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FOG COMPUTING

A START NEW IN THE CLOUD UNIVERSE.

Name:

Sreya Roy

Stream: Computing Science Engg.


Roll No.: 54
Year:

2nd Year

Semester: 4th Sem


Session: 2014-2018
College: Adamas Institute of
Technology

Title: Fog Computing

Prepared By:
S,.K. Mathur, Chairman, Datamatics Global Services Limited

Date: 27.02.2016

Prepared for:
VS Ruia, Co-Chairman of the Management Board, Impetus Technologies

ABSTRACT :
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Cloud computing promises to significantly change the way


we use computers and access and store our personal and business
information. With these new computing and communications
paradigms arise new data security challenges. Existing
data protection mechanisms such as encryption have failed in
preventing data theft attacks, especially those perpetrated by
an insider to the cloud provider.
We propose a different approach for securing data in the
cloud using offensive decoy technology. We monitor data
access in the cloud and detect abnormal data access patterns.
When unauthorized access is suspected and then verified using
challenge questions, we launch a disinformation attack by
returning large amounts of decoy information to the attacker.
This protects against the misuse of the users real data.
Experiments conducted in a local file setting provide evidence
that this approach may provide unprecedented levels of user
data security in a Cloud environment.

LETTER OF AUTHORISATION :
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S,.K. Mathur, Chairman


Datamatics Global Services Limited
Mgr Salai 044 6608 3000
Date : March 8, 2016

Sir,
Subject - Report on Fog Computing
I,, Co-President Pritech, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, Piritech Park (SEZ), Phase 1, Campus 5B,
1st Floor, Bellandur, Bengaluru, Karnataka, am writing to request permission to conduct a
research study on Fog Computing. The study will include detailed insight into the field and study
of Fog Computing, the challenges faced by the developments, and future prospects of Fog
Computing..
If approval is granted, documentation of the report would take no longer than 2 months, and to
be done on your convenience. The details/results of the study will remain absolutely confidential.
Your approval to conduct this research will be greatly appreciated.

Yours Faithfully,
VS Ruia , Co-President
Pritech, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, Piritech Park (SEZ), Phase 1, Campus 5B, 1st Floor,
Bellandur, Bengaluru, Karnataka

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL :
S,.K. Mathur, Chairman
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Datamatics Global Services Limited


Mgr Salai 044 6608 3000
Date : March 8, 2016

Sir,
Subject - Report on Fog Computing
As agreed in our January 21 contract, we are submitting the attached report on the subject of
"Fog Computing".
This report ecamines the history and subseuent developments in the field of Cloud Computing
and the limtations that are overcome by Fog Computing. Various applications of Fog Computing
have been discussed, alongwith the scope and challenges faced in the development of this field.
I hope yo ufind this report satisfactory.
Yours Faithfully,
VS Ruia , Co-President
Pritech, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, Piritech Park (SEZ), Phase 1, Campus 5B, 1st Floor,
Bellandur, Bengaluru, Karnataka

TABLE OF CONTENTS :
CONTENTS:

PAGE NO.:
5

1. List of Illustrations

2.

Executive Smmary

3. Actual Report

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11

Introduction
Existing System: Cloud Computing
Limitation Of Cloud Computing
Why advancement needed?
Proposed System: Fog Computing
What is Fog Computing?
What is the need for fog computing?
Characteristics of fog computing
Fog computing service cover
Security and privacy in fog computing
Limitations overcomes in fog computing

4. Applcations Of Fog computing

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10
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4.1 Connected Cars


4.2 Smart Grids
4.3 Smart Cities

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5. Conclusion

LIST OF ILLUSTRATION:

FIGURES
PAGE NO.
1. Cloud Computing

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2. The Internet of Things (IoT)

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3. Fog vs Cloud

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4. Architecture of Fog Computing

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:

Fog computing or fog networking, also known as fogging,is an architecture that uses one or
a collaborative multitude of end-user clients or near-user edge devices to carry out a
substantial amount of storage (rather than stored primarily in cloud data centers),
communication (rather than routed over the internet backbone), and control,
configuration, measurement and management (rather than controlled primarily by
network gateways such as those in the LTE (telecommunication) core).

