0 Голоса «за»0 Голоса «против»

Просмотров: 628 стр.fantactic

Sep 09, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

fantactic

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 6

fantactic

© All Rights Reserved

- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- WomanCode: Perfect Your Cycle, Amplify Your Fertility, Supercharge Your Sex Drive, and Become a Power Source
- The Hormone Reset Diet: The 21-day Diet That Resets Your Metabolism
- The Final Day: A John Matherson Novel
- Bloody Sunday: A Thriller
- Clinton Cash: The Untold Story of How and Why Foreign Governments and Businesses Helped Make Bill and Hillary Rich
- HBR's 10 Must Reads on Managing Yourself (with bonus article "How Will You Measure Your Life?" by Clayton M. Christensen)
- The Making of the Atomic Bomb
- Amity and Prosperity: One Family and the Fracturing of America
- Vermilion Drift: A Novel
- King, Warrior, Magician, Lover: Rediscovering the Archetypes of the Mature Masculine
- Chernobyl 01:23:40: The Incredible True Story of the World's Worst Nuclear Disaster
- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind: Creating Currents of Electricity and Hope
- Free to Focus: A Total Productivity System to Achieve More by Doing Less
- Multipliers, Revised and Updated: How the Best Leaders Make Everyone Smarter
- Lost in the Solar System
- The Energy Bus: 10 Rules to Fuel Your Life, Work, and Team With Positive Energy
- The Subtle Body: An Encyclopedia of Your Energetic Anatomy
- University Physics

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

Covection and diffusion

Frozen-in field lines

Magnetohydrostatic equilibrium

Magnetic field-aligned currents

Alfvn waves

Quasi-neutral hybrid approach

Basic MHD

(isotropic pressure)

Relevant Maxwells

equations; displacement

current neglected

introduced to the ideal MHDs Ohms law

and

may need to be

before

Some hydrodynamics

Conservation of mass density:

Navier-Stokes equation(s):

Energy equation:

polytropic index

In case

viscosity, if

these are called

Euler equation(s)

is the momentum density

is a tensor with components

kinetic energy density

thermal energy density

primitive variables

conserved variables

Now the energy density contains also the magnetic energy density

Ideal MHD:

Faradays law reduces to

or using conserved variables:

Thus we have found 8 equations in the conservation form

and diffusion

Take curl of the MHD Ohms law

to get the induction equation for the magnetic field

(Note that has been

assumed constant)

diffusion equation:

diffusion coefficient:

If the resistivity is finite, the magnetic field diffuses into the plasma to remove

local magnetic inhomogeneities, e.g., curves in the field, etc.

Let LB the characteristic scale of magnetic inhomogeneities. The solution is

where the characteristic diffusion time is

In case of

and the evolution of B is completely determined

by the plasma flow (field is frozen-in to the plasma)

convection equation

The measure of the relative strengths of convection

and diffusion is the magnetic Reynolds number Rm

Let the characteristic spatial and temporal scales be

&

and the diffusion time

The order of magnitude estimates for the terms of the induction equation are

This is analogous to the Reynolds number in hydrodynamics

In fully ionized plasmas Rm is often very large. E.g. in the solar wind

at 1 AU it is 1016 1017. This means that during the 150 million km

travel from the Sun the field diffuses about 1 km! Very ideal MHD:

viscosity

in the frame co-moving with the plasma (V = 0)

Initially:

but the magnetic energy density

decreases with time

Now

Ohmic heating, or Joule heating

Photosphere

partially ionized, collisions with neutrals cause resisitivity:

Photospheric granules

Observations of the evolution of magnetic structures

suggest a factor of 200 larger diffusivity, i.e., smaller Rm

Explanation: Turbulence contributes to the diffusivity:

This is an empirical estimate,

nobody knows how to calculate it!

Corona

above 2000 km the atmosphere becomes fully ionized

Spitzers formula for the effective electron collision time

Estimating

Home exercise: Estimate Rm in the solar wind close to the Earth

A concept introduced by Hannes Alfvn but later

denounced by himself, because in the Maxwellian

sense the field lines do not have physical identity.

It is a very useful tool, when applied carefully.

