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1. Dr.

Montgomery, a personality theorist, seeks to identify the basic traits


necessary to describe personality and consistencies in individuals' behavior. Dr.
Montgomery is a(n) _____ theorist.
Trait
2. Which of the following sequences CORRECTLY arranges Allport's trait
categories from the MOST SPECIFIC to the BROADEST?
Secondary central cardinal
3. In Allport's view, how many central traits do most people possess?
5-10
4. _____ traits are characteristics that affect behavior in fewer situations and are
less influential than other traits.
Secondary
5. A graduate student is using a statistical method of identifying associations
among a large number of variables to reveal more general patterns. She is
performing a _____ analysis.
Factor
6. Which of the following is NOT one of Eysenck's major personality dimensions?
Agreeableness
7. Which of the following specific traits is CORRECTLY paired with a description
in terms of the Big Five dimensions?
Imaginative - high openness
8. Garner is imaginative, independent, and prefers variety. Brandy is
conventional, down-to-earth, and has limited interests. It is likely that Garner
scores high while Brandy scores low on the Big Five personality dimension of:
openness.
9. Carlos is emotionally unstable, insecure, anxious, and moody. Quinn is
disorganized, careless, and impulsive. Johann is quiet, serious, and somewhat
timid. Finally, Kristy is imaginative, independent, and fond of variety. Which of
these individuals is CORRECTLY matched with a Big Five personality
description?
Quinn - low conscientiousness
10. Dr. Plater believes that personality is simply the sum of learned responses to
the external environment. Dr. Plater endorses the _____ approach to personality.
Learning
11. _____ is the belief that we have the personal capabilities to master a situation
and produce positive outcomes.

Self-efficacy
12. Mrs. Linley is a middle school math teacher. She provides constant,
consistent feedback on her students' math assignments. She wants her students
to have faith in their abilities to produce positive outcomes. Mrs. Linley is trying to
develop her students' self-:
efficacy.
13. _____ is the component of personality that encompasses our positive and
negative self-evaluations.
Self- esteem
14. _____ approaches to personality are theories that suggest that important
components of personality are inherited.
Biological and evolutionary
15. The inborn behavioral style and characteristic way of responding that
emerges early in life is known as:
temperament.
16. According to the text, studies of the potential genetic basis of personality
have identified a gene that may contribute to differences between people in the
trait of:
thrill-seeking.
17. The text suggests that the neurotransmitter most closely related to individual
differences in thrill- or sensation-seeking is:
dopamine.
18. _____ approaches to personality emphasize people's inherent goodness and
their tendency to move toward higher levels of functioning.
Humanistic
19. Humanistic psychologists suggests that people are consciously motivated to
reach their maximum potential, each in a unique way; that is, people have a
fundamental drive toward self-:
actualization.
20. Humanistic approaches in psychology have been most influential in:
therapeutic settings.
21. Which of the following approaches to personality is LEAST likely to
emphasize the stability of personality?
Learning

22. Which term indicates the ability of a test to measure what it is actually
designed to measure?
Validity
23. Dr. Cavanaugh examines the relationship between the trait of hardiness and
senior citizens' compliance with medication regimes; however, the hardiness
measure he uses was based on college students. Based on this information,
which of the following is the most apparent weakness of Dr. Cavanaugh's study?
The norming of the resilience measure
24. Because of federal legislation, race norming on tests such as the General
Aptitude Test Battery:
was discontinued in the early 1990s.
25. One of the best examples of a self-report measure, and one of the most
frequently used personality tests, is the:
MMPI-2.
26. Dr. Portillo's research team uses many methods to assess the trait of
extraversion. Dr. Portillo is interpreting participants' responses to TAT pictures.
Her postdoctoral research fellow is recording the number and length of
conversations participants initiate in a laboratory situation. Finally, Dr. Portillo's
graduate student is examining her own extraversion scores on a test of the Big
Five dimensions. Which research team member is CORRECTLY paired with the
type of personality assessment he or she is using?
Graduate student - self-report measure
27. A series of symmetrical stimuli is to picture what _____ is to _____.
Rorschach; TAT
28. Behavioral assessment relies most heavily on:
observing people in their own settings.
29. Which of the following is NOT one of the text's recommended strategies for
being an informed consumer of psychological test data?
Keep appraised of data on test popularity.
30. Belinda is in counseling and feels that she is on the brink of bursting through
her psychological cocoon and becoming a butterfly. Belinda's therapist agrees
with Belinda and feels strongly that Belinda has the innate ability to cope with
stress and to control her life. Belinda's therapist is most likely a
humanist.
31. Brittney is a counselor who believes that her clients have the innate ability to
make good choices. She accepts each individual as they are and as a person in

the process of change. It is important to her that her clients learn to evaluate
themselves and not depend on the opinion of others. Brittney is practicing
humanistic counseling.
32. Maslow would argue that Gus went back to school at age 40 because
he chose to fully develop his potential.
33. Which of the following is NOT an element of Carl Rogers' theory?
Defense mechanisms
34. Octavia enjoys being around others and is well known for her social graces.
She is warm and engaging with everyone she meets regardless of whether the
setting is the classroom, her workplace, a restaurant, or her own home. Because
Octavia has a fairly stable way of relating to other people, we can say that her
behavior is probably
a manifestation of a personality trait.
35. Which of the following accurately describes how factor analysis is used to
identify personality traits?
Factor analysis identifies which traits go together in terms of how they are rated.
36. Which is not one of the Big Five factors of personality discussed in your text?
Empathy
37. According to the five-factor model of personality, a person who is reserved
and quiet is low on
extraversion.
38. A person who is intellectual, imaginative, and has a broad range of interests
would mostly likely score high on a measure of
Openness
39. ________ theories stress the interaction of thought with social environments.
Social cognitive
40. DeShawn graduated from college with honors and approaches most aspects
of life with the expectation that he will be successful. He expects a great deal of
himself and sets his goals high. After his interview for a job in the most
prestigious company in his state, he was convinced that he would get the job.
You could say that he
has high self-efficacy.
41. Walter Mischel's view of situationism infers that
personality varies considerably from one context to another.
42. What is the most important aspect of situationism?

The current environment


43. Self-report tests are most closely associated with which perspective on
personality?
Trait
44. Maria claims that she is a mind reader. While she has quite a few believers,
you notice that she seems to use very vague comments during her mind-reading
sessions. Maria is likely using ________ to her advantage.
the Barnum effect
45. Projective tests are most closely aligned with which perspective on personality?
Psychodynamic
46. Dr. Crane is looking for a test that he can use to understand more about his
clients' unconscious motivations. He could use a(n) ________ measure.
projective