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Viren Lee UUme r rs) gS Express Publishing Reading & Writing TARGETS Student's Book CIAL eas d nos” Virginia Evans - Jenny Dooley Express Publishing Published by Express Publishing Liberty House, New Greenham Park, Newbury, Berkshire RG19 6HW Tel.: (0044) 1625 817 963 (0044) 1635 817 463, ‘e-mail: inquiries @expresspublishing.co.uk http: //wwnw.expresspublishing.co.uk © Jenny Dooley - Virginia Evan, 2001 Design & ilustration © Express Publishing, 2001 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by ‘any means, electronic, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publishers. First published 2001 ‘Second impression 2002 ISBN 1-84325.267-8 Acknowledgements ‘Authors’ Acknowledgemer We would like to thank al the staff at Express Publishing who have contributed their skils to producing this book. Thanks are due in Particular tothe following for their support and patience: Chris Woods (editor in chief); Steve Ladd (Senior editor); Rebecca Yates and Richard Howell (editorial assistants); John Morgan (senior production controler); Brian Eastwood and the Express Publishing design team; and Geotirey Cooper, Sheilagh Brislan, vill Jones and Trevor Derry. We would also lke to thank those institutions and teachers Who piloted the manuscript, and whose comments and feedback were invaluable in the production of the book: Photograph Acknowledgements AUDIO VISUAL ~ p. 4 (bottom right), p. 7, p. 16 (Picture B), p. 16 (Mickey Mouse © DISNEY) HVH — p. 18 REUTERS — p. 28, p. 31 (lef), p. 48 (Picture B) Colour ilustrations: Evan — p. 22; Nathan — pp. 35, 29 ‘While every effort has been made to trace all the copyright holders, if any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity. [iis oo UNIT 1 pa Writing Strategies: Contents READING SKILLS '* recognition of style & type of writing ‘reading for gist/specitic information + reconstructing a text (ore ted * planning a composition * techniques for beginningslendings GRAMMAR * linking words/phrases * error correction UNIT2 pia Everyday People '* reading for gistspecific information ‘reconstructing a text © an arlcle dascribing a beat fiend * linking words/phrases * relative clauses # error correction UNITS p.16 What a Character! '* reading for specific information? detailed understanding ‘recognition of style & type of wring © an arlcle describing a favourite TV character * linking words/phrases * adjectives # error correction UNIT4 p20 From All Four Comers of the World ~ reading for specific information ‘reading for gist * description of senses/erowds/actvty © anartcle describing a town/city adjectives * relative clauses UNITS p24 Four Walls and a Root ** reading for specific information reading for gist reconstructing a text * description of location * an article describing a famous building = the passive UNIT6——_p.28 A Time to Celebrate '* reading for specific information reconstructing a text © an atcie describing a celebration * formation of adjectives * adjectives with -inged UNIT? p.32 So the Story Goes * reading for specific information! detailed understanding ‘reconstructing a text * description of emotions * a firstperson navrative ‘ Tenses: past simple, past continuous, past perfect * linking words/phrases UNITS p36 * reading for gisvspecii information * description of weather/atmosphere * adjectives/adverbs What a Roliet! * identifying chronological sequence | a third-person narrative * similes UNIT 9 p.40 | © reading for gistispocific information | techniques for baginningsiendings | * linking worderphrases Pros and Cons. ‘© matching topics to paragraphs | © a ‘for-and-against article UNIT 40.44 ‘A Matter of Opinion * reading for specific information * reconstructing a text * Techniques for beginningsiendings * anarticle giving the writer's opinion ‘= linking words/phrases UNITTT pa Front Page News * reading for gisspectic information! detailed understanding + recognition of style & type of writing * Techniques for beginning reports '¢ a nows report * the passive * directreported speech ‘relative clauses UNIT42 ps2 Making a Judgement About ... * reading for detailed understanding ‘= matching topics to paragraphs ‘formal & informal siyie ‘an assessment report % linking words/phrases: * the passive «# formavinformal language UNIT13 p56 Drop Me a Line . * reading for specifi information ‘© matching texts to visual prompts * techniques for beginning & ending aletter * a letter tolling a friend one’s news ‘tenses for pastirecent! current events, plans ‘ formalinformal language UNIT 14 p.60 We'd Love It You . ~ reading for specific information ‘© matching topics to paragraphs ‘a let of invitation to a fiend * a letter accepting/refusing an invitation from a relative * error cowrection UNIT15 pce * reading for detailed understanding ‘© matching topics to paragraphs ‘reconstructing a text "= making suggestions ‘a letter offering advice to a relative ‘* advice/suggestion — ‘sp. conditionals type 2 UNIT16 p68 ‘reading for specie information formal & informal sivie * linking words/phrases: Not up to My ‘¢ matching topics to paragraphs | * making complaints Expectations + recognition of style & type of writing | # a formal letter of complaint UNIT 47 p-72 | © roading for detailed understanding | formal & informal siyle ‘ang form, to + infinitive Job Hunting ‘reading for specific information | # a formal letter applying for a job | * verbs with prepositions + prepositions UNIT18 ——p.76 With Reference To reading for specific information ‘* matching text to notes formal & informal sivie # a formal transactional letter requesting information * directindirect questions '* error corection TYPES OF COMPOSITION When you write a composition or essay, you are often, asked to write your answer in the form of an article, a report, a letter, etc. ARTICLES are found in magazines and newspapers (0.9. schoo! newspaper, magazine for young children, etc). All of the following may be written in the form of an article © Descriptive compositions about people, places, | objects, etc ‘ Narrative descriptions or stories about real or imaginary events which happened in the past * Discursive essays, about arguments concerning particular subjects, which include: “opinion essays, giving your personal opinion, and - for-and-against essays, giving the opposing arguments for both sides (e.g. pros v. cons) REPORTS are similar to articles but have a more formal, factual style, and each kind has its own special format and features. Compositions in the form of reports include: ‘© News reports about recent events (e.g. accidents, earthquakes, etc), such as those found in newspapers ‘© Assessment reports discussing the suitability of a person, a place, a proposed plan, etc ‘= Reviews discussing a film, book, restaurant, etc and giving your opinion/recommendation LETTERS are written to a specific person/group (e.g. your parents, the Town Council, ete) for a specific reason (e.g. to make a complaint, to apply for ajob, etc). Compositions, in this form include: Friendly letters to people we know, usually about personal matters, in informal style Formal letters to officials/managers/etc, about officialbusiness matters, in formal style * Posteards to friends or relatives ‘There are several other kinds of informative writing, each with its own format and features. (You are not often asked to write compositions in these forms.) They include: * Instructions on how to make, use or do something (eg. bake a cake, operate a washing machine, etc) * Leaflets giving information, advice, etc © Public notices, warnings, etc * Advertisements and announcements | * Memos, notes and other short messages ae §O The greatest thing | IEG} about camping isf being outdoors under | the open sky with lots / of fresh air. On the ‘other hand, it’s not/ much fun when it's Pouring with rain and all sorts of insects try / to take shelter inside your sleeping bag, 1 Read extrocts A-D cand decide which is from: a descriptive article a narrative article a for-and-against article an opinion article was a cold winter night and I was sitting in the living on watching TV. | suddenly smelt smoke, and when | Jooked towards the kitchen | saw orange flames ey from the cooker. “Help!” | screamed. “The kitchen's ‘on fre!” On @iian, in the north of Italy, is one of the most elegant cities in the world. It is famous for its magnificent Gothic cathedral, the Duomo, and for being one of the Bet) major fashion capitals of G4 the word. ae PO tn conctsion yer j believe that computers | HE Play a very important feeatiay le in education. They | ‘save students time and they also help make learning fu 2 Read extracts EG cond decide which is from: a news report an assessment report a film review @ Robin Hood, Prince of Thieves is at wonderful film. The stars’ great performances, the fantastic music and the beautiful scenery will definitely make an impression on you! @ __ To: Ms Karen Jackson, Director of Studies From: Mrs Janice Freud, Administrative Assistant ‘Subject: Classroom Facilities at Mereton College Introduction The purpose of this report is to assess the class- room facilities existing at present at Mereton College. QUAKE HITS SAN JOSE 3 Read extracts HJ GD Dear Barbara, i