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Russian

in Exercises

S.A. Khavronina, A.I. Shirochenskaya

Russian
in Exercises
18 th edition, stereotype

R
RUS~Y YAZYk

URSY

MOSCOW
2008

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18- ,

R
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2008

808.2 (075.8)-054.6
81.2 -923

12

Translated Vladimir Korotky


Drawings Valery ~s~
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ISBN 978-5-88337-155-3


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PREFACE
Russian in Exercises is intended for beginners. lt contains exercises designed to consolidate
and activise basic Russian grammar and vocabulary. Russian in Exercises falls into two parts:
1. An Introductory Lexical and GrammaticaCourse, and 2. The Main Course.
1. An lntroductory Lexical and Grammatical Course
The exercises given in this part are based on limited vocabulary (approximately 350
words) and will enale the student to master the main types ofthe Russian simple sentence and
also number of points of Russian grammar, such as personal verb forms and tenses, and the
plural of nouns. At the same time they will acquaint him with the main ways of expressing the
agent, place and time of an action, possession, an attribute of an object, and affirmation and
negation. The exercises will teach the student, how to ask various types of questions containing
the question words ? 'who?', ? 'when?', ? 'where?', ? 'whose?' and ?
'what (kind ot)?', and to understand and make simple statements. The Introductory Course lays
the foundation for further study of the language.
2. The Main Course
The Main Course falls into three large sections: The Use ofthe Cases; The Verb; and Complex Sentences.
One of the principal peculiarities of Russian grammar is the category of case, the essence of
which is the fact that every Russian noun, adjective, pronoun, ordinal numeral and participle
has whole system of forms expressing different meanings, . g. . 'This is
student.' . 'There is no student.' . 'I am writing to student.'
. 'I see student.' . 'I know student.'
. 'We are talking about student.'
This often presents difficulty to non-Russian students of the language. lt is impossile to
speak Russian correctly without thorough knowledge of the case forms and without leaming
to use these forms automatically in speech. This has determined the structure of the Main
Course, the arrangement of its contents and the number of exercises in each section.
The authors introduce the cases and their meanings in the order generally followed in practical teaching of the language to non-Russians. First of all the student is introduced to grammatical features most essential for everyday communication. Thus, he should first l to
name objects ( . 'This is textbook. '), then to name the place of an action (
. 'I live in London. '), then to name an object acted upon ( . 'I am
reading book. '), etc.
5

The case is unity of form, meaning and function. Each case is therefore introduced and
practised in sentence (which is the smallest speech unit) and also in very short texts. The
numerous exercises will help the student assimilate not only the case forms, but also the constructions in which they are used. Thus, having mastered the cases, the student will have mastered the structure ofthe Russian simple sentence as well.
The verb also presents difficulty to non-Russian students of the language. peculiarity of
the verb is the fact that it has two stems: the infinitive stem (- 'to draw') and the present tense stem (- '1 am drawing'). Other categories of the Russian verb - aspect and
transitiveness/intransitiveness - are also unusual for most foreigners. The group of prefixed
and unprefixed verbs of motion also warrants close attention.
Since the verb fulfils the function of the predicate in sentence, it forms its nucleus. Therefore the ability to use verbs properly is an indispensale condition for understanding and speaking Russian.
The exercises in the Complex Sentences section aim to help the student master the structure
of complex sentences and the most frequent conjunctions and conjunctive words. ln this section the student is introduced to complex sentences with clauses of reason, condition, purpose,
etc. Special attention is given to clauses introduced the conjunctive word and the
conjunction , since their misuse accounts for the greater part of mistakes made forcing speakers of Russian.
The book should studied in cyclic pattem and not straight through from beginning to
end. This should prevent the student from leaming the accusative of direction in isolation from
verbs of motion, or the instrumental in isolation from the short form of passive participles; it is
useful to study the accusative ofthe object of action in conjunction with the section devoted to
verbal aspects, etc.
Russian in Exercises is based on limited number of the commonest Russian words,
ture which makes it possile to use it to supplement any comprehensive Russian course.

fea-

The authors would grateful for any remarks and suggestions which would help improve
this work in future editions. They should forwarded to 125047, , 1-
., . 18. . . ./: (495) 251 0845;
e-mail: kursy@online.ru; www.rus-lang.ru/eng/contents.

CONTENTS
PART ONE. AN INTRODUCTORY LEXICAL AND

GRAMAICAL

COURSE

Nouns ln the Singular. Questions: :i? :i? ........................................................ 13


The Present s of the Verb .................................................................................................. 17
1st Conjugation ................................................................................................................... 17
2nd Conjugation .................................................................................................................. 21
Question: ? ......................................................................................................................... 23
Question: ? ...................................................................................................................... 26
Question: ? ........................................................................................................... 29
Revision Exercises .................................................................................................................... 33
The Gender of Nouns ................................................................................................................ 34
The Possessive Pronouns , , , ...................................................................... 35
The Past Tense ofthe Verb ........................................................................................................ 37
The Future Tense ofthe Verb .................................................................................................... 41
Nouns in the Plural ................................................................................................................... 43
Questions: ? ? ? ? The Possessive Pronouns , , , ............... 47
The Possessive Pronouns , , ........................................................................................ 49
The Genitive Expressing Possession ........................................................................................ 51
The Construction ( ... ) ... ........................................................................... 53
The Present Tense ............................................................................................................... 53
The Past Tense .................................................................................................................... 56
The Future Tense ................................................................................................................ 56
Questions:

? ? ? ?

:i, :i, :i,

The Demonstrative Pronouns

......................................................................................................... 57

Adjectives ................................................................................................................................. 61
Adjectives with the Stem Terminating in Hard Consonant .............................................. 61
Adjectives with the Stem Terminating in Soft Consonant ............................................... 61
Adjectives with the Stem Terminating in , , ................................................................. 62
Adjectives with the Stem Terminating in , , , ......................................................... 63
The Adjective and the Adverb. The Questions ? and ? ........................................... 68
The General Concept of Verb Aspects ..................................................................................... 69
The Verbs , , and the Short-Form Adjective
with an Infinitive ' 71
Verbs with the Particle -. The Vrs (?) nd (?) .............................. 74
7

PART W

MAIN COURSE

The Uses of the Cases


The Prepositional Case
76
The Prepositional Denoting the Place of an Action
Nouns in the Prepositional Singular with the Prepositions and 76
The Prepositional with the Preposition (, ) Denoting the Object of Speech
or Thought

86
Personal Pronouns in the Prepositional
88
89
Adjectives in the Prepositional Singular
Possessive Pronouns in the Prepositional 93
The Possessive Pronoun in the Prepositional 95
Nouns and Adjectives in the Prepositional Plural 97
The Prepositional Denoting Time

99
00

00

00 00

00

00 000 00 00

0000

00

00

00 00

00

00

00 00

00 00 00

00

00

00 00 00 000

0000000000000

00000000000

00 00

00 00

00 00

00 00 00 00 00

00

00 00

00

00

00

The Accusative Case


The Accusative Denoting an Object Acted Upon 102
Inanimate Nouns in the Accusative Singular 102
Animate Nouns in the Accusative Singular 105
Personal Pronouns in the Accusati ve 107
Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns in the Accusative Singular 109
Nouns in the Accusative Plural 116
Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns in the Accusative Plural 118
The Accusative with the Verbs ofMotionooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo120
The Accusative with the Verbs - , - ,
- 128
The Accusative Denoting Time 132
...

The Dative Case


The Dative Denoting the Recipient 135
Nouns in the Dative Singular 135
Personal Pronouns in the Dative 139
Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns in the Dative Singular 140
Nouns in the Dative Plural 142
Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns in the Dative Plural 145
The Dative with the Verb - 146
The Dative Denoting Age 149
The Dative in Impersonal Sentences 152
The Dative with the Preposition 154
The Dative with the Preposition 156
...

..

The Genitive Case


The Genitive in Negative Sentences with the Words

, ,

159

Nouns in the Genitive Singular ......................................................................................... 159


Personal Pronouns in the Genitive .................................................................................... 163
Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns in the Genitive Singular .......................................... 164
The Genitive with the Numerals (), , ................................................ 167
Nouns in the Genitive Plural ............................................................................................. 169
The Genitive with the Words , ri, , ,
and Cardinal N umerals ................................................................................................ 169
Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns in the Genitive Plural .............................................. 177
The Genitive Denoting Possession .................................................................................... 178
The Adnominal Genitive ................................................................................................... 182
The Genitive with the Comparative Degree ...................................................................... 184
The Genitive Denoting Dates ............................................................................................ 185
The Genitive Denoting Time ............................................................................................ 186
The Genitive with the Prepositions and Denoting Direction ..................................... 188
The Genitive with the Prepositiony .................................................................................. 192
The Genitive with the Prepositions , , , ... ............... 195
The Instrumental Case
Nouns in the Instrumental Singular ................................................................................... 196
The Instrumental Denoting Joint Action ........................................................................... 199
Personal Pronouns in the lnstrumental ............................................................................... 149
Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns in the Instrumental Singular ................................... 201
Nouns, Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns in the lnstrumental Plural ........................... 203
The Instrumental in the Compound Predicate after the Verbs and ............. 205
The Instrumental with the Verbs and ,
and the Short-Form Adjective ....................................................................... 209
The Instrumental with the Prepositions , , , , Denoting Place ..... 211
The Instrumental in Passive Constructions ....................................................................... 212
The Instrumental Denoting the Instrument of Action ....................................................... 213
The Instrumental with Prepositions Used in Various Meanings ....................................... 213

Revision Exercises .................................................................................................................. 215


The Verb
Verbs of Motion
Unprefixed Verbs of Motion and the Verbs

and

.......................................... 219

The Verb . The Present Tense .................................................................................. 219


The Verb . The Past Tense .................................................................................... 220
The Verb . The Future Tense ................................................................................. 223
The Verb . The Present Tense ................................................................................. 225
The Verb . The Past Tense .................................................................................... 226
The Verb . The Future Tense .............................................................................. 229
The Verbs - ............................................................................................... 231
9

The Verbs - .............................................................................................. 235


The Verbs - , - .................................................................. 238
Prefixed Verbs of Motion
The Prefix - ................................................................................................................. ,'; 241
The Prefixes - and - ..................................................................................................
The Prefixes - (-) and - ........................................................................................... : :zi8
The Prefixes - (-) and - (-) ....................................................................... ~
The Prefix - .................................................................................................................. ; ::!Jt
1
The Prefixes -, -, - ........................................................................................ :.. ~::;tz

:.249

'

Revisio Exercises ................................................................................................................. ~~~

Verbs with the Particle


Verbs
Verbs
Verbs
Verbs

with Passive Meaning ............................................................................................ : 2!56


with Middle Reflexive Meaning ........................................................................... ,; ~
with the Meaning ofReciprocal Action ................................................................. 265
with Proper Reflexive Meaning ............................................................................ (267

Revisio Exercises .................................................................................................................. 268

Verb Aspects

. '

Principal Meanings of Perfective and lmperfective Verbs ............................................... 270


The Use ofthe Imperfective Aspect after the Verbs -,
- , - ................................................... 279
The Use oflmperfective and Perfective Verbs in the Future Tense ................................. 280
The U se of the Aspect Pairs of Some Verbs ..................................................................... 283
The Use ofthe Verbs -, -, - ............. 285
Perfective Verbs with the Prefixes - and - ................................................................. 287
Revisio

Exercises .................................................................................................................. 288

Complex Sentences
Complex Sentences Containing the Conjunctions and Conjunctive Words

, ,

, , , , , , , ,

................................ 292
Complex Sentences Containing the Conjunctions and 5 ................ 293
Complex Sentences Containing the Conjunctions , ..................................... 294
Complex Sentences Containing the Conjunction ................................................. 297
Complex Sentences Containing the Conjunction .................................................... 298
Complex Sentences Containing the Correlative Words , .................................... 300
Complex Sentences Containing the Conjunctive Word ................................... 301

Direct and Indirect Speech


1. Direct Speech in the Form of Statement .................................................................... 308
2. Direct Speech in the Form of Question with Question Word .................................. 309
3. Direct Speech in the Form of Question without Question Word ............................. 309
10

4. Direct Speech in the Form of an Injunction with the Predicate


in the Imperative Mood ................................................................................................. 31
Revisian Exercises .................................................................................................................. 311

Sentences Containing Participial and Verbal Adverb Constructions


The Participle .................................................................................................................... 314
Active Participles .............................................................................................................. 314
The Formation of Active Participles ................................................................................. 317
The Present Tense .......................................................................................................... 317
The Past Tense ............................................................................................................... 317
Passive Particip1es ............................................................................................................. 321
The Formation of Passive Participles ................................................................................ 322
The Past Tense ............................................................................................................... 322
The Present Tense .......................................................................................................... 324
Short-Form Passive Participles ......................................................................................... 328
Long-Form and Short-Form Participles ............................................................................ 330
The Verbal Adverb ................................................................................................................. 332
Imperfective Verbal Adverbs ............................................................................................ 332
The Formation of Imperfective Verbal Adverbs ............................................................... 332
Perfective Verbal Adverbs ................................................................................................ 333
The Formation of Perfective Verbal Adverbs ................................................................... 334

to the Exercises .............................................................................................................. 340

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AN INTRODUCTORY LEXICAL
AND GRAMMATICAL COURSE

Part One

Nouns in the Singular


Questions: ? ?

- ?

, .

, .

Exercise 1. Read the questions and answer them. Write down the questions and the answers.

1.

2.

6.

IIIItiJ,.

3no ,

4.

3 ""'"'??

11 Jt?

~.

3.

~?
5.

7.

:>

3m,

8.

~.

Af!J;
,

/Ufll6,).':>
13

9.

10.

13.

11.

12.

14.

Exercise 2. Read the sentences and write them out.

1.

. . , . , .

k ~ Jw~. Jnw~a i ~.
Jmo ~~ :Jnw ~
2.

3.

. , . , .

, . , . ,

14

- ?

-, . .

Exercise 3. Read the questions and answer them. Write down the questions and the answers.

1.

2.

5.

. ?

7.

4.

8.

Exercise 4. Read the questions and answer them. Write down the questions and the answers.

Model:

- ? ()

1.

4.
8.

3.

, . .

? ()

? ()

5.

2.

? ()

3.

? ()

6? () . ? ()

? ()

9.

7.

? ()

? ()

- ?

- ?

- .

]<"

h Exercise 5. Ask questions about the drawings and answer them. Write down the
questions and the answers.
Model: -

- ?

- .

liil6il6il6il6il6il
liilliilfillliil6illi!l
liil
liil
liil
liil

10

:
13

16

12

11

14

Exercise 6. Ask the question


the sentences in two columns.

Model:

1.

or

- ?

about the italicised words. Arrange

. . . . .

. . . . .

2.

. . . . .

. . . . d. .

The Present Tense of the Verb


Ist Conjugation

Exercise 7. Write out the sentences, using the required forms of the verb .

Model:

...

1.

...

. .

...

2. ... . 3. ... . 4. ... . 5. ...


... . 7. ... . 8. ... . 9.

G-!r

Exercise 8. Read the sentences, using the required pronouns.

Model: ...

1....

2 ....

5 ....

8....

2-2200.

3 ....

. 4,"'

. .... .

7 ....

17

Exercise 9. Write out the sentences, using the required forms of the verb .

Model:

...

1.

...

. .

...

2.

...

3.

...

4.

...

...

in the'

5.

Exercise 10. Conjugate the following verbs on the pattem of the verb .
, , , .

Exercise 11. Conjugate the verbs , , and


following sentences. Write out the conjugation of the fourth sentence.

Model:

1.

2.

3.

4.

r.

- ?
-, .
-, .

Exercise 12. Answer the questions. Write out the questions and the answers.

Model:

- ? ()

-, . .

1.
)

? ()

4.

2. ? () 3.
() 5. ? ()
-

r?
, r.

, r.

Exercise 13. Answer the questions in the affirmative or the negative.

1.
18

? (

2. ? 3.

r?

7.

4.

5.

? . ?

1?

Exercise 14. Answer the questions in the affirmative and the negative.

1.

5.

2.

3.

? . ?

7.

4.

Exercise 15. Answer the questions and write down the answers.

Model:

- ?

, .

ik
~

1.

4.

2.

5.

6?

3.

- ?

- ?

- .

- .

- ?

- i?
- .

- .

19

G- Exercise 16. . Read the dialogues.

1. - ?
-, .

-, .

2.

?
, .

- ?

- ?

- .
- ?

-, .

1.

2.

Complete the dialogues.

- ?

- ?

- ?
- ?

20

Compose similar dialogues based on the drawings.


.

2nd Conjugation

'

All Russian verbs can divided into two groups: 1st conjugation verbs and
2nd conjugation verbs.
1st conjugation verbs take the endings -/-; -; -; -; - and

-/-.

2nd conjugation verbs take the endings

-/-; -; -; -; -

and

-/-.

-.

-.
-.

Q-,r Exercise 17. Answer the questions in the affirmative or the negative. Write out
questions 1, 2, 4 and 5, and the answers to them.

1.

-?

-?

4.

2.

-?

-?

-?

7.

5.

3.

-?

-?

8.

6.

-?

21

Compare the conjugation of the verbs:

1st Conjugation

2nd Conjugation

() .

() .

() .

() .

.
.
.

i?

Exercise 18. Read the questions and answer them.

Model: -

? ()

- 2

1.
3.
5.

? ()

? ()

4.

2.

? ( )

? ( )

-? ()

6.

I? ()

, the plural of the noun .


If the words containing the answer to question stand at the eginning of the sentence, they
are emphasised stronger stress: ?- . and1

u .

22

Exereise 19. Ask questions about the italicised words and write them down.

Model:

-.
-?

1.

2.

-.

4.

I.

7.

5.

3.

-.

6.

h Exercise 20. Answer the questions, as in the model. Write out questions 1, 2 and 5, and
the answers to them.
Model:

- ?

- , .

1. ? 2. ? 3. ? 4. ?
5. ? 6. ? 1

Question:
-

?
r.

Exercise 21. Read the questions and answers. Write out the words which answer
the question ?

1.

- ?

2.

3.

- ?

4.

- .

- ?

- ?

-
-

, the plural of the noun .

23

Exercise 22. Answer the questions.

Model:

- , ?

1. , ? 2.
, ? 3. -, ? 4.
, ? 5. -, 1
? 6. , ? 7.
, 1?

Exercise 23. Complete the sentences, using the antonyms of the adverbs used in them.

Model:

....

, .

1. , .... 2. ,
.... 3. , .... 4. - ,
.... 5. u, .... 6.
, .... 7. , .... 8.
, ....

Exercise 24. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.

Model:

... ?
- .

- ?

- .

... ?

1.

- .

2.

...?

- .

3.

... ?

4.

...?
- - .

...?

5.

6.

- .

...?
- .

...?

7.

24

Exercise 25. Answer the questions, using the words - , -,


- , - . Write down the
answers.

6.- ,

Model:

- ?
- .

1. ? 2. ? 3. ?
4. -? 5. ? .
?

7.

8.

-?

9.

-?

- , -?
- , ( -).
- .
-, , -.

Exercise 26. Answer the questions.

1. , -? 2. ,
3. , ? 4. ,

5. ,

-?

Exercise 27. Read the text and retell it.


. . . .

1. . .
. . .

. ? , .
, . :
- .

Exercise 28. Translate into Russian. Write down your translation.

lesson is in progress now. This is the teacher. This is the student and the girl
student. The teacher is reading, and the student and the girl student are listening.
They are listening carefully. Jim and Mary understand the text well. Then Jim reads.
reads quickly and correctly. The teacher says, "Jim, you read well". Then they
speak Russian.

25

Question:

- ?

- .
Exercise 29. Read the text and write it out.
. . .
2

1
, . ,

3 . , 4
5 ' , .

() .

() .

Exercise 30. Answer the questions.

Model: - ?
- , .
)

4.

1.

2.

, he goes to the University


, to study
3
, to prepare
4
, the plural of the noun .
5
d, the plural of the noun d.
1

26

3.

5.

7.

6.

8.

Exercise 31. Answer the questions. Write out questions 4, 5 and

and the answer to them.

- , ?

Model:

- .

1. , ?
2. , ?
3. , ?
4. , ?
5. , ?
6. , ?
Exercise 32. Answer the questions, using the words , , ,
Write out questions 7, 8, 9 and 10, and the answers to them.

6.

- ?

Model:

- .

1.

4.

?
?

5.

2.

6.

3.

7. ? 8. ? 9.

10.

h Exercise 33. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.
Write down the questions.
Model:

... ?
- .

1.

- ?

- .

. .. ?
- .

2.

... ?
- .

3.

... ?
- .

4.

... ?
- .

27

5.

... ?
- .

6.

... ?
- .

7.

... ?
- .

h Exercise 34. Answer the questions, as in the model. Write down the answers to
questions 2, 3 and 5.
Model: -

- , .

1.

4.

2.

3.

5.

Exercise 35. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- , ?

- .
(- , .)
1.

, ?

, ?
, ?

6.

4.

2.

, ?

, ?

5.

3.

, ?

?
r

8 .

2, 3, 4
5, 6 ... 10, 11 ... 20

Exercise 36. Answer the questions.

1.
4.

28

2.

5.

3. ?
6. ?

Question:

- ?
- .
- ?
- .

Exercise 37. Read the questions and answers, and write them out. Note the position of the
subject in the questions when it is noun and when it is pronoun.

1. -

- .

2. - ?
- .
3. - ?
- .
4. - ?
- .
5. - ?
- .
6. - ?
- .

7.

- ?

() .

h
Exercise 38. Answer the questions, using the words in brackets. Place the words
denoting time at the beginning of the sentences.
Model:

- ? ()
- .

, to write

29

1.

? ( )

2.

? ()

3. ? () 4.
5. ? ( )
. u ? ( ) 7.

? ( )

? (, )

after dinner
after the lesson
, after supper
, after breakfast

Exercise 39. Answer the questions. Write out questions 5,

and 7, and the answers to them.

1. 1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. 1 ?
. ?

7.

Bbl ?

11. 1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?

Exercise 40. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.

Model: - ... ?
- .

1.

... ?
- .

2.

3.

... ?
- .
... ?

30

- .

... ?

4.

- .

5.

... ?
.

6.

... ?
.

7.

... ?

- .
8. ... ?
- .
Exercise 41. Read the sentences and write them out. Note the position of the words
denoting time in sentences which answer the questions ? and ?
Remember that the words containing the answer to question are placed at the end of the
sentence.

1.

- ?

3.

- .

2.

- ?
- .

?
.

- ?
- .

?
.

Exercise 42. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model: -

- , .

1.
?

4.

2.

5.

3.

-.
.
.

31

Exercise 43.

Read the dialogue.

- ?

- ?
.

?
.

- .

. Complete the dialogues, supplying responses.

h
1.

- ?
- ?

- ?

- ?

2.

... ?

. I .

- .

... ?
. .. ?
.. . ?
- .

. .. ?
.

And this is Ann.

Ask as many questions as

32

possile

about her.

Revision Exercises

Oo-lr

Exercise 44. Use the required forms ofthe verbs given on the right.

1. ... .
2. ... .
3. ... ?
4. ... ?
5. ... :1.
. ... -.
7. ... 1.

Excrcise 45. Use the required forms of the verbs , , , ,

, , .

1. ... , ... . ... ? 2.


... -? 3. ... . ...
r? ... , . 4. ... .
... ? ... . 5. ... . ... ?
...

-.

Exercise 46. Answer the questions.

1. 1.

-?

4.

2.

-?

3.

11. 1. ? 2. ? 3.
4. ? 5. ? .

III.1.

r ?

4.

?
?

9.

2.

7.

5.

3.

-? .

- :1?

8.

G- Exercise 47. Ask questions about the italicised words and write them down.
1.

. . .

. .

2.
3.

. .
. . . ..

.
3-2200

33

Exercise 48. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- , ?
-, () , ( ). .

-, , .

1. , ? 2. , ?
3. , ? 4. , ?
5. , ? . ,
? 7. , ? 8. ,
1

Exercise 49. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

1.

- ?

- , .

- , .

?
?

7.

4.

2. - ? 3.
? 5. ? 6.

Exercise 50. Write brief story about yourself: who you are; what you are studying;
what you do in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening; when you work and relax; how
well you speak Russian.

The Gender of Nouns


Russian nouns are divided into three groups: nouns of the asculine, feinine
and neuter genders.
Masculine nouns are nouns ending in consonant: , , .

'

Feminine nouns are nouns ending in the vowel - or -:


Neuter nouns are nouns ending in the vowel-o or -:

, the plural ofthe nounyp6.

34

, , .

, , .

Masculi11e

Ending

Feminine

consonant

Neuter

Ending

The Possessive Pronouns ,

'

Ending

, ,

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Possessive pronouns agree with their head word (noun) in gender.

~---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------J
E:xercise 51. Use the required pronoun.

Model:

...

...

() , ,

1.

6.

...

2. ... . 3.
... . 7. ... .

...

4.

5.

...

5.

...

...

() , ,

1.

...

6.

2.
...

... . 3. ... . 4.
. 7. ... . 8. ...

...

Exercise 52. Answer the questions, using the required pronouns.

Model:

...

-, .

...

-, .

() , ,

1.
...

...

6.

...

2.

... ? 3. ...
7. ... ?

4.

...

5.

35

() , ,

1.

...

? .

MEMORISE!

.
'

...

2. ... ? 3. ... ? 4.
7. ... ?

...

5.

...

Masculine

Feminine

Nouns ending in

- are either masculine or feminine.

~--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------~

Exercise 53. Arrange the following words in three columns, as in the model.

Model:

Feminine

Masculine

Neuter

...

...

.. .

, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , ,

, , , , , , , , , .

Exercise 54. Use the pronouns ,

Model:

, .

.... .
. .

1.

.... .

.... .

4.

2.

.... .

.... .

3.

7. ....
. 8. .... . 9. ....
r. 10. .... . 11. ....
...

. . .... .

5.

36

The Past Tense of the Verb

i .

Exercise 55. Answer the questions. Write down the answers to questions 3, 7, 8 and 9.

Model: -

d ?
, d .

-, d .

1. d ? 2. d ? 3. d
? 4. d ? 5. d ?
6. ? 7. ? 8. ?
9. ? 10. d ? 1

Exercise 56. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.

Model:

... ?
- .

- ?
- .

1.

... ?
- d.
2.
... ?
- .
3.
... ?
- d .

4.

5.

... ?
- d .

...?
- 2 .

6. - ... ?
- .

7. - ... ?
- .
1

- to play football
, at the lesson.

37

'

'

Past tense verbs are formed from the infinitive stem means of the suffix

+ -

- .

+ + -

Past tense verbs have masculine, feminine, neuter and plural endings .

'--------------------------------------------------------------/
Singular

Plural

Masculine

(, )

Feminine

(, )

Neuter

6()

Singular

Masculine

--

Feminine

---

Neuter

---

38

---

, ,

, , , , , , , ,.
,

2.
3.
4.
5.

Plural

Exercise 57. Form past tense verbs, as in the model.

Model:
1.

,,6

Exercise 58. Answer the questions, using the words and phrases

, ,

, , , ,
, , .

1.
3.

4.

2.

5.

? . ?

Exercise 59. Replace the present tense the past.

Model:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. -


. -

7.
8.
9.
10.

h Exercise 60. Replace the present tense the past. Remember that the past tense is
formed from the infinitive stem.
()-

Model:

1.
2.

3.

4.
5.

Exercise 61. Replace the present tense

Model:

the past.

r.

I.

1.
3.

2.

, .

4.

-.

.
.

5. , . .
7. . 8. . 9.

l , .

G- Exercise 62. Write out the text, replacing the present tense the past.
? .
, . r ,

39

. , .
. , .
, , -.
.

Exercise 63. Write out the text, replacing the present tense the past:

? , ,
. , : ,

, . .
, , , .

Exercise 64. Translate into Russian.

1. In the morning I had breakfast, read the newspapers and listened to the radio.
2. In the afternoon we worked and now we are relaxing. 1 am reading magazine and
Mary is writing letter. 3. Yesterday evening we watched TV.
.

Exercise 65. Ask questions about the italicised words.

Model:

1.
4.

2.

5.

3.

. .

Exercise 66. Ask questions about the italicised words.

1.

4.

2.

5.

. -.
I.

40

3.

7.

The Future Tense of the Verb



fi

Exerchie 67. Answer the questions.

Model:

- ?

, .

(-, .)

1.

4.

2.

. ?

8.

9.

7.

5.

3.

1?

Exercise 68. Use the verbs in the future tense.

Model:
1.
...

... ? ()
- ?

... . () 2. .... () 3.
4. ... . () 5. ...
... 1? () 7. ... ? ()

. ()

1? () .

Exercise 69. Put the verbs in the future tense.

Model:

.
.

1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. .
7. . 8. . 9. . 10. .

. .

Exercise 70. Replace the present tense

Model:

the future.

.
.

1.

2.

41

3.

d .

6.

4.

- .

5.

7.

Exercise 71. Answer the questions, using the words , , ,


Write out the questions and the answers.

, , .

Model:

- ?

1.

6.

4.

2.

7.

3.
5.

Exercise 72. Change the sentences, as in the model, and write them down.

Model:

-.
1 -.
-.

1.
3.

-.

2.

-.

-.

Days of the Week

Exercise 73. Answer the questions, using the words and phrases

, d , , , ,
, , .

1.
3.

?
?

5.
7.

42

6.

2. ?
4.

9.

8.

Exercise 74. Rend the text, replacing the present tense the future.
, . :

r, , , . .

, .

Exercise 75. Write out the text, replacing the present tense the future.
.

. , .

! , . .
.

Nouns in the Plural


Feminine

Masculine
Singular

Plural

Ending

Plural

Singular

Ending
-

Exercise 76. Form the plural of the following nouns and write down the plurals in the
as in the model.

Masculine

Feminine

Ending

Ending

tale,

, , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , ,

43

, , , ,

, , , , , , .

'

Note that the masculine nouns which take the ending

- in the plural:

-~------------------------------------------------------J
-

Neuter
Singular

Plural

Ending
-

MEMORISE!

.
'

Note that in the formation of the plural the position of the stress may change:

~----------------------------------------------------------~

:r

Exercise 77. Replace the plural

-
-

the singular. Memorise the plural forms.

1. r, r, r, r
2. ,
3. , , , ,
44

4.,,,,,
5.,,,

Singular

Plural
Ending

Singular
-

Ending -

Plural

Exercise 78. Replace the singular the plural.


, , , , , ,
, , , , .

MEMORISE!

.
'

Sigular

Plural

Note the words, which exists only in the plural:

'------------------------------------------------------------'

Oo-lr

:1

Exercise 79. Replace the singular the plural.

, ; ; , ; ,
; , ; ; ;

; ; , ; ,
; ; ; ; ;
; , , , , , ; , ,
, .

45

MEMORISE!

Singular

Plural

Singular

Plural

Exercise 80. Replace the singular the plural.

Model:

.
.

1. . 2. . 3. .
4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. .
9. . 10. .
11. . 12. .
13. . 14. . 15. .
16. . 17. . 18. . 19. .
Exercise 81. Replace the plural

Model:

the singular.

1. 1 , . 2. i. 3.
. 4. . 5.
, . 6. -. 7.
-.

Exercise 82. Replace the singular the plural.

Model:

i.
i.

1.