Fog computing can be perceived both in large cloud systems and big data structures,
making reference to the growing difficulties in accessing information objectively. This
results in a lack of quality of the obtained content. The effects of fog computing on cloud
computing and big data systems may vary; yet, a common aspect that can be extracted is a
limitation in accurate content distribution, an issue that has been tackled with the creation
of metrics that attempt to improve accuracy.[4]

Fog networking consists of a control plane and a data plane

3. ACTUAL REPORT:

INTRODUCTION:
In today's worlds the small as well as big -big organizations are using cloud computing
technology to protect their data and to use the cloud resources as and when they need .
Cloud is a subscription based service .Cloud computing is a shared pool of resources.
The way of use computers and store our personal and business information can arises
new data security challenges. Encryption mechanisms not protect the data in the cloud
from unauthorized access. As we know that the traditional database system are usually
deployed in closed environment where user can access the system only through a
restricted network or internet. With the fast growth of W.W.W user can access virtually
any database for which they have proper access right from anywhere in the world . By
registering into cloud the users are ready to get the resources from cloud providers and
the organization can access their data from anywhere and at any time when they need.
But this comfortness comes with certain type of risk like security and privacy. To
overcome by this problem we are using a new technique called as fog computing. Fog
computing provides security in cloud environment in a greater extend to get the benefit
of this technique a user need to get registered with the fog. once the user is ready by
filling up the sign up form he will get the msg or email that he is ready to take the
services from fog computing. CISCO recently delivered the vision of fog computing to
enable applications on billions of connected device to run directly at the network edge .
Customers can develop, manage and run software applications on Cisco framework of
networked devices including hardened routers and switches. Cisco brings the open
source Linux and network operating system together in a single networked device.

EXISTING SYSYTEM :CLOUD COMPUTING


Cloud computing is a computing paradigm, where a large pool of systems are connected
in private or public networks, to provide dynamically scalable infrastructure for
application, data and file storage. With the advent of this technology, the cost of
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computation, application hosting, content storage and delivery is reduced significantly.


Cloud computing is a practical approach to experience direct cost benefits and it has the
potential to transform a data center from a capital-intensive set up to a variable priced
environment. The idea of cloud computing is based on a very fundamental principal of
reusability of IT capabilities'. The difference that cloud computing brings compared to
traditional concepts of grid computing, distributed computing, utility computing,
or autonomic computing is to broaden horizons across organizational boundaries.

Fig 1. Cloud Computing

LIMITATIONS OF CLOUD COMPUTING :

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Cloud computing has so amny advantages, italso suffers certain shortcomings too.

High capacity (Bandwith)

Client access link

High latency.

Security.

WHY ADVANCEMENT NEEDED?


Encryption was failed in securing data from the attacker.
It does not verify whthe r the user is authorised or not.
No body is identified when the attack happens.
It is complex to detect which user is attacked.

We cannot detect which file is being hacked.

Latency too high.

Resiliency impractical.

PROPOSED SYSTEM : FOG COMPUTING


Data processing and applications are concentrated in device at the network edge
rather than the cloud.
Proposed to secure users data in cloud using :11

User behaviour profiling.


Decoyinformation technology.
In this technique when the unauthorised person try to access the data, system
generates the fake documents.
Devices communicate peer-to-peer to efficiently store/share data and take local
decisions.

WHAT IS FOG COMPUTING?


Fog computing also kknown as fogging or edge computing, it isa model in which
data processing and applications concentrated in device at the network edge rather
than the cloud. The term Fog Computing was introduced by the CISCO system as
new model to ease wireless data transfer to distributed device in the Internet of
Things (IoT) network paradigm.
Fog computing, also known as fogging, is a distributed computing infrastructure in
which some application services are handled at the network edge in a smart device and
some application services are handled in a remote data center -- in the cloud. The goal of
fogging is to improve efficiency and reduce the amount of data that needs to be
transported to the cloud for data processing, analysis and storage. This is often done for
efficiency reasons, but it may also be carried out for security and compliance reasons .
That conecentration means that data can be processed locally in smart devices rather
than being sent to the cloud for processing. Fog computing is an approach to the dealing
with the demands of the over-increasing number of internet-connected devices
sometimes referred to as Internet of Things (IoT).

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Fig 2: Internet of Things (IoT)

WHAT IS THE NEED FOR FOG


COMPUTING?
Fog computing extends the cloud computing paradigm to the edge of the network.
While Fog and Cloud use te same resources(networking, compute and storage) and
share many of the same mechanism and attributes(virtualization and multi- tenancy)
the extension is a non-trivial one in that there exist some fundamental differences
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stemming from the reason fog computing was developed : to addresss applications and
service that do not fit the paradigm of cloud.

CHARACTERISTICS OF FOG COMPUTING :

Security

- Strong security (hardware rot of trust)


- Resiliency/ Fault tolerance

Progammability

- Multiple application support


- Versatility in operating environment

Real time features

- Deterministic timing capabilities

Support multiple operating platforms: UNIX, Windows, MAC,etc.