New York i a fescnatng| ely. In having such a Wwondertal time tere that 1; a formal letter don't want to leave! a friendly letter Anyway, see you in a week, a posteard love, Emily J @ Dear Sir/Madam, am writing to aj ic Tam wr ply for the position of Advertised inthe Lambert Daily of Pithdune, lave recently completed a course in Cookery at = College. At present I am employed at Joe's fé in Lambert. My duties mainly include the preparation of desserts, © Dear Viele Ray —Thave a problem and | need your advice. . Ive decided to ¢hdy msi, and my parents don't approve. ive been trang. to cowince them, but yo ron how old-fashioned ‘heal The think that Il never take enough money 36 2 musician Writing Strategies @ Read extracts K-N @* Beat the eggs well. / and decide which * Add salt, pepper and is from: a little milk. arecipe * Heat the butter ina aleatlet frying pan. '* Add the mixture and 2 publicnatice COok for five minute an advertisement he @ Safety Rules for a Burglar-Free Home ‘* Make sure you lock all doors before you leave the house. © Check that all windows are securely closed. For a two-bedroom flat £40 a week (bills not included) Call Sue, Tel: (01582) 450450 COMPOSITION INSTRUCTIONS * Composition instructions — also called the ‘rubric’ — often describe an imaginary situation which you will write about (e.g. "You are a newspaper reporter..." “You are planning to spend a few months at a language schoo! in Britain ..", etc). This may suggest whotwhat you are, what has happened, why you are writing, etc. ‘© The instructions also suggest the imaginary reader of what you write. This may be a specific person (e.g. the manager of the hotel where you recently stayed), oF a general type of person (e.g. the readers of a fashion magazine for teenagers). A composition should be written in a style which suits the particular reader. * You will often be told to include a number of specific topics in your answer (e.g. “Desoribe what happened and say how you felt ...", “Describe the building and its facilities, and comment on its good and bad points..." KEY WORDS ‘The key words in the instructions are those which tell you about the type of writing, the situation, the reader | and the specific topics. itis very useful to underine the | key words, and make a list of the specific topics. | e.g. A travel magazine has asked you to write an article about an unusual holiday destination, mentioning how to get there and what young people can see and do there. Write your article in 120-180 words. Writing Strategies 5 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions. ‘This announcement recently appeared in “Waves”, a magazine you read regularly, and you have decided to enter the competition. COMBEYTION I Write your article for the competition in 100 - 150 words. 1. What type of composition is this? A. affriendly letter © anews report B a descriptive article Dan opinion article 2. Which of these statements are true? ‘You know the reader(s) personally. The readers of Waves magazine are probably very similar to you in age and interests. You shouid write in a very formal, impersonal style. Your composition may include facts, description and your own feelings. E Your composition must inciude all of the specific topics mentioned in the instructions. F You should write about a famous person you have met in real life. 3. Who should you not describe, and why? A a great athlete D_ your favourite rock star B your best friend Ea fashion supermodel © afl star you hate F your English teacher PLANNING YOUR COMPOSITION « List the specific topics mentioned in the composition instructions. © “Brainstorm” for ideas — i.e. write down any ideas, words/phrases, etc you can think of which are related to the general subject. ‘© Choose which of these you will use, and group them into, main topics. Check that these include all of the specific topics you have listed — you may include more topics, but you must not leave out any of the specific topics. © Choose suitable topics for the introduction and the conclusion (see “Composition Layout"). oO o> © a) Look at the rubric in Ex. 5 again. Find the specific topics mentioned in the instructions ‘and write them as headings below. 1 __ Appearance b) ist these words/phrases under the correc headings above. ‘generous well-buit casual clothes handsome well-dressed enjoys cooking determined wide grin friendly brown eyes likes baseball smart suits likes ten-pin bowling caring tall plays golf with friends exes m nuked | Most compositions (e.g. articles, letters, narrative stories, etc)* have three basic parts — an introduction, ‘a main body and a conclusion. a. Introduction The introduction is a short paragraph in which we give the reader a general idea of the subject of the | composition, and attract their attention so that they | want to continue reading, b.Main Body In the main body we develop points related to the subject of the composition. This part usually consists of two or more paragraphs, depending on the subject. | [Each paragraph should deal with points related to | |the same topic. We start a new paragraph each time | |we begin to discuss a new topic. For example, in a for-and-against article, the main body will have one paragraph about advantages, and a second about disadvantages. ¢. Conclusion ‘The conclusion is @ short final paragraph in which we | summarise the main idea of the subject, restate our | opinion using different words, discuss the results of | the main event, etc. | * Instructions, notices, messages, etc do not always follow this paragraph layout om> om> Which of these topics would be most suitable for the introduction to a descriptive article about @ famous sportsman? the history of the sport which this person plays ‘who the person is and why he is famous ‘whether sportsmen should be paid so much b} Which of these topies would be most suitable for the conclusion to the same article? the sportsman’s childhood and early career other famous people — actors, politicians, ete what the writer and other people feel about him Fee's My Here! Ifyou are a sports fan, you are sure to know the name Michael Jordan, because he is probably the greatest basketball player the world has ever seen. Although his career as a player is over, his fame will live on for many years tocome. | Michael Jordan certainly looks like a] star. He is tall, well-built and handsome, with friendly brown eyes and a wide grin. He always manages to look well- dressed, whether he is wearing the casual clothes he prefers, or smart suits for important occasions. dl His personality, too, is as outstanding as his playing abilty. Michael is a very determined person, which was one of the reasons he was such a successful basketball star. He is also very generous, and has given lots of money and support to charts. J In his tree time, Michaelis a man who ] prefers simple pleasures. One of his favourite pastimes is playing golf with his friends. He also likes baseball and ten- pin bowling. He enjoys cooking, too, and he often prepares delicious meals for his family, Alin all, | admire Michael Jordan not only because he was a great athlete, but also because he is such a warm, caring person. Is it any wonder that so many boys have dreamed of growing up to be just lke him? Writing Strategies 8 a) Read the article and label the paragraphs with these headings. ‘© writer's/people's feelings about him © free-time activities * personality name, why famous —_® appearance b) Read the article again ond answer the ‘questions. Who is the article about, and why is he famous? 2 What examples does the writer give to support the statement that Jordan “looks like a star”? ‘What does the writer say about Jordan's personality? What examples are given to support this opinion? Writing Strategies * In some types of composition — especialy articles and discursive essays — it is a good idea to begin each paragraph of the main body with a topic sentence. This is @ sentence which introduces or summarises the main topic of the paragraph, to give readers an idea of what they are going to read. ‘* This is followed by supporting sentences which give examples, details, etc to develop and support the topic sentence. Tom likes doing all sorts of | tople different things in his spare time. sentence He loves swimming and spends hhours at the pool. He also likes supporting collecting old cinema posters sentences and watching fms on video. 9 — Read the paragraph below ond underline the topic sentence. What is the main topic of the paragraph? Which sentence is not relevant to the main topic? ‘There are so many exciting things to do here! For \ example, yesterday | took my first scuba-diving lesson. _ The food is delicious, too. | am going water-skiing this) afternoon, and I've been invited to a birthday party orm Saturday night! 4 10 4) Recd the main body of the article in Ex. 8 again, and underline the topic sentence in each paragraph. b) Which sentences below could replace the topic sentences in the article, and which are not relevant to the main topic of the paragraph? Paragraph 2 ‘A Michael Jordan is @ hero, not only to me but to everyone who enjoys basketball. B Michael Jordan’s appearance is naturally part of his image as a celebrity, Paragraph 3 ‘A Michael has excellent personal qualities to match his looks and sporting talents. B Michael set more records in his basketball career than any other player in the game. Paragraph 4 ‘A Leaving professional basketball has given him more free time for his many other interests. B Michael is not as good at other sports as he was at basketball. 