7.

8.

5.

13.

.
.

2.

11.

9.

6.

4.

i.

(), to buy; :r, , .

46

3.

12.

10.

Exercise 83. Translate into Russian. Write down your translation.

1. The teacher is reading, (and) the students are listening. 2. The teacher and the
students are speaking Russian. 3. ln the morning 1 read newspapers and magazines.
Now 1 am reading magazine. 4. 1 study Russian, 1 learn words, revise verbs, write
exercises, (and) read texts. 5. These are the textbooks, exercise-books, the dictionary
and the pencils.

Questions: ? ? ? ?
The Possessive Pronouns , ,

() ..
.

( .)

() .
() .

() .

?
?

() .
.

( .)

() .

() .
() .

'

The possessive pronouns , ,


word (noun) in gender and number .

and

agree with their head

Exercise 84. . Read the text.

. ,

, .
, .
. , -
.

Describe one of your family photographs.

47

.
Exercise 85. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ? ?

1.
4.

, . .

? ?

1? ?

5.

2.

? ?

? ?
? ?

3.

? ?

? ? . ? ?

8. ? ? 9.
11. ? ?

? ?

10.

7.

Exercise 86. Ask questions about the italicised words.

Model:

?
.

1.1.

5.

2.

3.

4.

. . .

.1. .
.

5.

2.

3.

. . .

7.

4.
8.

III.1.

4.
8.

5.

5.

2.

3. .
7. .

. . .

IV. 1. I. 2. . 3. . 4. .

Exercise 87. Use the required pronouns. Answer the questions.

Model:

...

- ?
- () .

1.

... ? 2. ... ? 3. ... ? 4. ...


5. ... ? . ... ? 7. ... ? 8. ... ?
... ? 10. ... ? 11. ... ? 12. ... -

9.

48

The Possessive Pronouns er6,

( .)

.
( .)

.
( .)

'

The possessi ve pronouns , and agree with the noun denoting the possessor of the object in gender and number.

'-----------------------------------------------------------J
h

Exercise 88. Ask questions about the italicised words and write them down.

Model:

1.

5.

2. . 3. :1. 4.
6. . 7. . 8.

10.

.
.

9.

Exercise 89. Use the required pronouns.

Model: -

...

... . 2. . ... .
... . 4. . ... .
. ... . 6. . ... . 7.
. ... . 8. . ...
1.

3.
5.

.
4-2200

49

Exercise 90. Whose things are these?


.
.
...

.
. ...

.
. i ...

50

Exercise 91. Answer the questions in the negative, using the pronouns

, , ,

, , , .

Model:

- ?
-, . .

1. ? 2. ? 3. ? 4.
5. ? . ? 7. ? 8.
? 9. ? 10. ?
?

Exercise 92. Ask questions about the things lying on the t!.

Model:

- ?
?

Exercise 93. Translate into Russian.

1. This is my friend Anton. His brother studies Russian. 2. This is my room. These
are my books. These are my photographs. 3. "Whose car is it?" - "It is her car".
4. "Whose magazine is it?" - "It is your magazine". 5. "Whose things are these?" "I don't know whose things they are". . "Where is my dictionary?" - " our dictionary is over here".

The Genitive Expressing Possession 1


-

?
.
.

For more details, see . 178.


51

Exercise 94. Answer the questions in the affirmative.

I.l. ? 2. ? 3.
4. ? 5. ?
II.1. ? 2. ? 3. ?
4. ? 5. ?

Exercise 95. Complete the sentences putting the words in brackets in the required form.

1.
2.

(, , , , , ).

(, , , , , ).

Exercise 96. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ? ()

, .

(-, , .)

1.

? ()

? ()

4.

2.

? ()

? ()

5.

3.

? ()

. ? ( )

Exercise 97. Ask questions and answer them. Write down the answers.

Model: -

?
.

1.

2.

52

3.

-~

4.

5.

Exercise 98. Ask questions and answer them.

Model

- ?
- , .

1.
4.

5.

2.

3.

? . ?

7.

The Construction ( ... ) ...


The Present Tense

'

, , ;

, , , ;
, .

denote possession in Russian, the construction


is used .

( ... ) ...

53

Exercise 99. Answer the questions.

Model: - . <i?
- , .
1.

. ? ?

? ?

3.

2.

. ?

Exercise 100. Answer the questions in the affirmative.

Model:

- ?

, .

(-, .)

1. ? 2. ? 3. ?
4. ? 5. ? 6. ? 7.
? 8. ? 9. ? 10. ?
11. ? 12. ? 13. ?
Exercise 101. Answer the questions in the affirmative.

2. ? 3. ? 4.
5. ? 6. ? 7. r?
8. ? 9. ? 10. ? 11.
? 12. ? 13. ? 14.
? 15. ? 16. ?
1.

Exercise 102. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.

Model:- ... ?
- ( ) ?
- , .
1. - ... ?
-, .

2. - ... ?
- ,
3.
...?
- ,
4.
...?

-, .

54

...?

5.

-, .

6.

...?
-

, .

Exercise 103. Translate into Russian. Write down your translation.

1 . Ha\ie you dictionary? 2. Have you newspaper? 3. Has he car? 4. Has he


tape recorder? 5. Has he (any) money? 6. Has she family? 7. Have you (any) friends?
8. Have you (any) brothers?

h
1.

Exercise 104. What have these people got?


.

2.

....

3.

....

....

G-:\' Exercise 105. Use the reqllired pronouns.


Model:

...

...

1.

. .

5.

3.

...

6.

...

2. . ...
4. . ... .
? ... ?

55

7.

?
?

...

...

10.

8.

...

...

11.

9.

... ?

The Past Tense


.

.
.

Exercise 106. Answer the questions.

Model:

- 1 ?

, l .

(-, l.)

1. ? 2. ? 3.
4. ? 5.
? . ? 7. ?

0,. Exercise 107. Replace the present tense the past.

Model:

1.

2.

n.

3.

. 4. . 5. . . .
. 8. .

The Future Tense


..

.
.

56

7.

Exercise 108. Answer the questions in the affirmative.

1.

2.

3.

.!:i?
1

?
?

8.

4. ? 5.
6. ? 7.

Questions: ? ? ? ?
The Demonstrative Pronouns , , ,
-.
-.

-.
.

Exercise 109. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model: -

-, .

1.

i?

4.

2.

1?

7.

10.

6.
8.

i?

-?
-?

5.

3.

9.

r .

r ?

, at the club

57

Exercise 110. Ask the price of these things, using the pronouns

, , , .

Model: () 1 ?
() ?

()

()

~~

VC)'

Exercise 111. Ask questions about the italicised words.

Model:

- .

1.
3.
5.

.
. .

:J .

8.

2. .
4. :J .
:J . 7.

-.

() ... ? How much is (are) ... ?

58

Exercise 112. Read the questions and answers, and translate them.
:i?

1. -

? - .

2. -

:i?

- ?- .

3. -

:i?- .

- ? - :i .

4. -

:i?

? - :iu .

- :i?- .

5.

- -?

-.

:i?

- -?

-.

7.

- :i? - .
- 1 ? - .

&-,r Exercise 113. Write out the sentences, supplying the pronouns , , :5, .

... ? - ... .... 1. - .. .


2.- ... ?- ... . ... . 3.- .. .
? - ... .... -. 4. - ... ? - .. .
~ '
, ... ' ., 5 . - ....') - ...
, .

.
... .

1. -

Exercise 114. Supply the pronouns :5, :5, :5, .

Model:

...

:i .

1.
4 ....
1

...

2.

...

-.

5 ....

3.

...

1.

(1), to live; , ,

59

.
.
.

... . 7. ... . 8. ...


9. ... . 10. ... . 11. ...
12. ... .

?
1?

Exercise 115. Ask questions and answer them.

Model: -

, ?

-, , .

1. , ?
2. , ?
3. , ?
4. , ?
5. , ?
Exercise 116. Make up questions.

1. Model:

, , ?

, , , ;
, , , , ;
, , , .

2. Model:

, , ?

, , , ;

, , , , ;
, , , ;
, ;

, 1, .

60

Adjectives
Adjectives with the Stem Terminating in Hard Consonant
(the Endings - (-), -, -, -

'
8

1 .

Adjectives agree with nouns and take masculine, feminine, neuter or plural
endings.
Exercise 117. Make up phrases consisting of these nouns and adjecti ves, and write them down.

1. -, , ,
2. - , , ,
3. - , , ,
4. - , , ,

Exercise 118. Make up questions, as in the model, and write them down.

Model:

1. - ?
2. - ?
, , , ,

, , ,

, ,

, , , , ,

, ,

Adjectives with the Stem Terminating in Soft Consonant


(the Endings -, -, -, -ue)
.
.
.

61

G-:r Exercise 119. Make up phrases consisting of these words.


1. - , , ,
2. - , , ,
3. - , , ,
4. - , , ,
5. - , , ,
6. - , , ,
Exercise 120. Supply

Model:

...

suitaie

adjectives and pronouns.

1.

...

2.

...

... . 4. ... .
... . 6. ... .
... . 8. ... .
... . 10. ... .

3.
5.
7.
9.

, , , ,

'
62

Note that masculine adjectives with the stem terminating in ,


ending - when stressed and - when unstressed: , .

G-:r Exercise 121. Make up phrases consisting of these words.

1.
2.
3.

Adjectives with the Stem Terminating in ,


(the Endings - (-), -, -, -ue)

er6,

, , ,

, , ,

-, , ,
- , , ,

take the

Exercise 122. Supply nouns to the following adjectives.

Model:

1.

... -
... -
... -
... -

... 2.
...
...
...

... 3.
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

Adjectives with the Stem Terminating in ,


(the Endings - (-), -, -, -ue)

, ,

.
.
.

'

Note that masculine and neuter adjectives with the stem terminating in ,
take the ending -, - when stressed and -, - when unstressed .

Exercise 123. Make up phrases consisting of these words.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

- , ,
- , 1, ,

- , , ,
- , , ,

, , ,

. - , , ,

Exercise 124. Answer the questions in the affirmative.

1.

- ?

4.

2.

5.

3.

63

10.

8.

6.

1 ?

7.
9.

Exercise 125. Change the following phrases to the plural.

Model:

, , , ,
, , , ,

, , , , ,
, , , I,
.

Exercise 126. Replace the singular the plural.

2. . 3.
4. ? 5.
- ? 6. . 7.
. 8. ? 9.
1.

Exercise 127. Make up phrases antonymous to those below.

Model:

- .

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. -

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. -

Exercise 128. Make up sentences antonymous to the below and write them down.

Model:

.
d .

1.

64

5.

2.

6.

3.

d .

7.

4.

.
.

11.

8. . 9. . 10. d
12. .

?
?
?
?

Exercise 129. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

1.

4.

2.

5.

6.

Model:

- ?

5-2200

Exercise 130. Answer the questions, using

I.

d
?

3.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?

suitale

adjectives.

d ?

1. d ?
2. d ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. d ?
6. d ?
65

III. 1. ?
IV. 1. ?
2. ?
2. ?
3. ?
3. ?
4. ?
4. ?
5. ?
5. ?
. ?

. ?

Exercise 131. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1.

? (- -)

2.

1 ? () 3. ? ()

4.

? ()

5.

? (

) . ? ()

7. r ?

()

Exercise 132. Answer the questions, using

1.

2.

suitale

adjectives.

3.

? 4. 2 ? 5.
?

Exercise 133. Ask questions about the italicised words.

Model:

- .
?

1. r.
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
. .

7.
8.

1
2

.
r.

(1) (as }, to collect


(11) (as ), to like; , ,

66

Exercise 134. Make up questions, as in the model.

Model:

.
, ?

1.

4.

5.

2.

3.

Exercise 135. Read the text and answer the questions.



.

1 . 1 ,
. ,
.
?
?
?
?

Exercise 136. Read the text, write it out and retell it.
- . ,
, , .
. .

. .
>. . I.

. .

. , .

G-,r Exercise 137. Translate into Russian.

I have an elder sister, Maria. She is student. Maria studies Russian. She already
speaks and writes Russian well. Maria reads Russian newspapers and magazines. She
likes Russian folk songs.
1

(), to wear; , ,

67

The Adjective and the Adverb


The Questions ? and ?
.

An adjective qualifies noun and agrees with that noun. lt answers the
questions ? d? ? or ?

'

An adverb is an invariale word. lt modifies verb and answers the


question ?
Exercise 138. Use an adjective or an adverb. Ask questions about them.

Model:

...

....

. ?
. ?

1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

...

.... ... .
... -. ....

... .
:r .... ... .
... . .... ... -

....

68

Exercise 139. Use the adjective or the adverb.

... ? 2.
.... ... :r? 3.
... ? ... ? 4.
... , ... :r
1.

...

:r?

5.

...

I, -

... . .... , ... 1 , .


6. , .... ...

....

....

...

...

The General Concept of Verb Aspects 1


.
.

Exercise 140. Read the sentences and compare them.

1.

d .

1. d .

2.

d .

2. d
.

3.

3.

For more details on verb aspects, see . 270.

69

4.

4.

t .

Note that in the preceding sentences the verbs

, , ,

denote action as process.

'

The verbs ,
which have had result.

, 6,

denote actions

Exercise 141. Read the questions and answers. Call the aspect pairs of verbs.

1. -

- .

- .
- ?
-. .

2.

- ?

.
?

- , .

3.

- ?

zm .
?

-, . .

4.

- ?

.
zm ?

, zm . .

Exercise 142. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ?
- .

1.
70

2.

3.

:il ?

4.

5.

? . ?

The Verbs , , and the ShortForm Adjective with an lnfinitive


l.


l.

Exercise 143. Conjugate the verb in the following sentences.

1.

-.

2.

3.

.
.
.
.

Exercise 144. Answer the questions in the affirmative or the negative. Write out questions
1, 2, 5, and 7, and the answers to them.

Model:

- ?
-, .
(-, .)

1.
4.

2.

7.

5.

3.

? .

Exercise 145. Ask questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ?
(- ?)
, , , .

71

Exercise 146. Change the sentences to the past tense and write them down.

Model:

1.

6.

4.

2.

5.

3.

1.

Exercise 147. Answer the questions.

Model:

- ?

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
, , , , , ,

Exercise 148. Answer the questions.

1.

2. ? 3.
4. ? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ?

Exercise 149. Use the verb in the required form.

h
1.
72

...

2.

...

3.

...

.
?

7.

...

4.

... . 5. ... ? .
8. ... ? 9. ...

...

Exercise 150. Complete the sentences, using the verb .

1.

10.

.... 2. .... 3. .... 4. ... ? 5.


.... . .... 7. .... 8. .... 9. ....

... ?

Exercise 151. Use the verb in the required form.

h
)

1.

...

.
)

5.

...

4.

...

2.

. .

8.

...

...

r.

3.

...

...

...

9.

...

7.

()
()

Exercise 152. Use the word in the required form.

... . 2. ... . 3. ...


4. ... . 5. ... . .
... . 7. ... . 8. ...

1.

.
.

73

Exercise 153. Use the word in the required form.


l.
...

...

. .

...

4.

...

2.

...

5.

3.

...

Rxercise 154. Complete the sentences, using the word


given below.

and the words and phrases

.... 2. .... 3. .... 4.


.... 5. .... . ....

l.

, , , , ,
, -

Verbs with the Particle -


The Verbs (?) and

(?)

2 3

(i) .

is transitive verb: it requires noun answering the question ?


is an intransitive verb, like all verbs with the particle -. lt cannot
followed noun answering the question ?

'
, to study
, to go to school
3
, at the University
1

74

Exercise 155. Answer the questions. Write down the answers to questions 1, 2, 4 and 5.

1 .

2.

- ?

4.

? . ?

9.

3.
5.
? 8.

7.

6-,r Exercise 156. Use the verb or .

1.-

... ?- ... .- ... ?- ...


:. 2. - ... ? - ... . 3. - ...
?- ... , . 4. , ... ?'
' 5 . -
u '.
'
?'

. - , ... .
...
. - ... ? - , ... .

Exercise 157. Use the verb or .

1.- ...

?-

2.- ... ?- ...


... ,
, -, . 3.-
... ? - ... . 4. - ... ? -
... . - ... ? - , m , ...
. 5.- ... ?- ... .- ... ? - , ... . - ... ? ... .
...

, :

Part Two

MAIN COURSE

USES OF CASES

PREPOSITIONAL CASE

The Prepositional Denoting the Place of an Action


Nouns in the Prepositional Singular with the Prepositions
anda
.

Exercise 1. . Read the text and write it out.


i. i .
. , .
. .
.

Answer the questions.

1.

3.

2.

4.

Masculine

Feminine
Neuter

76

Nominative

Prepositional

Ending
-

Exercise 2. Answer the questions in the affirmative or the negative .

Model:

- ?
-, .
(-, .)

1.

4.

2.

. 1 ?

5.

3.

7. ? 8.

i ?

Exercise 3. Answer the questions.

Model: -

-, .

1.

2.

3.

(I), to w, to lake; , ,

77

4.

5.

6.

7.

'?

h Exercise 4. Complete the sentences, using the words given in brackets and the preposition or .
Model:

...

().

1.

()

6.
9.

4.

()

....

2.

.... () 7.
.... ()

....

....

()

()

....

5.

3.

....
.... ()
.... ()

()

8.

?
:i.

- ?

h Exercise 5. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets. Write down the
answers to questions 2, 4 and 5.
1.1.

3.

? ()

? ()

? ()

6.

? ()

78

4.

2.

? ()

? ()

5.
() 7.

II. 1.
()

~ ? ()

4.

2.

? ()

? ()

5.

3.

!? ()

Exercise 6. Where are the following objects 1?


1

'

'

'

il
,U!J
1

'

Exercise 7. Answer the questions in the affirmative.

1.

?
?

MEMORISE!

6.

4.

2.

5.

3.

r ?

Tl1e preposition

The preposition

Remember the use of the verbs , and .

79

The preposition

The preposition

:r

h
1.

Exercise 8. Where do these people work?

...

2.

4.

...

lfJJifD
llfllm

mm
IDlii
IIIII

3.

...

...

.------1

rn m

mmm rnmmm
(4; mrnrnm
mm'Dr
mmm rnrnrnrn
80

5.

...

I/iffi!ffDI

...

lfD!ffltmlffi!Iffi
lfil

1111

rm

&-,r Exercise 9. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets and the prepositions and .

1.

? ()

2.

? ()

? ()

? ()

4.

? () . ? ()

? ()
? ()

10.

8.

? ()

9.

7.

5.

3.

? ()

&-,r Exercise 10. Answer the questions in the negative, using the words given in brackets.

Model:

- ? ()
-, , .

1.

? ()

()
()

5.

3.

2.

? ()

4.

? () .

? ()

MEMORISE!

-
-
-

Exercise 11. Answer the questions and write down the answers.

1.
3.

2.

?
-2200

5.

4.

81

~ Exercise 12. Answer the questions.

1.

? ( )

3.

2.

? ( )

? (

4.

r ?

( )

Prepositional

Nominative

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

~ Exercise 13. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets. Write down the
answers.

1.
)

? ()

3.

r ? ()

4.

2.

? (

r ? ()

r ? () . ? ()

? ()

8.

7.

5.

r ? ()

~ Exercise 14. Make up sentences, as in the model, and write them down.

Model:

- .

1.

- .

8.

5.

2.

- .

3.

- .

- . . - .

- .

9.

7.

4.

- .

- .

Exercise 15. Answer the questions, as in the model. Write down the answers to questions
4,5,6and7.

Model:

- ? ()
-, , .

1.

? ()

? ()

3.

? ()

5.

? ()

82

2.

? ()

4.

? () .

7.

? ()

Compare!

Masculine

Feminine

Nominative Prepositional

Nominative Prepositional

G-,r Exercise 16. Answer the questions.


? ()

1.

!? ()
()

8.

6.

4.

2.

? ()

? ()

? ()

7.

5.

3.

? ()

? ()

Exercise 17. Make up sentences, as in the model.

Model:

- .-

...

()

1.- .- ... (1)

2.- . - ... ()
3.- . - ... ()
4.- . - ... ()
~ Exercise 18. . Read the questions and answer them. Write down the answers (they
should form story on the subject "Student Ivanov").
? (, )

1.
)

3.

? (

()

5.

N2 3) 4.

2.

? (

1 ?

? ( )

6.

? (, ) 7. ? (
1

8.

? ( ).

()

10.

9.

? ()

Read your story and retell it.

Compose

similar story about

student friend of yours.

, after he graduates from the college

83

Exercise 19. Answer the questions.

1. ? 2.
3. ? 4.
? 5. ? 6.
? 7. d ?

Exercise 20. Make up questions as in the model.

Model:

- .
?

1. - .
2. - .
3. - .
4. - .

5. - .
6. - .
7. - .
8. - .

Exercise 21. Make up questions to which these sentences are the answers.

Model: - ... ?
- .

- ?

- .

1. - ... ?
- .

2.

...?
- .

3. 4.
5. 6. -

... ?
.

...?
.

... ?
.

... ?
, .

Exercise 22. Answer the questions in the affirmative and the negative.

Model:

- , ?
-, () , ( ). .
-, , .

84

1.

, ?

4.

2.

, ?

, ?

5.

3.

, ?

Exercise 23. Read the text, write it out and retell it.

. . r.

. 1 . ,
. . .
. . , ,
. , .
. ,
. .

2 ,
. , .
. ,

. .

Exercise 24. Translate into Russian.

1. elder brother, Sergei, lives in Smolensk. studies at the University.


worked at factory before. After University, he will work at museum.
2. In the summer British tourists were in Moscow. They visited school, theatre,
museum and factory.
3. Today I was at the shop and at the post office. I bought books at the shop, and
envelopes and stamps at the post office.

Exercise 25. Read the text, write it out and retell it.
. , . ,

3 r.
. .
. . .
. . ,

. r. r

. His name is Rarin.


, at the dining-hall
3
, went out for walk
1

85

, , .
. :

-, , ?

- . 1 , . ? - .
- , . , - . -
.

, .

. - .

The Prepositioal with the Preposition (, )


Denoting the Object of Speech or Thought
-

.
.

Before words beginning with vowel, the preposition is used: ,

'
8

, , .

- 2 ?
- .

?
?

1
2

86

, you should go
(1) (as ), to tell

MEMORISE!

Nominative

Prepositional

G-:lr Exercise 26. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.
1.
)

? ()

3.

)
)

7.

? ()

2.

4.

? (

? (

? () . ? (

5.

? ()

8.

? ()

9.

? ()

Exercise 27. Complete the sentences, using the words given in brackets.

... (). 2. ... (). 3.


... (). 4. ... (). 5. ... (). . ... (). 7.
... (). 8. ... ().
1.

Exercise 28. Say in Russian what (or who) these students are thinking about.

1.

3.

...

...

2.

4.

...

..

~
~

5. ... ~

tl
87

Exercise 29. Answer the questions in the affirmative or the negative.

Model: -

r, ?

-, () r, ( . ). .
-, r, .

r, ?

1.

3.

2.

, ?

5.

4.

, ? . ,

i ?

0.,. Exercise 30. Make up questions to which these sentences are the answers and write
themdown.
1.

... ?
- .

2.

... ?
- i.

... ?

3.

- .

4.

... ?
-

5.

... ?
- -.

... ?
- .

Persoal Proous i

the Prepositional

Exercise 31. . Read the sentences and translate them.

1.

, . ,

3.

2.

? ? .

. .

88

5.

4.

? . ?
.

7.

Make tale of personal pronouns like the ones given below.


?

Exercise 32. Complete the sentences, using personal pronouns.

. . . . 2.
? 3. i.. ....
4. . .... 5.
. .... . .
.... 7. , ....
1.

Exercise 33. Answer the questions, using the pronouns given in brackets.

1.
3.

? ( )

? ()

4.

2.

? ()

? ( )

5.

? () . ? ( )

Adjectives in the Prepositional Singular


-

- .

(1) (as ), to remember, to reca\l

89

Exercise 34. Read the questions, answer them, and write down the answers to questions 1,
2, 3 and 4. Underline the adjectives.

1.

, ?

, ?
?

4.

3.

2.

? (, , )

5.
6.
7.

, ?
, ?
(hdJ, ?

8.

, ?

Exercise 35. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1.

? ( )

? ( )
)

5.

4.

3.

2.

? (

? ( )

? ( )

? ( )

7.

6.

? ( )

Exercise 36. Answer the questions.

I. 1.

, ?

, ?
, ?

4.

3.

II. 1.

2.

, ?

, ?
, ?

4.

3.

2.

, ?

Exercise 37. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1.
2.

? ( )

? ( )

3.

r ? ( )

4.

? ( )

? ( )
( )

90

6.

5.

Exercise 38. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1.

? ()

2. ? (
4.
? () 5. ? () 6.
? () 7.
? () 8. ? ()

3.

? ()

h
Exercise 39. . Read the questios and answer them. Write down the answers (they
should form story on the subject " Friend").
1.

? ( , )

2. ? (
3. 1 ? (
) 4. ? ( )

, )
,

5.

? (,

) . ? ( )

7.

? ( , )
.

Read your story and retel\ it.

Exercise 40. Make up questions and answer them.

Model:

- ?

, , ,

, ,

, , ,

, ,

, , ,

, ,

, , ,

, - ,

Exercise 41. Answer the questions, using the words gi\'en on the right.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
. ?

7.
8.
9.

91

Exercise 42. Answer the questions in the affirmative.

Model:

- , ?
-, . .

1. , ? 2. ,
3. , ? 4.
, ? 5. ,
?

( , , , ,
)

Exercise 43. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model: -

- , .
?

1.

3.

2.

5.

4.

? .

Exercise 44. Complete the sentences, as in the model.

Model:

....

, .

I. 1.

,
,

II. 1.

.... 4.

.... 3.

.... 2.

....

.... 3.

.... 2.

.... 5.

.... 4.
.... .
.... 7.

,
,

....

Exercise 45. Make up questions to which these sentences are the answers and write them

down.

. .. ?

1.
92

2.

. .. ?
- .

. .. ?

3.

. .. ?

4.
5.

. .. ?

Exercise 46. Compose questions as in the model.

Model:

- .
? (, , ?)

1.

2.

3.

Pssessive Pronous in the Prepositional


- r ?
-, r .

Exercise 47. Answer the questions in the affirmative.

1. ? 2. ? 3.
93

?
?

6.

4. ? 5. 5

5 ?

Masculine and N euter


Nominative

Prepositional

Feminine
Nominative

Prepositional

Exercise 48. Ask the questions as in the model.

Model:

- 1

!?

Exercise 49. Answer the questions.

1. . ?
2. .
3. . ?
4. ~ . ?

G--x-

Nominative

Prepositional

Exercise 50. Use the required possessive pronouns.

Model:

.... .
.
.... 1. ouf 1.

1.
94

...

2.

...

3.

.... .

5.

.... :1.

7.

4.

....

.... . . .... u

The Possessive

Prooun

Exercise 51. Read the sentences and translate

1.

2.

.
.

3.

4.

.
.

5.

.
. .

7.

.
.

, , , d

Note the use of the

ru .

10 , .
t
.
.
.
.
.

Exercise 52. Read the sentences and write


pronouns ,

the.

in the Prepositional

the

of the pronoun

out.

the

eanings

and uses of tl1e

1.

2.

i .

. .
.

3.

.
.

4.

.
.

Exercise 53. Coplete the sentences i writing.


Model: . .

1. .

.... 2. .

.... 3.

95

. ir

.... 4. ? .... 5. .
.... 7. . ....

.... . .

G-7:- Exercise 54. Use the pronouns , , , , , , and and the required prepositions.
1.

...

3.

...

G-7:1.

...

2.

...

5.

...

4.

- .

... . ... . . ?
7. ? ... .

Exercise 55. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets and the pronoun .
? ( )

3.

2.

? (

? ( )

? ( )

5.

4.

? ( ) .

? ( )

G-7:- Exercise 56. Answer the questions, using the pronouns , and . Write down
the answers.
1.

. . ?

2.

. . ?

3.

. . ?

4.

. .

? ?

.
.

.
.

Exercise 57. Read the sentences and write them out. Compare the synonymous constructions.

1.
2.
3.
4.

96

. .
:1. :1.
. .
. 6 .

5.
6.
7.

. .
. .
. .

Exercise 58. Change the questions, replacing the possessive pronouns

the construction

, , .

Model: - ?
- ?

1.

5.

4.

2.

3.

6.

lj ?

7.

G- Exercise 59. Read the sentences. Replace the possessive pronouns the construction
, , , , , .

Model:

lj

lj .
.
.

1.

2.

. 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6. lj
.

7.

9.

8.

Nouns and Adjectives in the Prepositional Plural


- ?
- .

?
, .

Exercise 60. Read the sentences and write them out. Underline the words which answer the
question ?

1.
7-2200

. .

97

. .
.

2.

. ,

r. r.
.

Exercise 61. Replace the singular the plural.

Model:

1. 1.

2.
3. . 4.
. 5. .

11. 1. . 2.
3. r . 4.

Exercise 62. Replace the singular the plural.

h
1.
3.

6.

4.

2.

5.

?
.

- ?

h
Exercise 63. Complete the sentences in writing, using the words given in brackets. Use
necessary prepositions.
1. ( ). 2. (
3. ( ). 4. (
). 5. ( ). .
).

( ).

98

Exercise 64. Answe the questions, using the words given on the right.

h
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

. ?

7.
8.

Exercise 65. Replace the singular of the italicised words the plural.

1. . 2.
3. . 4.
. 5. : . .
. 7. t .
.

Exercise 66. Complete the sentences.

... ? 2. , ,
... ? 3. , ... ? 4. , ... .
5. , .... . , , ... ?
7. , , ... ? 8. , ... ?
9. , .... 10. , ....
1.

, ,

The

Prepositioal Deotig

Time

- ( ) : ?

Exercise 67. Make


months are masculine.

, - .

tale

like the one given below. Remember that all the names of the

Nominative

Prepositional

, , , , , , , , , ,
.

99

h
Exercise 68. Answer the questions, using the names of the months. Write down the
answers to questions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
1. ? () 2.
3. ? () 4.
? ( ) 5.
? ()

? ( ) . : ? (
)

7. ? ()

Exercise 69. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.

Model: - ... ?
- .
- ( )
1.

. .. ?
- .

2.

. .. ?
- UIOHe.

3.

. .. ?
- .
4. . .. ?
- u .

5.

. .. ?
- .

. .. ?
- - .

7.

. .. ?
- .

( ) :1?

- I , .

Exercise 70. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1.

-? (6 )

? ( )

100

3.

2.

? ( )

4.

? (6 )

5.

? ( ) .
1? (1 )

- 1 .

- ?
- 1 .

Exercise 71. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1. ? (1 ) 2.
3.
? (i ) 4. ?
( 1 ) 5. ? ( 1

r? (i )

Exercise 72. Answer the questions.

1. ( ) ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. I?
Exercise 73. . Write out the text, supplying the words given in brackets. Retell the text.

. .

...

().

...

...

(1

(, ). ...

...

( ),

( ).

...

( ),

... (), .... (6 )


... ( ). ... (
). .

).

...

...

...

(, , , I).

().

Compose

similar story about yourself.


101

ACCUSATIVE CASE

The Accusative Denoting an Object Acted Upon


lnanimate N ouns in the Accusative Singular
.

.
.

Exercise 1. Answer the questions in the affirmative. Write down the answers.