Assume ideal MHD and consider two plasma elements

joined at time t by a magnetic field line and separated by

In time dt the elements move distances udt and

In Introduction to plasma physics it was shown that the plasma elements

are on a common field line also at time t + dt

In ideal MHD two plasma elements that are on a common field line remain on

a common field line. In this sense it is safe to consider moving field lines.

that the magnetic flux through a closed loop

defined by plasma elements is constant

B

C

S

dl x VDt

S

dl

The same (perhaps deformed) contour C at time t + t

Arc element dl moves in time t the distance V t and

sweeps out an area dl x V t

Consider a closed volume defined by surfaces S, S and

the surface swept by dl x V t when dl is integrated

along the closed contour C.

must vanish at time t + t , i.e,

Thus in ideal MHD the flux through a closed contour defined by

plasma elements is constant, i.e., plasma and the field move together

The critical assumption was the ideal MHD Ohms law. This requires that the

ExB drift is faster than magnetic drifts (i.e., large scale convection dominates).

As the magnetic drifts lead to the separation of electron and ion motions (J),

the first correction to Ohms law in collisionless plasma is the Hall term

so-called Hall MHD

It is a straightforward exercise to show that in Hall MHD the magnetic field

is frozen-in to the electron motion and

When two ideal MHD plasmas with different magnetic field orientations flow

against each other, magnetic reconnection can take place. Magnetic

reconnection can break the frozen-in condition in an explosive way and

lead to rapid particle acceleration

Example of reconnection:

a solar flare

Magnetohydrostatic equilibrium

Assume scalar pressure

and

i.e., B and J are vector fields on

constant pressure surfaces

magnetic

pressure

magnetic

stress and torsion

Magnetohydrostatic equilibrium

after elimination of the current

Assume scalar pressure and

negligible

(BB)

Plasma beta:

Diamagnetic current: this is the way how B reacts on the presence

of plasma in order to reach magnetohydrostatic equilibrium.

This macroscopic current is a sum of drift currents and of the magnetization

current due to inhomogeneous distribution of elementary magnetic moments

(particles on Larmor motion)

dense

plasma

total

current

tenuous

plasma

Define parallel and perpendicular pressures as

Using these we can derive the

macroscopic currents from

the single particle drift motions

and

where

The magnetization is

magnetic field-aligned currents

In case of

the pressure gradient

is negligible and the equilibrium is

i.e., no Ampres force

The field and the current

in the same direction

Flux-rope:

is a non-linear equation

If

and

is constant along B

Now

If is constant in all directions, the equation

becomes linear, the Helmholtz equation

Note that potential fields

Loops in the

Solar corona

(CME)

(ICME)

Construct a model that

looks like an arc in the xz-plane

extends uniformly in the y-direction

sinusoidal in

x-direction

suggests a trial of the form:

vanishes

at large z

10

The solution

looks like:

Projection of field lines in the

xy-plane are straigth lines

parallel to each other

Potential field (no distortion due to the current)

Solve the two-dimensional Laplace equation

Look for a separable solution

Magnetic field lines are now arcs

This is fulfilled by

without the shear in the y-direction

Often a 3D structure is

essentially 2D

(at least locally)

or an ICME

B uniform in z direction

and pressure forces

The z component reduces to

11

Now also

These are valid if

Total pressure

the Grad-Shafranov equation

For a force-free configuration we

can set P = 0

structure of ICMEs, see, Isavnin et al., Solar Phys., 273, 205-219, 2011

DOI: 10.1007/s11207-011-9845-z

Black arrows:

Contours:

Reconstruction of the ICME assuming that GS equation is valid

12

Proof: As B vanishes faster than r 2 at large r, we can write

Proof: Exercise

Thus if there is FAC in a finite volume, it must be anchored to perpendicular

currents at the boundary of the volume (e.g. magnetosphere-ionosphere

coupling through FACs)

currents (FAC)

Solar energy

Magnetosphere

(transports and stores energy)

FAC

Ionosphere

(dissipate energy)

The ionosphere and magnetosphere are coupled in so many different

ways that nearly every magnetospheric process bears on the ionosphere

in some way and every ionospheric process on the magnetosphere

Wolf, 1974

13

EM energy is dissipated via currents J in a medium.

