Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 83

Advanced Simulation Techniques

Using PSpice
Part 5: DC to DC Converters

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any unauthorized review, use,
disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Table of Contents

Cycle by Cycle and Small Signal Simulation of

Buck Converter
Boost Converter
Buck-Boost Converter
Cuk Converter
+ Eight Demonstrations

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck Converter
di
dt
dV
dt
di
dt
dV
dt

dV in V o
=
L
V
i
=
o
C
RC
dV in
1
= Vo +
L
L
1
1
i
Vo
=
C
RC

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

i
L1

SW1

12V
L

D1

C1

R1

State Equations

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

Vo
-

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck Converter
On-Time Event

Vin Vout
I peak= I valley+
ton
L
Off-Time Event

I Valley = I peak
STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP
Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

V out
L

t off

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck CCM

( D (Vin Vout )Tsw

1
Vout (1 D )Tsw )
=0
Tsw

V out = DV in
Vout
=D
M =
Vin
STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP
Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck CCM

Salient Points
As D < 1, M<1
M is Independent of The Load Current
By Varying the Duty Cycle D, Vout is Controllable

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck DCM
VL
Vout

Vin-Vout
0V
-Vout

IL

Ipeak
Iout

DTsw

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

D2Tsw D3Tsw
This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any
unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck DCM
(V

in

DT

sw

2T
D
I

peak

sw

D 2T

2I

DI

out

I
V

2I

out

L
out

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

D 2 T sw = 0

out

sw

2T

sw

peak

) DT

out

peak

= I

out

sw

peak

peak

D 2T

sw

DD
V

out

V
2

out

T
L

sw

L
D 2T

sw

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck DCM

V out =

M =

1+

Vin
2V out L
D 2T swV in R
2

8 L
1+ 1+ 2
D

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

Where

L
L =
RTsw

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck DCM

Salient Points:
M is now Dependent on the Load Current
For a given Duty Cycle, M is larger for a DCM than for
a CCM Operation

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

10

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck Transition Point DCM-CCM
S
S
I

on

off

in

in

(V

peak

(V
R

V
L

out

out

L
V

in

critical

) DT

sw

V out ) DT
2L

critical

out

= 2F
= R

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

sw

sw

in

out

R
V in
V

DV
R

in

out

( V in V out )
2 F sw V in
This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any
unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

11

Advanced Simulation
Techniques
Small Signal Modeling

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

12

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck Converter
di
dt
dV
dt
di
dt
dV
dt

dV in V o
=
L
V
i
=
o
C
RC
dV in
1
= Vo +
L
L
1
1
i
Vo
=
C
RC

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

i
L1

SW1

12V
L

D1

C1

R1

State Equations

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

Vo
-

13

Advanced Simulation Techniques


AC Perturbation

)
i = Idc + i
)
Vo = Vdc + v
)
d = D + d
)
Vo
DVm
+
i =
L
L
)
)
i
Vo
)
Vo =

C
RC
STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP
Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

)
d Vin
+
L

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

14

Advanced Simulation Techniques


SSA Disadvantages

Complicated Equations
Change of Circuit requires Re-analysis
Not really Practical for Practicing Engineers

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any unauthorized review, use,
disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

15

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Pulse Width Switch Model
Ia(t)
d

A
Not
Connected
to diode

Ic(t)
C
d'

P
Diode
terminal not
connected
to switch

Junction
between
diode and
power switch

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

Simpler than SSA


Doesnt change with circuit
or component modifications
Identify PWM switch
variables
Average them
Perturb them

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

16

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Small Signal Modeling
Averaged Model

Bode Plot

Switching Model
X

Control Loop
Compensation

Behavioral Model

Simulation Time

Less

More

Time Duration

Large(in secs)

File Size

Small(in ms)

Parasites

Large

Switching Losses

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

Small

ThisThis
document
containscontains
confidentialconfidential
and privilegedand
information.
Any unauthorized
review,
document
privileged
information.
Anyuse,
disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

17

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck Converter Simulation Cycle by Cycle
L1

SW1

IN

Node

Out

2
{L}

V1

Gate_Drv

C1
{C}

D1

{Vin}

R1
{R}

{Max_Duty }
Gate_Drv

Gate Driv1e
2

D
-

Duty

0.5

{Min_Duty }

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any unauthorized review, use,
disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