1.

4.

5.

2.

6.

3.

Nominative
()?

Masculine

Neuter

Feminine

Accusative
() ?

Exercise 2. Make up sentences, as in the model.

Model:

() - .
() - d.

() - .

102

Ending

as nominative

as nominative

as nominative

() , , , i,
() I!, , , , ,
() , , ,

G- Exercise 3. Do the exercise as shown in the model.


Model:

....

. .

1. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

....

....
....

....

....

II. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

....

... .
... .
... .
... .

....

III. 1. . ....
2. ....
3 ... .
4. ... .
5. ....
- ?

- .
Exercise 4. Answer the questions.

1.

2.

, d

103

3.

4.

G- Exercise 5. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.


1.
2.

? (, , , )

? (, ).

? (, , )

4.

3.

? (, , , , , )

5.

? (, , , , , , 1)

? (, 1, , )

7.

6.

? (,

G- Exercise 6. Complete the sentences in writing.


Model: . . . . 1 , , ,
, , , .

1. ... .
2. ... .
3. ... .
4.: ... .
5. ....

, , , , ,
, ,
, , I
, , , ,
, , , , ,
,

G- Exercise 7. Make up sentences, using these words, and write them down.
Model:

, ,

. () d.

1.

, , , , 1

2.,,

3.,,

4.
104

, ,

5.,,

.,,
7.,,

Aimate

Nouns in the Accusative Singular


.

Exercise 8. Answer the questions.


1.
4.

2.
5.

3.

? .

? 7. ?
9. ? 10. ?

8.

Masculine
Neuter

>

-~
:

.........

Feminine

Masculine

<:
Feminine

Nomiative

Accusative

Eding

as N ominati ve
-
-

as Nominative

-
-

-
-

105

- ?

- .

- .

- ?

- .

- .

Exercise 9. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1. ? (, , , , , )
3. ? (
', , , , , , ) 4.
? (, )f, , , ) 5.

2.

? (, , )

? (, , , , , ) .
? (, , , )

7.

? (, , , , , )

MEMORISE!

Nominative

Accusative

Exercise 10. Complete the sentences.

1. ( , ). 2. (
3. ( ). 4. (
). 5. ( ). . (
). 7. ( ). 8. ( ).
).

Exercise 11. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the.answers.

000?

1.

- .

2. -000?
- .

3. -000?
- .

000 ?

4.

- .
106

5.

... ?
- .

6.

... ?
- .
Exercise 12. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

1. ?

2.

?
?
:r;I ?

3.

?
?

4.

?
?

,. Exercisee 13. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.
1. .... .... . . . .
2. .... .... . . . .
3. .... ... .
....

,. Exercise 14. Translate into Russian. Write down your translation.

1. I was in shop. I bought textbook, pen and an exercise-book. 2. friend


studies at the University. studies Russian language and literature. 3. I was at the
club on Thursday. I saw Victor and Ann there. Victor said he had bought car. 4. We
had lecture today. The lecture was very interesting.
Persoal Proous i

the Accusative

- ?

- .

107

Singular

Plural

Norninative

Accusative

Norninative

Accusative

Exercise 15. Answer the questions in the negative. Write down the answers.

Model:

- ? ?
-, . .

1.- ? ?
2.- ? ?
3.- ? ?
4.- ? ?
5.- 1 ? ?

G-r

Exercise 16. Use the required pronouns.

1.- ?- .... 2.- , ?- ...


3.- ? ... .
4.- - . .... 5.- ,
? ... . . - ?
... 30 . 7. - . ... . 8.
. . . . . . . . .
9. . ....
.

1.

ero

Exercise 17. Use the required pronouns.

1.- ?- ... . 2.- ? -


... ? 3. - ? - ... . 4. -

108

:r?

5.- ?- , ....
... . 7. - .
... ? 8. - . ...
:r. 9.- ? ? ... . 10.-
? ... ?
.

...

:r?

. :r

Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns in the Accusative Singular


- ?
- .

- .

- .

Nominative

Masculine

Neuter

Feminine

Accusative

()?

() ?

()?

()

Ending

as Nominative

as Nominati ve

109

Exercise 18. Answer the questions.

2.
3. ,
? 4. , ? 5.
, ? 6. ,
? 7. , ? 8.
, ? 9. ,
? 10.
1.

, ?

, ?

, ?

Exercise 19. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?

. ?

Exercise 20. Make up sentences, as in the model.

Model:

() - i.
() - , (, ) .

() , , , ,

() , , ,
, , ,

h Exercise 21. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers and
write then down.
1.

... ?
- .

2.

000?

3.

000?

110

4. - ... ?
- .
5. - ... ?
- .
. - ... ?
- .

Exercise 22. Answer the questions in the affirmative.

1. 1.

2. ? 3. 5
4. ? 5. ? . 1 5

?
?

II. 1. ? 2. ? 3.
4. ? 5. ? .

Exercise 23. Answer the questions in the affirmative.

1. 1.

2. ? 3.
4. 5 ? 5.

?
.

1. ? 2. ? 3.
4. ?

-,.. Exercise 24. Use the pronouns , , , in the required form.


1. 1.-

... ?- , ... . 2.- ... ? '?


'
' 3 . - '
'?
... .
- ,
... .
... .
- , '
... . 4. - ... ? 5. - ... ?

II. 1. - ... ? - , ... . 2. - ...


... . 3. ... ,
'
. 4 . . .. ' ?.
. .. .? 5 . - '
. - ... ?

?- ,

'

-,.. Exercise 25. Use the pronoun in the required form.


1.

...

...

... ... . 2. ... . 3.


4. ... . 5.
... . 7. ... .

. .

111

D-r

Exercise 26. Use the pronouns , , , and in the required forrn.

1. . ... . ...
. ... . 2. .
... . ... . 3. - ?
... ? , ... ? 4.- , ?
... ? 5. . ... ?
... .

D-r

Exercise 27. Answer the questions. Remember the uses of the pronoun .

Model:

?
.

.
.

1.

2.

3.

?
?

4.

?
?

5. .

?
?

Exercise 28. Answer the questions, using possessive pronouns. Write down the answers.

1.
4.

2.

3.

D-r Exercise 29. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers and
write them down.
1.

... ?
-

112

2. - ... ?
- .
3. ... ?
- i .
4. - ... ?
- .
5. ... ?
- .

Exercise 30. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1.

? ( )

3.

2.

? (

? (- )

( )

5.

4.

? (

~ :) . ? ( )

Exercise 31. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Exercise 32. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1.

? ( )

( )

3.

2.

? ( )

? ( )

5.

4.

( ) . l ? ( )

7.

? ( )

8.

3.

? ( )

Exercise 33. Answer the questions and write down the answers.

I. 1.
8-2200

2.

? ?

113

4.

5.

? ? . ,

1.

)' ?

h
1.

2. ? 3.
4. ? 5. ?

Exercise 34. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.
?

?
Ji ?

2.

?
?

3.

?
?
?
?

4.

?
?

Exercise 35. Ask questions about the italicised words and write them down.

1. . 2. . 3. .
5.
. . . 7. .
8. . 9. . 10. .
11. .

4.

h
1.

Exercise 36. Complete the sentences in writing, using the words given on the right.

... ?

2.

....

... ?

.. . .

....
3. ... .
... .
... .
4. ... ?
... ?

114

... ?

h' Ex~rcise 37. Translate into Russian.


1. We were at the theatre on Sunday. We heard the opera Boris Godunov. We
came across our student, Victor, and his wife, Nina, at the theatre.
2. 1 know there is an interesting article in this journal. 1 want no read this article.
3. Where is my pen? 1 must have left it behind in the classroom. I borrow
your pen?
4. Who are you waiting for? - I am waiting for my elder brother, lgor. Do
you know him?- No, I don't know your brother.
Exercise 38.

Read the text and answer the questions.


. .
, , . .
. . ,

. .

. 1 .
.

. . . .
. .
,

. .

. ,
. . ,
. .
. .

1. ?
2. , , ?
3. , ?
4. ? ? ?
5. ? ? ?

. ? ? ?
? ? ?

7.
8.

? , ?

Tell about your family. Write down your story.


115

Nouns in the Accusative Plural


Inanimate Nouns
.
i

.
.

(as

oiative)

Exercise 39. Answer the questions.

1. ? 2.
? 3. ? 4. ? 5.
? 6. , ? 7.
? 8. ?
Exercise 40. Read the text and answer the questions.
, , , , .
, ,
, , , . ,
, , , , , .

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
-

Animate Nouns
Nominative

Masculine

116

Accusative

Ending

Singular

Animate N ouns

Feminine

Ending

Nominative

Accusative

Singular

the vowels -,
are inserted

Exercise 41. Read the text and answer the questions.


. -
, -- , -

, , , , , ,
.

l. ?
2. ?
3. ?
Exercise 42. Answer the questions.

1.

. ? ?

2.

. ? ?

3.

&-r
1.

. ?

Exercise 43. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.
? (, , ,

2.

, )

? (, , ,

4.

3.

? (, ,

? (, , )

5.

? (, , , , ,
).

117

Exercise 44. Complete the sentences, using the words given

1.

2.

the right.

, , , ,

... .

i.,

, , , ,

... .

, ,

3.

....

, ,

Adjectives d Possessive Proouns in the Accusative Plural


-

- .

Exercise 45. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1.

? ()

()

3.

2.

? ( )

? ().

5.

4.

? ()

. ? ()

Exercise 46. Write out the sentences, replacing the singular the plural.

1.

.
.

8.

6.

4.

2.

ri.

7.

5.

3.

- .

Exercise 47. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1.

? ( )

? ( )
? ( r)
( )
)

118

5.

4.

3.

2.

? (

6-,r Exercise 48. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.
1.

? ( )

? ( )
)

4.

2.

? (

3.

? ( )

5.

? (1 ) .
? ( )

7.

? (

Exercise 49. Answer the questions in the affirmative.

Model:

- , ?
-, () , ( ).
.

1.

, ?

5.

3.

, ?

4.

2.

, ?

, ? . 1,

?
?

8.

7.

1, ?

Exercise 50. Ask questions about the italicised words.

1. . 2. . 3.
4. l
. 5. 1 . .
i . 7. l!.,

h
1.

Exercise 51. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

... .
....

....

2. ... .

... ?

3.

... .
... .
....

....
119

4.

... ?
... .
... .

5.

....

... .
... ?

The Accusative with Verbs of Motion1


- ?

, .
1?

-, 1.

Exercise 52. Answer the questions.

1.

3.

it=====

For more details on the verbs of motion, see . 219.

120

2.

5.

6.

Exercise 53. Answer the questions.

1.

? ?

4.

3.

2.

? ?

6.

5.

i'l<?

Exercise 54. Answer the questions.

1.
3.

6.

4.

2.

7.

5.

Exercise 55. Answer the questions.

Model: -

-, .

121

1.

3.

4.

5.

i?

- ?
- .

- .

Exercise 56. Answer the questions.

1.

, ?

, ?

122

3.

2.

4.

, : ?

, ?

6.

5.

Exercise 57. Aswer the questios, usig the words give the right.

D--lr

1.

, , , , , ,

2.

:r, , ,

3.

- ?
- .

- .

- .

Exercise 58. Answer the

1.

questios.

4.

6.

2.

7.

5.

3.

:r?

8.

h
1.
2.

Exercise 59. Aswer the questios, usig the words give the right.

123

3.
4.
5.

. ?

7. ?
8. ?
9. ?
10. ?

h Exercise 60. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers and
write them down.
1.

...?
- .

...?

2.

- .

3.

... ?
-

4.

...?
.

5.

...?
- .

...?
- .

7.

...?
- .

Exercise 61. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1. ? ( ) 2. ? (
3. ? ( ) 4.
? ( ) 5. ? (
) . ? ( ) 7.

? ( r)

h Exercise 62. An~wer the questions, using the words given in brackets. Write down the
answers.
1. ? ( ) 2.
3. ? (

? ( )

124

5.

? ( )

4.

? () . ?

( )

7.

? ( ,

h Exercise 63. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right. Write down the
answers.
Model:

- ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

. ?

7.

, .

Exercise 64. Answer the questions.

Model: -

, ?

-, () , ( ). .

1.

, ?

3.

2.

, ?

4.

? 5. , ? . ,
? 7. , ?

1.

- 1.

Exercise 65. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

1. ?

, , , ,

125

2.

~ ?

,,,

3.

, , , , r

BJ;>I

h Exercise 66. Use the required forms of the words given in brackets. Use necessary
prepositions.
1.

...

(r). r (r)?

(). ().

3.

2.

(). ()

4. ().
5. (). (
). 6. r (). (). 7.
{(. (). () . 8. (
). () <;> , , . 9. r
().

(). M~I ().

h
1.

Exercise 67. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

..

' r ?

' {(. ?

2.

J ?

3.

4.

5.

?
?

~ ?

6.

r ?

h
1.

Exercise 68. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.
~i ?

2.

r ?

3.

r ?

126

B:J>r

4.

5.

?
. ?

Q-,r Exercise 69. Replace the verb the verb u or . Change the
case of the noun.

Model:

i.

r .

1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5.
. 6. .
r .

Q-,r Exercise 70. Answer the questions, replacing the verbs of motion the verb .
Change the case of the noun.

Model:

- ?
-, .

1. ? 2. ? 3.
4. ? 5.
? 6. ?
?

h Exercise 71. Answer the questions, eplacing the verb verbs of motion. Write
'
down the answers.
Model:

- ?
- .

1. r ? 2. r ? 3.
4. ? 5. r ? 6.

h Exercise 72. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers and
write them down.
1.

. .. ?
- .

127

2.

. .. ?
- .

3.

. .. ?
- .

4.

. .. ?
- .

5.

. .. ?

- .
. .. ?
- f.

The Accusative with the Verbs - ,


- , -
.

r .
.

Exercise 73.

Read the text and answer the questions.

. . 1
. , ,
. , , ,

. , , ,

, r- , - 2 ,
' .

1. , , ?
2. , ?
3. , ?
4. r ?
5. ?
. ?
.

1
2

How did you tidy up your room?

, first of all
, telephone tale

128

Exercise 74. Where has Andrei put various things? 1


.

Exercise 75. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

Model:

- i?
- .

1. 1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?

, , , , ,

, ,

. ?

7.

11. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
III.l.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1

1?

, , , ,

?
?
r?
?
?

, ,

?
?

?
?

Remember the use of the verb i.

9-2200

129

Exercise 76. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

Model: .... 1 ,
i .

1.

....

, ; , ; , ; ,

2.

....

, ; , ; , ; , ;

r,

3.
4.
5.
.

,;,;,

, ; , ; ,

... .
... .
... .
... .

, ; , ; r,
, , , ; ,

Exercise 77. Answer the questions, as in the model. Write down the answers.

Model:

- ? ()

- 1 .
1.

r? ( )

2.

? (

) 3. ? ( ) 4. ?
( ) 5. () . r? ()

7.

? (, )

h
1.

Exercise 78. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.
?

2.

3.

4.

r?

r?

5.

?
. ?

The imperative of is ; of , ; and of ::U, .

130

h
1.

ExErcise 79. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.

. .. ?
J .

2.

. .. ?
- n 1 .

. .. ?
- .
4.
. .. ?
- .
3.

5.
.

. .. ?
- .
. .. ?
- .
Exercise 80. Ask where these things should put. Answer the questions.

Model:

- ?

- .
(- .)

Exercise 81. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

Model: ... .

, ,

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

....

, ,

....

... .
... .
....
. ....

, ,
, ,

,
, ,
, ,

131

The Accusative Denoting Time


- ?
- () .

Exercise 82. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1.
)

:r ? ()

3.

2.

? (

? ()

4.

? (

5.

? ()

? ()

7.

? () .

Exercise 83. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

1.

? ( )

? ( )

3.

2.

? ( )

? ( )

4.

? (

5.

) . ? ( )

? ( )

8.

7.

? ( )

. - .

D-r Exercise 84. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets. Write down the
answers.
Model:

- ? ()

- .

1.
3.
5.

? ()

? ()

4.

2.

? ()

? ()

? () . ? ()

Exercise 85. Complete the sentences, using the words


with the preposition .

, , , , ,

1.

132

.... 2. .... 3. .... 4.


.... 5. .... . ... .

- ?
- .

h Exercise 86. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets. Write down the
answers.
Model:

- ?

()

- .

1.
3.

? ()

? ()

5.

4.

2.

? ()

I? (

? () . ?

()

- ( ) ?

Exercise 87. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.

Model:

? ( ?)

1. 1.

11.1.

4.

2.

4.

5.
2.

3.

3.
5.

Exercise 88. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.

Model:

.
?

1.

3.

2.

i .

5.

4.

7.

6,

133

Exercise 89. Answer the questions, using the words

, ,

i, ...

Model:

1.

- ?

- .

5.

4.

2.

3.

? . ?

Exercise 90. Complete the sentences, using the words

, , ,

, , ...

1. .... 2. .... 3. .... 4. .... 5. .... . .... 7.


.... 8. .... 9 ....
. 10. .... 11. .... 12.
....

?
.

- ?
- .

Exercise 91. Answer the questions, using the words ,


with the preposition -.

, , ,

and

1. ? 2. l
? 3. ? 4.
?

5. :1 ?
7.

. ?
?

- ?

134


h EJiercise 92. Do the exercise as shown in the model. Explain the meaning of these
sentences.
Model:

.
.

.
.

1.

4.

2.

3.

6.

5.

DATIVE CASE

The Dative Denoting the Recipient


N ouns in the Dative Singular
.

Exertise 1. . Read the text and write it out.


, . , ,

, ? , - ,
- , - .

Masculine

Neuter

Feminine

Nominative

Dative

Ending

-
-

135

Answer the questions.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
MEMORISE!

G-r

Nominative

Dative

Exercise 2. Make up phrases, as in the model.

Model:

, .. .

, .. .

1.
2.

- , , , , ,

, , , , , , , ,

3. - , , , , ,
4. -, , , ,
- ?

- .

G-r

Exercise 3. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

Model:

I. 1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
. ?

136

11. 1.
2.
3.
4.

!?

Exercise 4. Answer the questions and write down the answers.

1.

2. ? 3.
4. ? 5.
? 7. ?

?
? .

Exercise 5. Answer the questions.

1.

3.

2.

1?

4.

5.

7.

? .

?
?

10.

9.

8.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions.

Model:

- , ?

-, , . .

1. , ?
2. , 1?
3. , ?
4. , ?
5. , ?
. , ?

Exercise 7. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

Model: ... .

1.

2.

3.
4.

, ,

...

....

....

....

137

5.

... .
... .

7. ....
8. ... .
9. ... .
1. ... .
11. ... .

h Excreise 8. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right. Write down the
answers to questions 1 and 2 in parts I and II.
I.

1.
2.
3.
4.

?
?
?

II. 1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?

III. 1.

6 ?

2. ?
3. ?
4. ?

h
1.

Exercise 9. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

....

....

....

2. .... ....
... .
... .

....

Exercise 10. Make up questions about the following sentences and write them down.

Model:

.
?
..
?

138

1.
3.

r .

2.

ni6.

5. :
6. . 7. .
4.

Persoal

Pronouns in the Dative

-, .

Exercise 11.

Read the text and write it out. Underline the pronouns.

, . , , n

. ? , , .
. ? .
: , - .

. ? . , .
.

Make

tale

of pronouns, like the one given below.

Nominative

Dative

Exercise 12. Replace the italicised words personal pronouns.

1. , ? ?
3. n ?
? 4. , ?
? 5. , t t.?

2.

r? ?

f ?

Exercise 13. Supply the required pronouns.

Model: -

...

- .

1.

i.

...

2.

139

...

3.

... . 4. .
... . 5. . ...
. . ? ...
. 7. ? .... 8.
. ... .

Exercise 14. Use the pronouns given in brackets in the required case.

2. ...
... . () 4.
... ? () 5. .... (). .
... . () 7. ... . ()
1.

r. ()

3.

...

. ()

Exercise 15. Supply the required pronouns.

1. ... , , . 2. ... . 3.
... , , . 4. ... , .
5. ... I. . ... .
7. ... , , . 8. ,
, ... .
Exercise 16. Supply the required pronouns.

1.

...

2.

...

3. , ... ? 4. , ... ? 5. ,
.... . , ... ? 7. , ... ?

Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns in the Dative Singular


- ?
- .
- ?
- .

G-r

Exercise 17. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

I. 1.

? ()

? ()

140

3.

2.

? ()

:i< I? ()

6.

5.

4.

? ()

? ()

7.

I? ()

II. 1.

r? ().

? ()
r? ()

4.

3.

2.

? ()

5.

r ? ()

Exercise 18. Answer the questions.

1.

r?

3.

2.

m ?

5.

4.
? 6.

h-

Exercise 19. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.

Model: 1
?

1.

3.

2.

5.

4.

h- Exercise 20. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.
1.

? ( )

( i ).
)

4.

3.

2.

r? (

? ( )

5.

? ( )

? ( )

h
1.
2.
3.
1

6.
7. ? ( )

Exercise 21. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

....

....

....

, scientist (noun)

141

4.
5.

, r,

... .

... .

. i J<

. . . .

Exercise 22, Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

1. ?

2.

3.

?
?

4. ?
?

5.

, ?
, ?
1

. n ?
?

, ,

Nouns in the Dative Plural


~ ?

~ , , , .

Masculine
Feminine

Neuter

Nominative

Dative

', to wish somebody New Year

142

Ending

-, -

& Exercise 23. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.
1.

? ()

? ()
? ()

3.

2.

? ()

4.

? () .

5.

r? ()

7.

? ()

& Exercise 24. Supply the words given on the right.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

...

...

....

7.

... .
... .

... .
... .

& Exercise 25. Supply the required verbs.


1.

...

r .

2.

...

, ?

... . 4. ...
... . .
... . 7. ... 8. ...
. 9. ... . 10. ...
. 11. ... , .

3.

, .

5.

Verbs to he used:

, , , , , ,
, , , .

& Exercise 26. Complete the sentences in writing, using the words given on the right.
Model:

? ) ... .

, r

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

... .
... .

....

7.

....

....

....

....

, l

143

Exercise 27. Complete the sentences in writing, using the words given on the right.

Model: ( ? ? ? ) \ ,
.

1. ....
2. ....
3. ... ?
4. .:.?
5. ....
. ....
7. ...

,
,

u,
,
,

,
,

Exercise 28. Answer the questions.

1.

:r?

:r?

3.

2.

!"':r :r?

4. ? 5. . ?
. ? 7. u ?
8. u ? 9.
? 10. ? 11.
? 12. ?
?

This is how Russian first names, patronymics and surnames are written on
envelopes .

z.C-~.~

,..r
.t.a.

,..

fJAi li.

&.

, :)_

-~~ifi~-~~====='
144

h Exercise 29. Complete the sentences in writing, using the following first names, patronymics and surnames.
Model:

.
.

1.

....

2.

....

3.

, ,

....

Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns in the Dative Plural


- ~ ?
- .

h
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Exercise 30. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.
?

h Exercise 31. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets. Write down the
answers.
1.

? ( )

3.

6.

? (

? ( )

? ( )
)

2.

5.

4.

? (

-? ( )

Exercise 32. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers and write
themdown.

1.

... ?
- .

102200

145

2.

... ?
- d.

... ?

3.

- f..

4.

... ?
- 1 .

Dative with the V erb -

Exercise 33. Answer the questions.

1.

4.

. ?

8-r

2.

5.

3.

7. J

Exercise 34. Replace the singular the plural.

Mode/:

.
.

1.

4.

2.

5.

3.

? . .

.

.
.

Exercise 35. Answer the questions.

1.

3.

7.

5.

2.

? . ?

i ?

146

4.
8.

9.

.
.
.

0,. Exercise 36. Supply the words given on the right .


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
.

. .. .
...
... .
... .:
... ?
. .. ?

Exercise 37. Make up sentences, as in the model, using the verb .

Model:

....
. () .

1.

.... 2.
3. .... 4. .... 5. -

....

.... . ....

7.

....

Exercise 38. Answer the questions in the past, using the verb !.

Model:

- ?

- ,
.

1. - ?
2. - i?
3. - ?
4. - ?
5.- ?
.- 1 ?

147

Exercise 39. Complete the sentences as in the model.

Model: ,
.

1. , ...
2. r , ...
3. , ...
4. , ...
5. , ...
6. , , ...
7. , ...
8. , ...
9. , ...
.

~ .

Exercise 40. Ask the questions and answer them as in the model.

Model:

- ?
-, .

- , .
?
?

1.

?
?
?

2.

?
?
?

148

Exercise 41. Ask the questions and answer them as in the model.

Model:

- ?
- 6 . ?

- .

1.- ?
2. - ?
3. - ?
4. - ?
5.- ?
Exercise 42. Make up questions.

1.

. .. ?
-, .

. .. ?

2.

, .

, .

, .

. .. ?

3.

. .. ?

4.

5.

. .. ?

, .

, .

, .

6.

. .. ?

7.

. .. ?

The Dative Denoting Age


-

? ?
, .

MEMORISE:

(21, 91,101)

,,(22,23,24)6

-(25-100)

149

Exercise 43. Complete the sentences in writing, using the words ,

and .

1. .... 2. .... 3. ....


4. .... 5. :1 .... 6.
.... 7. ~ .... 8.
.... 9. .... 10.
....

Exercise 44. Complete the sentences.

1. 25 .... : 23 ....
27 ....
2. 22 .... 27 .... : 17 ....
3. 45 .... , : 24 ....
4. 21 .... , 26 ....
Exercise 45. Answer the questions.
?

1.
?

6.

4.

2.

7.

5.

3.

Exercise 46. Ask questions about the following sentences. Write down the questions about
sentences 3, 4, 5.

Model:

.
?

1.

2.

3.

4. . 5.
6. . 7.
8. . 9. .

.
.

Exercise 47. Make up sentences. Write out the numbers in words.

Model:

20 .

1.
4.

- 22

150

- 34 .

42

2.

5.

- 51

- 15 . 3. - 37 .
9 . 6. - 21 . 7.

Exercise 48. Answer the questions. Write down the answers.

1.

r , ?

, ?

5.

4.

3.

2.

r ,

r , 1?

, ? .

, ?

G-,r Exercise 49. Use the required form of the words given on the right .
... .
... 1 .
... .
. .. .
5. . .. .
. ... .

1
2.
3.
4.

Exercise 50. Use the required pronouns.

1.

.... .

.... .

3.

2.

.... .

4. .... 1 . 5. . ...
. . ? ... r ? 7.
? ... ?

G-r

Exercise 51.

. Read the text, supplying the required pronouns.

. ....

(74

).

.... (4 ). .
....

....

(39 ).
(21 ).

.... (l ). .

... (19 ).

Tell about your family. Give the ago of every member of your family. Write down your

story.
151

The Dative in Impersonal Sentences


1 ~ ? ~ -)i.

G-r

Exercise 52. Make up antonymous sentences and write them down.

Model: I.
:1.

1.

:1.

: .

4.

2.

3.
5.

: . . .

G-r

Exercise 53. Use the words given on the right in the required case.

Model: ...

i .

1. 1.... .
2 .... i .
3 .... .
4 .... :1.
5 .... .
.... .
7 .... .
8.... .

II. 1. ... ?
2. ... ?
3. ... ?
4. ... :1?
5. ... ?

Exercise 54. Answer the questions, using antonymous sentences for the answers.

Model:

- . ?

1.
152

2.

1?

3.

4.

5.

? . ?

Exercise 55. Replace the word

Model:

and .

.
() .

1.
.

4.

2.

. . .
.

8.

Model:

3.

:1

Exercise 56. Replace the verb

7.

5.

the word .

: .
: .

1.

: .

: .
: .
.

5.

4.

3.

2.

, :

: .

. : .

i
i

'

In the past and future tenses the verb (, ) is placed after


the words , , , etc.
Exercise 57. Write out the sentences, replacing the present tense the past.

Model:

l .

1.
3.
5.

4.

2.

:1.

. . .

153

Exercise 58. Replace the present tense the future.

Model:

f:. .

\Q. .

1.

2.

4.

5.

3.

Exercise 59. Answer the questions.

Model:

- 1, ?

1.

, 1.

1, ?

, ?

6.

4.

?
?

11.

2.

1?

9.

7.

5.

3.

8.

, 1?

10.

, , ?

The Dative with the Preposition


.
.

Exercise 60. Answer the questions.

1.

h
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

6.

2.

4.

3.

5.

Exercise 61. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

....

....

....

154

....

....
....

Exercise 62. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

Model: ....

1. ....
2. ... .
3. ... .
4. ... .
5. ... .
. ... .
7. ....

,
,
,
,

,
,

- () ?
- .

Exercise 63. Answer the questions.

1.

4.

2.

5.

3.

? .

In the dative the pronouns , and take the form , .


and when preceded preposition.

'

Exercise 64. Supply the required pronouns.


.

Model:

....

. .

1.

5.

.... 4.

...

3.

...

...

...

8.

7.

2.

....

...

. ,

...

155

G-r

Exercise 65. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.

Model: .- ?
. - ?

1. . .
2. . .
3. . .

G-r
1.
2.

Exercise 66. Insert the words given on the right.

...

, i .

...

3.
4.
5.

...

...

...

. ,

7.

G-r

....

....

Exercise 67. Insert the words given on the right. Use the preposition wherever

necessary.

1.

....

... ,

2.
3.

...

4.

... ,

...

... .

. -

....

The Dative with the Preposition


1.
1 .

156

....

....

5.

....

Exercise 68. Read the sentences and explain the difference between the meanings of the
italicised words.

1.

. .

. r .
.

4.

3.

2.

m .

. d.

m . .

6.

5.

i . .

h Exercise 69. Complete the second sentence of each pair, using the italicised words of
the first sentence.
1.

.... 4.

.... 3.

? ( ...

.... 6.

.... 2.

m .

? 5.

m d.

m .

...

, .

Exercise 70. Complete the sentences, using the words given in brackets.

Model:

...

().

... (). 2. - , ,
... (), . 3.-
m ?- , ... () . 4. -
?- ... ( ). 5. ,
r ... (). 6. ... ().
1.

?-

MEMORISE!




...

157

Exefe 71. Answer the questions.

1. ? 2.
3. ? 4.
? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ?

- .

h
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Exercise 72. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.
?

?
?
?
?
?

MEMORISE!

Exercise 73. Answer the questions.

1.

3.

2.

4.

? 5. ?
6. ? 7. -
?

158

Exercise 74. Complete the sentences, using the words

, , ,

1.
3.

.... 4. ...
....

.... 2.

5.

...

- ?

CENTIVE CASE

The Genitive in Negativ~ Sentences


with the Words , ,
Nouns in the Genitive Singular
.
.

Exercise 1. Answer the questions in the negative and the affirmative.

Model:

- ?
-. .

1. 1.
4.
7.

?
?

11. 1.

2. ? 3. ?
5. ? 6. ?
8. ? 9. ?

2.

3.

4.

Exercise 2. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model: 1.
2.
3.

?
?

159

4.
5.

?
?

. ?

7.

Masculine

Neuter

Feminine

Nominative

Dative

?
-

Exercise 3. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ?

1.
?

4.

2.

5.

3.

mw

? .

7. d?

Exercise 4. Answer the questions in the negative. Write down your answers.

1.

2.

? . ?

8.

Ending

160

7.

3.

