G\H.
h H. , Hh = H. h ,
(G\H)h = Gh\Hh = G\H (, f
, f (A\B) = f (A)\ f (B)).
, H .
x G\H. xH H,
|xH| = |G\H|, . , (
) (G\H)x = Gx\Hx = G\(G\H) = H.
, ,
, , H .
. aH bH
(ab)H.

. : C.

.
) , ,
H .
) ,
.

. ) (),
a ah, b bh (ab)H , ab abh .

a, b G h, h H h H : ahbh = abh ,
( a1 h1 )
b G h H h1 H : hb = bh1 ,
H.
) ,
( .
) G. ,
,
G.


. H G. , ,
( G H). : G/H.
. , f : G H Im f
= G/ Ker f ( , Ker f G).

. , f (
f (ak) = f (a) f (k) = f (a) a G, k Ker f )
G/ Ker f Im f . , :
f (x) = f ( y) xy 1 Ker f , Ker f x = Ker f y.
( ) .
, , .
.
.
. f G
A (. . A )
G . (
f g G
A .) ,
, f (g)(a) ga.

. : C.

. G X G X X , (g, x) 7 gx,
ex = x g(hx) = (gh)x. ,
. ( Map( X Y , Z)
Map( X , Map(Y , Z)).)

, . , ,
(.
).
.
?
) f (g)(x) = gx ( ); ) f (g)(x) = g1 x;
) f (g)(x) = xg ( ); ) f (g)(x) = xg1 ;
) f (g)(x) = gxg1 ( ).

. ), ) ) , )
) .

G ) ) G op , G,
: x G op y = y G x.
( , , ).
. .
( ). ,
Sn .

. .
. G .
: G S|G| . ,
. Ker = {g G | h G gh = h} = {e}.
. :
) Z ( );
) Z/nZ ( );
) Z/nZ ;
) Z/2Z Z ( Z/4Z),
f (g) ;

. : C.

.
) Z/nZ ,
f (g) .

.
G G
( ). ,
G, .

. ), ) . .

, ,
S2
= Z/2Z. 2. ( )
. Z 2Z, Z/nZ 2Z/nZ n (
n ,
).
) Z/nZ S3 . ? (.
) S3 : S3 , {e}, A3 Z/2Z
, e .
{e} Z/2Z,
.
, S3 .
, A3
= Z/3Z. ,
3|n, , .
) Z/2Z
Aut(Z) Aut(Z/4Z). : . Z 1, Z/nZ ,
n, n = 4 1. , Aut(Z) =
= Aut(Z/4Z) = Z/2Z ( ).
, Z/2Z
, .
) ( ) Z/4Z.
, Z/nZ Z/4Z.
,
,
n (. ), 0 n = 2k + 1, 0 2 n = 4k + 2,
n = 4k .

. : C.

. Ga = {ga | g G}
a A.
. .
. , a
b .

. : a Ga, ea = a. :
a Gb, a = gb; g1 a = g1 gb = eb = b, , b
Ga. : a Gb, b Gc, a = gb, b = g c; ,
a = (gg)c.
. ) .
) .
) S3 A3 .
) Sn .
*) An .

. ) . , (,
) .
, .
, , ( ),
.

{n, n}.
)
.

.
), ) , Sn
,
.
A3 , ghg1 = h .
) , An
Sn , .

. : C.

An ,
. , Sn , a b b
c x y, a c
xy.
, a :
x a Sn An (, yay 1 = b
y , ( yx)a( yx)1 = b, yx ),
( b = yay 1 , y ;
z, zaz 1 = b,
x = yz 1 a ).

.
a . a = a, . :
(a1 , , ak ) (b1 , , bk ). (a1 b1 )(ak bk ),
. ,
, ( ,
,
).
. stab a = {g G | ga = a} ( : Ga ) a A.

, Ga G.
. .

. ( )
( ).
g
, g.
.
, x ,
: G Sn , 1 (Sn1 ) ( Sn1 Sn ,
x ).
. , |G x | |Gx| = |G|.

. : C.

, ,
( ).
P
. , |G| = yGx |{g G | gx = y}|. ,
y x {g G | gx = y} x. , y Gx; g y ,
g y x = y; g 7 g1
y g
P
{g G | gx = y} G x . , |G| = yGx |G x | = |G x | |Gx|.
. , p2 (p
)
.

. .

.
, p : ,
, p 2 ( p 2 ,
).
, p 2 = n0 +
+ n1 p, ni p i . , n0
p, ( n0 6= 0) n0 2.
. Fix g = {a A | ga = a} ( : A g ) g
( , , ,
, ).
.
Z/4Z ) ; ) .

. ) G

G, g = e;
g
G =
{e}, g 6= e.
) Z/4Z ,
, (Z/4Z) g = Z/4Z g.
.
S3 ) ; ) .

. ) . .

. : C.

) , G g
, g. ,

= e;
S3 ,
Fix = A3 ,
A3 \{e};

{e, }, S3 \A3 .
( ). |G| X . ,
X
1
|Fix g|.
|G|

gG

. G X .
. G x = {g G | gx = x} x. ,
X
X
|Fix g| = |{(g, x) G X | gx = x}| =
|G x |,
gG

xX

(, |G x | |Gx| = |G|),
X
X |G |
X
X X
X
1
1
1
x
|Fix g| =
=
=
=
1 = |X /G|.
|G|

xX

gG

|G|

xX

|Gx|

AX /G aA

|A|

AX /G


. - .
() .
.
. ) n- .
) n
.
n1

. )

1 P (m,n)
2
;
n m=0

n1
1 P (m,n)
l
2
,
n = 2l + 1;
2 + 2n
m=0
)
n1

1 P (m,n)
2
, n = 2l.
3 2l1 +

2n m=0

. : C.

. ) Z/nZ ( ) n-
. .
m |Fix m| ,
m.
m , ,
|Fix m| = 2 . n/(m, n)
( , am 0 (mod n) a = (m, n)k),
(m, n). , |Fix m| = 2(m,n)
n1
1 P (m,n)
2
.

n

) ,
Z/nZ Dn . ,
n-. , n ( , Z/nZ) n .
|Fix g| .
|Fix g| . n , ( |Fix g| = 2(n+1)/2 ); n ,
( |Fix g| = 2(n+2)/2 ), ( |Fix g| = 2n/2 ).
,

n1
1 P (m,n)
l
2
,
n = 2l + 1;
2 +

2n m=0
n1
1 P (m,n)
2
,
3 2l2 +
2n m=0

n = 2l.

. : C.


ITC Charter.

-






( )

. .
.


, , .,
. () --

, , .,