Employs simple, fast and standardized IoT internet protocols (TCP/IP,


Sockets, etc).

Runs on affordable,off the shelf computing technologies.

FOG COMPUTING SERVICE COVER :

Applications that require very low and predictabl e latency.

Geographically distributed applications.

Fast mobile applications.


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Large scale distributed control system.

Improves quaity of service.

SECURITY & PRIVACY IN FOG


COMPUTING :

Authentication at different of gateways.

Smart meters installed in the consumers home.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) which involve multicast authentication.

Intrusions can be detected using signature based method.

Intrusion can also be captured by using an anomaly-based method.

FOG vs CLOUD :

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LIMITATIONS OVERCOMES IN FOG :

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Reduction in data movement across the network resulting in reduced cngestion.

Eliminationof bottlenecks resulting from centralised computer system.


Improved security of encrypted data as it stays closer to the end user.

4. APPLICATIONS OF FOG
COMPUTING :
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CONNECTED CARS :
Fog computing is ideal for Connected Vehicles (CV) because real-time interactions will
make communications between cars, access points and traffic lights as safe and efficient
as possible. Autonomous vehicle is the new trend taking place on the road. Tesla is
working on software to add automatic steering, enabling literal "hands free" operations
of the vehicle. Starting out with testing and releasing self-parking features that don't
require a person behind the wheel. Within 2017 all new cars on the road will have the
capability to connect to cars nearby and internet. Fog computing will be the best option
for all internet connected vehicles why because fog computing gives real time
interaction. Cars, access point and traffic lights will be able to interact with each other
and so it makes safe for all. At some point in time, the connected car will start saving
lives by reducing automobile accidents.

Fig 3 : Connected Cars

SMART GRID :
Fog computing allows fast, machine-to-machine (M2M) handshakes and human to
machine interactions (HMI),which would work in cooperation with the cloud. Smart
grid is another application where fog computing is been used. Based on demand for
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energy, its obtainability and low cost, these smart devices can switch to other energies
like solar and winds. The edge process the data collected by fog collectors and generate
control command to the actuators. The filtered data are consumed locally and the
balance to the higher tiers for visualization, real-time reports and transactional
analytics. Fog supports semi-permanent storage at the highest tier and momentary
storage at the lowest tier.

Fig 4 : Smart Grid

SMART CITIES :
Fog computng would be able to obtain sensor data on all levels, and integrate all the
mutually independent network entities within. Fog enables traffic signals to open lanes
on sensing flashing lights of the ambulance. It detects presence of pedestrian and bikers,
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and measures the distance and speed of the close by vehicles. Sensor lighting turns on,
on indentifying movements and vice-versa. Smart lights serves as fog devices
synchronize to send warning signals to the approaching vehicles. The interactions
between vehicle and access points are enhanced with WiFi, 3G, road side units and
smart traffic lights.

Fig 5 : Smart Cities


Other applications of fog computing are :

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The cloud computing market for healthcare is expected to reach $5.4 billion by 2017,
and fog computing would allow this on a more localised level.

Tech giant CISCO and IBM are the driving forces behind fog computing, and link
their concept to the emerging Internet of Things (IoT).

Most of the buzz around fog has a direct correlation with the emergence of the
Internet of Things (IoT).

Wearables with virtual interfaces need to process their environment locally to aid
the user. Fog computing allows for that processing to happen almost immediately,
improving the user experience.

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Fig 6 : Architecture of Fog Computing

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CONCLUSION :
The system was developed only with email provision but we have also implemented the
SMS technique. In Fog Computing we presenting a new approach for solving the
problem of insider data theft attacks in a cloud using dynamically generated decoy files
and also saving storage required for maintaining decoy files in the cloud. So by using
decoy technique in Fog can minimize insider attacks in cloud.

Also,

1. Fog Computing is not a replacement of cloud.


2. It is extends the cloud computing by providing security in the cloud
environment.
3. It is a new approach for securing data in the cloud by using offensive
decoytechnology.
4. It monitors data access in the cloud and detects abnormal data access patterns.
5. Fog computing can minimize insider attacks in the cloud.

BIBLIOGRAPHY :
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a.

https://www.cs.columbia.edu/~angelos/Papers/2012/Fog_Computing_Position_Paper
_WRIT_2012.pdf

b.

http://www.dataversity.net/the-future-of-cloud-computing-fog-computing-and-theinternet-of-things/

c.

https://www.researchgate.net/post/Which_are_the_differences_between_Fog_Comput
ing_and_Mobile_Cloud_Computing

d.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fog_computing

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