7.

4.

Exercise 5. Make up questions and answers, as in the model.


adel:

( ) ?
( ) .

, , , , , , , , ,

Exercise 6. Answer the questions in the negative, replacing the proper names pronouns.

Model:

- ?
-, .

1.

2.

d?

? 4. ?
? 7. ?

5.

3.

6.

E:xercise 7. Complete the sentences.

Model:

....

, .

1. , ... .
2. , ... .
3. , ....
4. , ....
5. , ... .
. , ... .
?
?

.
.

Exercise 8. Make up phrases, as in the model.

Model:

()
()

(),,,i,,,
(),,,
() , , , , , ,
11-2200

161

Exercise 9. Answer the questions in the negative.


?

Model:

1.

2.

4.

? . ?

7.

3.

5.

Exercise 10. Answer the questions in the negative.

1.

1?

?
?

3.

5.

4.

? .

8.

2.

7.

G-r Exercise 11. Answer the questions, as in the model, using the words given below. Write
down your answers.
Model:

- ?

- , .

1.

5.

3.

4.

2.

? .

7.

n, ?

9.

, ?

10.

8.

11.

Words to used in the answers:

, ,

(gen.

, ,

, , .

162

), ,

(gen.

), ,

Personal Pronouns in the Genitive


- ?

- ?

.
.

G-,r Exercise 12. Answer the questions in the negative. Write down your answers.
Model: -

1.

?
, .

5.

2.

3.

? . ?

7.

4.

Exercise 13. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ?
-, .

(-, .)

2. ? 3.
4. ? 5. ? .
? 7. ? 8. ?
1.

Exercise 14. Answer the questions, replacing the italicised words

Model:

personal pronouns.

- ?
-, f .

163

1. ? 2. ? 3.
4. t ? 5. t

? . ?

Exercise 15. Complete the sentences, as in the model.

Model:

() ,

...

().

, ( , ) .

1. , ... ().
2. , ... ().
3. , ... ().
4. , ... ().
Model:

() ,

...

().

, .

1. i, ... ().
2. , ... ().
3. , ... ().
4. , ... ().
5. , ... ().

Adjectives Demonstrative and Possessive


Pronouns in the Genitive Singular

r.

Exercise 16. Answer the questions in the negative.

1.
?

4.

?
?

164

2.

3.

5. ? .
7. ? 8.

h Exercise 17. Answer the questions in the affirmative and the negative, replacing the
italicised phrases personal pronouns.
- ?

Model:

, .

(-, ).

1. ? 2.
3. ? 4.
? 5. ? 6. ?
7. ? 8. ? 9.
?

h
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

?
.

Exercise 18. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.
?

-.si ?

Exercise 19. Answer the questions. Write down the answers.

1.

?
?

4.

2.

r?

6.

7.

5.

3.

Exercise 20. Make up questions, as in the model.

Model:

- , , ,
, , , .

165

Exercise 21. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ?
-, .

1. 1.

- ?

2.
3. ? 4. ?
? 6. ? 7.

5.

11.1.

!?

4.

2.

5.

3.

6. ?

Exercise 22. Answer the questions in the negative. Write down the answers.

Model:

- ?

6.

2. - ? 3.
4. ? 5.
? 6. ? 7.

1.

?
?

Exercise 23. Answer the questions in the negative.

1.

3.

?
?
?

166

2.

7.

5.

8.

6.

4.

G-,r Exercise 24. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.
1. ....

, ,

2.
3.
4.
5.

h
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

....
... .
... .

....

Exercise 25. Answer the questions in the negative, using the words given on the right.
?

. ?

The Genitive with the Numerals


Masculine and Neuter

'

(), ,

Feminine

Nouns used with the numerals , , and with compound numerals whose last component is , or ( ,
, , , etc.) take the genitive singular.
Exercise 26. Make up phrases, as in the model.

Model:

, , ...
, , ...

1.

- , , , , , , , ,

, ,,

167

2. - , , , ; , , , ;
, , , :r, ,

3. - , , , , , , , ,
4. :r - , , , , , , , , ,
, , ,

Exercise 27. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ?

-, .
?

1.

4.

10.

2.

7.

5.

8.

9.

3.
6.
?

Exercise 28. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ?

1.

6.

(2)

, .

(4) 4.

(2) 2.

(3) 9.

(2) 7.

(2) 5.

(2) 3.

(3) 8.

(3)

(4)

h Exercise 29. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right. Write out
sentences 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
:r

3.
4.

:1 :1

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
168

...

...

... .
... .

....

:r

....

....

....

...

... ' ...

, ,

1.
2.

....

....

:1

....

....

12.
13.
14.
15.

....

... .
... 1 ... .
... .

Nous i the Geitive Plural


The Geitive with the Words ., ., 6,
, . d Cardial Numerals
- ?

- .

'

?
.

Nouns used with the cardinal numerals , , etc. and with the words
etc. take the genitive plural.

, , , i, ,

Masculine

Singular

Norninative
Plural
?

Genitive
Plural
?

Ending

169

G-,r Exercise 30. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ?

(15)

- .

2.
(9) 3. ? (5) 4.
? (40) 5. ? (5) .
? (8) 7. ? ()
1.

? ()

Exercise 31. Put the words given below in the genitive.

Model:

- - -

,,,,,,, , ,
,,,,,,,,r,,,
, , , , .

Exercise 32. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- , ?

1.

, , .

t, ?

?
?

4.

3.

2.

6? 5. , ? . ,
?

7. ,

Neuter
Singular

170

Norninative
Plural

Genitive
Plural

Ending

-
-

-in

'
the genitive plural of number of words there appears an
~owel or : , .

unstale

Exercise 33. Put the words given below in the genitive.

Model:

- - - .
-

, , , , , :r<, ,
,6,,,,,,,,.

Exercise 34. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ?

(5)

-, .

1.
3.

i ?

i ? ()

(5) 2.

i ?

i ? ()

4.

5.

(5)

(5).

Feminine
Genitive
Plural

Nominative
Plural

Singular

6?

Ending

Exercise 35. Put the words given be\ow in the genitive.

Model:

- - I- .

171

,,,,,,,,
, , , , , , , , ,

, , , , , , , , ,
, , .

Exercise 36. Answer the questions.

1.

3.

4.

2.

5. ? .
7. 1 ?

Exercise 37. Answer the questions. Write down the answers.

1. ? 2.
?
?

3.
5.

4.

? .

7.

G-r

Exercise 38. Answer the questions.

1. ? () 2.
? (8) 3. ? (12) 4.
1? (8) 5. ? (9) .
? (3) 7. ? (15)
8. ? (10)

G-r
1.

Exercise 39. Answer the questions.


? (, )

?
?

5.

(5,

4.

(3,

172

3.

2.

(3,

(10,

) .

(2, ) 7. 1? (, )

8.

. ?

~ ?

(20,

10.

(2,

9.

~?(3,)

Exercise 40. Make up phrases, as in the model.

Model: _,
,

1.

-, , , ,

2.
3.
4.

, , , , , ,

-, , , , , r, , ,
- , , , , , , ,

r?

r 1 .

Exercise 41. Ask the questions and answer them.

Model:

- ?

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

(30,

(28,

(41, )

(25, )
? (22, )
? (84, )
? (5, )

Exercise 42. Ask the price of these things and answer the questions.

Model:

- ?

173

G-r Exercise 43. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers and
write them down.
...?

1.

1 .

...?

2.

3.

5 .

...?
-

3 d..

...?

4.
-

5.

1 .

...?
-

174

4 .

. .. ?
-

3 pria.

... ?

7.

15 .

?
?

In sentences containing the word ,


the past tense is used in the neuter gender.

d,

or ! the verb in

Exercise 44. Use the verbs in the required form.

1. ... ? () 2.
... ? () 3. ...
? () 4. ... ? ()
5. ... ? () . ...
? () 7. ... ? ()
8. ... ? () 9. ...

? ()

Exercise 45. Complete the sentences, using the words given in brackets.

1.

(, , , , ,

).

2.

(, , (!).

( ~).
).

5.

4.

3.

(,

(,

, ). . (
, ).

7.

(, ,

).

h
1.
2.
3.

Exercise 46. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

, ,

....

....

....


, r

175

4.

5.

, , ,

....

7.

... .
... .

....

, , , ,

h
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Exercise 47. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

... .
... .
... .
... .

....

Exercise 48. Complete the sentences, using the words given in brackets.

1.

().

().
).

5.

4.

2.

()

7.

3.

1 (

() ?

().

8.

, , 1

6.

().

().

9.

(, , ,

).

h Exercise 49. Read the text, using the required forms of the words given in
brackets.


90

()

1 ()

().

().

20

() ,

- 16-18

2-3

() ,

, -.
-

60

() , 1 -

) .

6,5

10

().

2006 176

170.

1988

90

() .

1935

130

(),

Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns in the Genitive Plural

.
.
.

Exercise 50. Answer the questions.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

?
?

?
?

. ?

7.

0,. Exercise 51. Insert the words given in brackets. Answer 1 he questions, using the words
, d, .

1.

( ) ?

) ?
?

5.
7.

4.

3.

2.

(i )

( 1) ?

( ) ? . ( ) ?
( ) ?

.
.
.

Exercise 52. Answer the questions in the negative.

Model:

- ?

- .
1.
2.
12-2200

?
?

177

3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?

D-r

Exercise 53. Complete the sentences, as in the model.

Model:
1.

, .

.... 3.

.... 2.

.... 4. , .... 5.
.... 6. r , .... 7.
, .... 8. r - ,
.... 9. , ....
,

Exercise 54. Answer the questions in the negative.

2. ? 3.
4. ? 5.
? 6. ? 7.
? 8.
? 9. ? 10.
? 11. ? 12.
1.

The Genitive Denoting Possession

ir .

Exercise 55. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

Model: - ?
- .
178

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

h
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Exercise 56. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

... .
... .
... .
... .
... .
....

Exercise 57. Ask questions and answer them.

Model:

( )

1.

')

2.

rt:f7A

(
)

L:_fJJ
179

( )

3.

4.

(i
)

( )

5.

6.

( )

ii}
h

Exercise 58. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

Model:

- ?

-, .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1?

Exercise 59. Answer the questions, as in the model. Write down the answers.

Model: - ?

- ( ), .

1.
2.
3.

180

4. ?
5. ?

. ?

G-r

Exereise 60. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

Model: - ? ( )
- .
2.
3.
? ( ) 4. ? ( ) 5.

1.

? ( )

? ( )

? ( ) . ?
( )

h Exercise 61. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets. Write down the
answers.
1. ? ( )
2. ? ( ) 3.
? ( ) 4. :1 :
? (i ) 5. ? (
) . :1? (
)

D-r Exercise 62. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the
answers.
... ?
- .
2. ... ?
1.

- : 6.

3.

... ?
- .
4. ... ?
- .
5.
... ?
- .

181

The Adomial Geitive


- ?

- ?

Exercise 63. Make up phrases, as in the model.

Model:

...

(, , )

, ,

1. ... (, , , , , )
2. ... (, , , , )
3. ... (, , , , ,
i, i)

4.

...

(, , , , , )

Exercise 64. Complete the sentences.

1.

...

( ).

... ( ).
... ( ).

2.

3.

... ( ).
... ( ).
... ( ).
... ( ).
... ( ).
... ( ).
... ( ).
... ( ).
... ( ).

Exercise 65. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

1.

... ?

2.

... ?

, , ,

,
, , , ,
,

182

3. ... ?

, ,
,

Exercise 66. Change the sentences, as in the model.

Model:

,
, . .

1.

. .

2.

. .

3.
4.

. .
. .

Exercise 67. Answer the questions.

1.

: ?

3.

2.

4.

5.

? .
?

7.

: I ?

8.

!?

Exercise 68. Answer the questions, using the words given the right.

Model: - : )'?
- :
1.
2.
3.
4.

1 :?

: ?

5.

. ?

7.

183

h
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Exercise 69. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

....

... .
... .

... .
... .

....
....

Exercise 70. Make up sentences, as in the model.

Model:

1.

- .

.
.

5.
9.

2.

- .

- .

- .
12. - .

3. - . 4.
6. - . 7. - . 8.
10. - . 11. - .
13. - .

Exercise 71. Make up sentences, as in the model, and write them down.

Model:

- .

1. - . 2. - . 3. - .
4. - . 5. - . 6. - . 7.
. 8. - . 9. - . 10. -
. 11. - . 12. - . 13. - .

The Geitive with the Comparative Degree


.
BLIe r .
~ ().

Exercise 72. Complete the sentences, as in the model.

Model:

().
.

184

1.
4.

().

r ().

2.

I<: ( ).

() ri.

8.

7.

5.

().

3.

( ). .

( ).

r ( ).

r (r: ).

MEMORISE!

9.
10. ( ).

(/)

- (/)

(/)

- (/)

(!)

r (/)

) -

Exercise 73. Change the sentences, as in the model, and write them down.

Model:

, .
.

1.
3.

, .

2.

- , .

- , .

5.

4.

, . .

, .

7.

, .

The Genitive Denoting Dates


- ?

Exercise 74. Read the dates and write them down in figures.

1.
2.

LI .

r .

3.

185

I .
.

5.

4.

. . i 1 .

7.

I .

Exercise 75. Read the following dates.

1.01.1939; 10.07.1961; 28.11.1941; 12.05.1921; 24.09.1947;


9.10.1972; 11.12.1984; 21.08.2000; 3.02.2003; 4.03.2007.

19.06.1955;

The Genitive Denoting Time


-

r ?

1 .

- ?

I
.

h Exercise 76. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets. Write down the
answers.
1.

(15, , 1935) 2.
(2, , 1945) 3.
(12, , 1961) 4. .. ? (6,

?
?
,

1799)

Exercise 77.

Read the text.


1994

1998

1991

, , .

2007

- . .

186

2012 .

Answer the questions.

1. ?

2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
Exercise 78.

Tell about yourself answering these questions.

? ?
? ?
1?
.

Write down your story.

,
.

Exercise 79. Make up sentences antonymous to those below.

Model:

.
.

1. . 2. .
3. . 4. i. 5.
. 6. .

m ?

.

.

h-

Exercise 80. Complete the sentences.

Model:

... ... .
10 4

(10,

4,

187

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

...

9,;3,

... .
... ... .
... ... .
... ... .
... ....

10,;7,

, ; 1,

9,;9,

7 ; 10

Exercise 81. Read the questions and answer them. Write down the answers (they should
form story on the subject " Day").

1. ? 2. ? 3. I
4. ? 5. ( ?) ?
. ? 7. I
? 8. ? 9. ? 10.
? 11. ? 12. i
? 13. ? 14.
? 15. ? 1. ?
?

Exercise 82. Answer the questions. Write down the answers (they should form
the subject "The Winter Holidays").

1.

story on

2.

1 ?

3.

? .

4.

?
?

9.

7.

5.

11. ? 12.
13. ?

10.

8.

The Genitive with the Prepositions and


Denoting Direction
. .

. .

D-r
1.

Exercise 83. Complete the sentences.


,

, , ).

188

...

(, , , , ,

2.

. ..

(, ,

, , , , , .)

3.

...

(,

, , , , , ).

Exercise 84. Complete the sentences.

1.

...

(, , , ,

, , , , , 1).

2.

...

(, , , , ).

Exercise 85. Do the exercise as shown in the model.

Model:

1.

6.

: .

: ndpe.

2.

n/U.

: .

4.

7.

5.

3.

: .

: .

Exercise 86. Complete the sentences.

Model:

: .

1.

: lf .

.... 5.

: d

.... 3. d
.... 4. .

.... 2.

. :1

6. ....

: ?

...

?
.

189

()-,r Exercise 87. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

Model: -

- .

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?

Exercise 88. Make up questions to which the following sentences arc the answers and write
themdown.

1.

. .. ?

... ?

2.

- .

3.

. .. ?
- .

4.

... ?
- .
5. ... ?
- .

Masculine

Neuter

Ferninine

190

Prepositional

Accusative

Genitive

Exercise 89. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

?
?

.
.
.

1.

.r ?

2.

.?

3.

4.

.?

5.

?
. ?

6.

r?

7.

?
?

Exercise 90. Complete the sentences, as in the model.

Model:

.
.

1.

.... 3.

.... 2.

... ? 5.

... ? 4.

191

... ?

. .

9.

.... 8.

.... 7.

....

....

Exercise 91. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

Model:

... .

.
: .

.... .... ....


.... .... ... .
.... .... :
....
4. .... .... ... .
5. .... .... ... .
. .... .... ....

1.
2.
3.

The Genitive with the Preposition


-

: ?

Exercise 92. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right. Write down the answers.

Model: - : ?
- .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

: ?

: ?

. ?

: ?

- .

192

~ Exercise 93. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.
Model: - ?

- .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

~ Exercise 94. Make up questions


write them down.
Model:

! which the following sentences are the answers and

d. - ?

1. . . 2.
. .
.
.

G-w

5.

4.

3.

. .

Exercise 95. Change the sentences, as in the model.

Model:

.
.

2.
3. .
4. i. 5.
. 6. . 7.
. 8. ,
1.

Genitive

Dative

13-2200

Genitive
?

193

G-r Exercise 96. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.
Model:

....
....

....

.
.
.

1.

2.

... .

... .

....

3.

... .

....

....

....

....
-

?
.

6-,r Exercise 97. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

i ?

- ?

- .

Exercise 98. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right. Write down the
answers.

Model:

- :?

- : .

1. ?
2. ?
194

,
,

3.
4.

?
?

1 ,

The Geitive with the Pepositions ,


, ...

z , ,

,. Exercise 99. Make up phrases, using the words given in brackets.


1. , ... (, , ,

, , ).

2.
3.

...

(, , , , ).

...

(, , , , ).

,. Exercise 100. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

... .
... .

....

....

....

....

....

Exercise 101. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ?

, 1 .

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?

G-,r Exercise 102. Make up questions, as in the model, and write them down.
Model:

- .
?

195

1.

5.

2.

3.

4.

- . . -- .

Exercise 103. Answer the questions.

1.

() ?

() ?
?

4.

2.

3.

" ? 5.
?

MEMORISE!
?
, ,

?
?
?

Exercise 104. Answer the questions (your answers should form


Native City"). Write down the story.

1.

story on the subject

? ( , ?)

, ?

4.

5.

3.

2.

? . , , , ?
?
, , ?

"

8.

7.

9. ? 10.
11. ?

INSTRUMENTAL CASE

Nouns in the lnstrumental Singular


The Instrumental DenotingJoint Action
.

Exercise 1. Answer the questions.

1.1.
196

2.

3.

5.

.1. ?
?
?

3.
5.

:1

4.

2.

Nominative
?

Masculine

Neuter

Feminine

4.

Instrumental

Ending

Exercise 2. Make up sentences, using the words given in brackets, and write them down.

1.
2.

...

(, , , , ).

...

(, , , , ,

, ).

3.

...

(, ,

, , , ).

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences, using the words given in brackets.

1.
3.

().

).

7.

...

5.

...

...

2.

().

...

4.

().

().

...

6.

...

...

().

().

197

6-- Exercise 4. Complete the sentences.


1.

().

7.

5.

...

().

...

3.
...

...

( ).

...

2.

().

4.

(). .

...

...

().

().

Exercise 5. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.
, ...

1.... ?
2. ... ?
3. ... ?
4. ... ?

Exercise 6. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
.

....

... .
... .

....

... .
... .

- : ?

- .

Exercise 7. Answer the questions.

Model: -

()

- .

1.

? ()

? ( )
( )

4.

3.

2.

: ? ()

5.

? ( ) . :

? ( )
)

198

7.

? (

Exercise 8. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- , ?

, () , .

1.

, ?

3.

6.

2.

, ?

5.

4.

, ?

, ?

~ Exercise 9. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers and
write them down.
1.

. .. ?
-

. .. ?

2.

- .

3.

. .. ?
-

4.

. .. ?
-

r .

5.
.

. .. ?
. .. ?
- .

&- Exercise 10. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.
1. 1. ... .
2. ....
3. ....
4. ... .
5. ... .
11. 1. ....
2. ....
3. ....
4. ....
5. ....

199

III.1. ....
2. ....
3. ... .
4. ... .
5. ....

Personal Pronouns in the Instrumental


- ?
- , .
Exercise 11. . Answer the questions.

1.

- . mf?

2.

?
.

'

3. , d ? 4. ,
5. ? 6. m d. 1?

Make

tale

of personal, like the one given below.

Nominative

Instrumental

...

...

Before words beginning with group of consonants the preposition


used: , , .

is

.'--------------------------------------------------------------/

Exercise 12. Use personal pronouns.

Model:

... ?

. .

1.

MaKCU.!W.

...
4.

... ? 6 ... ? 2.
... ? ... ? 3. -

200

.... 7.

? , 1
.

...

6.
... ?

... ? 5.

...

Exercise 13. Use the required pronouns.

Model:

...

() .

2.
3.
. ... (). 4. ... () . 5. ... () . 6. ... (). 7.
... (). 8. ... () . 9.
... () .
1.

...

().

...

...

().

()?

Exercise 14. Answer the questions.

Model:

()- ?

1.

Model:

2.

3.

4.

? ?

? ?
?

5.

()- ? ?

1.

4.

3.

2.

? ?

5.

? ?

Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns


in the Instrumental Singular
.

Exercise 15. Answer the questions.

1.

:f ?

7.

5.

3.

2.

:f

8.

6.

4.

201

h Exercise 16. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right. Write down the
answers.
1.
2.
3.
4.
"

r ?

'<" ?

. L ?

_''"'"1

?
.

- ?

- .

Exercise 17. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

1.
2.
3_
4.
).

6 r?

. ?

7.

h
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

202

Exercise 18. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.
?

6 ?

. ?

7.

Exercise 19. Complete (he sentences in writing, using the words given in brackets.

1. ... ( n). 2. ... (


). 3. ... ( ).
4. ... ( ). 5.
6 ... ( ). 6.
... ( ). 7. ... (6
).

Exercise 20. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

1. 1.

... .
2. ... .
3. ... .
4. ....
5. ... .

11. 1. I ... .
2. ....
3. m ....
111. 1. ....
2. ....
3. ....
4. ....
5. ... .
IV. 1. ... .
2. ....
3. ... r.
4. ....
V. 1. ....
2. 1 ....
3. ....
4. ....
5. ....

Vl.1. ....
2. ....
3. ....

203

Nouns, Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns


in the Instrumental Plural
-

h
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

?
.

Nominative

Instrumental

Ending

Exercise 21. Answer the questions.


r?

. ?

7.
8.

MEMORISE!

Nominative

Instrumental

~ Exercise 22. Answer the questions.


1.

? ( )

? ( ).

204

3.

2.

? (

4.

? ( )

5.

Bbl

? ( ) . ? (
)

Exercise 23. Replace the plural the singular.

h
1.

w.

4.

3.

2.

f.

5.

. .
.

7.

8.

Exercise 24. Replace the singular the plural.

Model:

.
.

1.

.
.

4.

3.

2.

5.

. .
.

Exercise 25. Complete the

1.

senten~es.

4.

.... 3.

.... 2.

....

.... 5.

. ,

7.

, , ,

Exercise 26. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

I. 1. ... .
2. ... .
3. ....
4. ....
5. ....
. ....

....

....

....

205

II. 1. ....
2. ....
3. 1 ....
4. ....
5. ....
III. 1. ... .
2. ... .
3. ... .
IV. 1. ... .
2. ....
3. ....
4. : ....
V. 1. ....
2. ....
3. ....
4. ....
5. ....

The Instrumental in the Compound Predicate after the


Verbs and
- .
.
.

In the present tense the link-verb in compound predicate is omitted and the
takes the nominative; in the past and future tenses the link-verb (,
) or (, ) is obligatory and the noun takes the instrumental.
'
non

Exercise 27. Replace the present tense the past and the future.

Model:

1. . 2. - . 3. -
4. - . 5. . 6. -

206

Exercise 28. Change the sentences to the present tense and write them down.

Model:

3.
5. .
. . 7. . 8. m .
1.

2.

m .

4.

Exercise 29. Complete the sentences, using the words given in brackets.

Model:

, (.).
, .

, ().

1.

, () ..

3.

2.

, ( ).
, ( ).

5.

4.

, ( ). .
, ().

Exercise 30. Answer the questions, using the. words given in brackets. Write down the answers.

Model: -

: ? ()
,

1. ? () 2.
? ().
? ()

5.

4.

n ? ()

' ? () .

? ()

? ()

8.

7 ..

r ? ()

Exercise 31. Make up sentences, as in the model, and write them down.

Model:

- .
.
, ()

1.
3.

4.

2.

207

5. - . 6.
7. - .
-

- .

- .

Exercise 32. Make up questions.


- .

Model:

- ?

1.

. .. ?
- .

2.

. .. ?
- .

3.

. .. ?
- .

4.

. .. ?
-

5.

. .. ?
- i
6. - ... ?

- .

7.

. .. ?
-

?
.
?

Exercise 33. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ? ()

1.
208

? ()

2.

()

3. ? () 4. ?
() 5. ? () .
? () 7. ? ()
Exercise 34. Make up questions and answer them.

Model:

- -
- ?
- .

?
.

1. - - .
2. - - .
3. - - .
4. - - .
5. - - .
. - -
7. - - .
8. - - .
Exercise 35. Replace the sentences

Model:

sentences with the verb .

- .

1.

- .

4.

9.

2.

- .

- .

7.

5.

3.

- . .

8.

- .

The Istrumental with the Verbs and


, and the Short-Form Adjective
-

- .

h' Exercise 36. Answer the questions, as in the model.


Model:

- ? ()
-, .

14-2200

209

1.

? ()

()

3.

2.

? ()

? ()

4.

? ()

5.

h Exercise 37. Answer the questions. Write down the answers.


1.

? ()

3.

2.

? (

? ()

? ()

5.

4.

? () .

? ()

7.

? (

h Exercise 38. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers and
write them down.
Model:

- .

1.
3.

2. .
xliowe. 4. . 5. ni

, . .
.

7.

Exercise 39. Answer the questions, as in the model. Write down the answers.

Model:

- ?
- , ()

1.

3.

2.

5.

4.

? . ?

7.

- .
- ?

210

~ Exercise 40. Make up sentences, as in the model.

Model:

...

().

1.

...


).

().

2. ... (). 3. ... ( :1). 4.


... ( 1). 5. ... (:1 ). . ... (
7. ... ( )

~ Exercise 41. Complete the sentences, using the words given in brackets and the
verbs , , , , as required the
sense.
1.

().

4.

...

().

2.

...

( ).

...

().

) . .

...

5.

().

7.

3.

...

... ( ... ( -

).

~ Exercise 42. Answer the questions, as in the model. Use the pronouns and :i in the
answers.
Model:

- ?
-, .

2.
3.
? 4. ? 5.
? . ? 7.
1.

The Istrumental with the Prepositions ,


and . Denoting Place

, ,

211

Exercise 43. Answer the questions.

Model:

- ?
- .

1.

i ? ()

? ()

3.

2.

? ()

? ( )

5.

4.

? (

) . ? ()

7.

()

()-,r Exercise 44. Complete the sentences, using the words given in brackets.

1.

).

...

3.

( ).

...

( ).

5 ....

...

2.

( ).

4.

...

( ) r. .... ( )

7.

...

).

Exercise 45. Make up sentences opposite in meaning to those given below.

Model:

1.
.

3.

d.

5.

4.

2.

The Instrumental in Passive Constructions1


-

- .

Exercise 46. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.

Model:

- w d1.
- ?

For more details on the Passive Constructions see .. 321.

212

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
:r :r .
.
.
.

. :r .

G-: Exercise 47. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets. Write down the
answers.
1.

? ( )

? ( )
)

4.

3.

2.

? (

? ( )

5.

? ( ) . ? (
)

7.

:r ? (

The Istrumetal Deoting the Instrument of Action


-

- .

G-: Exercise 48. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.
1.

? ()

2.

? ()

? ( )
? ( )
( )

7.

5.

? () . ?

? ()

? ()

4.

3.

9.

8.

? ()

The Instrumental with Prepositios


Used i Various Meaigs

G-: Exercise 49. Ask questions about the italicised words.


Model:

- .
- ?

1.

1 6.i.

2.

213

3.

4.

5.

. . .

Exercise 50. Complete the sentences, using the words

, ,

, , , .

.... 2. ...
... . 4. ....
5. ... . . ... .
7. ....

1.

3.

Exercise 51. Complete the sentences, as in the model.

Model:

...

().

1.
).

3.

).

...

( ).

...

5.

2.

( ).

...

4.

...

( 1). .

...

...

().

Exercise 52. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right and the

preposition

Model: ....

d.

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

... .
... .
... .
... .
....

....

Exercise 53. Replace the sentences, as in the model.

Model:

, .
.

1.

, .

, .
1.

214

4.

3.

2.

, .

5. , . 6.
, . 7. ,
.

Exercise 54. Complete the sentences in writing, using prepositions wherever necessary.

... (). 2. ... ( ). 3. ... (). 4. ... (). 5. ... (). 6 .... () . 7.
... (). 8 .... ( ) . 9. ... (). 10. ... (). 11. ... (1.

).

Exercise 55. Ask questions about the italicised words.


.

1.

3.

5.

9.

4.

.
.

2.

co!Lw .

7.

i d.

10.

6.
. 8.

.
Revisio

Exercises

Exercise 56. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right. Write down the answers.

I. 1.
2.
3.
4.

?
?
?

II. 1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
III.l. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?

21'5

Exercise 57. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?

I.

II. 1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
III. 1.
2.
3.

IV. 1. ?
2. ?
3. ?

V. 1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?

VI. 1.
2.
3.
4.

?
?
?

Exercise 58. Use the required forms ofthe words given in brackets.

1.

...

...

( ).

()?

4.

...

2.
...

()?

()

...

() . .

7.

216

...

...

3.

() .

...

()?

5.

...

()

, ,

...

(). ... () ?

() .

() .

...

, ,

...

() ?

8.

Exercise 59. Write out the sentences, using the required pronouns.

1.

... . ...

.... .... 2. .... ....


. ... . ... . ... . ... . 3. .
... , ...
.
.... I. 4. . .... ... .... ,
. ... , ... .
...

000

000

Exercise 60. Answer the questions, using the pronouns.

Model:

- ?
-, .

1.

2.
5.

?
?

9.

7.

12.

3.

8.

4.

10.

6.

11.

Exercise 61. Answer the questions, using the required forms of the words given on the

right.

I. 1.

1?

1?
.

1.

6.

6.

5.

4.

2.

3.

4.

2.

3.
? 5.

Exercise 62. Complete the sentences, using the required fonns of the words given on the right.

I. 1.

.... 2. ,
... . 3. ... .
4. .... 5. ... .
6. ....

217

11. 1.

4.

.... 3.

.... 2.

.... 5.

....

Exercise 63. Complete the sentences, using the required forms of the words given on the

right.

I. 1. .... 2.
.... 3. .... 4. ....
5. ... .

11. 1. .... 2. .... 3. :r ... ? 4. ... ?

III. 1.
3.

h
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

h
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

218

:
:

... . 2.
... .

... .

:r

Exercise 64. Answer the questions, using the required forrns of the words given on the right.
?
: ?
?

: ?
?
?

Exercise 65. Complete the sentences, using the words given on the right.

... .
... .

....

....

... .
... .

:r

....

....