11 3999999979777 77D 99999ddIID 12 ban Read the paragraphs ond choose the best topic sentence. What type of composition is each paragraph taken from? 'A Public transport is the best way for people to get to work. B There are several good reasons for using public transport rather than cars. © Public transport is not as comfortable as cars. First of all, public transport produces less pollution | than cars, 0 it is better for the environment. ‘Secondly, itis cheaper to use public transport than to buy a car and then pay for petrol, insurance and maintenance. Public transport is also safer, as the drivers are more experienced than most motorists. | | s AA Ill always remember my grandparents’ garden, B My grandparents had the pretiest house in the neighbourhood. ' C | remember that my very busy. grandparents were always My grandmother, who was a keen gardener, used to | ‘spend hours there looking after the plants. There | was a huge, green lawn with a big pond in the middle of it. The pond had a fountain and lots of | Colourful fish. At the bottom of the garden there was | a big old tree with a swing and all around the lawn there were beautiful rose bushes, NN Read the paragraphs and suggest @ suitable topic sentence for each. What type of composition is each paragreph taken from? He has got a handsome face, shoulder-length | black hair and big blue eyes. He always manages | to look well-dressed, whether he is wearing an | expensive suit or casual clothes. | Firstly, itis the best way to learn another language. It | also offers the chance to get to know different | cultures and customs. What is more, it provides an | ‘opportunity to meet people from diferent backgrounds | and to experience another way of livin There are some writing techniques which we can use to make the beginning and ending of a composition more interesting to the reader. For example, to begin or end an article, we can’ a. address the reader directly — i.e. we write as if we | were speaking to the reader, using the word “you”. | eg. You all know how important friends are. | b use direct speech to give somebody's exact words, ra quotation from a famous writer, celebrity, etc. In both cases we have to use quotation marks. ‘@9. “Always look on the bright side of tte,” my friend ‘Maggie used to tell me. © ask a rhetorical question — i.e. a question which does not expect an answer. e.g. What would life be like without friends? 13> o) Read these beginnings and endings and say which techniques from the theory box above have been used. 1 Have you ever met someone who changed the { | [a] way you looked at the world around your Wel, | have. That person was my history teacher, Mr | OO jones: 2. in conclusion, | feel very fortunate to have met [] mrs Daniels. am sure that you would also feel | the same way if you had met her. | 3 “Don't worry = tomorrow is another day,” Sue = ells me whenever fm upset: she's always there 2 |S for me, in good times and bad, because she's | C1 a reai friend. after all, that’s what friends are 9 for, isn't ita i> a | 4 Which is more important in life - money or [1] Friendshipe would you want to be rich if this § (Meant that you had no real friends “Friends are worth more than’ gold,” my grandmother 2 often used to say, and 1 believe that she was + absolutely right 5 b) Read the first ond last paragraphs of the article in Ex. 8 again, and say which of the techniques above have been used. Writing Strategies We do not use the same sort of writing style for every ‘composition. There is a variety of styles we can use (e.g. formal or informal, personal or impersonal, descriptive or factual), and we must choose the most appropriate style for each writing task © The appropriate style for a composition depends on the type of composition, the situation suggested in the rubric, and who the imaginary reader is. For instance, a letter teling a friend our news should be ‘chatty’ (i.e. informal, personal and descriptive), while a letter of application to the manager of a company should be formal, factual and polite. © The two main kinds of writing style are formal and informal, which usually include other features such as, impersonal, factual, eto. The main characteristics are shown below. (Remember that we may combine these features in slightly aifferent ways for each situation and imaginary reader.) FORMAL - Formal expressions and vocabulary e.g. (The purpose of this report is f0 assess ..) | -Litle or no use of short forms (i.e. !™m, he’s) | e.g. ifs its at all possible, He | would prefer = Formal linking words/phrases (In addition, However, Consequently, etc); longer sentences Impersonal - Frequent use of the passive = Little or no description of emotions Factual - Facts and statistics; ‘neutral’ description e.g. The building, completed in 1877, is quite large and ‘much taller than the other houses in the square... INFORMAL - Everyday expressions and vocabulary, idioms | e.g. (I thought I'd drop you a line to tell you about ...) | - Frequent use of short forms. @.g. We're having a great time, and its lovely to see ... | - Simple linking words/phrases (and, but, so, because, | etc); shorter sentences Personal - First person (I/we); addressing the reader directly | - Frequent description/discussion of emotions | Descriptive - Variety of adjectives/adverbs/etc for vivid description | e.g, This beautiful, enormous od building dates back to | Victorian times. its red brick front towers over the tiny square 10 Writing Strategies 14 ] Match the short extracts (1-4) to the styles described (A-D). 1. Inconclusion, itis recommended that the plan to build an extension to Baines High School be accepted. The existing buildings are not sufficient for the number of pupils and extra classrooms are therefore required. 2. The’silent city’ of Mdina is as beautiful as itis historic. Visitors can admire the lovely ancient buildings and enjoy wandering through the narrow, winding streets. 3. Furthermore, | was extremely disappointed with the standard of the maid service. The sheets were worn and old and the towels looked grey instead of white. | must say had expected more from a three-star hotel. 4 We had a lovely time by the lake. The weather was super and it didn't rain once. Jack enjoyed himself fishing, of course, and I caught up on some reading very formal, impersonal, factual informal, friendly, ‘chatty ‘uite formal, descriptive formal, polite, personal b) Now, match the short extracts above to these types of composition. vom> a letter to a friend, telling him/her the writer's news an article in a travel magazine a letter of complaint to the manager of a hotel an assessment report on a proposed plan vou> 15 ) Read the rubric ond underline the key words, then answer the questions. Your teacher has asked you to write a composition discussing this statement: “Borrowing and lending can destroy friendships.” Write your composition, giving your personal opinion. (120-180 words) 1. What type of composition is this? A -anopinion essay Ban assessment report 2 Who is the imaginary reader of the composition? A your friends B your teacher 3 What style would be most suitable? A. quite formal, impersonal B_ very informal, personal, ‘chatty’ 4 Which of these extracts is not in the appropriate style? What features are not appropriate? ‘A. You shouldn't lend things to your friends, because maybe you won't get them back. lent a friend £10 once and he took ages to pay me back. That doesn't help a friendship, I'm sure you'll agree. B However, it would not be wise to lend a friend expensive items, since if these items were lost or damaged, the friendship would also be damaged, PANT eMcens Yana) Linking words and phrases can make our writing more interesting by joining short, simple sentences into ‘one longer sentence. It can also make our writing easier to understand, by showing how the ideas or events in two | sentences/paragraphs are related. | © Some inking words can join two short sentences into | one longer sentence. e.g. My dog's name is Blackie. | love him a lot. My dog's name is Blackie and I love him a lot. He leams quickly. He's a clever dog. He learns quickly because he’s a clever dog. Words/phrases of this sort include: | and, but, so, because, since, etc Some linking words/phrases show how the ideas or events in two sentences are related, but they don't join the sentences into one longer sentence. e.g. The food in the new restaurant is delicious. The service is quick and very friendly. | The food in the new restaurant is delicious. In | addition, the service is quick and very friendly. Words/phrases of this sort include: | In addition, Furthermore, Moreover, However, AS a result, On the other hand, ete * In the same way, we can use linking words/phrases to show how two paragraphs are related. We've already painted all the) What has rooms and we've finished unpacking } been done ‘our things. We've also planted some 4 lovely flowers in the front garden. However, there are a few things ) CONTRAST | we still need to do. We haven't put Y | the curtains up yet, and we haven't] What hasn't | ordered a sofa for the sitting room. been done Linking words/phrases can be used - show time (when, whenever, before, unt, while, as ‘soon as, etc) = list points or show sequence (First{ly), First of all, To start with, Secondly, Nex, then, Afterwards, After thisithat, Finally, Last[ly), etc) add more points (and, also, to0, Moreover, What is mare, in addition, Furthermore, etc) | | -show cause/etfect (because, as, so, Therefore, etc) give examples (such as, especially, For example, For instance, etc) -show contrast (although, but, However, On the ‘other hand, etc) - introduce a conclusion (Finally, Lastly, Allin all, In ‘conclusion, To sum up, etc) 16 choose the corred linking word/phrase, as in the example. 