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The root of operant conditioning may be traced to _____'s early studies of hungry

cats learning to escape from cages.


Thorndike
Which of the following approaches to treating a phobia is/are CORRECTLY
matched with the type of learning it reflects?
Reinforcing client directly by interacting with the feared object - operant
conditioning
Reinforcers that satisfy a biological need are called _____ reinforcers.
Primary
Nature is to nurture what _____ reinforcers are to _____ reinforcers.
primary; secondary
Which of the following is an example of a secondary reinforcer?
Money
As part of a behavior modification program, Kendra and her partner each agree
to praise the other if she completes her assigned household chores by the end of
the day. Such praise is an example of:
secondary reinforcement and positive reinforcement.
Which of the following types of consequences is CORRECTLY matched with an
example?
Positive punishment - Laurel's mother yells at her when Laurel takes $20 from
her mom's purse
Typically long pauses in responding are found in _____ schedules.
fixed-interval
A privately funded program pays low-income parents $50 every two months for
each child who attends school regularly during that period. This incentive
illustrates a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
fixed-interval
Sheryl makes pleasant small talk and pays her boss a compliment before asking
for a personal day, because such a strategy was successful with a few of her
previous bosses. This example most clearly illustrates:
stimulus generalization.
Recall Tolman's latent learning experiments in which rats learned to run a maze.
What was the critical result?
Rats that began to receive an incentive halfway through the experiment rapidly
matched the performance of rats that had been reinforced from the beginning of
the experiment.

A(n) _____ is a mental representation of spatial locations and directions.


cognitive map
Learning by watching the behavior of another person, or model is known as
_____.
observational learning
Which of the following is NOT associated with Skinner?
Conditioned stimulus
Melvin is a new fifth-grade teacher. Unfortunately, many of his new students have
a history of failing to complete their assignments. He wants to encourage his
students to complete all of their assignments and to do well on them. From a
behavioral perspective, Melvin should
reinforce gradual approximations to the desired goal of completing 100% of the
assignments.
Gary takes his car to the auto shop for routine maintenance every 3,000 miles.
He is trying to avoid a major repair bill in the future. His behavior demonstrates
negative reinforcement.
Shirley refuses to put her name up for a promotion because she knows she will
not get the job anyway. This is an example of
learned helplessness.
Carol gives her dog, Oscar, a treat each time he sits on command. Carol is using
a ________ schedule to train her dog to sit on command.
continuous reinforcement
Josh has a crush on the girl at the movie rental store. He knows that she works
every Thursday afternoon, so he only visits the store on Thursdays. Josh is
operating on a ________ schedule.
Fixed interval
What principles of learning do behavior modification programs rely on in order to
help people change?
Operant
"Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated."
This is the law of:
effect.
Negative reinforcement:
increases the likelihood that preceding behaviors will be repeated.
Which of the following scenarios exemplifies negative reinforcement?

Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the annoying
alert sound
_____ weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus.
Positive punishment
Which of the following types of consequences is CORRECTLY matched with an
example?
Negative reinforcement - Jeff puts up his umbrella when it starts to sprinkle so he
won't get wet
A variable-ratio schedule is a schedule:
by which reinforcement occurs after a fluctuating number of responses rather
than after a fixed number.
Which of the following does not accurately reflect a distinction between classical
and operant conditioning?
Classical conditioning applies to voluntary behavior, while operant conditioning
applies to involuntary behavior.
Dr. Simonelli is a practicing behavior analyst. What does she do?
She specializes in behavior modification techniques.
Observational learning is based in part on the activity of _____ neurons in the
brain.
Mirror
Mary is a teacher in an inner-city school that is considered "at-risk" because of
low student achievement scores. She notices that most of the students believe
that academic ability or intelligence is a fixed, innate ability. What can Mary
expect from students given this mind-set?
They will exhibit learned helplessness in academically challenging situations.
Fred's parents are very inconsistent. Most of the time Fred climbs on the furniture
without receiving any reprimands; however, sometimes he is punished for this
behavior. Fred's parents cannot understand why he is not a better behaved child.
Fred's parents are reinforcing his negative behaviors on a ________ schedule.
partial reinforcement
Which of the following is an example of positive punishment?
Getting scolded
Which process determines whether or not an imitated or modeled act will be
repeated?
Reinforcement