THEVERB
VERBS OF MOTION

Unprefixed Verbs of Motion


and the Verbs and n
The Verb umit. The Present Tense
- ?

(i)

Exercise 1. Use the required forms of the verb .

... . 3. ... .
4. ... . 5. ... . . ... .
7. ... . 8. ... ? 9. ... ? 10. ... ?

1.

...

2.

Exercise 2. Answei" the questions, using the words given in brackets.

Model:

- ? ()

- .

219

? ()

1.

? ()

4.

? ()

5. ?
7. ? ()

()

? ()

. ? ()

3.

2.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

Model:

- ? ()
- .

? ()

2. ? () 3. ? (
4. ? () 5. ? () . ?
() 7. ? ()
1.

Exercise 4. Use the required forms of the verb .

h
1. -

...

- ,

.... , ... .
... ?
- ... .
- ... ?
- , ... .
3. - ... ?
- ... .
- ... ?
- ... , .
4. - ... ?
-, . ... .

2.

The Verb u. The Past Tense


.
.

Exercise 5. Use the verb in the past tense.

h
1.
3.

...

4.

. .

220

...

...

...

...

2.

5.

...

7.

...

Exercise 6. Write out the sentences, replacing the verb


Change the adverbs of time.

in the past tense.

1.

Model:

1.

1. 1.

2. . 3.
4. . 5.

11. 1.
4.

2.

.
.

'
8

3.

NOTE: In the past tense the verb denotes movement there and back.
In this case the verb is equivalent to the verb :
.= .

0-,r Exercise 7. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers and
write them down.
1.

z . .

. .

2.
3. . z .

4. z .
5. z . .

0-,r Exercise 8. Replace the verb the verb . Change the case of the nouns
following the verb.
Model:

.
.

1.
3.

6.

4.

2.

5.

221

Exercise 9. Do the exercise as shown in the model.

Model:

.
.

2.
3. . 4.
. 5.
. 6. . 7.
1.

G-!r Exercise 10. Replace the verb .


Model:

.
.

1.

2.

. 3. .
4. . 5.
.

6.

Exercise 11. Answer the questions, as in the model.

Model:

- ? ()

- .

1.
)

? ()

3.

6.

2.

? (

? ()
()

5.

4.

()

? ()

Exercise 12. Answer the questions, as in the model. Write down the answers.

Model:

- ? (1)

1.

i.

? ()

? ()

4.

222

? ()

3.

? ()

? ()
tt)

2.

6.

5.

? (

Exercise 13. Use the verb in the past tense.

1. -

...

...

-
-,

...

...

2. - ?
- , . ... .
- ?
- , ... .
3. - ... ?
- ... . ?
- ... .

The V erb nomu. The Future Tense


.
.

Exercise 14. Use the verb in the future tense.

h
1.
3.
5.

...

...

...

4.

...

2.

. .

...

...

...

1.

7.

Exercise 15. Replace the present tense verbs future tense ones. Use the words
etc.

, , ,

Model:

.
I .

1.

h
1.

4.

2.

5.

3.

. . .

Exercise 16. Use the required forms of the verb .


-

...

- ,

...

223

-,

2.

... ? ...
... .

...

? ?

...

4.

- ?

3.

... ?
... , ...

...

...

, .

....

~ Exercise 17. Make up sentences, as in the model, and write them down. Use adverbs oftime.

Model:

.
.
.

1.
4.

2.

5.

3. .
6. ?

~ Exercise 18. Use the required forms of the verbs , , .

1.

-
-

2.

...

... ?

...

- ,

...

-
-,

3.

... ?

. .

...

...

...

- ?
-

4. -

...

... ?
... :r.

~ Exercise 19. Use the required forms of the verbs , , .

1.

-
-

224

... ?

... , .

...

...

2.

- ?
-
-

...

-,

3.

...

...

- . ?
-

...

...

- ,

4. -

...

...

....

... ?

-,

...

...

...

The Verb . The Present Tense

?
.


()

'

15-2200

Note that unlike the verb

denotes movement in

vehicle .
225

()o-,r Exercise 20. Use the required forms of the verb .

1.

-
-

2.

...

...
...

...

1?

-,

5.

...

... ?

...

4.

...

-
-

3.

... ?

...

1.

... ?

()o-,r Exercise 21. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets. Write down the
answers.

Model:

- ? ()

- .

1.

? ()

? ()

6.

4.

2.

? ()

? ()

5.

? ()

Exercise 22. Do the exercise as shown in the model.

Model:

- ?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

, .

The Verb . The Past Tense


.
.

226

3.

? ( )

Exer<:ise 23. Use the verb


1.

5.

...

...

in the past tense.

2. ... . 3.
. 4. ... .
... . 6. ...

Exercise 24. Answer the questions, using the words given on the right.

Model:

- ?

-, .

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?

Exercise 25. Answer the questions, using the words given in brackets.

Model:-
-

? ()

- () ? ()

- .

1.

? ()
? ()

2.

? ()
? ()

3. Bbl ? ()
? ()

4.

? (-)
? ()

5.

? ()
? ()

'

Note that like the verb the verb i the past tense denotes
movement there and back. In this case the verb is equivalent to the verb
: . = .

227

?
?

-- Exercise 26. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.

1.
2.

i . i .

. .

. z .
.

3.
4. .
5. z .

-- Exercise 27. Replace the verb . Change the case of the nouns which
follow the verb.
Model:

.
z .

1.
3.
5.

4.

2.

6.

&-,r Exercise 28. Replace the verb .

Model:

.
.

1.

z .

z .

z .

8.

6.

4.

2.

7.

3.
d. 5.

z .

z .

-- Exercise 29. Answer the questions, as in the model. Write down the answers.
Model:

- ? ()
- .

1.

? ()

? ()
? ()

3.
5.

?()

228

2.
4.
() 6.

? ()
?

Exercise 30. Use the verb ~r in the required form.

...

- ... .
- 1?
-, ... 1.
2. - ... ?
- ... . ... , I.
3. - ... ?
- ... -.
- ?

- , ... .

The Verb . h Future Tense


.
.

Exercise 31. Use the verb in the future tense.


... . 2. ... . 3.
... . 4. ... . 5. ...
. 6. ... ? 7. ... ?

1.

h
1.

Exercise 32. Use the verb , or in the required form.


- ... ?
- ... .
?

- , ... .
2. - ... ?
- ... .
- ... ?
-, .... , ... .
3. - ... ?
- ... , ... . ... ?
- ... .
4. - . ... ?
- ... , .

229

Exercise 33. Use the verb or in the required form.


1.

5.

...

...

...

6.

2.
4.

...

...

...

3.

7. , ... 1 8. ...
.

Exercise 34. Complete the sentences in writing, using the verb () or


in the future tense.

Model:

....

, .
,

....

, .

1.

.... 3.

.... 2.

.... 6.

.... 5.

.... 4.

....

G-,r Exercise 35. Use the verb , , , , , in the


required .form.

1.

2.

...

...

.
,

3.

-
-

4. -

...

...

... ?

, .

...

... ?
... .

... .
- ... i ?
-, ... .
5.- ... ?
1

, to walk

230

...

...

...

...

Exercise 36. Answer the questions, using the words


the answers.

Model:

, , ,

in

- ?

-. .
(-, . .)

1.
3.

2.

5.

4.

? .

1 ?

The V erbs umti- xotim

.
.

The verb denotes movement in one directio. The verb


denotes: (1) movement in different directions, (2) repeated movement in one
direction, or (3) the aility to walk.

'

, to go to th country

231

()

Exercise 37. Answer the questions.

1.

4.

2.

~?

5.

3.

Exercise 38. Answer the questions. Write out the questions and the answers.
? 2. ? 3. I
? 4. ? 5.

1.

G-,r Exercise 39. Do the exercise (in writing) as shown in the model.

Model:

- .

1.

3.

2.

5.

G-,r Exercise 40. Use the verb or in the required form.

1. -

, !

-, !
-

... ?

... .

2.- , !
- , !
- ... ?
232

...

4.

-
-,

3. -

4.

...

...

r,

...

... ?

... ?
...

-, !

- , !
-

... ?
... .
- ... ?
-, ... . ...
- ... .
-

Exercise 41. Use the verb or in the required form.

... ?
... .
- ... ?
-, ... , .
2. - ... ?
- ... .
- ... ?
-, ... .
- ... ?
-, ... .
3. -!

1.

-
-

- !
-

4.

...

... ?

...

, 1

...

- !
- !
-
-

...

... ?

... ?
...

233

The Past Tense ofthe Verb umu


, .

.
( .)

'

The verb
direction .

in the past tense

(, , )

denotes movement in one

.
.

Exercise 42. Read the sentences and write them out. Note the difference in the use of the
verbs and in the past tense.

1.

, .

2.

.
, .

3.

.
, .

Exercise 43. Use the verb or in the past tense.

1. ... .
2. ...
3. ...

...

, .

.
.

...
...

, .
,

4.

...

Exercise 44. Use the verb or in the past tense.

h
1.

...

2.

, .

5.

... ,

.
?-

234

7. ,
... .

...

4.

...

, .

...

6.

...

3.

...

, .

...

, r .

8. -

The V erb -

.
( ) .

Note that the verb

'

denotes movement in one direction. The verb

denotes: (1) movement in different directions, (2) repeated movement in


one direction, or (3) the ability to move in vehicle.

(i)

Exercise 45. Read the sentences and write them out. Compare the sentences and
difference in their meaning.

1.

explai

tl1e

1.

2.
3.

2.
3.

.
.

Exercise 46. Answer the questions. Write out the questions and the answers.

1.

2.
4.

?
?

5.

3.

235

Exercise 47. Use the verb or in the required form.

h
1.

-, !

, !

...

... ?

2.

...

-
-

3.

...

...

...

i. i?

...

i .

- , !

, !

...

... .
... ?
- ... .
4. - ... ?
- ... , .
- ... ?
- .
-

The Past Tense of the Verb


.

, .

(movement in one direction)

(movement there and back)


Exercise 48. Read the sentences and write them out. Note the difference in the use of the
verbs and in the past tense.

1.

, .

2.

.
, .

3.

.
, .

236

4.

.
, .

Exercise 49. Use the verb or in the past tense.

l.

...

...

2.

...

, .

3.
4. ... . 5. ... . 6. ... ,
. 7. ... , . 8. ... ~.

, .

Exercise 50. Use the verb or in the past tense.

Model:

. ,
.

l.
2.
3.

...

5.

...

...

r.

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Exercise 51. Use the verb or in the present tense.

h
l.
.

2.

3.

...

...

...

...

6.

...

...

...

4.

...

4.

...

5.

...

Exercise 52. Replace the verb

Model:
1.

the verb or .

3.

2.

5.

7.

4.

-.

9.

6.

8.

237

~ Exercise 53. Use the verbs - or - in the required form.


l.

...

2.

...

3.

...

4.

...

. :1

...

...

, .

...

...

...

1.

...

...

...

... . 5. .
... .

...

, .

6.

. ,

The V erbs -

...

...

, .

, -

. .
.

Exercise 54. Read the sentep.ces and write them out. Remember the meanings and uses of
the verbs - .

1.

1.

_v .

2.

2.

3.

3.

. .

238

Exercise 55. Read the sentences and write them out. Remember the meanings and uses of
the verbs - .

1.

1.

i .

2.

2.

3. .
.

3.

Exercise 56. Make up captions to used und~r these drawings.

Model:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

()-,r Exercise 57. Use the verbs - or - in the required form.

1.
...

...

2.

...

3.
...

...

. 4.

...

. ... . 5. ,. ...
. . ,

...

239

Exercise 58. Use the verb or in the required form.

1. - ?
- .
-

2.

...

... ?

, .

- ?

- .
-

3.

...

... ?

, .

- ?

- .
- ... ?
- ... .
4. - ?
- .
- ... ?
- ... .

h Exercise 59. Make up sentences, using the verbs - , - and


write them down.
Model:

. .

( ) .

1.

. .

4.

3.

2.

. .

. 1.

5.

. . . .

7.
8.

. . .
. .

The Verbs ecmu,


.

240

in the Past Tense

i.

r.
.

)- Exercise 60. Use the verb or in the past tense.


1.

...

... . 5.
... .

3.

...

i .

...

2.
... r. 4.

. .

Exercise 61. Use the verbs - or - in the required form.

1.

...

...

, r.

. ,

...

...

3.

, .

...

4.

...

2.

...

. ,

...

, .

Prefixed Verbs of Motion


The Prefix .

'

The prefix
motion.

- signifies the beginning of the action expressed in verbs of

Exercise 62. Read the sentences and write them down. Explain what meaning the prefix
adds to the verbs and .

2.
3. , . 4.
. 5. . .
. 7. , ,
1.

f1:.1 .
162200

241

Exercise 63. Use the verb or in the required form.

... . 2.
... . 3.
... . 4. ... . 5. ... .
. ... . 7. ... .
1.

Exercise 64. Use the verb or in the required form.

h
1.

...

2.

...

...

...

... . ...
... . ... .

Exercise 65. Read the sentences and write them out. Note the difference in the meaning of
the italicised verbs.

1.

zm .

(They were at the cinema, saw


film and came back home.)

2.

(They were in the country.)

1. .
(They left for the cinema, but it is not
known whether they actually were at the
cinema. For example, they may have gone
to the cinema, but were late for the show
and decided to go hack.)
2. .
.
(lt is not known whether they actually got
there or not.)

Exercise 66. Read the sentences and write them out. Explain the difference in the meaning
of the verbs in the left and right-hand columns.

1.
2.

.
xozm

1.
2.

3.

.

.

3.

Exercise 67. Answer the questions, as in the model. Write out the questions and the
answers.

Model:

- ? ()

- .

242

1.

? ()

? ()

2.

? ()

? ()

4.

5.

3.

? () .

? ()

The Prefixes - and .

Exercise 68. Answer the questions. Note the use of ehe verbs

and

()
l ? ()

1.

? ( )

2.

? ()

3.

? ()

4.

5.

()

()
?

1.

? ( )

3.

? ( )

(5

(10

? ( )

5.

2.
4.

Exercise 69. Ask questions about the italicised words and write them down.

Model:

- .

- ?
d.

1.
3.

2.

4.

5.

. . .

Exercise 70. Use the verb or in the required form.

h
1.
3.

...

...

5.

11

7.

...

2.

...

...

. .

.. .
.. .

...

4.

8.

5 .
243

h Exercise 71. Use the verbs - or - in the


required form.
1

... 3 . , ...
5 . 2. ... 4 . ,
... . 3. ... . ... ,
. 4. 1 ... . ... .
5. ... . , ... .
6. 1 ... . ... .
1.

'

The prefix
performer .

added to

3 .

verb signifies the absence or departure of the

Exercise 72. Read the sentences and write them out. Note the use of the verbs with the
prefixy-.

1. - ? - , , t:i. 2. -
?- .
?

, .

6. -

5.-

4. -

3. -

1.

Exercise 73. Use the verb or in the required form.


- ?
-,

... .

- OJt ... ?
2.

- ?
-

3.

...

....

- ?
-

....

- .

244

?- ,

... ?

4. -

...

-?

5.

...

- ?

...

-,.. Exercise 74. Use the verb or in the required form.


2. ...
4. ...
. 5. ... . . ...
. 7.- , , , ?- , ...
1.

3.

...

...

10

-,.. Exercise 75. Do the exercise as shown in the model.


Model:

. .
.

1.

. .

. .

6 .
.

5.

4.

2.

3.

. .

. . .

7.

. .

-,.. Exercise 76. Use the verbs - , - in the required form.


() -

1.
2.
3.

000

...

...

5 .
8 . ...

00

.
.

...

.
() -

1.
.

3.

2.

...

...

...

...

...

...

245

0.,. Exercise 77. Replace the sentences sentences opposite in meaning.


.

Model:

1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7. . 8.
.

~ Exercise 78. Use the verbs - , - , -


, -

1.

...

r ,

in the required form.


...

2.

...

...

-. ... , . 3. - ?

...

. ,

...

...

...
5.

10

4.

...

... 8
... 8

. .

... 7

~ Exercise 79. Do the exercise as shown in the model.


()

Model:

(, ). ( ?

...

?)

1.

(, ).

...

...

Model:

3.

(, ).
()

...

. 2.
... (, ). 4.
5. ... (, ).
...

(, )

(, ). ( ?

?)

1.

...

...

(, ).

...

(, ).

3.

...

(, ).

0.,. Exercise 80. Use the pronouns in the required form.


Model:

...

().

246

2.

(, ).

4.

2. ... () . 3.
4. ... ()? 5 .... ()
... (). 7. ... () ?

1.

...

. .

...

() .

() .

:r

Exercise 81. Use the verbs , , , in the required form.

h
1.

5.

...

...

- .

...

4.

...

...

7.

...

2.

...

. .

9.

:1

::

3.

...

8.

...

6-,r Exercise 82. Change the aspect of the verbs and, where necessary, the adverbs as well.
Explain how the meaning of the sentences has changed.
Model:

.
.

1.
2.

, .

4.
. 5.

3.

247

Exercise 83. Use the verb in the required form.

1. r , ... . 2. ...
3. ... . 4.
... . 5. ... , . . , ... . 7. ... . 8. ...
. 9. ... .
.

The Prefixes -

(-)

and -

l
1 .

J
]

l
h

Exercise 84. Do the exercise as shown in the model.

Model:

. .

1.

. .

. .
.

4.

248

7.

2.

. d .

. .
.

3.

6.

5.

. .

- Exercise 85. Do the exercise as shown in the model.


Model:

i. .
.

1.

. .

. .

4.

2.

3.

. .

5.

- Exercise 86. Complete the sentences, using the verb in the required form and the
words given on the right.
1. ... .
2. ... .
3. ... .
4. , ... .
5. , ... .
6. ... .

- Exercise 87. Use the verb or in the required form.


1.
?

5.

3.

...

7.

. 2. ...
4. ... .
... . 6. ...

...

...

8 .

Exercise 88. Replace the sentences sentences opposite in meaning.

1.

4.

2.

d .

7.

5.

3.

6.

Exercise 89. Answer the questions.

1.
3.

4.

2.

5.

Exercise 90. Complete the sentences.

1.

.... 2.

.... 3.

249

.... 4.

.... 5.

....

....

Exercise 91. Complete the sentences, using verbs of motion.

Model: ...

j.

1....

2 ....

, .

. ....
.

8 ....

4 ....

3 .... ,
5 .. ..

7 .... ,

The Prefixes -

(-)

and -

(-)

Exercise 92. Use the verb or in the required form.

Model:

...

1.

3.

250

5.

...

...

...

2.

. .

...

...
4. ...

~ Exercise 93. Replace the sentences sentences opposite in meaning.

I. 1.

4.

2.

i.

5.

3.

. .

II. 1.

8 . 3.

2.

Exercise 94. Complete the sentences.


1.

.... 4.

.... 2.

.... 5.

.... 3.

....

....

Exercise 95. Supply beginnings to the sentences.

1.... . 2 ....
4 .... . 5....

3....

r .

, . .... -

The Prefix r .

'

The prefix - added lo verb lends in the meaning "movement up to


certain borderline, up to certain point" .

Exercise 96. Use the required forms of the words given in brackets.

Model:

...

() .

1.
3.

...

...

() .

() .

2.
4.

...
...

() .
( ) .

251

5.

7.

...

() . .

...

...

()

( ) .

The Prefixes -,

-, -

Exercise 97. Read the sentences and write them out. Remember the meaning of the prefix
in the verbs. Note the prepositions used.

1.

1.

3.

2.

i.

4.

, .

11. 1.

r .

2.

III. 1.
15

30

2.

Exercise 98. Read the sentences and write them out. Note that verbs with the prefix nepemay followed the preposition .

1.

2.

. 3. . 4.
, , .

Exercise 99. Read the sentences and write them out. Remember the meanings of the verbs
with the prefix -.

1.

, .

?- .
.

4.

3.

2.

, .

Revisio

Exercises

h Exercise 100. Put the words given in brackets in the required case. Use prepositions
wherever necessary.
1.

()

...

...

(), .

( ).

) , .

252

4.

3.

2.

...

...

...

(), ,

. 5. ... ()
. .

...

() .

7.

...

Exercise 101. Replace the sentences sentences opposite in mearting.

1. . 2. . 3.
j. 4. . 5. 7 .
6. . 7. . 8.
. 9. .
Exercise 102. Replace the sentences sentences opposite in meaning.

1. . 2. .
4. . 5.
. 6. . 7. . 8.
3 .
3.

Exercise 103. Read the text and write it out. Remember the use of the verbs of motion.
Draw the route of the trip and with its help retell the text.
. ,
. ,

. ,
, . ,
. . .

1. , .
. . .
. . ,
. . , I
: ! . , ,

Exercise 104. Use the required forms of the verb with the correct prefixes.

... ... . ...


... . , ... ... . . ... ... . ...
...

, .

253

.
.

...

...

Exercise 105. Write out the text, using the verb with the correct prefixes.

...

,
.

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

. ,

...

...

11

...

...

...

...

...

, .

...

30 .

...

...

Exercise 106. Use the verb or with the correct prefixes.

I
.

...

5 , ,
... . ...
. . .. . . 20
... . ... ... . ... ,
, ... . ...
... . ... , , . , ... . ... , ...
...

Exercise 107. Use the required forms of appropriate verbs of motion.


...

...

...

. ,

...

.
1.

...

...

...

...

1.

...

...

... . ... , ... ,


... , .

Exercise 108. Use the required forms of appropriate verbs of motion.


254

...

...

. 1

...

...


.
,

...

...

... 20 .

...

...

...

'.

...

. .

... .

Q-,r Exercise 109. Use the required forms of appropriate verbs of motion.
. .
.

...

8 . ...
... ~6 ... . ...
. ... .
... . I ... .
...

G-!r Exercise 110. Use the required forms of appropriate verbs of motion.
.

...

...

...

;J

... ,

... , , ... . ,
.... , i ... 5 , ... .
, ... . ... ... . ...
... . ... , 6 , .
....

G-!r Exercise 111. Write out the text, using the required forms of appropriate verbs of
motion.

...

...

....
... . ... .
, ... . ... ... . ,
, . , ... . 5
... . 7 ... .
...

...

G-!r Exercise 112. Use the required forms of appropriate verbs of motion.
, 1.
.

...

...

255

...

...

...

....

...

. ,

....

...

...

...

...

, . ,

...

. ,

...

... ,

....

...

...

Exercise 113. Write out the text, using the required forms of appropriate verbs of motion.

...

...

.
.

...

...

...

...

8 .
... .

Verbs With The Particle

'

Verbs with Passive Meaning


Passive construction

1.

2.

i.

256

...

The verbs with the particle - (reflexive verbs) are invarialy intransitive,
i.e. they cannot followed direct object ( noun or pronoun in the accusative
without preposition). Verbs with the particle - have various meanings.

3.

2.

...

Active construction

1.

, .

.. .

3.

i.

'

Remember that in passive constructions 1) the real performer of the action is


expressed noun in the instrumental, 2) the Imperfective verbs are used .

Exercise 1. Read the sentences and write them out. Compare the sentences in the left and
right-hand columns.

1.
2.

1.
2.

3.

.
.

3.

4.

4.

5.

5.

&-,r Exercise 2. Replace the passive constructions active ones.

Model:

1.

4.

3.

2.

5.

. . r
.

7.

&-,r Exercise 3. Replace the passive constructions active ones.

1.
2.

r.
.

5.

4.

3.

. .

7.

.
17-2200

257

Exercise 4. Use one of the verbs given in brackets.

- ) , ,
2. (- ) . 3.
(- ) . 4.
( - ) . 5.

1.

(- ) 1. .
(
.

8.

(- ) .

(
(

7.

) .

) 1.
(

11.

1.

9.

12.

(- ) .

Exercise 5. Write out the sentences, replacing the active constructions passive ones.

Model:

i .
i .

1.

f .

5.

4.

3.

2.

. .

.
6 .

8.

7.

V erbs with Middle Reflexive Meaning


.
.

'

258

In this type of sentence, as distinct from the passive constructions, the


performer of the action is not expressed.

Exercise 6. Read the sentences and write them out. Compare the sentences in the left and
right-hand columns.

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

Exercise 7. Do the exercise as shown in the model.

Model:

.
.

1.

4.

2.

3.
6.

5.

Exercise 8. Replace the italicised verbs verbs without the particle -.

Model:

.
.

1.
2.

5.

4.

3.

7.

6.

Exercise 9. Replace the ilaliciscd verbs verbs without the particle -.

h
1.

3.

5.

2.

4.

9.

8.

7.

6.

r.

259

Exercise 10. Answer the questions. Write down the answers to questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

1.

4.

2.

6.

7.

5.

3.

and 7.

9.
10.
? 11. ? 12.
? 13. ? 14.
8.

Exercise 11. Make up questions, as in the model. Write down the questions in sentences 2
and 5 from Part I and to sentence 2 from Part .

Model:

() .
?
?
?

I. 1. .
2. .
3. .
4.
5. .
Model:

() .
?
?
?

II. 1. .
2.
3. .

Exercise 12. Use the required forms of appropriate verbs.

10 .
2. r 3 , ... 4 .
3. , , ... . 4. r 8 , .. .
9 . 5. r 5 , .. .
7 . 6. , , ....
1.

260

...

Exercise 13. Do the exercise as shown in the model.

Model:

;
, i .

1. ;
2. ;
3. ;
4. ;
5.;

.
.

Exercise 14. Read the sentences and write them out. Compare the sentences in the left and
right-hand columns. Explain the difference in their meaning.

1.
2.
3.

3 .

1.
2.
3.

3 .

MEMORIZE!

(1) ? (.) , , , , etc.

(2) + infinitive (imperf.)


etc.

, , , ,

Exercise 15. Use the required verb.


() -

1.
3.

...

...

...

4.

...

2. ... 1?
7 . 1 ...

... 10 . ,
5. . ... , ...

261

()

.... ... i . 2. ,
3. ... 3 . , ...
. 4. ,
... . . ... .
1.

...

...

() -

1. ... .
... , r . I ... , . 2.
... 10 . , ... . 3.

00

, .

h
1.

Exercise 16. Use the required verb.

...

... ,

2.

. .. .

. ..

3. ... . ... ,

r- I

4. ... . ... -

5.

7.

...

h
1.
2.

. ....

...

000

...

... .

Exercise 17. Use the required verb.

000

... ,

...

3.

...

. r

...

...

4.

,
,
, ... '.?

262

...

5.

...

. ,

....

...
... .
7. ... . ...
. ... , -

6.

...

:1- :

()- Exercise 18. Use the required verb.

1.

...

2.

...

...

...

4.

...

-
-

...

...

...

3.

....

:1.

...

...

5.

...

, .

...

... .
6. ... .
... .
7. , ... . , ....

Exercise 19. Use the required verb.

1.

) .

) .

, .
.

4.

3.

2.

t (

6. ,
7. (- )
. 8. ( - ) .
9. , ( - ) .
10. ( - ) , ( - )
5.

(- ) .

(- ).

263

Exercise 20. Complete the sentences.

.... .... 2.
.... 3. .... .... 4.
.... .... 5. .... ....
6. .... ... .
1.

....

10

Exercise 21. Answer the questions in the negative.

Model:

- , i ?

1.

, , .

, ?

3.

?
?

6.

2.

, ?

5.

4.

r, ?

Exercise 22. Make up answers to the questions, using the phrases given below, and write
themdown.

Model:

- ?
- .

1.
3.

Phrases to

used:

6.

2.

4.

5.

r ; ;
; ; ;

r; 6 .

Exercise 23. Complete the sentences.

Model:

....

1.

.... 3.

.... 5.

.... 4.

264

.... 2.

....

.... 6.

Exercise 24. Read the questions and write them out. Memorise them.

1.

Mocmi?

7.

5.

3.

2.

6.

4.

() ?

() ?

8.

Verbs with the ig of Reciprocal Actio


- ?

-, .

'

Memorise these verbs with reciprocal-reflexive meaning:

-
-

? (instrumental)

-
-
-

Exercise 25. Make up questions to which the following sentences are the answers.

Model:

.
?

1.
3.

f.

2.

5.

4.

. . .

7.

8.

265

Exercise 26. Answer the questions.

1.

2.

3.

4.

h
1.

Exercise 27. Use the required verb.


...

...

. ,
.

2.

...

3.

...

...

...

...

...

...

.
?

...

...

... .

4.

5.

. ,

...

...

...

. ,

...

Exercise 28. Use the required verb.

1. -

...

...

....

... .
... .
, .. .
. ... ?

266

. -

?- ,

2.

...

3.

'"""

...

... ?

. ,

- ... ,
4.

...

. -

...

...

, .

...

...

...

...

( )

( )

Verbs with Proper Reflexive Meaning


.
.

()-,r Exercise 29. Use the required verb.

... . ... . ... .


... . ... .
2. ... . ...
. ... .
3. ... . ...
1.

r.

4. ... . ... .
5. ... . ... .
, ... .

Exercise 30. Complele the sentences in writing, using the verbs of the required aspect.

1.

, , , , ,
. ,

2.

....

, , ,
. n
,

Verbs to

....

used:

r,

267

'

Memorise these verbs which are never used without the particle

-:

genitive

?
?

instruental

dative

?
?

accusative

?
?

instruental

?
?

instruental

?
?

prepositional

Exercise 31. Read the sentences and write them out. Remember the meanings and uses of
the italicised verbs.

1.

r.

.
.)

4.

3.

2.

. ( ,

5.

i . . r.

Revision Exercises
Exercise 32. Complete the sentences.

.... .... 2.
.... .... 3. .... .... 4. .... .... 5. ... ? ... ? . .... ... .
7. .... .... 8. ... .
.... 9. .... .... 10.
.... ....
1.

268

h- Exercise 33. Use the appropriate verbs chosen from those given below.
... . 2. ...
3. ... 6 . 4. ...
9 . 5. ... 2 . 6. ... ,
. 7. , , ... . 8. ... ,
. 9. ... . 10. ... ,
. 11. ... . 12. ...
1.

Verbs to

used:

, , , ,
, , , ,

,,,.

Exercise 34. Use the required question words.


?

1....

?
?

6 ....

4 ....

2 ....

6 ?

I ?

9 ....

7 ....

5.

000

3 ....

8....

Exercise 35. Complete the sentences.

.... 2. .... 3. I
.... 5. .... . ,
.... 7. ... ? 8. ... ?
9. ... ? 10. - 6 6 ... ?
1.

.... 4.

Exercise 36. Use the required forms of the words given in brackets.

1.

...

) .

...

( ).

3.

( ).

(). .

...

2.

().

7.

5.

...

( ).

4.

...

...

...

( ).

8. ... (). 9. ... ( ).


10. ... (). 11. ... (6 ).

Exercise 37. . Read the text, using the appropriate verbs.



(

) 10- . I

269

. (

), (

), (

) . , ( -) ,
.

) .

(- ) . (

. (

. (
, (

),

) .

) .

. (

. ( -) ,
. (- ) . ,
(- ) .

. Tell how you spend your working day. Use the verbs from the preceding text. Write
down your story.

Verb Aspects
Principal Meanings of Perfective and Imperfective V erbs
The perfective aspect denotes

The imperfective aspect denotes


1.

prolonged action, an action


viewed as process:

completed action which took place on


single occasion, often having result:

2.

1.

repeated action:
.

3. The fact that the action has taken


place:
- ?