1 He called the police when/then- he realised that a burglar had broken into his neighbour's house. 2 Travelling by train is usually cheaper than driving. Howeveriln addition, itis more relaxing 3. Helen didn't go to the Chinese restaurant with us, butlbecause she doesn't like Chinese food. 4 I love the work of artists such as/for example Ven Gogh and Matisse. 5 Kim never eats healthy food, but/so she always looks fit and well 17 Fill in the correct word/phrase from the list. secondly, finally, first of all, such as, and Exercising regularly offers many advantages. 1)... | fegular exercise helps you to lose weight 2) . tone up your body. B) caernerecrmacceccsey it improves your body's abilty to fight illnesses 4) ‘colds and flu 5) . exercise reduces stress levels and makes you feel happier. 18 Choose the correct linking word/phrase ond write the completed senteness). 1. Not everyone enjoys travelling by plane. It is one of the safest means of travel. _(although/As a result) 2. Itwas beginning to get dark. We tured on the light (so/Furthermore) 3 Cars are convenient for getting around. They harm the environment. (because/On the other hand) 4 Rachel loves dogs. She is allergic to them. (even though/Moreover) Writing Strategies 5 Gary likes classical music. His brother likes rock music. (but/in addition) 6 Several species are endangered because their natural habitat is being destroyed. They may be threatened by illegal hunting. (What is more/Despite) 19 Read the text and correct the mistakes. “Its very hard to live up to an image", Elvis Presley once said. The famous singer didn't managed to live up to his own image as a sucessful star. Elvis was the bigger teenage idol in america in the 1950s and 60s, but he couldn't to cope with being such famous. He put on more and more weight and spent his lastly few years hidding from the outside world 1 in *Graceland’, his enormous home in Memphis, Tennessee. 1 Read the instructions and underline the key words. | Identify the type of writing (e.g. for-and-against article, | narrative story, etc), the situation and imaginary reader. | Decide which style of writing is most suitable, and list | the specific topics which the rubric tells you to discuss. |2. Brainstorm for any ideas, words/phrases, etc which are | related to the general subject. Choose which ideas you | will use and group these into main topics. Check that | these include the specific topics given in the rubric, |3. Plan the layout of your composition and check that you | have a separate paragraph for each main topic. Write a | topic sentence for each paragraph of the main body. | | | | Sib Searousonae 4 Choose suitable topics for the introduction and the conclusion, and think of writing techniques to make the beginning and ending more interesting. 5 Write your composition in the style which is most suitable for the reader and situation. Use appropriate linking words/phrases to join short sentences and to show how your ideas, sentences and paragraphs are related. 6 Check your composition carefully and correct any | errors of speling, punctuation, grammar, etc. nN Everyday 1 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions. Your school newspaper has asked you to write an article about an interesting person you know well, describing his/her appearance, personality and hobbiestinterests Write your article for the newspaper in 120-180 words. 1 What type of composition is this? A atriendly letter. CC anews report B anassessment Da descriptive report article 2 Who should you not describe, and why? A aboring relative Ca neighbour B famous person D_a close friend you've nevermet of yours 3. Which specific topics must be included in your composition? Put a tick (¥). hobbies/interests ... job/career appearance daily routine plansfambitions personality 4 Which topies/points could you include in the introduction and conclusion? Put 1 (introduction), C (conclusion), or a cross () for points you would probably not use. the person's name his/her childhood/early life feelings/comments about him/her relationship (i.e. fiend, workmate, etc) wheniwhere/how you met him/her 2 aj Read the article and label the paragraphs with these headings. * general information ® personality *hobbiesiinterests __® appearance © wnter's commentsjteelings 12 b) Read the topic sentences (A-D) and match them to the gaps in the article (1-3). One of the sentences does not fit. ‘A. His personality is an interesting mixture of contrasts. B_ Max's appearance often makes people think he must be an actor or pop star. © His appearance and personality make him seem older than he is. D_ Inhis free time, Max loves excitement and action. <] Which of these writing techniques ore used in the introduction and conclusion? addressing the reader directly using direct speech © asking a rhetorical question d) Which person in the pictures (A-C) does the article describe? Which words/phrases make you think so? An Interesting Neighbour I first met my friend Max Westlake two years ago when he knocked on my door. “Hello,” he said warmly. "My name is Max, and I've just moved in next door, so 'm your new neighbour.” 7]_]He is a handsome, well-dressed young man in his early twenties, Max is quite tall and slim, with hazel eyes and carefull-styled light brown hair. He tikes wearing expensive clothes such as leather jackets and sik scarves. 2]_]He has a great sense of humour, and I love | a Para 1 Introduction Para2 to listen to his amusing stories. What's more, he is very kind-hearted person who is always ready to help a friend in need. On the other hand, though, he can seem arrogant and conceited sometimes because he likes to be the centre of attention. S]_]He enjoys dangerous sports such as bungee jumping and hang gliding. He's a great dancer, too, and he often goes to clubs and discos. Alin all, fe is never dull when Max is around. Who wouldnt be happy to have him for a friend and neighbour? Para3 Main Body Para 4 5 Para 5 3 8 3 — Read the article again and answer the questions. 10 is Max? 2 What ‘does he look like? 3 What does he usually wear? 4 What kind of a person is he? - ‘5 What style does the wrter use to ta ‘about Max: personal or impersonal 6 Which tenses does the writer use to desoribe Max? soncenssss® 4 Fill in the correct word from the list, then use the expressions to talk about Max. amusing, centre, early, dangerous, hazel, humour, Kinc-hearted, leather 1 twenties | 4 a sense of 2 eyes | 5 the of attention BB erenmnnennnnes JACKE | 6 snsnemneennnne SPOS STUDY TIP ‘© When we describe a person’s physical appearance, we normally start.with the more general features (e.g. height, build, age) and go on to the more specific ‘ones (e.g. eyes, nose, hair, etc). ‘As part of a description of somebody's appearance, we often describe the clothes they wear. eg. Joe is a tall, well-built man in his twenties. He has got beautiful green eyes, dark brown hair and a beard. He usually wears blue jeans and sweaters. 5 Circle the odd word out in each group. Can you think of more words to add? tall, @lump> of average height, short thin, muscular, well-built, shoulder-length, jim, plump in his/her late thirties, in his/her early teens, smal, teenager, middle-aged brown, almond-shaped, square, large big, upturned, hooked, tall, small, straight blondie), curly, wavy, short, straight, big moustache, scar, blouse, beard, dimples, freckles, mole, glasses jeans, skirt, T-shirt, cardigan, raincoat, high-heeled shoes, ‘suit, shorts, tracksuit Everyday People 6 Fill in the blanks with good, kind or well, then make sentences as in the example. 4 looking | 5 dressed 2 built | 6 natured 3 ~hearted | 7 - behaved 4 ..- mannered | 8 - humoured John is @ good-looking man in his early thirties. 