18

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck Parameters
*Buck Converter Parameters
.PARAM Vin = 12
.PARAM L = 100u
.PARAM C = 10u
.PARAM R = 10
.PARAM Max_Duty = 0.99
.PARAM Min_Duty = 0.01
*** Gate Drive Voltage
.PARAM GATE_DRIVE_V = 5
****

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

*Type 1 Amplifier Parameters


.PARAM C_COMP = 16nF
.PARAM R_COMP = 10k
**Triangular PWM Parameters
.PARAM Hi = {GATE_DRIVE_V}
.PARAM Lo = 0
.PARAM PWM_FREQ = 100k
.PARAM GAIN = 500

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any unauthorized review, use,
disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

19

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck Converter Simulation Cycle by Cycle
10V

8V

~9.5V
6V

4V

6V

2V

0V
0s

50us

100us

150us

200us

250us

300us

350us

400us

450us

500us

V(OUT)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any unauthorized review, use,
disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

20

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck Converter Simulation Cycle by Cycle
2.4A

2.0A

~2.15A
0.58A

1.6A

1.2A

0.8A

0.4A

0A
0s

50us

100us

150us

200us

250us

300us

350us

400us

450us

500us

550us

600us

I(L1)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any unauthorized review, use,
disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

21

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck Converter Simulation Average Switch
SW2
IN2

L2

Out2

2
{L}

V2

C2
{C}

{Vin}

R2
{R}

Duty _Cy cle

Duty _Cy cle

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

0.5

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

22

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck Converter Simulation Average Switch
10V

9.6V
8V

6V
6V

4V

2V

0V
0s

0.2ms

0.4ms

0.6ms

0.8ms

1.0ms

1.2ms

1.4ms

1.6ms

1.8ms

2.0ms

V(OUT2)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

23

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck Converter Simulation Average Switch
2.5A

2.03A
2.0A

1.5A

0.6A

1.0A

0.5A

0A

-0.5A
0s

0.2ms

0.4ms

0.6ms

0.8ms

1.0ms

1.2ms

1.4ms

1.6ms

1.8ms

2.0ms

I(L2)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

24

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck Converter: Demonstration

Demonstration #16: Buck Converter

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

25

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost Converter
On-Time Event

I peak = I valley

Vin
t on
+
L

Off-Time Event

I valley = I peak
STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP
Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

Vout Vin

t off
L

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

26

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost CCM

1
( DVinTsw (Vout Vin )D Tsw )
=0
Tsw
'

Vout
1
M=
= '
Vin D
1
=
1 D

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

Where D=1-D

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

27

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost DCM
Vsw/d

Vout
Vin
0V
-Vout

IL

Ipeak
Iin
t
DTsw

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

D2Tsw

D3Tsw

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

28

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost DCM

V L Tsw = Vin Tsw V sw


V sw

Tsw = 0

Tsw = D 2V out + D3Vin

Vin T sw = D 2Vout + (1 D D 2 )Vin


Vout
D
=
+1
Vin
D2
Vin I in = Vout I out
STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP
Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

29

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost DCM
I L T sw =

DI

peak

D2I

peak

V out V out
V in
R

2 V out 2
D
D2 =
V in RI peak
I

peak

V out v in
D 2 T sw
L

2 V out 2 L
D
D2 =
V in R (V out V in ) D 2 T sw
1
M =
2

1 +

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

2 T sw RD
1+
L

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

30

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost DCM
1+ 1+
M =

2D 2

Where

L =

L
RT sw

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

31

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost DCM

Salient Points:
M is Dependent on the Load Current
A Certain Linearity exists between M and D, as on a
buck in CCM
For a given Duty Cycle, M can be Larger For DCM
than For CCM

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

32

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost Transition Point DCM-CCM

V in
S on =
L
V out V in
S off =
L
V in DT sw
I peak =
L
V in DT sw
I L T sw =
2L
STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP
Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

33

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost Transition Point DCM-CCM
I L T sw

V out 2
=
RV in

V out
1
=
V in
1 D

Since

DT sw
1
1
=
2L
R (1 D ) (1 D )
2 F sw L
R critical =
D (1 D ) 2
L critical
STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP
Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

RD (1 D ) 2
=
2 F sw

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

34

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost Transition Point DCM-CCM