Exercise 1. Read the sentences and write them out. Note that the imperfective verbs in
them denote the fact that the action has taken place.

The Past Tense


1-

?- ,

, , d , d .

270

?-

2-

, d , , .

The Present Tense

1. -

, ,

2. - ? - :
i , , .

The Future Tense

1. -

, , .

2. -

i ,

, .

Exercise 2. Read the text and write it out. Note that the imperfective verbs merely denote
the fact that the action has taken place, whereas the perfective verbs, while naming the action,
also show its completion.
d . d
. d . d,
. d : ?
. ,
.

h Exercise 3. Read the sentences and write them out. Note that the imperfective verbs
denote prolonged actions, whereas the perfective verbs denote completed actions. Also note the
adverbs of time which stress the prolonged character of the action. Write out the aspect pairs of
verbs (in the infinitive).
1. d . d .
2. d . d ,

3.
4.

d , .
.

5.

. ,

271

~ Exercise 4. Read the sentences and write them out. Explain the difference between the
meanings of imperfective and perfective verbs. Write out the aspect pairs of verbs (in the
infinitive).

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

d .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

d .
d .
.

. ?

d .

d .
.
.

. ?

h Exercise 5. Read the sentences and write them out. Explain the difference between the
meanings of imperfective and perfective verbs. Write out the aspect pairs of verbs (in the
infinitive).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

d .

1. d .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. d .

d .
.
.

. d .

. .

7.

7.

Exercise 6. Read the sentences and write them out. Explain the meanings of the
imperfective and perfective verbs.
. . d .
d . d ,
. .
, .

, .

Exercise 7. Answer the questions.

1.

, ?

3.

5.

2.

, ? .

, ?
?

272

4.

8.

7.

Exercise 8. Do the exercise as shown in the model, using the words ,

, ,

, .

Model:

.
.

1.

d .

4.

2.

5.

3.

d . .

Exercise 9. Answer the questions.

Model:

d .

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
. ?
?

7.
8.
9.

?
?

0.,. Exercise 10. Use ehe verb or .


- ?
-

...

...

...

...

... .

... .

- ,

...

... ?
... .

...

0.,. Exercise 11. Use the verb or .

?
,

182200

...

273

...

... ?

...

- ... .
-

...

...

()-> Exercise 12. Use the verb of the required aspect.

1.
2.
3.
4.

...

... .

...

...

...

5.

h
1.

... I .

Exercise 13. Use the verb of the required aspect.


- ?

...

- i

...

- ?
-,

... .
- ... ?
- , ... ,

2.

- ?

3.

...

. -

, .

- ?
-
-

...

...

...

- ?
-,

...

...

-,

274

-,

4.

...

...

...

Exercise 14. Read the sentences and write them out Remember that the imperfective verbs
are used here to denote simultaneous actions, and the perfective verbs arc used to denote
consecutive actions.

1.

. ,

2.

, .

, .

3.

, .

, .

4.

, . ,

5.

d , .

, .

h
1.

Exercise 15. Use the verb of the required aspect.


...

- 1

2.

...

, .

... , .
... , .
... ,

3.

...

4.

...

5.

...

, .

... , .
... , -

6.

, -

...

...

7.

...
...

, .

, .

275

Exercise 16. Complete the sentences.

Model:

, .

, .

1.

....
....

1 ,

2.

... .
... .

3.

... .
... .
, ... .
, ... .
, ... .
, ... .
, ....
, ....
, ... .
, ... .
,

4.
5.
6.
7.

Exercise 17. Read the texts and compare them. Note the meanings of the imperfective and
perfective verbs.

. :

. d : .

. I :

t.

d:

Exercise 18. Read the lexis and compare them. Explain the difference between the
meanings of the imperfective and perfective verbs.

d

. :

? d:

, .

276

. i ,

. ,

i .

Exercise 19. Replace the imperfective verbs


of the sentences has changed.

Model:

perfective ones. Explain how the meaning

.
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
I

7 .

. .

h Exercise 20. Write out the sentences, replacing the imperfective verbs perfective
ones. Change the adverial modifiers where necessary. Explain how meaning of the sentences
has changed.
1.

6.

3.

2.

5.

4.

. .

7.

h
1.

Exercise 21. Use the verb of the required aspect.


...

...

, .

2.

3.

...

...

...

...

277

4.

5.

...

- i

...

...

.
.

...

7.

:.

...

...

I.

Exercise 22. Use the verb of the required aspect.

1.

2.

..

...

...

...

3.

...

...

4.

5.

...

000

...

. -

3 .
...

5 .

...

... .

...

7.

h
1.

...

Exercise 23. Use the verb of the required aspect.

...

...

2.

000

...

3.

...

...

4.
5.

...

...

...

...

, .

.
.

278

...

...

o-,r Exercise 24. Use the verb of the required aspect.


1.

- ?
-

...

-
-,

2.

...

....

- ?
-

3.

... .

...

... ?
... .

...

4.

5.

...

...

...

. -

, .

...

...

...

,
,

...

...

...

The Use ofthe lmperfective Aspect after the Verbs


i- , - ,

r .

'

Remember that the verbs - , are followed only imperfective verbs .

, -

Exercise 25. Read the sentences and write them out. Note the aspect of the infinitives.

1.

r .

3.

r.

5.

7.

2.
4.

d . .

3 .
279

Exercise 26. Use the verb of the required aspect.

1.

(- ), : .

(- ) .
) .

5.

4.

2.

(-

3.

(- ) -.

(- )

. .

(- ) .

Exercise 27. Use the verb of the required aspect.

1.

...

...

. (- )

. (- )

. (- )
. (- )

4.

3.

5.

(- ) . ,
- )

7.

...

. (

. (- )

Exercise 28. Complete the sentences, using the verbs

Model:

...

...

2. ...
... -

( )

and

... , .

, .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

( )

... ,

( )

... ,

()

... , .
() ... , , .
( ) ... , .
. ( ) ... , .
7. ( ) ... , .

The Use of Imperfective d Perfective Verbs


i the Future Tense
Imperfecti ve

Perfective

The imperfecti ve verbs merely The perfective verbs show that the action
name an action, which will take which will take place in the future will
place in the future.
completed.
280

Exercise 29. Read the sentences and write them out. Note the differerice between the
meanings of the imperfective and perfective verbs.

1.

. ,

2.

. ,

3.

i . ,

4.

., . .

5.

. .

6.

. , .

Exercise 30. Read the sentences and write them out. Explain the difference between the
meanings of the imperfective and perfective verbs.

1.

- ?
- .
- , ?

2.

- ?

, .

. , .

Exercise 31. Do the exercise us shown in the model.

Model:

. .
, .

1. . .
2. . .
3. . .
4. . .
5. . .
6. .

Exercise 32. Replace the imperfective verbs perfective ones. How has the meaning of

the verbs changed.

Model:

,
.
,
.

281

1.

, ,

2.

4.

3.

, , ,

5.

Exercise 33. Do the exercise as shown in the model.

Model: .
- , ?

1.

5.

2.

3.

. . .

7.

4.

Exercise 34. Make up questions and answer them, using the words given in brackets.

Model:

. ( )
- , ?
- , .

1.
3.

. ( )

. ()

4.

2.

. ()

. (i )

. ( ) . . ()

h
1.

Exercise 35. Use the verb of the required aspect in the future tense.

...

...

,
.

2.

...

...

...

, .

...

, .

3.

... .

4.

...

5.

... ,
... .

282

5.

Exercise 36. Replace the past tense the future. Write out the sentences.

Model:

.
.

1. . 2.
3.
. 4.
. 5. . .
. 7. ,

, , .

The U se of the Aspect Pairs of Some Verbs


- , -
Exercise 37. Complete the sentences, using the required forms ofthe verb .

Model:

d ,
.

1.

.... 2.

3.

... ?
... .

...

5.

.... 4.

... .

. .

Exercise 38. Use the verb or in the future or present tense.

h
1.

3 . - .. .

...

'

'

'

.?

2.

.. .

..

...

.
4. - ... ?.

'
.

'

'

...
... ,
. 7. , ... . 8.
, ... . 9. ... ,
? 10. ... ?

5.

...

. . r

283

Exercise 39. Use the verb of the required aspect.

1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

...

, .

...

...

...

7.

...

...
... .

-
-

. ,

...

, , .

Exercise 40. Use the verbs - in the required form.

Model:

... ,

...

r , .

1. -

...

... ? -

2. ...

7 .
... ? - ... .
4. ... .

...

3.- ... ?-
.
5. ... , . . , ... . 7. ... , ... .
8. , . ... . 9. ... ,
.

Exercise 41. Use the required forms of the verbs - ,


and - .

Model:

...

. r,

...

.
r . r,

1. r ... . ... . 2.-


... ?- ... . 3. r .. .
. ... ? 4. r .. .
. ... r . 5. r ... ,

284

...

. .

...

...

: , .

h
1.

, u

Exercise 42. Use the verbs of the required aspect.


...

2.
3.
4.
5.

...

11

,
:1

...

...

... , .
... .
. ... .
7. , ... .
8. ... .

-
-

The Use ofthe Verbs u- u,


-, - i
Exercise 43. Read the sentences and compare them.

1.

1.

d
.

2.

- ,

2. -

d,

25-

3. - ,

3.

- ,
,

, .

4.

4.

5.

5.

'

The perfective verbs ,


new state .

and denote transition to

285

Exercise 44. Read the sentences and write them out. Note the meanings and uses of the
verbs , , .
.

1.

, .

3.

2.

, .

5.

4.

, , . . d d,
.

Exercise 45. Read the sentences and write them out. Note the meanings and uses of the
imperfective and perfective verbs.
-

1.

- ?

1.

2.

-, .

- ?

- .

2. -

3.

-.

1. -

1.

-.

2.

- ,

2.

Exercise 46. Use the verbs of the required aspect.

... . ... ,
2. ... i- ?
... , , . 3. ...
. , ... .
'
? - , ... . ' ... '
'
~ ,
4 . - ... .
'
5 . - ... , ' .
?
'
'
.
- , .. . .
. ',

, ... .
7.- ... , ?- , .... 8.-
... ?- ... . 9.
. ... ,
. 10.- ... , ?-
... , .... - ... , .
1.

286

Perfective Verbs with the Prefixes - and () n .

'

Perfective verbs with the prefix

denote actions of short duration:

, , , , , ,

etc.

Exercise 47. Replace the imperfective verbs


how the meaning of the verbs has changed.

Model:

perfective verbs with the prefix

-.

Note

d , .
d , .

1. , . 2. , ,
. 3. d, .
4. d , . 5.

, .

The verbs of motion , ,


denote the beginning of movement.

'

, ,

ek:. with the prefix

~ Exercise 48. Complete the sentences, using the required forms of the , ,
, , , .

Model:

....

d.

... . 2. .... 3. r
4. , ... .
5. .... . ... .
7. r ... .

1.

...

287

r .

'

Memorise these verbs in which the prefix


action:

denotes the beginning of the

Exercise 49. Complete the sentences, using verbs with the prefix -.

1.

. . . . 2.

3.

....

.... 5.

.... 4.

.... 7.

....

Revision Exercises

Exercise 50. Use the verbs ofthe required aspect.

1.

2.

...

...

...

3.

...

4.
5.

...

...

... .
...

7.

...

.
.

288

... .

...

8.

...
... .
. . . .

9.

... .
10. 1 ... ,
, ...

G- Exercise 51. Use the verbs of the required aspect.


1.

...

1.

, . (

).

2.

... ,
.. .

, .
,

...

...

. (- ).

.-

...

3.

?-

. ( -).
,

4.

...

... ,
... .
... . (- ). 6. ... ,
. . . . . ( ). 7. ... . (- ). 8. ...
, . ...
. (

).

5.

...

. (- )

G- Exercise 52. Complete the sentences, using the verbs given in brackets.

Model:

...

(- )

, .

.... ( - ) 2.
.... ( - ). 3. ,
.... ( - ). 4. , .... ( - ). 5. ,
.... (- ). 6. , .... (- ). 7. ,
.... ( - ). 8. , .... ( 1.

)
19-2200

289

h Exercise 53. Replace the past tense verbs future tense ones, changing the adverbs of
time where necessary.
Model:

.
.

1. . 2.
3.
. 4. _
. 5. . .
. 7. . 8.
.

, .

Exercise 54. Complete the sentences, using the words given in brackets.

Model:

... ().

, .

1. , ... (). 2.
, ... (). 3. , ...
( ). 4. , ... (). 5.
, ... (). . 1 1, ... (
). 7. ,
... (). 8. 1 , ... (). 9.
, ... (:1).
Exercise 55. Replace the past tense verbs future tense ones.

1. , 1 . 2.
. 3. . 4.
, . 5.
. . , : . 7. 7
, . 8. :
, . 9. ,
. 10. .
Exercise 56. Replace the past tense verbs future tense ones.

h
1.

, ,

. , , .

2.

. , .

290

3.

1. .
, .

4.

, . .
.
.

5.

. 1 , .

. .

.
.

Exercise 57. Use the verbs ofthe required aspect.

1.

...

. 1
),
) .

...

(- )

...

...

(- )

...

(- ) ,

(- 1)

...

3 .
... (-
... ( -

...

(- )

) .

...

(- ) , .

...

(- ),

...

(- ) .

11

...

...

291

COMPLEX SENTENCES
Complex Sentences Containing the Conjunctions
and Conjunctive Words , , , ,
, , , , :, i:,

,
,

?
?
?

Exercise 1. Answer the questions. Note the structure of the sentences and the use of the
conjunctive words.

Model:

- , ?
- .

. 1. , ? 2. ,
3. , d ? 4. ,
? 5. , - ?
6. , ? 7. ,
? 8. , ?

Exercise 2. Use the appropriate conjunctive words , , , , ,

, , .

Model:

...

, .

2. ,
. 3.
... ? 4. , ... . 5. ,
... . 6. , ... ? 7. , ...
? 8. , ... ?
1.

, ... .

I,

Exercise 3. Use the appropriate conjunctive words.

1. , ... .
2. , ... .
3. , ... .

292

4.
5.

...

...

. , I,
,

7.
8.
9.

...

...

... .
...

Complex Sentences Containing the Conjunctions


. and noimo.y
, .

, .

Exercise 4.

Replace the simple sentences

complex ones, using the conjunction

Model:

. .

, .
. .

1.

3.

2.

. .

4.

. .,5. .
. . . .
.

8.

7.

-. .

. Replace the simple sentences complex ones, using the conjunction


attention to the sequence of the clauses in the complex sentences.

Model:

. .

, .

()-,r Exercise 5. Replace the conjunction the conjunction , changing


the sequence of the ciauses.

1.

, -.

, .
.

4.

3.

2.

293

5.

, . .

, .

Exercise 6. Answer the questions. Write down the answers.


- ?

Model:

- , .

1.

2.

4.

3.

5. ? . ? 7.
?

Exercise 7. Answer the questions.

1.

4.

2.

? . ?
?

8.

7.

5.

3.

Exercise 8. Complete the sentences in writing.

1.

.... 3.

... . 2.

-,

.... 5.

.... 4.

.... 7.
, .... 8. , ....
....

. -,

Complex Sentences Containing the Conjunctions


,
, .
, .

Exercise 9. Replace the simple sentences

Model:

complex ones, using the conjunction .

. .
, .

294

1 ,

. .

1.

. .
.

4.

3.

2.

r.

. .

5.

. . .
.

7.

. .

Exercise 10. Answer the questions.

1.

, ?

, ?
?
?

5.

4.

3.

2.

? . , ?

Exercise 11. Complete the sentences in writing.

1.

,
,

....

.... 4.

.... 2.

. ,

.... 7.

.... 5.

.... 3.

....

Exercise 12. Complete the sentences.

.... 3.
.... 5. ,
.... . , .... 7. , ....
1.

.... 4.

.... 2.

Exercise 13. Complete the sentences in writing.

Model: , .

1.

-,

.... 3.

.... 2.

.... 7.

.... 5.

....

.... 4.

....

Exercise 14. Answer the questions.

1.

, d!?

3.

2.

, ?

, ?

5.

4.

? . ,

295

7.

, ?

8.

Exercise 15. Replace the simple sentences complex ones, using the conjunctions

, , , .

1. . . 2.
3. . .

. .

4.

. .

. .

-.

7.

6.

5.

, .

'

Remember that clauses introduced the conjunction express


unreal conditions. In such clauses the verb takes the form of the past tense, as it
does in the main clause.

Exercise 16. Read the sentences and write them out.

1.

, .

, .

4.

3.

2.

, .

5.

6.

, , .

, .

Exercise 17. Complete the sentences.

1. , ...
2. , ...
3. , ...
4. , ...
5. , ...
. , ,

296

...

7.

Complex Sentences Containing


the Conjunction
-.

,
-.

'

Remember that the verb of subordinate clause introduced the


conjunction invarialy takes the form of the past tense if the actions of
the verbs of the main and the subordinate clause relate to different agents, . g.:
, .

Exercise 18. Read the sentences and write them out.

The actions relate to one and the same agent.


1. .

The actions relate to different agents.


1. ,
.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

,
.

,
.

5.

5.

6.

6.

Exercise 19. Answer the questions.

1.
2.
3.

? , ?

? ,

4.

? ,

5.

? ,

297

Exercise 20. Use the verbs in the required form.

1. , ... .
2. , ... .
3. , ... .
4. , ... .
5. , ... ?
. , ... ?
7. , ... ?
8. , ... ?
9. , ... ?

Exercise 21. Complete the sentences.

1.
4.

.... 2. , .... 3. , ... .


.... 5. , .... 6. , ... .

Exercise 22. Complete the sentences.

1.

: ,

.... 4.

;l, ,

.... 2.

.... 3.
.... 5. , ....

.... 6.

Complex Sentences Containing


the Conjunction
r ,
.

Exercise 23. Compare the sentences in the left and right-hand columns. Note the use of the
conjunction .

1.

r , .

298

1.

r ,
.

2.

2.

:,

-.

3.

, 1

4.

3.

4.

1 .

Exercise 24. Replace the conjunction

Model:

, , .

, , .
i,

1.

2.

6t , .

, .
.

5.

4.

3.

. . 1 ,
.

7.

, .

Exercise 25. Write out the sentences, replacing the simple sentences
the conjunction .

Model:

complex ones. Use

. .

, .

1.

. .

. .
.

5.

4.

3.

2.

. . .

. .

Exercise 26. Complete the

1.

senteces.

1,

.... 3.


, ....

7.

10 , .... 5.

.... 9.

.... 4.
.... .
.... 8.

,
,

.... 2.

....
299

Complex Sentences Containing


the Correlative Words ,
, .
, .

, .

Exercise 27. Use the pronoun in the required form.

1. ... , ? 2. ... , ?
3. ... , . 4. ... ,
1. 5. ... , . . ... ,
. 7. ... , . 8. ... ,
. 9. ... , .
Exercise 28. Use the pronoun or in the required form.

I. 1.

... ,

2.

... ,

3.

... ,

... ,

1.

... ,

3.

4.

2.

... ,

... ,

III. 1. ... , . 2. ... ,


. 3. ... , . 4. ... , .
IV. 1.

3.

... ,

... ,

2.

4.

... ,

... ,

Exercise 29. Write out the sentences, using the pronouns and in the required form.

... , . 2. ... , . 3.
... , . 4. ... , . 5. ... , . . ... , . 7.
... , .

1.

300

Complex Sentences Containing


the Conjunctive Word
n .

I.

.
,
,

1.

Note that the case of the conjunctive word depends not on the
word it agrees with in gender and number, but on what part of the subordinate
clause it is. In the sentence ,
1 the word is the subject and takes the nominative.

'

h Exercise 30. Replace the simple sentences complex ones, using in the
required form.
Model:

.
,
?

1.

? .

.
.

4.

3.

2.

? .

. .

6.

5.

. .
.

.
( ).

, .

![

Note that in the complex sentence the pronoun

:S is dropped.
301

E)-,r Exercise 31. Replace the simple sentences complex ones, using in the
required form.

Model:

. .
, .

1.
2.

. .

? .

. .

4.

3.

? .

5.

? .

7.

6.

()-,r Exercise 32. Use in the required form.

1.

,
.

...

it!:.

3.

5.

,
.

...

8. I

7.

...

2.

4.

...

...

...

r ,

...

...

6.

.
.
,
.

G--r- Exercise 33. Replace the simple sentences complex ones, using . Remember
that takes the same case as the word it replaces.
Model:

. i.
, .

1.

. .

. .

.
.

5.

4.

3.

. .

. .
.

302

2.

7.

6.

0,. Exercise 4. Replace the word in the required form.


Model:

- , ?

1.

, ?

, ?

3.
. 5.

2.

, .

, .

, .

7.

4.

6.

h Exercise 35. Replace the simple sentences complex ones, using in the
required form.
1.

() .
()
.

2.

()
.

() .

3.

4.

5.

() .
() .
() .
() .
() .
() .

6.

() .

() .

h Exercise 36. Write out the sentences, using in the required form. attention
to prepositions.
Model:

...

, .

1.

.
,

...

3.

...

...

5.

...

2.

...

...
4.
6.

303

Exercise 37. Complete the sentences in writing.

1.

i ,

.... 2. , .... 3.
.... 4. , .... 5.
.... . , .... 7.

,
,
,

00

Exercise 38. Complete the sentences.

1.

.... 2.

.... 4.

. ,

...

....

.... 3.

.... 5.
.... 7. ,

? .
, ?

h Exercise 39. Replace the simple sentences complex ones, using in the
req uired form.
Model:

. 6 .

, .

1.

.
.

4.

3.

2.

. .

5.

. . ? .

7.

? .

8.

~ Exercise 40. Replace the simple sentences complex ones, using in the
required form.
Model:

. .
, .

. .
, .

1.

d? .

. .

304

3.

2.

. .

4.

? .

5.

I .

. . . ?

0,. Exercise 41. Use in the required form.

1.

... .
... .
... .
2. , ... .
... .
... .
3. , ... .
... .
... .
4. , ... .
... .
... .
Exercise 42. Complete the sentences in writing.

1.

... .
... .
... .
2. , ... .
... .
... .
... .
3. , ... .
... .
... .
4. , ... .
... .
... .

? .
, ?

20-2200

305

G-x- Exercise 43. Replace the simple sentences complex ones, using in the
required form.
? .

1.

? f.
.

4.

3.

2.

. .

? .

6.

5.

? .
,
?

G-x- Exercise 44. Replace the simple sentences complex ones, using in the
required form.
. 6

1.

.
.

3.

2.

. 6

? .

. 6 .
? .
.

7.

6.

5.

4.

?
.

,
?

G-x- Exercise 45. Replace the simple sentences complex ones, using in the
required form.
1.

? .

2.

? . 3. ?
.
.

5.

4.

. .

. .

306

6.

h Exercise 46. Comine the sentences in the left and right-hand columns into complex
sentences, using in the required form.
1.

() .
() .
() -.

(d)
2.

() .
()
.

() .
(d)
.

3.

() .

() -

.
()
.

4.

() .
() .
() .

(d) .

Exercise 47. Complete the sentences.

1.

... .
... .
... .
... .
... .
2. , ....
....
....
....
....
3. , ... .
... .
... .
... .
307

Exercise 48. Answer the questions, using . Write down the answers.

Model:

- ?'

l. 1.

?
?

11. 1.

, .

8.

5.

4.

3. ? 4.
6. ? 7.

2.

2.

5.

3.

Exercise 49. How can you explain these groups of words?

Model: - , .
, , , ,

, , , ,
.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH


1. Direct Speech in the Form of Statement
: .
, .

Exercise 50. Replace the direct speech indirect.

h
1.

: .

.
.

4.

3.

: .

: .
.

7.

2.

6.

5.

: .

8.

: .

Exercise 51. Replace the direct speech indirect. Write out sentences 1, 2, 4 and 5.

h
1.

: .

: .
.

308

4.

3.

2.

: .

5.

: . . :
.

7.

: .

: .
: .

10.

8.
9.

2. Direct Speech i the Form of Question


with Question Word
: ?

, .

Oo-!r Exercise 52. Replace the direct speech indirect. Write out sentences 6, 7, 8 and 9.
1.

: ?

: ?

3.

: ?

4.

2.

: ?

5.

? . : ?

7.

: ?

: ?

9.

8.

: ?

3. Direct Speech in the Form of Question


without Question Word
: ?
, .

Note that in indirect speech the word contag the question takes the
initial position. The particle is placed immediately after that word .

'

-". Exercise 53. Replace the direct speech indirect. Write out the sentences.
1.

: 6 ?

3.

2.

: r?

309

4.

: ?

?
?

8.

7.

6.

5.

: ,

: ?

: ?
, .

Exercise 54. Replace the direct speech indirect. Write out the sentences.

1. : ? 2.
: ? 3. :
? 4. : r
? 5. : ? 6.
: ?

4. Direct Speech i the Form of Ijuction


with the Predicate in the Imperative Mood
: .
, .

'

Note that after the conjunction


the form of the past tense .

the verb in the indirect speech takes

Exercise 55. Replace the direct speech indirect. Write out the sentences.

1.

: .

2.

: , , . 3.
1

: .

4.

When converting direct speech into indirect, the words , d :d are


dropped.
1

310

5.

. . : ,

: , , .

Exercise 56. Replace the direct speech indirect.

h
1.
2.

7.

r .

: .

4.

3.

: .

5.

, . . :
>>.

7.

: .

8.

: .

() Exercise 57. Use the conjunction or .


1.

.
,

...

2.

. ,

. ,
,

...

...

...

...

...

4.

. ,

. . ,

...

...

...

. ,

3.

...

...

...

5.

...

Revision Exercises
Exercise 58. Replace the direct speech indirect.

h
1.

: << ?

: ?

4.

6.

: ?

10.

5.

: ?

: ?

2.

: .

7.

3.

9.

8.

: ,

311

Exercise 59. Replace the direct speech indirect. Write out the sentences.

h
1.

: ? : .

: ? : , .

3.

2.

: ? : , . :
? : .

4.

: . : ,
, .

5.

: ,

. : , i m .

Exercise 60. Replace the direct speech indirect.

Model:

: ,
, .

1. : , ?
2. : , ?
3. : , ?
4. : , .
5. : , >.
. : , ?

h Exercise 61. Retell the dialogues, replacing the direct speech indirect and using the
verbs , , d, etc.
1.

2.

?
, .
?

, . m ?
, .!

. :
- ?

- .

. ?

-, .

312

2 .

3.

, . ?
.

- ?

.-

.
?
. , ?

.
? . .

Exercise 62. Replace the direct speech


direct speech.

1.

indirect. Write out the verbs introducing the

: ? :

2.

. : ?

3.

4.

d .

. ,

,- .

5.

?-

. d: , .

6.

. -

7. ,- .
8. ?- .
9. ,- :r.
10. ,- .
11. d : .

313

SENTENCES CONTAINING PARTICIPIAL


AND VERBAL ADVERB CONSTRUCTIONS

PARTICIPLE

Active Participles
Exercise 1. Read the sentences and write them out. Compare the sentences in the left and
right-hand columns.

The Present ense

I. 1.

1.

2.

2.

, .

3.

3.

The Past Tense

II. 1.

, -

1.

, .

, ?

2.

2.

3.

, -

6 .

3.

,
w
.

314

h Exercise 2. Make up questions to which the participial constructions are the answers and
write them down.
Model:

, .
?

1.

, , i .

, .

.
.

5.

4.

3.

2.

q,

, ,

r . . ,
.
.

8.

7.

, .

Exercise 3. Make up questions to which the participial constructions are the answers.

Model:

, .
?

1.

, d, .

, .

3.

2.

, .
, d.

4.
5. ,

f. . ,
.

7.

, .

Exercise 4. Use the required forms of the participles given in brackets.

1.

, () , .

, () r.

3.

2.

{t

, () .
, () -.

5.

4.

: , ()

. . , () .

h
1.

Exercise 5. Complete the sentences, using the participial constructions given on the right.
,
,

....

... .

,
,

....
... ?

r -

315

2.

,...

....
, .. . .

....

:1 -

... .

:1

....

1 ,

4.

3.

....

... .

.. . .

... , iii

....

h Exercise 6. Complete the sentences, using the constructions preceding them. Write out
the sentences from Part 1.
1.

1.
2.
3.
4.

11.

....

... .
... .

....

1.
2.
3.
4.

....

... .
... ?

....

I.,

1.
2.
3.
4.

:1

... ?

... .
... ?

....

IV. ,
1. ....
2. ....
3. ....
4. ....
316

The Formation of Active Participles


The Present Tense
Present participles are formed only from imperfective verbs:
Present Tense
Stem

Infinitive

Participle

--, -, -, -

--, -, -, -

--, -, -, -

--, -, -, -

--, -, -, -

--, -, -, -

--, -, -, -

--

-'I--, - -; - -; - -

The Past Tense


Past participles are formed from both imperfective and perfective verbs:
Infinitive

Past Tense Stem

Participle

( )

()-

( )--

--

--

:r

r--

- -

---

()-,r Exercise 7. Give the verbs from which the following participles are formed.

Model:
1.

, , , , , ,

, , , , ,
, ;

2.

, , , , ,

, , , , , ,
, r, , r, , .

317

~ Exercise 8. Replace the participial constructions clauses introdced .


Remember that active participial constructions are replaced c\auses introduced
in the nominative.
Model:

, .

, .

1.

, .

, , .

2.

, .
, , .

3.

, , .
, ?

~ Exercise 9. Replace the participial constructions clauses introduced .


1.
2.

, r.

3. , ,
8 . 4. , -.
5. , . 6.

, .

~ Exercise 10. Replace the participial constructions clauses introduced .


Write out the sentences.
1.

, .

, r.

3.

2.

, .

4.

r, , .
, r .
.

7.

6.

5.

~ Exercise 11. Replace the participial constructions c\auses introduced .


1.

, .

, , .
, .
.

318

5.

4.

3.

2.

, r ,

, -

. . , , .

7.

, , .

()-- Exercise 12. Replace the participial constructions clauses introduced .


1.

3.

, , .

2.

, .

, , .

5.

4.

, . . ,
, , .

7.

h
1.

Exercise 13. Forrn active present participles from the following verbs.
-
, , , , , , , ,

,,,,,

2.

-
, , , ,

3.

-
, ,

4.

, , ,

5.

, ,

MEMORISE!

-
-
-
-

Exercise 14. Form active past participles from the following verbs.

Model:

, , , , , , , , -

319

, , , , , , , , ,
, , 1, , , .

&-,r Exercise 15. Complete the sentences, using participial constructions. Write out the
sentences from Part 1.

Model:

. .

, .

1. 1.

, ....
2. , ... .
3. , ... ?
4. , .. .
5. , ... .

11. 1. , ....
2. , ....
3. , ....
4. , ....

III.1.
2.

....

3.
4.
5.

....

....

,
,

... .
... .

&-,r Exercise 16. Replace the clauses introduced participial constructions.

Model:

, d , .
, , .

1.

, .

2.

I, .

3.

, .

4.

I, .
1 .

6.

320

, ,

, , ,

.
.

5.

7.

, ,

0,. Exercise
constructions.

1.

17.

Replace the clauses introduced

, , .

, .
.

.
Q.

5.

4.

3.

participial
2.

, ,

, ,

6.

0,. Exerci'se
constructions.

1.

18. Replace

the

clauses introduced

, .

, .
.
.

5.