7 a) Study the examples, then fill in the gops using and, who, with or as well as. * Paul has got big blue eyes. He's got dark, curly hair. Paul has got big blue eyes and dark, curly hair. Paul has got big blue eyes as well as dark, curly hair. * Paul is a plump boy. He has got dark, curly hai. Paul is a plump boy who has got dark, curly hair. Paul is a plump boy with dark, curly hair. A. Nancy is a pretty girl in her late teens 1) istall 2) sevens SHIM, 3) nnn fl Nai, Bright blue eyes 4) a small, straight nose. B Tom, 1)... is in his mid-thirties, is a tall, well built Man 2)... almond-shaped eyes, 3) ‘an upturned nose 4) a moustache, b) Rewrite this short description, using the linking words/phrases above. Jerry is forty years old. He is of average height. He is muscular. He has got big blue eyes. He has got short, blond hair. He has got a beard. He likes wearing casual clothes 8 Use vocabulary from Exs. 5 and 6, and the linking words in Ex. 7, to describe the people in the pictures. Shei Everyday People ‘* When we describe someone's character/personalty, we should justify our opinions — i.e. explain the reason for our opinion, andlor give examples to show what we mean, 4. Opinion: Rob is a very patient person. Justification: He is always calm and never loses his temper. « Ifwe want to talk about somebody's negative qualities, we use mild language. Instead of saying Sue is rude, itis better to say Sue tends to be rude or Sue can be rude at times. QD Match the adjectives to their justifications. Which are positive? Which are negative? Use the adjectives to describe members of your family, students in your class etc, as in the example, ‘My mother is a very energetic woman. She likes to keep active by taking part in various actives, such as ... On the other hand, she can be bossy sometimes, Adjectives Justifications 1 cheerful | [Ta]is nervous about meeting Ps people, etc ps (1B) cares only about him/herself 3 hard-working | [Ta likes to be active al the time aay [1d] makes people laugh 5 energetic — | [Tay is always in a good mood: 6 ambitious | [T7] isn't polite to other people 7 selfish (Cg) hates working hard 8 amusing | LIB] loves meeting people 9 rude 11] wants to become successful Honey [7 doesn't mind working long hours IW thinks he/she is better/more 11 bossy important than anybody else 12 kind-hearted | [Tj] tells everyone what to do 43 arrogant [Cn gives a lot to other people [iis always ready to help people [19] gets angry if he/she has to wait for something 14 impatient 15 generous 10 @) Fill in the gaps with the correct words/phrases from the lists. ——————— ‘also — so — who 4 My brother i$ a very hard-working person 1) doesn't mind working long hours. He 2) wants to become successiul, 3) . very ambitious. pee ire NS me Forinetancs ar or What is more ~ WhO meeting people. 3) ‘an optimistic person 4) bright side in diffcut situations. 5) 7 she tends to be a bit bossy sometimes, she likes teling people what to do. linking words/phrases given. who — In addition, — and On the other hand, — For example, Mrs Richards is a hard-working person. She doesn't mind working long hours. She is generous. She loves giving her friends presents. She can be rather impatient. She hates it when shop assistants take a long time to serve her. 11 Read the short text and correct the tense/ form of the verbs underlined. first have met Sharon last year, so €.9.... met | don't knew her very long. However, 1 we soon become best friends and we always are spending our free time together. She is liking the same things | does, such as music, sports and books, and we both enjoyed the same TV shows. There was nothing better than to having someone who you can to share your interests with, and who . will listen to you when you willwant 10°10... talk about your problems. warousen WRITING When we write a descriptive article about a person, we ‘can divide it into five paragraphs. * In the introduction, we give general information — e.9. who the person is, when/where we met, etc. ‘In the second paragraph, we describe the person's appearance (e.g. his/her physical appearance, clothes) «In the third paragraph, we describe his/her personality, giving examples to justify our opinion. in the fourth paragraph, we write about the person's hobbies/interests. ‘In the conclusion, we make general comments about the person and describe our feelings for him/her. 12 Read the rubric, underline the key words, then read the article ond number the paragraphs. Why has the writer used past tenses? Who is going to read your article? Your teacher has asked you to write an article for your class magazine, with the title “A Person Ill Never Forget.” Write your article describing the person's appearance, character and hobbies/interests. A Person I'll Never Forget [AT_] Dale was full of energy and spent every minute ‘of his free time outdoors. He enjoyed going on long bike rides or playing football in the streets, and he was very ‘good at sports. Everyone wanted to be in his team, and they were jealous of me because I was his best friend. B]_] Dale was no angel, but he was so bright and ffiendly that everybody liked him. Although he was often naughty, breaking school rules and coming late to lessons, the teachers were never really angry with him. [CT] | can stil remember how he looked that day. In fact, his appearance never changed in all the years | knew him. He was taller than me, with a cheeky grin and untidy, curly brown hair, and he always wore jeans and _ trainers, even for parties and other special occasions. D[_] 1 met Dale on my very first day at school. | was, | standing in the playground, feeling afraid and lonely, | when a boy ran past me and shouted, “Hello — my name's Dale! Come and play!” | accepted his invitation, and we were soon the best of friends. E]_] Dale's family moved away a few years ago and | haven't seen him since, but Il always remember him. How could | ever forget the boy with the friendly grin ‘who made my early school years so much fun? Everyday People 13 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions to plan your composition in detail. Your favourite magazine is holding a competition for the best article entitled “Friends for Life”, and you have decided to enter. Write your article for the competition, describing your best friend's appearance, personality and hobbies/interests. (100 - 180 words) 1 © What type of composition is this? * Who is going to read your article? ‘What style will you use? © What are the specific topics you must include? 2 © Who will you describe? What does he/she look like? What vocabulary can you use to describe his/her ‘appearance? * How would you describe his/her personality? What examples could you give to justify your description? ‘© What are his/her hobbies/interests? 3. © How many main body paragraphs will there be? ‘What will each paragraph be about? What topic sentences will you use? 4 © What topics will you use for the introduction and conclusion? ‘© What writing techniques will you use to make the beginning and ending more interesting? 5. © What linking words/phrases will you use? What tenses will you use? 14 Use your answers to the questions above, es well as the plan below, to write your composition following the rubric in Ex. 13. Use the texts in Exs. 2 and 12 as models. Plan wT } Introduction Poragraph 1: name, where/when you met, efe. J’ wi Paragraph 2 appearance Paragraph 3: personality ; Paragraph 4 hobbies/inferests { , \ Conclusion Paragraph §: your feelings/comments about him/her wb 16 Read the rubric below and underline the key words, then conswer the questions. Your local library publishes a monthly newsletter, and has asked library members for articles entitled “My Favourite Fictional Character’. Write an article for the newsletter, about ‘a character from a book you have read. Describe his/her appearance and personality, and include your feelings and ‘comments about the character. (120- 180 words) What type of composition is this? A abook review B a descriptive article Who will read your article? A journalists B library members Who should you not describe, and why? A a character from a comic strip B the star of your favourite TV series © a famous person you admire D a character in a book you have read Which specific topics must you include in your composition? Put a tick (). appearance & personality critics’ comments about the book feelings/comments about character other books by the same author Which points will you include in the introduction? Put a tick (7). the character's name .» the ttle of the book & author's name description of other characters you like in the same book . Why you decided to read the book background information (e.g. where! who the characteris, etc) a) Read the article and label the paragraphs with these headings. ‘© writer's feelings * appearance * general information * personel b] Fill in the gaps with linking words/phrases from th list, as in the example. while - Firstly - also - because - In conclusion - For example | Which of these writing techniques are used in th introduction and conclusion? * addressing the reader directly © asking a rhetorical questio © using direct speech ) Which character in the pictures (A-C) does the artcl describe? Which words/phrases make you think so My Favourite Fictional Character a] tte han eal one Crusoe? The main] Para 1 character of Daniel Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe is @ young sailor who is shipwrecked on a desert isiand, ‘where he spends the next twenty-eight years. [Robinson Crusoe's appearance afer years on ; Introdut island shows how dificult his ile is. His face is rough | Para 2 ‘and sunburnt from years in the hot sun, 1) ..hile his fair har and beard are dirty. His ragged clothes are ‘made from animal skins. CCrusoe's personal qualities help him overcome the ficulties he f2028. 