R critical

Lcritical

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

2 Fsw LV out 2
=

V in
1
V in
V out
Vin

Vout

2
=
Vin R
2
2 FswV out
This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any
unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

35

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost Converter Simulation Cycle by Cycle
D1

Out

L1

SW1

2
{L}
I

V1
{Vin}

Gate_Drv

Gate Driv1e
2

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

C1
{C}

Gate_Drv

D
-

R1
{R}

0.5

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

36

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost Parameters
*Boost Converter Parameters
.PARAM Vin = 20
.PARAM L = 1m
.PARAM C = 30u
.PARAM R = 20
.PARAM Max_Duty = 0.99
.PARAM Min_Duty = 0.01
*** Gate Drive Voltage
.PARAM GATE_DRIVE_V = 5
****

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

*Type 1 Amplifier Parameters


.PARAM C_COMP = 16nF
.PARAM R_COMP = 10k
**Triangular PWM Parameters
.PARAM Hi = {GATE_DRIVE_V}
.PARAM Lo = 0
.PARAM PWM_FREQ = 100k
.PARAM GAIN = 500

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any unauthorized review, use,
disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

37

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost Converter Simulation Cycle by Cycle
60V

~52V
50V

~39V
40V

30V

20V

10V

0V
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

V(OUT)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

38

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost Converter Simulation Cycle by Cycle
10A

~8.2A
8A

~3.92A

6A

4A

2A

0A
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

I(L1)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

39

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost Converter Simulation Average Switch
L2
1

2
{L}

SW2
a

Out2

c
D2

V2

C2
{C}

{Vin}

R2
{R}

Duty _Cy cle

Duty _Cy cle

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

0.5

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

40

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost Converter Simulation Average Switch
60V

~54V
~40V

50V

40V

30V

20V

10V

0V
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

V(OUT2)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

41

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost Converter Simulation Average Switch
8.0A

~7.87A
6.0A

3.98A
4.0A

2.0A

0A
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

I(L2)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

42

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Boost Converter: Demonstration

Demonstration#17 : Boost Converter

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

43

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost Converter
On-Time Event

Vin
I peak = Ivalley+ ton
L
Off-Time Event

Vin
Ivalley= I peak ton
L
STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP
Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

44

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost CCM

Vin D V out D ' = 0


V out
D
=
=M
Vin
1 D

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

45

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost DCM
V L T sw =
0 = DV
I

in

T sw = 0

D 2 V out

T sw =

V sw

peak

D 2 T sw
2

1
T sw

= I out

Since
I out
D

V out
=
R
2 V out
=
RI peak

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

46

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost DCM
V in
L
2V out L
L
=
DV in T sw
DV in

I peak = DT sw
2V out
D2 =
R
where

L =

L
RT sw

2V out L
V out = DV in
DV in
STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP
Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

47

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost DCM

D V in

= 2 V out

M = D

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

1
2

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

48

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost DCM

Salient Points:
M is Dependent on the Load Current
Linearity Exists Between M And D, as on a Buck in
CCM.
For a given Duty Cycle, M Can be Larger for DCM
than CCM

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

49

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost DCM
Vsw/d

Vin
0V
Vout

IL

Ipeak

ID

Ipeak
Iout
t
DTsw

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

D2Tsw

D3Tsw

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

50

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost Transition DCM-CCM

V in
S on =
L
V in DT sw
I peak =
L
I peak D
I in T sw =
2
V in D 2 T sw
I in T sw =
2L
STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP
Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

51

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost Transition DCM-CCM
Assuming a 100% Efficiency

Vin2 D2Tsw Vout


=
Vin Iin Tsw = VoutI out
2L
R
V in 2 D 2 T sw R = 2 LV out

Since
V out
D
=
1 D
V in
R critical =

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

2 LF sw
(1 D ) 2
This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any
unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

52

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost Transition DCM-CCM
Vin + Vout

Rcritical = 2LFsw

Vin

R Vin

Lcritical =

2Fsw Vin + Vout

L critical

(1 D ) 2 R
=
2 F sw

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

53

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost Converter Simulation Cycle by
Cycle
D1