On the way home from work, you decide to explore a side street that you have
passed on several occasions. You are surprised to find that it runs parallel to the
expressway. Several weeks later, there is a major accident on your usual travel
route so you take this alternate route home. This is an example of ________
learning.
Latent
Operant conditioning most importantly involves forming associations between:
behavior and consequences.
The process by which a stimulus increases the likelihood that a preceding
behavior will be repeated is called:
reinforcement.
The term reward is synonymous with:
positive reinforcement only.
A(n) _____ reinforcer refers to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus, putting on
a sweater when your cold for example, which leads to an increase in the
probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future.
Negative
One reason Carlos continues to work at his job is the check he receives every
two weeks. Carlos' paycheck is a _____ reinforcer.
Secondary
Behavior that is reinforced every time it occurs is said to be on a(n) _____
reinforcement schedule
Continuous
A fixed-ratio schedule is a schedule:
by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are
made.
Typically long pauses in responding are found in _____ schedules.
fixed-interval
The cognitive learning concept of _____ learning is associated most prominently
with _____.
latent; Tolman
Melvin is a new fifth-grade teacher. Unfortunately, many of his new students have
a history of failing to complete their assignments. He wants to encourage his
students to complete all of their assignments and to do well on them. From a
behavioral perspective, Melvin should

reinforce gradual approximations to the desired goal of completing 100% of the


assignments.
If, through experience, you come to the conclusion that all things are beyond
your control and therefore you should not even try, you are exhibiting
learned helplessness.
Which of the following is a primary reinforcer?
Candy
Little Henry knows that when he goes shopping with Mommy and throws a
tantrum, he never gets a treat. However, he also knows that if he throws a
tantrum when Dad takes him, Dad always gives in. Little Henry is demonstrating
discrimination.
For the past month, Larry has been grounded each time he hits his little brother.
Lately, Larry's misbehavior toward his little brother has decreased. Grounding
Larry is an example of
negative punishment.
In Sweden, it is illegal for parents to spank their children. Since the laws were
passed, youth rates of crime have
remained the same.
"Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated."
This is the law of:
Effect
A(n) _____ reinforcer refers to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus, putting on
a sweater when your cold for example, which leads to an increase in the
probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future.
Negative
Which of the following is not a disadvantage of punishment?
It tends to change behavior very slowly.
Which of the following promotions exemplifies the use of a fixed-ratio schedule of
reinforcement?
A caf offers its customers a punch card. Each time a patron purchases a
beverage, a hole is punched; when ten holes are punched, the patron receives a
free beverage.
Which of the following is an example of negative punishment?
Informing an employee that he has been demoted because of a poor job
evaluation.

A variable-interval schedule is a schedule:


by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses rather than
after a fixed number.
Matt wants to train his dog, Buster, to sit on command. He gives Buster a doggie
biscuit each time Buster sits when commanded, but only for the first 10 trials. He
then changes the rules. Buster now has to sit on command three times before he
gets a biscuit. Matt first used a ________ schedule, and then a ________
schedule to train Buster.
continuous reinforcement schedule; fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
In operant conditioning
the consequences of behavior produce change in the probability of the
occurrence of the behavior.
Kevin used to cry, whine, throw temper tantrums, and eventually start screaming
in the department store whenever he wanted a toy. His mother would resist
initially but when he would start screaming she would give in. Eventually, Kevin
started with the screaming to get his toy. Kevin is demonstrating
the law of effect.
David earns $1,000 every time his sales reach $100,000. For David, the bonus is
an example of ________ reinforcement.
Positive
_____ punishment consists of the removal of something pleasant.
Negative
_____ learning occurs without reinforcement.
latent
Four-month-old Simon quickly learns that he will be picked up if he cries. From a
behaviorist perspective, picking up Simon whenever he cries is a ________ for
the baby.
positive reinforce
The process of teaching complex behavior by reinforcing ever closer
approximations of the desired behavior is called:
Shaping
Cecil turns off all the lights in his house to avoid a huge electric bill. Cecil's
behavior is an example of
negative reinforcement.

A variable-interval schedule is a schedule:


by which the time between reinforcements fluctuates around some average
rather than being fixed.
Ewan is convinced that a woman across the bar is "sending signals." A learning
theorist would term such signals:
discriminative stimuli.
A worker is paid $25 for every 20 wind chimes that she builds. On which
schedule of reinforcement is she being paid?
Fixed ratio
Kayla is selling her Girl Scout cookies in the neighborhood. She never knows
how many houses she will have to visit before she sells all of her cookies. Kayla
is operating on a ________ schedule.
Variable ratio
Which of the following is the response most parents give when asked why they
physically punish their children?
The parent was spanked as a child and his or her child also needs strong
discipline.
Some bears kept in captivity allow veterinarians to routinely give them total body
checkups. These bears open their mouths for teeth cleaning and present their
paws for nail clipping. Your friend wonders how anyone could ever get these
dangerous animals to be so cooperative without anesthesia. From your study of
psychology, you quickly surmise that the bears have undergone an extensive
________ program.
Shaping
Which of the following is the response most parents give when asked why they
physically punish their children?
The parent was spanked as a child and his or her child also needs strong
discipline.