2) nnn » His imaginative, He finds clever ways to make the things he needs, Main Body 3) . he uses coconut shells for pots and builds a house from wood and stone. Crusoe is 4) very determined and brave, and never ives up the struggle to survive, He shows his bravery when he saves prisoner, Man Friday, from being |_ killed by savage natives. 5) cnn» these qualities = Para3 Para 4 Robinson Crusoe my favourite fictional character. You should definitely read the book, 6) . you will meet one of the most unusual and. most popular characters in English iterature. Conclusion Bene Read the article again and answer the questions. ‘Who is Robinson Crusoe? 2 ‘What does he look er of aman i 3 What craps does the wrtr ge? 4 How does the writer feel about Robinson Crusoe? Fill in the blanks with the correct word from the list, then make sentences using the completed phrases. personal, hot, main, coconut, desert, classic character | 4 the sun sone HOvEl | 5 a island qualities | 6... .. Shells 5 a) Fill in the blanks wit! list. words from the confident, going, headed, minded, hearted, tempered, thinking, willed ) Fill in the gaps in the sentences with completed adjectives from the list above. Obelixis quite . gets very angry when people call him fat. Professor Brainard is terribly. For example, he forgets to go to his own wedding — three times! Jane Eyre i8 8 VERY sn YOUN WOMAN who is determined to marry the man she loves. Hercules Poirrot isa who believes himself to be a brillant detective. Indiana Jones is very +sohe acts sensibly and doesn't panic in difficult situations, Cruella De Vilis so... . that she plans to kill adorable Dalmatian puppies just to make a fur coat! Crocodile Dundee is very... so he doesn't easily get annoyed or upset. James Bond is a... son SOTet agent who makes briliant plans in a matter of seconds to ssave himself from danger. -,andhe person What « Character! 6 fF list. in the blanks with adjectives from the Jealous, punctual, honest, protective, inteligent, naughty 1. Oliver Twist is a(a).. . litle boy who hates stealing and doesn't like telling les 2. Sherlock Holmes is extremely... AS a result, he is able to solve the mystery of even the ‘most puzzling crime. 3 Snow White's stepmother is of her because Snow White is younger and more beautiful than she is. 4 Mulder is quite... of his partner Scully and takes care of her on dangerous missions, 5 Huckleberry Finn is very For instance, he never does what he is told and is always getting into trouble, 6 Phileas Fogg likes to be . For example, he eats his breakfast at the same time every morning and he is never late for an appointment. 7 Read the extracts (1-3) and match them to the topic sentences (A-C). A Snow White's beauty affects everyone who meets her. B Phileas Fogg is a more complicated character than he initially appears to be. © Don Quixote is a character we can both sympathise with and laugh at. Her black hair and clear pale skin make the | prince — and the seven dwarfs — fallin love with her at | frst sight. However, this same beauty is also the cause | of her stepmother's burning jealousy. pon ne of life’s dreamers. We can understand Se ucape rom realy a times, which he doos | by creating stores in his mind and continuing to believe in faiy tales. On the other hand, we also find him amusing, especially when he attacks a windmill he believes isa giant | think there's a litle of im in all of | is po. eS 7 18 What a Character! 8 A description of a fictional character may be found in various sorts of writing. Read the extracts and say which is from: 1. aletter toa friend oF relative 2. anarticle describing your favourite character 3. areview of a fim you have seen recently [A|_] Shakespeare in Love is the latest in a lon. films based on the life and works of the great English playwright. The title role is played by a newcomer, Joseph Fiennes, who portrays Shakespeare as young and attractive at the beginning of his famous career. x mn et nn — 'B|_] Thanks so much for your birthday present. Once I started reading it | just couldn't put it down. Estelle is a really fascinating character, isn't she? I hated her at first, because she is so spoilt and so rude to poor Pip, but ‘when | reached the end of the book I felt sorry for her. ot ean in LA IC|_] Are you a fan of action movies? | am — and John Maciean, the main character in three very popular and thling Die Hard fims, is my favourite action hero. a et 9 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then read the topic sentences (A-E] cond the article which follows. Match the topic sentences to the gaps in the article. ‘One of the sentences does not fit. Your teacher has asked you to write an article about a comic strip figure you consider unique. Write your article, describing his/her appearance and personality, as well as your feelings/comments about the character. ‘A Asterix also has rather an unusual personality for a Gaul B In appearance, Asterix is certainly quite distinctive. € In conclusion, it is his combination of bravery and humour which make him such a unique character. D_ One of my favourite comic strip figures is Asterix the Gaul E What Asterix enjoys most in life is fighting against the Romans, The One and Only Asterix 41} He is the main character in the comic strip series by Goscinny and Uderzo, set in ancient times when the Romans ruled the world. Asterix lives in a tiny village in Gaul, as France was called then. His village is the only one in Gaul which is not under the control of the Romans. 21] His most striking feature is that, unlike most other Gauls, he is extremely short and thin. He has got dark, friendly eyes, a big fat nose and a huge moustache. He always wears a black sleeveless shirt, a pair of red trousers and a winged helmet, the typical ‘costume of the Gauls. 31_] For one thing, he is extremely clever. As a result, he always finds ways to trick the Romans. However, he can be a very loyal friend and even puts himsett in great danger to save a fellow Gaul who has been captured by the Romans. What is more, he is good-tempered and usually manages to stay calm ‘even in the most difcut situations. 41_] He sends an important message to us all that freedom is worth fighting for. Personally, | hope that he continues to fight his comic battles for many more years to come. 10 Read the article again and answer the questions. When and where is the comic strip set? What is unusual about the village where Asterix lives? ‘What is unusual about Asterix’s appearance? ‘According to the writer, what three personal qualities, does Asterix have? What is the result of each of these qualities? According to the writer, what makes Asterix unique? ‘What is the main topic of each paragraph? What tenses are used throughout the article? Rone 11 Read the text about a character from a TV series ond correct the mistakes underlined. Mr bean is one of my favourite e.g. characters. he is an ordinary-looking 1 rman at his early forties, of medium height and quiet slim. He has brown eyes and short brown hairs, and he usually wears a brown suite. He hasn't got much friends, but he doesn't seems to mind. He likes to drove his small car and he loves his teddy bear. The most people who meet him think hes strange, but 1 10 believe he's just shy. WRITING TIP When we write an article describing a character from a bookifim/etc, we can divide it into four paragraphs: * In the introduction we give general information about the character (e.g. who/where the character is, tile of the bookifilmletc, his/her part in the story, etc) * Inthe second paragraph we describe the character's appearance (.e. physical appearance, clothes). ‘In the third paragraph we describe the character's personality, giving examples to justify our opinion. * In the conclusion we make comments about the character and describe our feelings about him/her. We normally use present tenses to describe a fictional character. Bean... CarH94ewon 12 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions. ATV guide has asked readers to submit articles about popular screen characters. Write an article about your favourite character from a film or TV series, describing his/her appearance and personality, and including your feelings/comments about the character, (100 - 180 words) 1. What type of composition is this? 2 Who will read your article? 3 Which style should you use for this reader? ‘A. very formal, factual, impersonal B semi-formal, descriptive, personal 4 What are the specific topies you must include? 5 What tenses will you use? 13 o) Who is this character? 1 2 3 4 What a Character! Which film/TV series does she appear in? b) Label the notes below with these headings, then think of appropriate topic sentences. © writer's feelingsicomments _* appearance ‘© general information * personality © FBI agent / trained scientist, doctor « partner, Fox Mulder / investigate ‘paranormat’ events (2.9. ghosts, UFOs) vaiways attractive / well-dressed ‘slim / red hair / piercing blue eyes / pale skin ‘* work — smart, comfortable clothes (e.g. trouser ‘suits, low-heeled shoes) * very inteligent / calm, practical * ‘scientific outlook / ind rational explanation for events * inteligent / calm in a crisis / useful, reliable partner * favourite TV character / combines beauty, brains, bravery ‘© admire her / determined / won't let anyone stop her in search for truth ¢) Use the prompts to talk about Dana Scully. Begin like this: Dana Scully is one of the main characters in the popular film and TV series, The X-Files. 