SW1

IN

Out
2

V1

L1
{L}

Gate_Drv

{Vin}

R1
{R}

C1
{C}

{Max_Duty }
Gate_Drv

Gate Driv1e
2

D
-

Duty

0.5

{Min_Duty }

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

54

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck Boost Parameters
*Buck Converter Parameters
.PARAM Vin = 40
.PARAM L = 2m
.PARAM C = 20u
.PARAM R = 20
.PARAM Max_Duty = 0.99
.PARAM Min_Duty = 0.01
*** Gate Drive Voltage
.PARAM GATE_DRIVE_V = 5
****

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

*Type 1 Amplifier Parameters


.PARAM C_COMP = 16nF
.PARAM R_COMP = 10k
**Triangular PWM Parameters
.PARAM Hi = {GATE_DRIVE_V}
.PARAM Lo = 0
.PARAM PWM_FREQ = 100k
.PARAM GAIN = 500

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any unauthorized review, use,
disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

55

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost Converter Simulation Cycle by
Cycle
10V

0V

-10V

-20V

~-45V

-30V

~-41V

-40V

-50V
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

V(OUT)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

56

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost Converter Simulation Cycle by
Cycle
8.0A

6.58A

5.8A

6.0A

4.0A

2.0A

0A
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

-I(L1)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

57

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost Converter Simulation Average
Switch
D2

SW2
IN2

Out2

1
d

V2

{L}
L2

{Vin}
Duty _Cy cle

Duty _Cy cle

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

C2
{C}

R2
{R}

0.5

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

58

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost Converter Simulation Average
Switch
0V

-10V

-20V

~-46V

-30V

~-39V

-40V

-50V
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

V(OUT2)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

59

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost Converter Simulation Average
Switch
6.0A

5.14A
3.95A

5.0A

4.0A

3.0A

2.0A

1.0A

0A
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

I(L2)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

60

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Buck-Boost Converter: Demonstration

Demonstration #18: Buck-Boost Converter

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

61

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Cuk Converter Simulation Cycle by Cycle
C1

L3
2

1
{L3}
V

{C1}
I

L1
2

SW1

D1

{L1}
V1
{Vin}

C3
{C3}

R1
{R}

Gate_Drv

{Max_Duty }
Gate_Drv

Gate Driv1e
2

D
-

Duty

0.5

{Min_Duty }

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

62

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Cuk Parameters
*Buck Converter Parameters
.PARAM Vin = 40
.PARAM L1 = 5m
.PARAM C1 = 5u
.PARAM L3 = 5m
.PARAM C3 = 2.5u
.PARAM R = 20
.PARAM Max_Duty = 0.99
.PARAM Min_Duty = 0.01
*** Gate Drive Voltage
.PARAM GATE_DRIVE_V = 5
****

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

*Type 1 Amplifier Parameters


.PARAM C_COMP = 16nF
.PARAM R_COMP = 10k
**Triangular PWM Parameters
.PARAM Hi = {GATE_DRIVE_V}
.PARAM Lo = 0
.PARAM PWM_FREQ = 100k
.PARAM GAIN = 500

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any unauthorized review, use,
disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

63

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Cuk Converter Simulation Cycle by Cycle
10V

0V

-10V

-20V

~-41V

-30V

-40V

-50V
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

V(L3:1)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

64

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Cuk Converter Simulation Cycle by Cycle
5.0A

3.78A
4.0A

3.0A

2.0A

1.0A

0A
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

-I(L1)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

65

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Cuk Converter Simulation Cycle by Cycle
Voltage across capacitor C1
100V

~84.28V
80V

60V

40V

20V

0V
0s

0.5ms
V(C1:1,C1:2)

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

66

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Cuk Converter Simulation Average Switch
C2

L4
1

2
{L4}
V

{C2}
L2

SW2

c
D2

{L2}
I

C4
{C4}

R2
{R}

V2
{Vin}
Duty _Cy cle

Duty _Cy cle

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

0.5

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

67

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Cuk Converter Simulation Average Switch
0V

-1 0 V

-2 0 V

-40V

-3 0 V

-48.25V
-4 0 V

-5 0 V
0s

0 .5 m s

1 . 0m s

1. 5 ms

2 .0 m s

2 . 5m s

3. 0 ms

3 .5 m s

4 . 0m s

4. 5 ms

5 .0 m s

5 . 5m s

6. 0 ms

V (R 2 :1 )
Ti me

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

68

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Cuk Converter Simulation Average Switch
3.0A