4.

7.

2.

, .

3.

participial

6.

, ,

Passive Participles
Exercise 19. Read the sentences and write them out. Compare the sentences in the left and
right-hand columns.

1.

1.

i.

2.

, ,

2.

, -

3.

4.

i .

3.

6 .

4.

5.

,
, .

21-2200

5.

, .

321

The Formation of Passive Participles


Passive participles are formed only from transitive verbs.

The Past Tense


Past Tense
Stem

Infinitive

Participle

--, -, -, -

--, -, -, -

--, -, -, -

--, -, -, -

r-

r--, -, -, -

Exercise 20. Give the verbs from which the following participles are formed.

1. -

2.

3.

r-

r-

h Exercise 21. Complete the sentences, using passive participial constructions. Write out
the sentences from Part 111.
I. 1.

.... 3.

... . 2.

II. 1.

.... 3.

.... 5.

.... 2.

,
,

.... 4.

....

r ,

322

.... 4.

... ?

'I ,

III.l.
3.

... ,
,
?
, . . . .

.. . ? 2.

4.

Exercise 22. Complete the sentences, using the constructions given on the right.

I. 1.

.... 3.

.... 2.

.... 4.

II. 1. .... 2.

.... 3.

....

III.1.

... . 2.

,
.

....

Exercise 23. Compare the sentences in the left and right-hand columns. Note that the
passive constructions correspond to clauses introduced in the accusative

I. 1.

,
2.

3.

, !

4.

, w.t .
.

1. ,

1.

i .
6

2.

6 .

3.

3.

, d !

4.

, .

1.

.
6

2.

; !

4.

2.

3.

4.

6 .

Exercise 24. Replace the participial constructions clauses introduced .

Model:

1, z .
I, .

1.
2.

, I , .

3.

323

, i .
.

5.

4.

. . ,
.

7.

, .

h Exercise 25. Write out the sentences, replacing the participial constructions clauses
introduced .
1.

, , .

, .

5.

4.

3.

2.

, .

, . . ,

, .
.

8.

7.

, ,

Exercise 26. Replace the participial constructions clauses introduced .

h
1.

, .

, .
, .

5.

4.

3.

2.

, ,

. , , .

The Preset s
lnfinitive

Present Tense
Stem

Participle

--, -, -, -

--, -, -, -

--, -, -, -

Qooo,r Exercise 27. Replace the participial constructions clauses introduced .


Model:

, .
, :S
.

324

1. 1 , . 2. ,
3. ,
, . 4.
, . 5. ,
, . 6.
, . 7. ,
, .

, .

h
1.

Exercise 28. Fonn passive past participles from the following verbs.

, ,,,,,

2.

, , , , , , ,
,

3. -
r, r, r, r, , , , , ,

h Exercise 29. Compare the sentences in the left and right-hand columns. Explain the
difference between the meanings of the active and passive participles. Replace the participial
constructions clauses introduced .
Model:

1.

2. , ,

1. , u
.

2.

.
, ,

XIX

, ,

3.

,
, .

3. , ,
-

4. , , -

4. ,

5.

, ,

5.

,
,
.

325

Exercise 30. Use the required participles.

2. ,
3.
, (- ) , . 4.
, (- ) . 5.
1.

, (

) .

) , .

, (- ) , . .

, (- ) .

7. , (
8. , (

-) ?

- ) .

Exercise 31. Use the required forms of the appropriate participles. Replace the sentences
you have obtained sentences containing clauses introduced .

1. , ... , .
, ... .
2. , ... . , ... ,
.

3.

...

, ... .
4. , ... .
, ... .
5. , ... . ,
, 1.
. ,

...

... .

Exercise 32. Use the required forms of the appropriate participles.

1.
2.

, (- ) .

, (

3.

, (- ) .

, (- ) .
, (

5.

4.

) . .

, (- ) .

Exercise 33. Use the required forms of the appropriate participles.

1. , . . . , -~ -
.

326

2.

...

3.

...

4.

, -

5.

...

. ,

7.

...

i.

8.

G-,r Exercise 34. Replace the clauses introduced participial constructions.

Model:

, .
, .

1.

, , .

, .
.

5.

4.

3.

2.

, .

, . . ,

, .

7.

, .

h Exercise 35. Replace the clauses introduced participial constructions.


Write out the sentences.
1.

, , .

, .

3.

2.

, .

, .

4.

5.

, . . 1
, .

7.

, .
, .

9.

8.

, .

327

Short-Form Passive Participles


Exercise 36. Replace the passive constructions active ones.

Model:

.
.

1.

3.

2.

i .

4.

5. 195 . .
7. i.
. 9. .

8.

Exercise 37. Replace the passive constructions active ones.

Model:

?
?

?
?

1.

4.

2.

I? . ?
?

h
1.

8.

3.

5.

7.

Exercise 38. Give the verbs from which the following short-form passive participles are formed.

2.

3.

i-

n-

I-

328

Exercise 39. Write out the sentences, replacing the active constructions passive ones.
Model: .
.

1.

3.

8.

2.
4.
. 6.

5.

7.

r.

r .

r .
r .
r .

&-,r Exercise 40. Replace the following sentences sentences with short-form
participles.

Model: 1u :r.
li :r.

1.

.
.

4.

3.

2.

5.

. .
.

7.

8.

Exercise 41. Do the exercise as shown in the model.

Model:

()- ?

-, .

1. ? 2. ? 3.
?

7.

4.

5.

? . ?

Model:

()- ?

329

/,

2. ? 3.
4. ? 5. ?
6. ? 7. ?
1.

Long-Form and Short-Form Participles


1, ,
.
i.

'

Rernember that long-form participles are used in


and short-form participles as predicates .

sentence as attributes,

Exercise 42. Read the sentences in the left and right-hand columns and write them out.
Compare the sentences and state what parts of the sentence the long-form and short-form
participles are.

1. ,
.

1.

2. ,
.

2.
.

3. , .

3.
.

Exercise 43. Use the required participles.

1.

2.

...

...

. -

...

...

, .

3. ... .
, ... .
330

4.

r,
. r

...

r -

5.

... 190 .
... 190 .

. ,... ?

.. .

7.

, .

...

...

Exercise 44. Use the required participles.

1.

, (

) .

) .

3.

2.

(- ) .

4.
5.

, (- )

. . r ,

1958

(- ) .
) .

8.

7.

(-

, (r

0,. Exercise 45. Use the required participles.


1.

, , (

) . (
(

) .

2.

) 1.

- ) . , ( - )
, . .
( - ),
. , ( - ) ,

3.

(- ) r

. (- ) r.
(- ) -.
, (

4.

, (

) .

) .

( - )

1955

. (

- ) i. , (- )

, .

331

The Verbal Adverb


Imperfective Verbal Adverbs
.
, .
, .
, .

'

Note that imperfective verbal adverbs denote actions simultaneous with that
of the predicate verbs .

The Formation oflmperfective Verbal Adverbs


Infinitive

'

Present Tense
Stem

Verbal Adverb

--

- -

Remember that the imperfective verbal adverbs of verbs of the


etc.) and (, etc.) types are formed
from the infinitive stem: - , - .
(, ,

, .
,
.

'
332

When replacing sentences with verbal adverb constructions sentences


with subordinate clauses, one should remember that the subject which is noun
must precede the subject which is pronoun (the first subject is
, and the second ).

Exercise 1. Change the sentences, replacing the verbal adverbs verbs.

Model:

, .
.

Or:

1.
2.

i , .

i , i .

, .

, .
.

5.

4.

3.

5 , ,

, . .

, i .

7.

Exercise 2. Replace the vetbal adverbs verbs.

h
1.

, .

2.

, , .

, .
.

5.

4.

3.

. . , .

Exercise 3. Replace the verbal adverbs verbs.

h
1.

, :

3.
4.
5.

2.

n,

, .
, . .

, .

Perfective Verbal Adverbs


.
, .
, .
, .
1 .
, 1 .

333

'

Note that perfective verbal adverbs denote actions preceding that of the
predicate verb (first 1 wrote the letter and then went to the post office) .

G-x- Exercise 4. Change the sentences, replacing the verbal adverbs verbs.
Model:

, .
.

Or:

, .

1. , . 2. ,
3. ,
. 4. , . 5.
, . 6. d,
. 7. d, , .
8. , . 9. ,
1 .

The Formation of Perfective Verbal Adverbs


lnfinitive

Verbal Adverb

--

--

Remember that the perfective verbal adverbs of prefixed verbs of the


type (, , , etc.) are formed means of the suffix -:
- , - , etc.

'

G-x- Exercise 5. Wrile out the sentences, replacing the italicised verbs verbal adverbs.
odel: .
, .

1.

1 .

334

2. ,
3.

. 4. i . 5.
. 6. . 7. !
: . 8. ,
.

Exercise 6. Read the sentences and write them out. Note that verbal adverb constructions
can replace subordinate clauses of time, reason and condition.

1.

1.

, .

2.

3.

2 .. ,

3.

4.

,
.

4.

d ,

5.

5.

, .

6.

,
.

6.

d ,

7.

6,

7.

6,

8.

8.

h Exercise 7. Replace the sentences with verbal constructions complex sentences


containing the conjunctions , , , , , .
1.
.

2.

, .

, , .
, .

6.

5.

, -.

10.

, .

, , .

4.

3.

8.

7.

9. , .

, .

335

h Exercise 8. Write out the sentences, replacing the complex sentences sentences with
verbal adverb constructions.
Model: :S , 6.
, 6.

1.

, 6.

, .

, .
, .
.

6.

5.

4.

2.

3.

, .

7.

, .

h Exercise 9. Replace the complex sentences sentences with verbal adverb


constructions.
1.

r r, 6.

, .

3.

, .

, .

5.

7.

4.

r, , .
, .

2.

6.

Exercise 10. Change the sentences, replacing one of the verbs verbal adverb.

h
1.

r .

3.

2.

, .
r r.

, .

6.

5.

4.

Exercise 11. Read the sentences and write them out. Remember that the replacemet of
subordinate clause verbal adverb constructions is possile only if the actions of the main
and subordinate clauses relate to one and the same agent ( person or an object).

1. 1.

2.

336

1.

2. No replacement is

possile.

II. 1.

1.

, .

2.

2. No replacement is

possile.

, .

III.1.

1.

, .

2.

2. No replacement is

possile.

, .

0,. Exercise 12. Replace the subordinate clauses verbal adverb constructions wherever
possile.

1.

i , . i ,

, .

2.

, ,

. ,
.

3.

. , .

4.

, n .

, .

5.

. , i .

0,. Exercise 13. Replace the subordinate clauses verbal adverb constructions wherever
possi!e.

1.

, .
, .
, i .

2.

, .
, .
, .

3.

, .
, .
, .

Exercise 14. Read the sentences and write them out. Compare the sentences in the left and
right-hand columns. Remember that imperfeetive verbal adverbs denote actions simultaneous
with that of the predicate verb and perfective vebal adverbs denote actions preceding that of
the predicate verb.

1.

, ,
.

222200

1.

, .

337

2.

2.

i ,

3.

, .

4.

3.

, ,
.

4.

, .

Exercise 15. Use the verbal adverbs of the reqllired aspect.

1. ...

, .

...

, .

2....

.... , .

3....

, .... , -

4 ....

, .

...

, .

5.... ,

....

6. ...

, .

...

, .

7 ...

, .... -

, .

8. ... ,

....

9 ....

, ,

.... , .

Exercise 16. Complete the sentences in writing.

1.

I ,

.... 5.

.... 2.

.... 8.

10.

r ,

. ,

r ,

.... 9.

witig, addig

verbal adverb

, .

338

.... 7.

.... 4.

....

Exercise 17. Complete the sentences in

Model: ... ,

....

.... 3.

costruclios.

....

2 .... , . 3 .... ,
4 .... , . 5.... ,
. 6.... , . 7 .... , . 8 .... ,
. 9 .... , 1 .
1.... ,

~ Exercise 18. Replace the verbal adverb constructions subordinate clauses. Retell the
text.
, 1 ,

. ,
. , .
, 1
: ? ,
: .

, : , ,
i . , , :
. , : ,
, 1 . 1 ,

. , , .
, .

EXERCISES

Part One. An lntroductory Lexical


and Grammatical Course
Exercise 4. 1.
3.

, . .

, . .

. . , . .

. .

9.

2.

, . .

, . .

4.

5.

, .

, . .

7.

8.

, . .

Exercise 5. 1. ? . 2. ? . 3. ?
4. ? . 5. ? . . ? . 7. ?
. 8. ? . 9. ? . 10. ? .
11. ? . 12. ? . 13. ? . 14. ?
.

8.

Exercise 7. 1. . 2.
9. .

3.

4.

5.

. . .

7.

Exercise 8. 1.

().

Exercise 9. 1.

2.

3.
2.

4.

. . ().

5.

3.

4.

7.

8.

5.

. .

Exercise 13. 1.

, . (, ).

. (, ),

Exercise 15. 1.

2.

etc.

, .

2. , . 3.
5. , .

4.

, .

1.

, . , . , .

Exercise 16.

2.

. . , .

Exercise 17. 1. , -.
2. , -, etc.

(,

).

Exercise 18. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. -.
-. 7. r.

.
.

Exercise 19. 3.

-?

? . r?

340

7.

4.

-?

5.

Exercise 20. l.

, .

2.

, .

5.

, ,

etc.

Exercise 23. 1.... . 2. . 3. . 4.


5. . . . 7.
. 8. - 1.

Exercise 24. l.

? . ?

2.

3.

, , -. - .

Exercise 26. l.

( , -),

Exercise 28.

7.

etc.

. . .

, . .
. . 1 .
: , . -.

Exercise 33. 1.
3.

? ( ?)

4.

?) . ?

Exercise 34. 1.

2.

? (

, .

2.

, ,

etc,

. ( ).

Exercise 38. 1.
4.
7.

7.

5.

. ( ).
, .

Exercise 40. 1.
4.

?) . ?

Exercise 42. 1.
etc.

7.

5.

2.

3.

, .

2.

8.

Exercise 43.

1.

. . .

. .

2.

? -?

? ?

Exercise 44. 1.

2.

3.

Exercise 45. 1. , , . 2.
4. , , . 5. , .

etc.

, .

3.

, ,

Exercise 47. 1. ? ? -?
2. ? ? 3. ? ? ?

? ?

Exercise 48. 1.

, . . , , .

. . , , .

2.

etc.

341

Exercise 49. 1. , . 2. , -. 3. ,
4. , . 5. , . . ,
. 7. , . 8. , -.
.

Exercise 51. () 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5.
4. . 5. . . . 7. . 8. .

3.

2.

. . .

Exercise 52. () 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5.
3. . 4. . 5. . . . 7. .

7.

. ()1. .

. . .

7.

. ()

2.

1.

, , , , , , , ,

Exercise 53. m.:

, , , , , , , , , ,
;

f.:

, , , , , , , , ,

, , , ;

Exercise 56. 1.

n.:

, , , , , , .

2.

? . ? ( ?)

Exercise 57. 1.

7.

3.

, , ,

etc.; 2. ,
4. ,

, ,

etc.; 3.

, ;

, , .

5.

Exercise 59. 1.

Exercise 60. 1.

Exercise 62.

2.

, , ;

2.

().

3.

4.

3.

... ,

5.

4.

etc.

(). .

, , ,

, , , , , , , , ,

Exercise 63.

... ,

, , , ,

, , , , , , , .

Exercise 64. 1.

, .

, . , .

2.
3.

Exercise 65. 1.

Exercise 66. 1.
4.

5.

2.

3.

4.

? . ?

5.

2.

3.

? . -?

7.

r?

Exercise 74.

, ,

Exercise 75.

Exercise 79.

r, r ; ; , ;

etc.

etc.

, ; , ; ;

342

r i; ; ; , ; ,

; ; ; ;
; ; . , , , , ; ,
, , .

Exercise 80. 1.

4.

5.

3.

2.

, , .

Exercise 86. I. 1.
IV. 1. r?

II. 1.

3. -

- ?- () .

. - ? - .
?

-
10.- ?. 12.- ()
.

5.

III. 1.

?- .

Exercise 87. 1.-

() .

8. -

I, , , ,

4.

17.

, .

Exercise 83. 1.

-.
.

. 1. .

13.

2.-

- ?- .

?- () .

7. -

() .

9. -

i .

() i?

11.

- ?-

?- () .

Exercise 88. 1.
etc.

Exercise 89. 1.

2.

r?

3.

4.

2.

3.

4. . 5.

. . .

7.

8.

Exercise 92. 1. ? 2. ? 3. ? 4.
5. ? . ? 7. r? 8. ? 9.

Exercise 93. 1.

. I.

. . .

3. -

4.- ? . 5. -
. - ? - .
Exercise 103. 1.
4.

8.

5.

2.

2.

?~ , .

3.

? . ?

7.

Exercise 104. 1.
etc.

r ...

2.

...

3.

... ,

Exercise 105. 1.
11.

2.

3.

4.

4.

5.

. . .

7.

8.

9.

1.

Exercise 107. 1.

2.

3.

5.

. . .

7.

r.

8.

343

Exercise 110.

() ? ... , , ,

, , . () r?

Exercise 113. 1.-

?- . r.

?
.

3 .... ,

, .

11.

Exercise 114. 1.
. 12. .

etc.

4.

2.

- ?

, , .

2.

3.

5.

, , .

4.

5.

. . .

7.

8.

9.

, , , .

Exercise 117. 1.

, , .

Exercise 118.

3.

, , , .

4.

, , , .

? ?

? ?

Exercise 119. 1. ,
2. , ,
, , etc.

Exercise 121. 1.

2.

10.

etc.

, ,
, .

, , , .

2.

3.

, ,

, , , .

3.,,,.

Exercise 123. 1.

ii!, , .

, , , .
, ,

4.

2.

, , , .

, , , .

5.

3.

, ,

etc.

Exercise 125.

, , , ,

, , , ,
, , , , ,

, , , , .

Exercise 127. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . .
7. . 8. . 9. . 10. . 11. . 12. . 13.
. 14. .

7.

Exercise 128. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. .
8. . 9. . 10. . 11. . 12. .

. .

Exercise 131. 1. - -. 2.
5. . . . 7. .

3.

4.

r ?

Exercise 133. 1.
?

4.

2.

7.

5.

8.

3.
6.

Exercise 134. 1.
etc.

344

, ?

2.

Exercise 137.

. .

I. -.

. .
, .

Exercise 138. 1.
4.

, .

4.

-, .

, -.

Exercise 139. 1.

, , .

2.

3.

, .

, , .

5.

5.

2.

-, .

, -.

3.

, -, , -,

. . -, , -, , .

Exercise 142. 1.

2.

r.

3.

4.

5.

. . .

Exercise 149. 1. . 2.
Exercise 151. 1.

2.

3. . 4.

3.

Exercise 152. 1. r. 2. . 3.
7. . 8. :r.

8.

r.

4.

4.

5.

. . ,

9.

r.

etc.

5.

().

. .

Exercise 156. 1.

, , .

2.

().

3.,.4.,.5.,,.

Exercise 157. 1.

, .

2.

, , .

3.

, .

4.

,,.5.,,,,,.

PartTwo. The Main Course

USES OF CASES

The Prepositional Case


7.

Exercise 4. 1. . 2. . 3.
8. . 9. .

4.

5.

. . .

Exercise 5. 1. 1. . 2.
3. , etc.

3.

etc. 11. 1.

2.

Exercise 6.

. r .

. r, .

Exercise 8. 1.

5.

. . .

7.

Exercise 9. 1. . 2. . 3.
8. . 9. . 10.
Exercise 10. 1.

2....

4.

3.

5.

4.

. . .

, . . .

345

Exercise 12. 1.
4. .

i.

Exercise 13. 1.

. . .

7.

Exercise 14. 1.
7.

Exercise 16. 1.

. i.

2.
8.

2.

3.

4.

5.

2. . 3. . 4.
8. . 9. .
.3. .

2.

3.

4.

5.

5.

. . .

7. . 8. .

Exercise 17. 1.
Exercise 18. 1.

r.

2 .... . 3.

, .

2.

3.

4.

4.

. 5. . . , . 7. . 8.
.

9.

10.

Exercise 21. 1.

2. ? 3. ? 4.
5. ? . ?

Exercise 24. 1.

. . .

2.

. , , ,

3.

. ,

Exercise 26. 1. . 2.
7. . 8. . 9.

3.

Exercise 28. 1.

4.

. .

5.

2 ....

3.

4.

5.

Exercise 30. 1.

2.

Exercise 32. 1.

. . .

Exercise 33. 1.

2.

3.

2.

4.

3.

5.

4.

7.

5.

etc.

.
. .

Exercise 35. 1. . 2.
4. . 5. .
. 7. .
.

Exercise 37. 1.

4.

2.

3.

5.

3.

. . .

Exercise 38. 1.
5.

. . .

34

7.

2.

8.

3.

4.

Exercise 39. 1. , . 2. ,'


3. , . 4.
5. , . 6. . 7.

.
.

, .

Exercise 41. 1.

2.

5.

Exercise 43. 1. , . 2 .... '


3. . 4. . 5. . 6. v.

Exercise 45. 1.
3.

4.

2.

5.

Exercise 50. 1. ... 2. ... 3.


5. . ... 6. ... 7. ...

...

4.

...

Exercise 53. 1.

. 2. . 3. .
6. . 7. .

5.

5.

, .

Exercise 54. 1.

6.

2.

3. . 4.
7. .

4.

Exercise 55. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . 6.

Exercise 56. 1.

. .

. .
.

4.

3.

2.

. .

Exercise 59. 1. ... 2. ... 3.


4. ... 5 .... . 6. ... 7. ...
8. ... 9. ...

...

Exercise 61. 1. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . 11. 1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. .

5.

Exercise 62. 1.
6. .

2.

2.

4.

Exercise 63. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . 6. .

Exercise 64. 1.

.
.

6.

4.

2.

7.

5.

3.

8.

347

Exercise 65. 1.

4.

7.

3.

.
.

Exercise 68. 1.
etc.

3.

3.

- .

Exercise 70. 1.

4.

5.

1 .

Exercise 73 ....

5.

3.

2 ....

2 ....

. . .

I .

Exercise 71. 1.

4.

2.

. .

5.

2 .... I

i .

i .

i , , -

.... .... , ... .... , ... ... ...

...

...

...

, ,

, i .... .

The Accusative Case


Exercise 2.

() , r, , , . () ,

, , , , , () , , , .
.

Exercise 3. I. 1.

2.

II. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4.
3. . 4. . 5. .
, .

, , .
, , .

5.

4.

5.

. . .

III. 1.

2.

, , , .

Exercise 5. 1.
2 ....

3.

7.

5.

3.

, , .

, , ,

4.

, , , , , , 1. . , I

, .

Exercise 6. 1.... ,
etc.

, , , , .

2.

, ,

Exercise 7. 1.

. , , 1.

. .

Exercise 9. 1.
5.

348

4.

, .

Exercise 11. 1.
?

, , , , ,

Exercise 10. 1.
.

2.

etc.

7.

5.

2.

8.

2.

etc.
3.

3.

6 ? . ?

, , .

Exercise 12. 1.
3.

, .

, , .

4.

2.

, () ,

, ,

Exercise 13. 1.

, , .

2.

, , .

3.

, , .
. , .

Exercise 14. 1.

. r .

3.

2.

. . , .

4.

. .

Exercise 15. 1.
Exercise 16. 1.

Exercise 19. 1.
3.

. .

2.

3. . 4.

5.

6.

7.

, .

2.

8.

5.

, .

, .

9.

.2 .... .

4.

5.

6.

.
( )?

Exercise 21. 1.
3.

4.

2.

6.

5.

Exercise 24. 1. 1. - ? - , . 2. , ,
3. , . 4. (). 5. (). 11. 1. , ().
2. , . 3. (). 4. (). 5. (). 6. ().

Exercise 25. 1.

7.

3.

, .

3.
5.

, , .

Exercise 26. 1.
Exercise 27. 1.

2.

3.

, , .

4.

5.

2.

4.

5.

6.

, .

, .

, , .

4.

2.

, .

, , .

, , .

Exercise 29. 1. ? 2. ? 3.
4. ? 5. ?

Exercise 30. 1.
4.

2.

5.

3.

- .

6.

Exercise 31. 1. . 2.
3. . 4.
. 5. .
.

349

Exercise 32. 1. () . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . . ()
. 7. . 8. .
.

Exercise 34. 1.

, , .

, .

2.

3.

, .

4.

, .

Exercise 35. 1.

5.

2.

3.

7. ? 8. ? 9.
10. r ? 11. ?
Exercise 36. 1.

4.

? . ?

, , .

3.

2.

, , .

4.

, , .
.

Exercise 37. 1.

. .

2. ,
3. - ?
, . ? 4. - ?
- . ?- , ..
. .

Exercise 43. 1. , , ,
2 .... , , , . 3. , ,
, . 4. , , . 5. , , r, ,
.

, .

Exercise 44. 1.... ,

, , , , .

, , , , , , .

3.

2.

, .

Exercise 45. 1.

4.

5.

2 ....

3.

. . .

Exercise 47. 1. . 2. . 3. r
4. . 5.

.
.

Exercise 48. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. r . . .

7.

Exercise 50. 1.

?
?

350

etc.

4.

2.

3.

Exercise 51. 1.

2.
3.

, , .

, , .
, , .

4.

, , .


.:

5.

, , .

Exercise 57. 1.

, , , , , , .

, , , .

3.

2.

, , ,

, , .

Exercise 59. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4.
7. . 8. . 9. . 10. r.

5.

. . .

Exercise 60. 1.

4.

2.

. ?

7.

5.

3.

Exercise 61. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . . .

7.

r.

Exercise 62. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . . . 7.

Exercise 63. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . . . 7.

Exercise 65. 1.

, , , , ; ,

, , , .

2.

, , ,

; , , , ,

Exercise 66. 1.

4.

r, r.

, .

7.

, .

8.

2.

, .

Exercise 67. 1.
2. ,

3.

, .

, . . ,

, .

3.

5.

etc.

9.

, .

,
; , .

, .

4.

, , ,

Exercise 68. 1.

, .

, .

4.

3.

2.

etc.

, .

, .

5.

, . . ,
.

351

Exercise 69. 1.
4.

Exercise 70. 1. .
Exercise 71. 1.

5.

2.

3.

. . .

...

2.

2.... ()

...

3.

etc.

4.

().

5....

Exercise 72. 1. ? 2. ? 3.
4. ? 5. ? .

Exercise 74.

I , ,

, .

Exercise 75. I. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . .
7. . II. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5.
III. 1-2. . 3. . 4. . 5. .
.

Exercise 76. 1.
2.

, , .

5.
7.

4.

3.

, ,

, , I . . ,

Exercise 77. 1.
3.

, , , .

, , , , I .

. . I .

7.

4.

2.

5.

, .

Exercise 78. 1. , . 2. ,
3. , . 4. ,
. 5. , . .

, , , .

Exercise 79. 1. I? 2. I? 3.
4. ? 5. ? .

Exercise 81. 1.
3.

5.

4.

2.

. . .

Exercise 82. 1. . 2 .... . 3.


5. . . . 7. .

.4.

Exercise 83. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4.
5. . . . 7. 6 .

8.

352

Exercise84. 1.
5. . 6. .

2 ....

3.

4.

4.

Exercise 86. 1.
etc.

Exercise 87. I. 1.
?

2.

5.

2.

3.

( )

Exercise 88. 1.
3.

6.

4.

5.

?
?

II. 1.

3.

5.

( ) ?

3.

( ) ?

4.

2....

2.

4.

7.

Exercise 92. 1. . 2. .
3. . 4. .
5. . 6. .

The Dative Case


, , , , , .

Exercise 2. 1.

, , , , , , , , .

, , , , , .

4.

3.

2.

, , , , .

5.
3.

Exercise 3. I. 1. . 2.... . 3. . 4. .
6. . II. 1. . 2.... .
. 4. .
.

Exercise 4. 1.

Exercise 5. 1.
4.

etc.

etc.

Exercise 8. I. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . II. 1. . 2. )'. 3. .


III. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. .

Exercise 9. 1.

, , , .

2.

, , , .

Exercise 10. 1. ? 2. ? 3.
4. ? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ?

Exercise 12. 1....


4.

Exercise 13. 1.
23-2200

2.

5.

2....

3.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

353

Exercise 17. 1. 1. . 2....


3. . 4. . 5. .
. . 7. . 11. 1. . 2. .
3. . 4. . 5. .
.

Exercise 19. 1.
etc.

2.

Exercise 20. 1. . 2. ()
4. () . 5.
() . 7. () .

Exercise 21. 1.
4. , ,

6.

2.

3.

. .

5.

3.

Exercise 22. 1.

, .

, .

2.

, .

3.

, .

5.

4.

. . , , ; ,
, .

Exercise 23. 1.

2.

3.

5.

5.

4.

6.

. ?..

Exercise 24. 1.
7. .

2.

3.

4.

6.

6.

Exercise 25. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5.
7. . 8. . 9. . 10. . 11 .

(i).

Exercise 26. 1.
5.

r.

2.

3.

. . .

7.

4.

Exercise 27. 1.

2.

4.
. 7.

Exercise 29. 1.
2.

5.

3.

. .

3.

Exercise 30. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Exercise 31. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . 6.

354

Exercise 34. l.
3.

2.

4.

5.

? . .

Exercise 36. 1.
5. . . .

2.

3.

4. -

Exercise 43. 1.

2.

Exercise 44. 1. ,

3.

, .

4.

4. . 5.

. . .

8.

2.

4.

. .

r .

Exercise 49. 1.
4.

Exercise 50. 1.

7.

Exercise 51 ....

10. .

2.

3.

5.

3.

. . .

5.

2.

9.

, .

Exercise 47. 1.

7.

3.

4.

. . .

5.

7.

r .... ....

.... .... .... .

Exercise 52. 1. . 2.

. 3..

4.

5.

. . .

.,~. .~
,'

Exercise 53. I. 1.
8. . . 1- 5. .
Exercise 55. 1.
5.

2.

3.

Exercise 56. 1.
.

5.

. . .

7.

2.

5.

. . .

3. . 4.
8. ~ .

: .

...

3.

4 ....

7.

2.

. . .

Exercise 61. 1.
3.

4.

5.

2....

. .

Exercise 62. 1.
3....

4.

2.

. . .

7.

5 ....

Exercise 64. 1.

2. . 3.

4.

5.

. . .

Exercise 65. 1. 6? ? 2.
3. ? ?

7.

8.

Exercise 66. 1. . 2.
7. .

3.

4.

5.

. .

355

~.

, .

Exercise 67. 1.
.

5.

2.

, .

3.

, .

4.

, .

Exercise 69. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

. .

Exercise 70. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

. .

Exercise 72. 1.
.
.

7.

3.

8.

4.

2.

. .

5.

The Genitive Case


.

Exercise 2. 1.
.

. . .

5.

Exercise 3. 1.
.

7.

2 ....

2 ....

. .

5.

Exercise 4. 1.

. . :I.

Exercise 5.-

7.

2 ....

8.

3.

4.

7.

3.

.4.

3.

4.

5.

?- .- ?-

.- ?- .- ?-
.

etc.

Exercise 6. 1.
.

4.

, .

5.

2 ....

. . .

3.
7.

Exercise 8.

() , , , :I-

, , , ;
() , , , .
() , , , , , , .