14 Use your answers from Exs. 12 and 13, Plan as well as the picture in the Photo File Section and the plan below, to write your article about Dana Scully. Use the texts in Exs. 2 ond 9 as models. Introduction Paragraph 1: general information ‘Main Body Paragraph 2: Paragraph 3: Paragraph 4: ‘appearance personality your feelings/comments 19 1 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the ‘questions. Your teacher has asked you to write articles about the capital city of your country. Write your article about the city, describing what visitors can see and do there, as well as writing about the city’s restaurants ‘and nightlife, (120-180 words) 1. What type of composition is this? Who is. going to read this? 2 What style would you use for this article? ‘A. very formal, factual and impersonal B_ semiformal, descriptive 3 Which should youn desorbe, and why? A apretty vilage © the main city B alarge town ofa country 4 Which topics/points would you include in your composition? Put a tick (7). famous sights & tourist attractions what its lke to live in the city name of city, where it is the city's history, population & climate Complete facts about various sights the city’s trains, buses & taxis shopping areas & what to buy there restaurants and clubs 5 What tenses would you use? Why? 2 — Read the article ond label the paragraphs with these headings. ‘ nightifeleating out * things to see/do ‘* recommendation * name, location Introduction Mosteiro dos eronimos Fascinating Lisbon Lisbon, one of the oldest capitals in Europe, is situated on the west coast of Portugal. Its rich history, colourful traditions and more modem attractions make it a fascinating city. Para Castle of Saint George is a must. The castle, which is built on a hill, offers a fantastic view over the city. Directly below is Alfama, the oldest part of Lisbon. Visitors can walk along its narrow streets where they can see fish sellers carrying baskets cn their heads. In Belém, the city’s port, tourists can visit the Mosteiro dos Jerénimos, a beautiful Para2 monastery built in the 16th century. Baixa, the variety of handmade souvenirs and elegant z busy shopping area of the city, offers a great = Conclusion onsen designer clothes. Lisbon's nightlife is exciting and varied. Visitors | can have a coftee in Bairro Alto, the ancient port of the city, where fado — traditional Portuguese music — fils the air with its sad, romantic sounds. They can also enjoy delicious seafood at first- class restaurants. For those who like to dance the night away there are many trendy olubs in the | Lisbon is a wonderful city. If you want to experience the beauty and fascination of a great European capital, it would be the perfect holiday destination for you. Para3 Parad Anyone lucky enough to visit Lisbon will find plenty to see and do. For a start, the magnificent 3 Read the article again and answer the questions. Which city is described, and where is it situated? What makes it an interesting city? Which buildings does the article suggest tourists should visit? Where can visitors go shopping, and what can they buy? What sorts of entertainment does the article mention? What recommendation does the writer make? From All Four Corners of the World 4 Fill in the boxes with words/phrases from the 6 Fill in the blanks with adjectives from the list, then article in Ex. 2, os in the example, then use make sentences with the phrases. eo ee ee handmade, colour, elegant, holiday, narrow, delicious, ‘SIGHTS ‘rich, traditional, trendy, fantastic Castle of Saint George, i history | 6 clubs 2 streets | 7 music 3 traditions 8 a destination 4 clothes | 9 seafood EATING OUT 5 souvenirs 10 a view anon ‘© To make our writing more interesting we should use a variety of adjectives such as wonderful, magnificent, exciting, awful, ec instead of good, nice, bad, etc. 7 a) Complete the table with words from the list, as in the example. fantastic, tiny, terrible, large, splendid, horrible, huge, wonderful, awful, magnificent, enormous, fascinating, little, beautiful, delicious, charming, delightful nice/good | fantastic bad big ‘small 5 aj Look at the towns/cities on the map and correct the statements below. 'b) Replace the words in bold with adjectives from the table above. A. Dear Stacey, We finally arrived in Stockholm. tt is a 1) nice city. We are staying at a 2) big hotel which has 3) nice rooms. We had planned to go sightseeing today but the weather was 4) bad. Hopefully, it will be a better day tomorrow. j er, = see you soon, Brisbane is situated on the west coast of Australia. Michelle } Brisbane isn't situated on the west coast of Australia. ——— Itis situated on the east coast of Australia. A a ae ee dney is in the heart of Australia, Netbotme is located in the north of Australia. h B Rosehill is a 1) small village ae the Perth is located in the centre of Australia. ) ” peart of a 2)nice forest near Brownpoot ~ Newman is in the north-east of Australia. \ oak tree, which is more \ ‘also. known town/ely on the mop, os in the exomple. i Ne homemade bread. -. The 3) big til \ ears old, is sure to impress vis b) Moke sentonces about the location of each — \\ thousand ys for its 4) good pottery Perth ison the south-west coast of Australia 2 8 Study the examples, then join the sentences using which, where or with © Tourists should visit the Art Museum. It is one of the best in the world. Tourists should visit the Art Museum, which is one of the best in the world. '* Shoppers will love the local bazaar. They can find colourful, handmade carpets there. Shoppers will love the local bazaar, where they can find colourful, handmade carpets. * Maui is a paradise for tourists. It has beautiful beaches and clear blue waters. With its beautiful beaches and clear blue waters, Maui {sa paradise for tourists. From All Four Corners of the World 1 There are many clubs in the city centre. You can dance and listen to live music there. There are many clubs in the city centre where you can dance and listen to live music. 2. The city is known for its open-air food markets. They have all sorts of spices, food and cakes. 3. There are fantastic restaurants and delicious French cuisine in Paris. It is a perfect choice for food lovers. 4 Rome is a wonderful city to explore. It has many ancient temples and monuments. 5 An interesting place to visit in the city is the National Gallery. You can admire famous paintings there. 6 Visitors should not miss the small restaurants around the square. They can try delicious local specialities there. © To make a description of a place more vivid, we can refer to our senses (i.e. describe sights, sounds and smells). ‘© When describing a place, we may include the ‘human scene’, with words referring to crowds (e.g. crowded, busy, empty) and activity (e.g. rush, walk, carry) eg. The streets of the city are always busy [crowd] and noisy [sound], with people rushing about [activity] and cars hooting [sound] 22 9 a) Match the sentences (1-6) to the pictures (A~ ), What does each phrase in bold refer to: sight, sound, smell, crowds or activity? 1... Visitors can sit in front of one of the litle cafés and enjoy the view of the clear blue sea. (sight) 2... The smell of car fumes is strong and choking 3 .... Tourists stroll down the quiet streets of the litle port, admiring the brightly-coloured houses. 4... The city glows with light from offices and cars. 5... The crowded streets are full of people hurrying and cars hooting. 6 .... The delicious smell of grilled fish fils the air. b) Which picture is not described above? Use these prompts to write about the picure. brightly-coloured flowers / surround / fountain - visitors J breathe / clean mountain air enjoy / peace / traditional mountain village 10 4) A description of a place may be found in various sorts of writing, Read the extracts and say which is from: 1 an adventure story 2 alletter to a friend, written by somebody on holiday 3. anarticle describing an exotic holiday destination Marrakech seems like a city that is half myth and half reality. In its crowded streets, where food aromas pend with folk music, visitors can experience the rhythm ‘of Moroccan life. os a [B[_] it was a bright, sunny momin . ig, and as strolled through the narrow streets, the smell of ot) take bread cited on he the a. Turning a comer, she rset in a small square n Sarasa na sal ste sacar by Caring [C]_] I went to the Eiffel Tower today. | couldn't believe the view from up there — it was breathtaking! | also went to the Louvre and spent hours walking around, admiring the exhibits. . b) Read again and underline the words/ phrases referring to sights, sounds, smell crowds oF activity. WRITING When we write a descriptive article about a place, we can divide it into four paragraphs, ‘In the introduction we mention the name and location| Of the place and the reason for choosing it. * In the second paragraph we write about what a visitor can see and do (sightseeing, museums, shopping, etc) In the third paragraph we write about entertainment, nightlife and eating out (clubs, restaurants, etc). In the conclusion we make general comments and recommend the place to visitors. We normally use present tenses in this type of writing. 