The rate of work is defined F v

qE v

J E

J E no energy dissipation!

work performed

by the EM field

the surface of V

change of

energy in V

Poynting vector

(W/m2) giving the

flux of EM energy

J E < 0: kinetic energy converted into magnetic energy (dynamo)

Here ( J E < 0 ), i.e., the magnetopause

opened by reconnection acts as a generator

(Poynting flux into the magnetosphere)

E

Dayside reconnection

is a load ( J E > 0 ) and

does not create current

maintains JCF

and the magnetopause

current

14

In large scale (MHD) magnetospheric currents are source-free

and obey Ampres law

Thus, if we know B everywhere, we can calculate the currents

(in MHD J is a secondary quantity!).

However, it is not possible to determine B everywhere,

as variable plasma currents produce variable B

Recall the electric current in (anisotropic) magnetohydrostatic equilbirum:

B) in the magnetosphere

Plasma flows across the magnetic field

F = q (u x B)

e down, i+ up

a load current loop, where the current

J through the plasma points upward

Now Ampres force J x B decelerates

the plasma flow, i.e., the energy to the

newly created J (and thus B) in the

circuit is taken from the kinetic energy.

Kinetic energy

EM energy: Dynamo!

through the plasma: J x B accelerates the plasma

plasma motor

15

Note: This part of the figure

(dayside magnetopause)

is out of the plane

may drive field-aligned current from

the LLBL:

Plasma penetrates to the LLBL through

the dayside magnetopause (e.g. by

reconnection.

The charge separation (electrodes

of the previous example) is consistent

with E = V x B .

The FAC ion the inside part closes via

ionospheric currents (the so-called

Region 1 current system)

We start from the (MHD) current continuity equation

where

The divergence of the static total perpendicular current is

[ Note:

M) = 0 ]

The polarization

current can have

also a divergence

=b(

V)

is the vorticity

Sources of FACs:

pressure gradients &

time-dependent

16

Write the ionospheric ( ) current as a sum of

Pedersen and Hall currents and integrate the

continuity equation along a field line:

Recall:

R1

R1

height-integrated Pedersen and Hall

conducitivities and h the thickness of

the conductive ionosphere (~ the E-layer)

The sources and sinks of FACs in the ionosphere

are divergences of the Pedersen current and

gradients of the Hall conductivity

R2

R2

R2: Region 2, equatorward FAC

17

Current closure

The closure of the current systems is a non-trivial problem.

Lets make a simple exercise based on continuity equation

Let the system be isotropic. The magnetospheric current is

(the last term contains inertial currents)

we neglect this

Integrate this along a field line from one ionospheric end to the other

This must be the same as the FAC from the ionosphere and we get an

equation for ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling

18

Magnetic helicity

A is the vector potential

Gauge transformation:

if the field extends over all space

and vanishes sufficiently rapidly

For finite magnetic field configurations

helicity is well defined if and only if

on the boundary

Helicity is a conserved quantity if

the field is confined within a closed surface S on which

the field is in a perfectly conducting medium for which

on S

we get

Calculate a little

thus

on S

19

Calculate

For thin flux tubes

is approximately normal to the cross section S

(note: here S is not the boundary of V !)

Helicity of tube 1:

Thus

Similarly

If the tubes are wound

N times around each other

20

Woltjers theorem

For a perfectly conducting plasma in a closed volume V0 the integal

Proof: Invariance was already shown.

To find the minimum energy state consider

Small perturbations:

on S and

added

transform to surface integral

that vanishes because

Thus

if and only if

Magnetohydrodynamic waves

V1

Alfvn wave modes

MHD is a fluid theory and there are similar wave modes as in ordinary fluid

theory (hydrodynamics). In hydrodynamics the restoring forces for perturbations

are the pressure gradient and gravity. Also in MHD the pressure force leads to

acoustic fluctuations, whereas Ampres force (JxB) leads to an entirely new

class of wave modes, called Alfvn (or MHD) waves.