Exercise 11. 1.
.

5.
.

2 ....

. . .

1.

Exercise 12. 1.
.

Exercise 14. 1.
.
35

4.

11.

3.

8.

4. .
9.

, .

5.

7.

2 ....

. . .

, .

5.

2 ....

7.

3.

. . .

4.

3.

Exercise 15. () 1. , . 2....


3. . 4. . () 1. ,
. 2 .... . 3. . 4. .
5. .
i.

Exercise 16. 1.
4.

Exercise 17. 1. ,
... . 3.

Exercise 18. 1.
3.

2....

3.

etc.
. , .

2....

; .

.
.

4.

5.

2.

etc.

. .

Exercise 21. I. 1.

, - .

.
.

4.

2.

3.

5.

3.

2.
etc. II. 1. ,

1. .

Exercise 22. 1. . 2 .... - 3.


4. . 5. . .

7.

Exercise 24. 1. , ,
2 .... , . 3. ,
. 4. . 5. .

Exercise 25. 1. . 2.
3 .... . 4. . 5. . .

.
.

Exercise 27. 1. , . 2 .... . 3.


4. . 5. . . . 7. . 8.
. 9. . 10. 1.
.

Exercise 29. 1.
4.

1 , , .

, .

5.

2.

, 1. . .

7.

3.

1 .

8.

etc.

Exercise 30. 1. . 2.... . 3.


4. . 5. . . . 7. .

4.

Exercise 34. 1. ,
5. .

2....

3.

Exercise 38. 1. . 2 .... . 3.


4. . 5. . . . 7. . 8. .

357

Exercise 39. 1.
5. . . . 7.
. 10. .

4.

!, , , , .

Exercise 40. 1.

, , , !.

Cbipa,

, .

4.

2 .... . 3. .
8. . 9.

2.

, , ,

, , , , , i,

3.

, , , , -,

Cbipa,

, .

Exercise 43. 1. ? 2.
3. ? 4.
? 5. ? . ?
7. ?
1?

8.

Exercise 44. 1. . 2.
9. .
Exercise 45. 1.

3.

4.

5.

. . .

, , , , , .

, .

5.

7.

3.

4.

2.

, .

, , . . , .

7.

, .

Exercise 46. 1.
.

, , .

4.

. .

2.

, , , .

7.

3.

5.

, , , , .

Exercise 47. 1. Cbipa,

, i.

2.

3.

5.

. . .

7.

4.

Exercise 48. 1. . 2. !. 3. . 4. . 5.
8. . 9. , , , .

Exercise 49 . ...

, ; ; - ;

; ;

; ; ;
, .

Exercise 51. 1.
4.

2. . 3. 1 .
5. . . . 7.

Exercise 52. 1.
3.

7.

4.

5.

2 ....

. .

Exercise 53. , .
2 .... . 3. . 4.
. 5. . . . 7. . 8.
- . 9. .
358

Exercise 55. 1. r. 2. . 3. . 4.
5. . . .
7. : . 8. . 9.
.

Exercise 56. 1.

3.

4.

2.... .
5.

. . .

7.

r.

Exercise 57. 1.- ?-


2. . 3. r
. 4. . 5. r r .
.

. .

Exercise 58. 1.

3.

, I .

4.

2.... .
5.

r .

Exercise 59. 1. , . 2.... . 3.


4. . 5. .

. .

Exercise 60. 1. . 2.
3. . 4. . 5.

. . .

Exercise 61. 1. .
2 .... . 3. . 4. r
r . 5. .
. .

Exercise 62. 1.

4.

2.

5.

3.

Exercise 63. 1. , , , , ,
2. , , , , . 3. ,

, , , , , .

4.

, , , , , ,

Exercise 64. 1.

; ;

; .

2.

; ;
.

3.

; ;

; ;
.

359

Exercise 65. 1.

, , ,

, ?

2.

, ,

, , , ?

3.

, , , ?

Exercise 68. 1.

4.

7.

5.

2.

3.

. .

Exercise 69. 1.

5.

2.

3.

. . .

4.
7. .

Exercise 70. 1. - . 2 .... . 3. . 4.


5. . . . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. . 11.
12. . 13. .
Exercise 71. 1.
5.

. . .

11.

12.

7.

13.

8.

2 ....

.
.

3. . 4. .
9. . 10.

:I.

Exercise 72. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . .
7. . 8. . 9. . 10. i

I.

Exercise 73. 1. . 2. -
3. - . 4. . 5.
. . . 7.

Exercise 74. 1. 22/I 1999. 2. 15N 1972. 3. 3/IX


12/04 2000. 7. 19/08 200.
Exercise 75.

197.

4.

9/

1948. 5. 31NII 1988.

i ;

i ; I
; i ;
i ; i
; i
; I ;
I ; I ;
I .

Exercise 76. 1.

: I

.
.

3.

2. ...

i .

I .
30

4.

Exercise 80. 1. . 2.
3. . 4.
. 5. .
.

Exercise 83. 1.

, , , , ,
2. , , , ,

, , .

, , , .

3.

, , ,

r, , , , , .

Exercise 84. 1.

, , , , ,

, , , , r.

2.

, , ,

, .

Exercise 86. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . . .

Exercise 87. 1.
6. .

~;~

2.

3.

4.

5.

Exercise 89. 1.

, , .

2.

, , .
, , .

4.

3.

, , .

, , .

6.

5.

, ,
.

7.

, .

Exercise 90. 1.... . 2.... . 3. . 4.


5. . . . 7. r. 8. . 9.

Exercise 91. 1.

, , r .

, , .
r.

5.

, , .

3.

4.

2.

, ,

, , . . , , .

Exercise 92. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . . .

Exercise 93. 1.

4.

2.

3.

5.

r.

Exercise 94. 1.

r ? r ?

? ?

4.

3.

2.

? ?

? ?

5.

? r

361

Exercise 95. 1.... . 2.


3. . 4. r. 5.
. . . 7.
. 8. .

Exercise 96. 1. , ,
2. , ,
. 3. , ,
.

Exercise 97. 1. . 2....


3. . 4. . 5. r.

, , ,

Exercise 99. 1.

, , .

3.

2.

, r, , , ;

, , , , .

Exercise 100. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4.
5. . . . 7. .
Exercise 102. 1.

r ?

3.

r ?

4.

2.

5.

r? . - ?

The Instrumental Case


, , , , .

Exercise 2. 1.
2.

, , , , , , .

3.

, , , , , .

Exercise 3. 1.

. . .

Exercise 4. 1.

7.

2.

3.

2.

4.

5.

'\.~.:. . .

Exercise 5....

7.

3.

4.

, , ,

Exercise 7. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4.
5. . . . 7. .

Exercise 9. 1.
3.

4.

2.

r ?

5.

? . ?

3.

Exercise 10. 1. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 11. 1. . 2. .


4. . 5. . III. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. .

r.

32

Exercise 12. 1. ,
7. .

, .

2.

3.

, .

i.

4.

5.

. .

Exercise 16. J.
4.

7.

( ) .

2.

5.

( ) .
.

3.

( ) .

Exercise 17. 1. . 2.
7. .

r.

4.

r.

4.

2.

3.

5.

. .

Exercise 18. 1. . 2.
7. .

3.

5.

. .

Exercise 19. 1.
3.

4.

. .

7.

5.

2. .
4. . 5. . 11. 1.
. 2. . 3. .
III. 1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5. . IV. 1.
. 2. . 3.
. 4. . V. 1. r. 2.
. 3. . 4. . 5.
. Vl. 1. . 2.
. 3. .
Exercise 20. 1. 1.

( ) .

3.

i .

5.

. . .

Exercise 21. 1.

Exercise 22. 1.
4.

2.

7.

2.

3.
8.

4.

5.

3.

. .

Exercise 23. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . . . 7.
. 8. .

Exercise 24. 1.

4.

2.

5.

3.

. .

Exercise 26. 1. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . .
. 11. 1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5. . 111. 1.
. 2. . 3. . IV. 1.
.

.;;i:

363

,::;\i

l
'f~
'

'

2.

r .

4.

V. 1.

() .

r .

5.

3.

() .

r .

2.

3.

4.

r .

r .

Exercise 27. 1. , . 2. , . 3. ,
4. , . 5. , . .

, .
.

Exercise 28. 1.
5.

2.
7.

. . .

Exercise 29. 1. . 2.
5. . .

.
.

3.

3.

8.

4.

4.

Exercise 30. 1. . 2. . 3.
7. . 8. .

4.

5.

. .

Exercise 36. 1.

2.

Exercise 37. 1. . 2.
7. .

3.

3.

4.

4.

5.

5.

. .

Exercise 38. 1.
3.

? ( ?)

4.

? . ?

3.

Exercise 39. 1.... . 2 .... .


4. . 5. . . . 7. .

Exercise 40. 1.
3.... . 4.
7. .
Exercise 41. 1.
3.

5.

7.

4 ....

3.

i.

2. r
5.

, .

) .

5.

7.

2.

r . . .

Exercise 42. 1.

. . .

4.

2....

(,

. .

Exercise 44. 1.
4. . 5.

7.

2. ?
5.
7. ?

2.

3.

. . .

Exercise 46. 1.
?
?
34

4.

2. r ? 3.
5. ? . r

Exercise 47. 1. i . 2 ....


3. r . 4. . 5.
. . . 7.

.
.

Exercise 48. l. . 2 .... . 3. . 4.


5. . . . 7. . 8. . 9.

.
.

Exercise 49. 1.

2.

Exercise 51. 1. i. 2. . 3.
4. . 5. 1. 6. .

etc.

Exercise 52. l.

5.

2.

3.

4.

. . .

Exercise 53. 1. . 2 .... . 3.


4. . 5. . 6. . 7. .

Exercise 54. l. . 2. . 3. . 4. .
6. . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10.
. 11. .
5.

Exercise 55. 1.
?

4.

2.

8.

6.
9.

2.
3.

Exercise 56. I. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . II. 1. .


3. . 4. . 5. . III. 1. . 2. .
. 4. .

lO.

7.

3.

5.

Exercise 57. I. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. .
5. . II. 1. . 2. 1. 3. . 4. 1. 5. .
III. 1. . 2. . 3. . IV. 1. . 2. . 3. .
V. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . VI. 1. .
2. . 3. . 4. .
7.

Exercise 58. 1.
8. .

2.

, , .

3.

4.

, .

5.

6.

, .

, .

Exercise 59. 1. , , , , . 2.
4. , , , , .

, , , , , .

3.

, , , .

10.

Exercise 60. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4.
. 11. (). 12. .

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

365

Exercise 61. I. 1. . 2.
3. . 4.
. 5. . 6.
. II. 1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5. i. .
.

Exercise 62. 1. 1.

2.

. 3. . 4.
.

5.

11. 1.

. . .

5.

2.

Exercise 63. 1. 1. . 2.
2. . 3. . 4.
I. 3. I.
Exercise 64. 1.
4.

7.

4.

3. . 4. . 5. . 11. 1.
III. 1. I. 2.

.
.

2.

3.

. . .

5.

Exercise 65. 1.
4.
8.

3.

5.

2.

3.

. . .

7.

THEVERB

V erbs of Motion
Exercise 1. 1.
10.

2.

3.

4.

5.

. . .

7.

8.

9.

Exercise 2. 1. . 2.
7. .

3.

4.

5.

Exercise 3. 1.
7. .

2.

3.

4.

I.

5.

6.

Exercise 4. 1.
4.

, , .

2.

, , , .

3.

, , , .

, .

Exercise 5. 1.

Exercise 7. 1.
etc.

? ?

?
3

2.

3.

4.

5.

2.

6.

7.

Exercise 8. 1.
3 .... . 4.
Exercise 9. 1.
3.

5.

2.

. . .

4.

. . .

2.... \.:.
5.

7.

Exercise 10. 1. . 2.
3. . 4. . 5.

. . .

Exercise 11. 1. . 2 .... . 3.


4. . 5. . . .

, , , .

Exercise 13. 1.

, .

2.

3.

, ,

Exercise 14. 1.

Exercise 16. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

. . .

, , , , .

2.

7.

, , ,

.3.,.4. , .

Exercise 17. 1. (), . 2. ,


5. , . . , .

3.

, .

4.

, .

Exercise 18. 1.

, , , .

2.

, , , .

3.

4.,.

Exercise 19. 1.

, , , .

2.

, , .

3.

,,.4.,,,,.

Exercise 20. 1.

, , .

2.

, .

3.

, .

4.

, .

5.

Exercise 21. 1.

( ) .

5.

. . .

3.

Exercise 24. 1.

2 ....

, .

4.

2 ....

3.

4.

5.

Exercise 25. 1. , . 2. , . 3.
4. - . 5. .

Exercise 26. 1.

? ?

? ?

4.

2.

etc.

Exercise 27. 1. . 2 ....


5. . . .

3.

37

Exercise 28. 1.
4.

8.

.
.

2 ....

. . .

5.

7.

3.

.
.

Exercise 29. 1.
.

Exercise 30. 1.

4.

5.

, , .

Exercise 32. 1.

2....

3.

. . .
, , .

2.

, , .

3.

, , .

, , , , .

2.

3.

,,,.4.,.

Exercise 34. 1....


3.

( ).

4.

2.

( ) .

5.

. . ( ).

Exercise 35. 1.

, .

, , , .

, .

2.

3.

, , .

4.

, ,

, , .

5.

Exercise 39. 1. . 2....


4. r. 5. .

3.

, .

, , , .

Exercise 40. 1.
4. , ,

, , , .

2.

Exercise 41. 1.

, , , .

3.

, , ,

, , , , , .

2.

3.,,,.4.,,,.

Exercise 43. 1.

, .

Exercise 44. 1.

2.

2.

, .

3.

Exercise 47. 1. , , ,
4. , , .

4.

3.

, .

2.

5.

4.

, .

. . .

7.

, , .

3.

8.

, ,

, .

Exercise 49. 1.
Exercise 50. 1.

2.

3. . 4.

, , .

2.

5. . . . 7.

, , .

3.

8.

, , .

4.,,.5.,,.

5.

Exercise 51. 1.

Exercise 53. 1.

, .

2.

2.

3.

4.

, .

3.

5.

. . .

, , , .

4.

, .

, , , , . . , .

Exercise 56. 1. r. 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . . .

Exercise 57. 1.
368

, .

2.

, .

3.

, .

4.

5.

. . .

, .

Exercise 58. I.

, .

2.

, .

3.

4.

, .

Exercise 59. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. 1. 5. . .
. 7. . 8. .
.

Exercise 60. 1.

Exercise 61. 1.

, .

Exercise 63. 1.

2.

4.

, .

2.

Exercise 64. 1. ,

2.

3.

3.

3.

, .

Exercise 69. 1.

2.

5.

, .

4.

, .

5.

. . .

4.

7.

, , , , .

Exercise 70. 1. (). 2.


7. . 8. .

. . .

3.

2.

4.

5.

etc.

. .

Exercise 71. 1. , . 2. , . 3. ,
5. , . . , .

4.

, .

7.

Exercise 73. 1.

, , .

Exercise 74. 1.

2.

3.

2.

3.

, .

4.

5.

4.

, .

5.

(). . ().

Exercise 75. 1.

4.

2.

5.

3.

1 . . .7.

1.

Exercise 76.

()

1.

, ().

, .

, ().

Exercise 77. 1. . 2 .... . 3.


4. . 5. . . . 7. .

2.

, .

3.

1.

8.

, ().

2.

()

3.

, .

.
, , .

Exercise 78. 1.

, .

2.

(, ), (, ).

5.

3.

, .

4.

, . . ,

Exercise 79.
4.

()

1.

Exercise 80. 1.
24-2200

3.

5.

2.

2.

. ()

3.

4.

4.

1.

3.

2.

5.

. . .

7.

.
39

Exercise 81. 1.
7.

2.

3.

4.

. . .

2.

3.

4.

, :.

5.

. 8..9. .
.

Exercise 82. 1.

5.

, .
.

Exercise 83. 1.
8.

2.

3.

4.

. . .

5.

7.

. 9..

Exercise 84. 1.
7. .

2.

3.

4.

5.

. .

Exercise 85. 1. i . 2. i
3. i . 4. :1 . 5. i

:i .

Exercise 86. 1.
4.

I .

5.

2.

i .

I .

3.

I . . i .

Exercise 87. 1.

Exercise 92. 1.

2.

i.

2.

3.

:1.

3.

4.

5.

. . .

().

4.

7.

i.

5.

. . .

Exercise 93. 1. 1.
4.

2.

5.

.
.

Exercise 96. 1.
. . .

7.

3.

2.

3.

11. 1.

3.

4.

5.

Exercise 100. 1.
4. . 5.

2.

. . .

2.

, .

. . .

7.

3.

Exercise 101. 1. :1 . 2 .... . 3.


4. . 5. . . . 7. !
. 8. . 9. .
.

Exercise 104.

, :1, , , , 1, , , ,

, :1, .

Exercise 105.

, :1, (), , , , 1, ,

:1, , , , , , , , i, .

Exercise 106.

, 1, , , , , :1, ,

, , :1, , , , , .

Exercise 107.

, :1, , , :1, , , ,

, :1, , (, ), (), .

370

Exercise 108.

, , , (), , ,

, , (), , , .

Exercise 109.

, , , , , , , , .

Exercise 110.

1, , , , , , , ,

, , , 1, , , 1, .

Exercise 111.

, I, , , i, , ,

(), 1, (), , , .

Exercise 112.

, 1, , , , , 1,

(), , , , 1, , , , , ,
.

Exercise 113.

, 1, , , , , ,

, , r.

Verbs with the Particle -


Exercise 2. 1. . 2....
3. . 4. . 5.
. . 1 . 7.
.

Exercise 3. 1. .
2 .... . 3. 1. 4.
. 5. . . . 7.
.

Exercise 4. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . .
7. . 8. . 9. . 10. . 11. .

12.

Exercise 5. 1. . 2.
3. . 4.
. 5. . .
. 7. 1 i>. 8.
.

Exercise 7. 1.

4.

2.

5.

3.

. . .

Exercise 8. 1.

1.

2.

3.

4.

371

5.

. . .

7.

Exercise 9. 1.
4.

8.

5.

()

1.

9.

, .

, . ()

2.

1.

Exercise 15.
5.
3.

6.

, .

2.

, .

3.

, .

4.

, .

2.

, , ()

4.

7.

, .

1.

3.

1.

, ,

.2.,.3..
, .

Exercise 16. 1.

2.

, .

.5.,..,.
.

Exercise 17. 1.

, .

5.

2.

, .

3.

7.

3.

, .

4.

, .

, , .

. . , , .

7.

4.

, .

, , , .

Exercise 18. 1.

, , .

3.

2.

, , .

, , .

4.

5.

, ,

.6.,. 7.,.
.

Exercise 19. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

. . 7.. 8..9.. 10.,.

Exercise 25. 1.

Exercise 27. 1.

, , , .

, , :
.

5.

2.

etc.

, , , .

4.

, .

, , , , .

Exercise 29. 1.
, .

3.

2.

4.

, .

5.

2.

, , .

3.

, , .

Exercise 30. 1.... , , , ,


2 .... 1, , , .

Exercise 33. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5.
6. . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. . 11. . 12. .

Exercise 34. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

. . .

7.

8.

9.

( ).

Exercise 36. 1.
4.
9.

.
.

372

10.

5.

2.

. . .

11.

7.

3.

8.

Exercise 37.

. , , , , , ,

, , , , , , , ,

V erb Aspects
Exercise 3. 1.

- .

- .

5.

2.

- .

3.

- .

4.

- .

Exercise 4. 1. - . 2. - . 3.
5. - . . - .

- .

4.

r.

Exercise 5. 1. - . 2. - r. 3. - . 4.
5. - . . - . 7. -

Exercise 10.

, , , , , , , , ,

Exercise 11. ,

, , , , , .

Exercise 12. 1. . 2.

3.

4. , . 5.

3.

Exercise 15. 1. , r. 2. , . 3. , . 4.
5. , . . , . 7. , .

Exercise 13. 1.

, , r, , .

, , .

4.

2.

, .

, , , .

, .

Exercise 20. 1.

4.

2.

etc.

Exercise 21. 1.
5.

r, .

, .

2.

, .

, . . , .

3.

7.

, .

, .

Exercise 23. 1. , . 2. , . 3.
5. , . . , .

, r.

4.

, .

Exercise 24. 1.
3.

, , .

, .

4.

, .

5.

2.

, , .

, , . . ,

, , .

Exercise 26. 1. . 2.
Exercise 31. 1.
5.

3.

...

2....

4.

5.

3.

. . .

4.

. . .

Exercise 32. 1....

, , .

2.

, , .

373

3.

, .

4.

, , .

5.

1, ,

Exercise 33. 1. , 1 ? 2 ....


4. . 5. . 6. , 7. .

3.

Exercise 35. 1. ,
4. ,

, .

, .

2.

3.

, .

5.

Exercise 36. 1.... , . 2. , . 3. , . 4.


5. , . 6. , . 7. , .

Exercise 37. 1.
8.

2.

Exercise 38. 1. . 2.
9. . 10. .

3.

3.

4.

, .

5.

6.

4.

5.

6.

, .

7.

Exercise 39. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

, .

6.

7.

5.

Exercise 40. 1. ,
6. . 7.

, .

2.

, .

, .

8.

9.

3.

, .

4.

Exercise 41. 1. , . 2. , . 3.
5. , . 6. , .

, .

4.

, .

Exercise 42. 1.

, .

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Exercise 46. 1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. i, I
5. i, 1. 6. 1. 7. , . 8. , .
9. . 10. , , , .
, 1.

Exercise 48. 1.
6.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Exercise 50. 1. . 2. , r. 3. , . 4. . 5. .
7. , . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , .

Exercise 51. 1.

, .

2.

, .

3.

, , .

4.,.5.6,.6.,. 7.i. 8.,.

Exercise 52. 1. . 2.
8. .

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Exercise 53. 1. . 2 .... ,


3. , . 4. , . 5. , . 6. ,
. 7. , . 8. , .
i.

374

Exercise 54. 1....


5.

. . .

Exercise 55. 1.
5.
9.

, 1.

8.

3.

2.

, .

, . . , .

7.

3.

4.

9.

4.

, .

, .

8.

10.

Exercise 56. 1. ,
2. ,

3.

2.

7.

, , , , ,
, , , .

, , , .

, , ,

4.

, , , , .

, ,

5.

, 1, . . , , , ,
.

Exercise 57.

, , , , , , , ,

,,,,,.

COMPLEX SENTENCES
Exercise 2. 1.

2.

3.

4.

3.

5.

. . .

().

7.

8.

().

Exercise 3. 1.

2.

4.

5.

. . .

7.

8.

9.

Exercise 5. 1. -, .
3.
, . etc.

2.

, .

Exercise 15. 1.

Exercise 27. 1. . 2.
2.

2.

3.

4.

5.

. . .

etc.

Exercise 28. 1. 1. . 2. . 3. . 11. 1. . 2.


3. . 4. . IV. 1. . 2. , etc.

3.

4.

III. 1.

Exercise 29. 1. . 2.

3. . 4.

5.

. . .

Exercise 30. 1. ,
3. . 4. . 5. . . .
Exercise 31. 1.
. ,

7.

2.

'

, .

, .

7.

7.

3. , . 4.
. 7. , .

Exercise 32. 1. . 2.
8. .

3.

, .

4.

5.
5.

2....

, .

. . .

375

Exercise 33. 1.
3. ,
. 7. ,

, ..

...

4.

, .

5.

2.

, . . ,

Exercise 34. 1. , ? 2 ....


3. , . 4. , . 5. , .
, . 7. , .

Exercise 35. 1.

() , . () , .

() , .

3.

2.

() , .

() , . () , .

. () , .

() ,

4.

5.

() , . () , . . () ,

2.

. () , .

Exercise 36. 1.

3.

4.

5.

. .

Exercise 39. 1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. ,
5. , . . , . 7. , . 8. ,

.
.

, .

, . . , .

Exercise 41. 1.

, , .

, , .

4.

Exercise 44. 1.

2.

3.

, .

4.

, , .

3.

, , .

Exercise 43. 1. ,
4. , . 5.

2.

, .

Exercise 40. 1.
5.

2.

, .

3.

, . . , .

, .

2.

, .

3.

, ,

etc.
Exercise 45. 1.
4.

, .

, .

Exercise 46. 1.

5.

, .

() . () . () .

() , () ,

4.

2.

3.

, .

, . . , .

(d)

(d) . 2.
3. () . () .
(d) .

() . () . () .

() .
() .

Direct and Indirect Speech


Exercise 50, 1. , . 2. ,
. 3. ,
. 4. , . 5.
, . . , 37

7.

, .

8.

Exercise 51. 1.

, .

.
.

7 ....

9 ....

3 ....

5 ....

4 ....

2....

. ....

8.... .
10 ....

, . 2.
3. , . 4.

Exercise 52. 1.

, .
, .

5.

, . .

, .
.

8.

7.

, .

9.

Exercise 53. 1.
3.
7.

r .

, . 2 .... .
. 5. . . .

4.

, .

Exercise 54. 1.

8.

, .

3.

4.

5.

2 ....

. . .
, .

Exercise 55. 1.
2....

3.

. . , .

Exercise 56. 1....


4.
7.

5.

Exercise 57. 1.
.

6.

r.

4.

5.

3.

, . . .

8.

, .

2.

, .

3.

, , .

4.

, .

5.

, .

Exercise 58. 1....


4.

2.

7.

8.

5.

2.

3.

. . .

9.

7.
10.

Exercise 59. 1.

; .

2.

; .

; ; .
.

Exercise 61. 1.

5.

4.

3.

; .

, . ,

377

. , . ,

, . , i
. , ,

etc.

Sentences Containing Participial


and Verbal Adverb Constructions

The Participle
Exercise 2. 1. ? 2.
3. ? 4.
? 5. 1 ?
? 7. ? 8.

Exercise 3. 1.

3.

?
?

Exercise 4. 1.

2.

7.

5.

4.

? .

2.

3.

4.

5.

. .

Exercise 5. 1.

, , , .

, , , .
.

4.

3.

2.

, ,

, , , .

Exercise 6. 1. 1. , . 2. ,
3. , . 4. , . 11. 1. ,
. 2. , . 3. , . 4. , .
III. 1. , . 2. , . 3.
, . 4. , . IV. 1. , I
. 2. , . 3. , . 4.
.

, .

Exercise 7. 1.

, , , , , , ,

, , , , , .

2.

, ,

, , , , , , , , ,

, 1, , , , .

Exercise 8. 1.

; .

2.

; .

; .

Exercise 9. 1.
378

2.

3.

etc.

3.

Exercise 10. 1.

2.

, .

5.

3.

. . .

7.

4.

Exercise 11. I. :i. 2. . 3. . 4.


5. . . . 7. .

i.

Exercise 12. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . . . 7.

Exercise 13. 1.

, , , , ,

, , , , i, ,

, , .
, , .

3.

, , , .

Exercise 14.

2.

, ,

, , .

5.

4.

, , .

, , , , , ;

, , , , , ,
, , , , , , , i
, , I, .

Exercise 15. I. 1. . 2. ... 3. ...


5. ... II. 1. . 2.
... 3. ... 4. . III. 1. . 2. ...
3. ... 4. ... 5. ...

4.

...

Exercise 16. 1.
4.

7.

I.

2. i. 3.
5. . . .

Exercise 17. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . .

Exercise 18. 1.

4.

Exercise 20. 1.

7.

5.

3.

. .

, , , , , .

, ,

3.

2.

, , , ,

2.

, .

I, I, , , , , .

Exercise 21. I. 1. , . 2 ....


3. . 4. .
II. 1.... . 2. . 3. .

379

4.

5.

III. 1....

.2..3..4..

Exercise 22. I. 1.
3.
2.

, ...
, ...

3.

4.

...

2.

, .

, ...

III. 1.

II. 1.

.. .

, .. .

, ...

2.

...

Exercise 24. 1. ,
2. , . 3. ,
. 4. , . 5. ,
. 6. , . 7. ,
.

, .

Exercise 25. 1.

, .

6.

4.

2.

, .

, .

, .

7.

5.

3.

, .

, .

8.

Exercise 26. 1.
3.

, .

, .

2.

, .

, .

5.

, .

, .

Exercise 27. 1.
3.
5.

6.

4.

, .

4.

2.

, .

, .

, . . ,

7.

, .
, , , , ,

Exercise 28. 1.

, .

2.

, , , ,

, , , , .

3.

r, r

, r, I, , , , , , .

Exercise 29. 1.

, ; ,\ .

; , .
.

4.

3.

2.

, ; ,

, ; , .

5.

; , .

6.

Exercise 30. 1. . 2. . 3. . 4.
7. . 8. .

5.

Exercise 34. 1. ,
3. , . 4. ,

. . , .

Exercise 35. 1.

380

2.

, .

2.

7.

5.

, .

, .

3.

, .

7.

5.

4.

, . . , .

, .

8.

, .

9.

, .

Exercise 36. 1. . 2.
3. 1 . 4. . 5.
1956 . . . 7. . 8.
. 9. .

Exercise 37. 1. ? 2. ? 3.
4. ? 5. 1?
6. ? 7. ? 8.
?

Exercise 38. 1. , , , ', Ji, , ,


2. , , , , , ,
, . 3. I, I, i, , , , .

Exercise 39. 1. . 2.
3. . 4.
. 5. . 6. . 7. . 8.
.
i.

Exercise 40. 1. . 2. . 3.
4. . 5. . .
I . 7. . 8. .

Exercise 41.

()

, . , .

1.

; .

5.

3.

; .

4.

2.

i ; . . ; I.

7.

; .

Exercise 43. 1.

, .

, .

4.

, .

2.

, .

, .

7.

5.

3.

, . .

, .

Exercise 45. 1. , , . 2.
3. , , ,

, .

, ,

4.

, , .

The Verbal Adverb


Exercise 1. 1.
2.

3.

381

...

4.

, ...

5.

... . , ...

7.

...

Exercise 2. 1.

, .

4.

2.

, .

, .

3.
5.

, . . .

Exercise 3. 1.

, .

II, .
.

5.

3.

4.

2.

, . . ,

Exercise 4. 1.
3.

, .

5.

4.

2.

8.

r, .

6. . 7.
9. , .

Exercise 5. 1. , . 2. , r
3. , . 4. , . 5.
, . 6. , . 7. , r.
8. , .
.

Exercise 7. 1. ,
2. ,
. 3. , , .
4. , . 5. ,

. . ,
-.

8.

7.

, , .

, .

, .

10

9.

Exercise 8. 1.

, ...

, .

4.

2.

. . , .

Exercise 9. 1.

, .

, .

r I, ...

4.

2.

7.

7.

3.

, .

, .

, .

. . , .

5.

5.

3.

i I,

Exercise 10. 1. , ... 2. , r


3. , ... , . 4. , r.

5.

r, . . , .

382

Exercise 12. 1 .....

i , , .

, .....
.....

5.

3 .....

, .

4.

2.

()

, ;

, .....

Exercise 13. 1. , . 2.
3. , .

Exercise 15. 1.
5.

, .

2.

, .

, . . , .

9.

7.

3.

, .

, .

4. ,
8. ,

, .

. Exercise 18.

, ... , .

... ... ... , i ...

, ... .1\
... ... ...

... , .

. u
..

. , .

N2

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