2.71A

2A

2.5A

2.0A

1.5A

1.0A

0.5A

0A
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

I(L2)
Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

69

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Cuk Converter Simulation Average Switch
Voltage across capacitor C2
120V

104V

80V

100V

80V

60V

40V

20V

0V
0s

0.5ms
V(L2:2,C2:2)

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

Time

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

70

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Cuk Converter: Demonstration

Demonstration #19: Cuk Converter

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

71

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Comparison of Buck Output Voltage
10V

10V

9.5V

9.6V

8V

8V

6V
6V

6V

4V

4V

6V

2V

2V

0V
0s

0V
0s

50us

100us

150us

200us

250us

300us

350us

400us

450us

500us

0.2ms

0.4ms

0.6ms

0.8ms

1.0ms

1.2ms

1.4ms

1.6ms

1.8ms

2.0ms

V(OUT2)
Time

V(OUT)
Time

Cycle by cycle

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

Average Switch

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

72

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Comparison of Buck Inductor Current
2.4A

2.5A

~2.15A
2.0A

2.0A

1.6A

1.5A

0.58A

1.2A

0.5A

0.4A

0A

50us

100us

150us

200us

250us

300us

350us

400us

I(L1)

450us

500us

550us

600us

-0.5A
0s

0.2ms

0.4ms

0.6ms

0.8ms

1.0ms

1.2ms

1.4ms

1.6ms

1.8ms

2.0ms

I(L2)
Time

Time

Cycle by cycle

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

0.6A

1.0A

0.8A

0A
0s

2.6A

Average Switch

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

73

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Comparison of Boost Output Voltage
60V

60V

52V

50V

54V

39V

40V

50V

40V

40V

30V

30V

20V

20V

10V

10V

0V
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

V(OUT)

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

0V
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

V(OUT2)

Time

Time

Cycle by cycle

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

Average Switch

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

74

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Comparison of Boost Inductor Current
10A

8.0A

~8.2A

~7.87A

8A

6.0A

~3.98A

~3.92A
6A

4.0A

4A

2.0A
2A

0A
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

I(L1)

5.5ms

6.0ms

0A
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

Time

Cycle by cycle

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

5.0ms

I(L2)

Time

Average Switch

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

75

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Comparison of Buck-Boost Output Voltage
10V
0V

0V
-10V

-10V
-20V

-39V

-20V

~-45V

-46V

-30V

~-41V

-30V

-40V

-40V

-50V
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

V(OUT)

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

-50V
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

V(OUT2)
Time

Time

Cycle by cycle

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

Average Switch

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

76

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Comparison of Buck-Boost Inductor Current
8.0A

6.0A

6.58A

5.8A

5.14A

5.0A

3.95A

6.0A

4.0A

4.0A

3.0A

2.0A

2.0A

1.0A

0A
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

-I(L1)

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

0A
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

I(L2)

Time

Time

Cycle by cycle

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

Average Switch

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

77

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Comparison of Cuk Output Voltage
10V

0V

0V
-10V

-10V
-20V

-20V

-41V

-40V

-48.25V

-30V

-30V

-40V

-40V

-50V
0s

-50V
0s

0.5ms
V(L3:1)

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

V(R2:1)
Time

Time

Cycle by cycle

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

Average Switch

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

78

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Comparison of Cuk Inductor Current
5.0A

3.0A

2.71A

3.78A

2A

2.5A

4.0A

2.0A

3.0A

1.5A

2.0A
1.0A

1.0A
0.5A

0A
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

-I(L1)
Time

Cycle by cycle

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

0A
0s

0.5ms

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

4.5ms

5.0ms

5.5ms

6.0ms

I(L2)
Time

Average Switch

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

79

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Flyback Converter: Demonstration

Demonstration #20: Flyback Converter

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

80

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Flyback in Parallel : Demonstration

Demonstration #21: Flyback in Parallel

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

81

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Forward Converter: Demonstration

Demonstration #22: Forward Converter

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

82

Advanced Simulation Techniques


Forward Converter: Demonstration

Demonstration #23: Forward Converter in


Parallel

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY GROUP


Experts in Power Electronics, Motor Drives
and Digital Control of Power
StrategicTechGroup.com

This document contains confidential and privileged information. Any


unauthorized review, use, disclosure, or distribution is prohibited.

83