As the displacement current

is neglected in MHD, there are no

electromagnetic waves of classical electrodynamics. Of course EM waves can

propagate through MHD plasma (e.g. light, radio waves, etc.) and even

interact with the plasma particles, but that is beyond the MHD approximation.

21

eliminate J

eliminate P

eliminate E

Consider small

perturbations

m0,

V, B)

and linearize

22

( )

( )

(

Insert ( ) and (

Using

a few times we have

the dispersion equation for the waves in ideal MHD

Propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field:

Now

clearly

And we have found the magnetosonic wave

Making a plane wave assumption also for B1 (very reasonable, why?)

(i.e., B1 || B0)

The wave electric field follows from the frozen-in condition

This mode has many names in the literature:

- Compressional Alfvn wave

- Fast Alfvn wave

- Fast MHD wave

23

Now the dispersion equation reduces to

1) V1 || B0 || k

the sound wave

2) V1

B0 || k

V1

- Alfvn wave or

- shear Alfvn wave

ez

B0

k

ey

ex

Dispersion

equation

Coeff. of V1y

24

vA > vs

fast

magnetosonic

fast

slow

sound wave

vA < vs

sound wave

phase velocity as

function of

magnetosonic

fast

fast

slow

Beyond MHD:

Quasi-neutral hybrid approach

MHD is not an appropriate description if the physical scale sizes of the

phenonomenon to be studied become comparable to the gyroradii

of the particles we are interested in, e.g.

details of shocks (at the end of the course)

relatively small or nonmagnetic objects in the solar wind (Mercury, Venus, Mars)

What options do we have?

Vlasov theory

Quasi-neutral hybrid approach

In QN approach electrons are still considered as a fluid (small gyroradii) but

ions are described as (macro) particles

Quasi-neutrality requires that we are still in the plasma domain

(larger scales than De)

25

Recall the generalized Ohms law

0

(similar to Hall MHD)

requires assumptions of

adiabatic/isothermal behavior

of electron fluid & Te

Note: The QN equations cannot

be casted to conservation form

26

of Saturn during a flyby of the Cassini spacecraft 26 December 2005

From Ilkka Sillanps PhD thesis, 2008.

Using the quasi-neutral hybrid simulation

From Riku Jrvinens PhD thesis, 2010.

27

At short wavelengths kinetic effects start to modify the Alfvn waves.

Easier than to immediately go to Vlasov theory, is to look for kinetic

corrections to the MHD dispersion equation

For relatively large beta

e.g., in the solar wind, at magnetospheric boundaries, magnetotail plasma sheet

the mode is called oblique kinetic Alfvn wave and it has the phase velocity

),

e.g., above the auroral region and in the outer magnetosphere, the electron

thermal speed is smaller than the Alfvn speed

electron inertial becomes important

inertial (kinetic) Alfvn wave or

shear kinetic Alfvn wave

carry field-aligned currents (important in M-I coupling)

are affected by Landau damping (although small as long as

recall the Vlasov theory result

is small),

of the first kind

For details, see Lysak and Lotko, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 5085-5094, 1996

28

- Chapter 30: ElectromagnetismЗагружено:ahmedhohanty
- 10th Magnetic Effects of Currents MCQ-1Загружено:jots2
- E. N. Parker- Hydrodynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, and astrophysical plasmasЗагружено:Olmnop
- Advanced Propulsion - Aiaa 2002-0636 Magnetic Fluid Dynamics Research -Загружено:bhargavamech009
- The Alfven WaveЗагружено:C Haggerty
- Sensors and Software GPR Manual.pdfЗагружено:Luis Flores Salgado
- Section 1 Introduction and Technology ReviewЗагружено:jakecohen7
- 63_MagnetohydrodynamicЗагружено:LOKESH
- Rate of Moisture AbsorptionЗагружено:AwaisMushtaq
- Magnetic CircuitЗагружено:k rajendra
- HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER WITH CHEMICAL REACTION EFFECTS ON MHD FREE CONVECTION FLOW THROUGH A MOVING PERMEABLE VERTICAL SURFACE EMBEDDED IN A POROUS MEDIUMЗагружено:TJPRC Publications
- suk 2000 0403Загружено:Particle Beam Physics Lab
- Micro Generador de PlasmaЗагружено:legabu
- GPR Annan 2003Загружено:Cori Hernández
- Com Sol TutorialЗагружено:Manish Kaushal
- Full 6617Загружено:remus_remus22
- instructional allignment - lesson plan 3Загружено:api-350728045
- Add Chapter 3Загружено:phyrdows
- thrusterЗагружено:Sukhmander Singh
- MIL-STD-1949Загружено:Erik Huang
- EMTL Course DescriptionЗагружено:prem_dreams4u
- موحدی پور و خشتکارЗагружено:alasvand
- EC301Загружено:Yash Singh
- 2003JMembrSciKumarЗагружено:Mahi Fatima
- 3.Electromagnetic Theory NET-JRF VKSЗагружено:Sijil Salim
- Lecture-Introduction to Machinery PrinciplesЗагружено:Rizwan Nizamani
- Control of the Adsorption of Dyes on CottonЗагружено:Juan Cubas
- Magneto Statics 2Загружено:Marisol Espejel Ballesteros
- RPT Sem2 2017Загружено:Chrise Raj
- electricandmag02maxwrichЗагружено:Hamilton Smith

- NomenclatureЗагружено:Sudhanshu Sekhar
- CIVIL-II Yr Sem-2Загружено:Sudhanshu Sekhar
- IES-Civil-Engineeering-Conventional-2015.pdfЗагружено:Sudhanshu Sekhar
- 1ME_Thermo_ICEnginesObj.pdfЗагружено:Sudhanshu Sekhar
- liquid crystal display term papaer presentationЗагружено:Sudhanshu Sekhar
- Fluid Mechanics & MachinesЗагружено:KBSMANIT
- 1. Material Science Conventional Question and Answer.pdfЗагружено:Abhijeet Sahu
- UNION ISA STRENGTHЗагружено:Sudhanshu Sekhar

- Economia - Robert Lucas - Some International Evidence on Output-Inflation TradeoffsЗагружено:petroetpaulo2006
- Quantitative and Reasoning Training Material.pdfЗагружено:mouni chowdary
- 7 (1)Загружено:namrata
- Folded Plate StructureЗагружено:komal
- 50001686JXC 32 C++.pdfЗагружено:Hu Ma
- Lab10Загружено:UsmanAli
- MCA-06-PGDCA-06-MSC(IT)-06Загружено:naveengargns
- Huck Bolt-AFS5513 C50L BrochureЗагружено:PRASHANTH
- DAB ALP 800T.pdfЗагружено:jose mondaca
- 01.20 Government BusinessЗагружено:mevrick_guy
- Heat Mass BalanceЗагружено:dinkad29
- Practical ReportЗагружено:Khezia Chalwe
- Huawei ODN Products Series BrochureЗагружено:Ditu Daniel
- 14022978 Analysis of Trend Following SystemsЗагружено:Clement Li
- Examples - Combined StressЗагружено:amdeva
- Ram Murty M._ Esmonde J. Problems in Algebraic Number Theory (2ed._ Springer_ 2005)(353s)Загружено:as_5k
- Open Sees ExampleЗагружено:Yadish Khan
- THE RIVER CONTINUUM CONCEPT.pdfЗагружено:Andres Alfonso
- SAMSONType 3730 2 Electropneumatic Positioner & Type 3730 3 With HART Communication t83842Загружено:ak_thimiri
- bq24721cЗагружено:danielarteaga
- ChemЗагружено:LINDSAY PALAGANAS
- List of Chemistry VocabularyЗагружено:Hugh Fox III
- Aim, Procedure and Conclusion BODЗагружено:Iqi Iqah
- Steel StructureЗагружено:Pallav Paban Baruah
- 350 quantitative research critique graded with rubric group readyЗагружено:api-157586369
- Late Cretaceous Muwaqqar JordanЗагружено:melvincabe
- PMP QuestionsЗагружено:Mohamed Wahid
- WARMAN Centrifugal Slurry Pumps SHW Submersible PumpЗагружено:Miguel Angel Blas Villanueva
- Flanges DIN2505Загружено:fsalmin
- SurveyingЗагружено:Saravanan Shanmugam

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.