11 Read the rubric, then read the article and match the topic sentences (A-D) to the gaps (1-3) in the aide. One of the sentences does not fit. What the topic of each paragraph? A travel magazine has asked its readers for articles describing the perfect place for a weekend escape. Write an article about such a place, describing its attractions and saying why it is worth visiting. ‘A Ifyou need a weekend escape from the stress of the city, St Lambert is just the place for you. B_ St Lambert does not have a busy nightife. C StLambert’s crowded streets are always full of le. D_ There are many interesting things to see and do here. A Charming Weekend Escape St Lambert, a small town ‘near Montreal, Canada, is the perfect choice for a relaxing weekend escape. T]_JA visit to the Marcle museum is a wonderful Chante to see great Canadian art. Visitors can cycle along the St Lawrence River and admire the breathtaking ‘scenery. Shoppers will enjoy a walk down Victoria Street, where excellent boutiques sel fashionable clothes. 2] _| However, visitors can enjoy a cup of hot chocolate in front of a roaring fire in one of the small cafés in the town. There are also many restaurants, like Capitains, where one can taste delicious French onion soup. For those wih a sweet tooth, the local pies are a must. 3[_]The peace and quiet of the town offers tired visitors a welcome, refreshing break from their busy lives. From All Four Corners of the World 12 ) Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions to plan your composition in detail A magazine which you enjoy reading is holding a competition for the best article entitled “A lovely place to visit". Write an article for the competition, describing your town or city, saying what a visitor ccan see and do there and explaining why itis a good choice for tourists. (100-150 words). 11 What type of composition is this? A. descriptive article about a place B narrative including description of a place 2 Who will read your article? A tour guides B readers of the magazine 3. What style will you use? A informal, personal B semiormal, descriptive 4 What tenses will you use? A present tenses B past tenses 5 Which place will you write about? A. acity in another country B the city you lve in 6 a) What information about your city will you give under these headings? * location « sights to see * things to do * nightie restaurants ‘* recommendation b) Can you group these into paragraphs? ©) Suggest topic sentences for each main body paragraph. d) What words/phrases will you use which refer to the senses, crowds and activity? b) Use your answers to the questions above, as well as the plan below to write your composition. Use the texts in Exs. 2 and 11 as models. Plan Introduction Paragraph 1 4 Malin Body Paragraph 2: Paragraph 3; 4 ‘Conclusion Paragraph 5: 0 name, location sights fo see, things to do nightife, restaurants, ete comments/recommendiation 23 24 Four Walls 1 Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions. Your favourite magazine is publishing a series of articles about the world's ‘most beautiful palaces, and you have decided to submit an article about a palace you feel is especially beautiful White your article, giving some facts about the history of the palace and describing it both inside and outside. (120 - 180 words) What sort of composition is this? Which topics/points would you include in your article? Put a tick (V7) w-«. Name & location of palace Your first visit to the palace who buit it, when/why it was built why all palaces are special buildings description ofthe interior .. description of the exterior description of the people who live/ used to live in it the people who work in the palace 2 a) Read the article and label the peragraphs with these headings. * description of exterior * name, location, special features ** recommendation '* description of interior * historical facts b) What can visitors see inside and outside this palace? i | Topkapi - Turkey’s Treasure Which of the world's great palaces has the most spectacular view? Many people would say it is Topkapi Palace, situated on a cifftop in Istanbul, | Turkey, and famous for its amazing view over the Bosphorus Strats and the Sea of Marmara. Il, between 1451 and 1481. It became the official residence of the Ottoman Sultans until 1856. Many buildings have been added to the palace over the centuries. Topkapi now resembles a small city. ‘The palace is enclosed by a thick stone : al gates set into the wall. The various buildings within the grounds include a mosque and a white marble palace. One of the four main courtyards contains a gorgeous garden filed with rare flowers and trees from all over the world. The interior of the palace shows the luxurious | lifestyle of the sultans. Some private apartments have been left as they were when they were lived | in, Many of the imperial costumes wom by the | Visitors can enter it by passing through heavy iron Sultan are on display in the Palace Museum, as well as priceless collections of silver, crystal and porcelain from China and Japan. Some of the | yes most famous jewels are housed in the Palace Treasury. [Allin all, the magnificence of the palace and its | supert location, make Topkapi a fascinating place | tovisi jee eee [The palace was originally built for Sultan Mehmet | Para 1 Para 2 Para3 Para 4 Para 5 3 Read the article again and mark these sentences as T (true] or F (false The palace was completed in 1481, The palace hasn't changed at all There is a magnificent view of the sea from the cifttop. 4 There are beautiful gardens in the palace. 5. The Sultan stil lives in the palace. 4 Fill in the correct word from the list, then make sentences using the expressions. white, priceless, iron, rare, official, spectacular, stone, ‘imperial 1 view | 5 marble 2 residence | 6 flowers 3 wall | 7 costumes 4 gates | 8 .. collections. STUDY TIP. When we describe a building and its location, we can use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (the personithing doing the action), eg, The palace was built in 1451. 5 Read the article in Ex. 3 again and underline all passive forms. 6 Look at the information, then talk about each landmark, as in the example. Location: Yucatan, Mexico Material: stone Built by: the Mayans 5: place of worship EI Castillo is located in Yucatan, Mexico. It was built by the Mayans Name: El Castillo ‘Completed: AD 900 \ 4 { Four Walls and a Roof © Name: Tower of London Location: north bank of River Thames Bult by: Wiliam the Conqueror Completed: 1078 || Material: limestone | Built for: defence of the city 7 Read the extracts and match them to pictures, then underline the phrases which describe location. Finally, choose a famous landmark in your country and describe its location. 1 Neuschwanstein Castle, often called “The Fairytale Castle” for its tall white towers, is set among the Bavarian Alps in southem Germany, about two hours from the city of Munich 2 Visitors to Rome are often disappointed to find that this great monument, situated in the heart of the city, is Used as a large trafic roundabout by modern Romans. 3. The Miramar Hotel is an ideal choice for a relaxing family holiday. Situated by the sea, the hotel is only 20, metres from one of the world’s most famous beaches. 4 Bran Castle — once home to Prince Vlad Tepes, the inspiration for Bram Stoker's Dracula — stands at the top of a wooded hill n the Carpathian Mountains. DB Four Walls and » Roof 8 Put the words into the correct box. pool, staircase, porch, gardens, hallway, gates, paintings, grounds, tapestries, antique furniture, jewels, fountain, costumes, balcony, lawn, lounge, fireplace, driveway, curtains 10 ing may be found in various sorts of writing. Read the extracts and say which is from: alletter to a friend or relative an article describing your ideal home ap - ED stricase, 9 Look at the pictures and use the prompts to talk about each of the palaces shown. ‘gardens - lake with swans - fountain bottom of stairway - statue The palace is set in ... ~ carved table & cha antique funiture carved ae randaler embroi aR an adventure story a Kevin stood outside the dark, abandoned house and shivered. He walked up to the heavy wooden door, pushed it open and entered a large hall. There was a stone fireplace at one end of the room, but there was no fire burning and the furniture was covered in { cobwebs. Suddenly he fet a cold hand on his | shoulder. >| B It would be painted white the back ofthe house would hae rege aad flowers and a huge swimming pool, re so excited, because we've finally moved into ig eaer ial it's fantastic! It's got a big balcony with fa great view of the city. We're planning to buy some tropical plants and a bamboo table and chairs so that we can sit outside. The living room is huge, with wooden fireplace .. b) Which tenses have been used in each extract? Why? WRITING TIP When we write a descriptive article about a building, we can divide it into five paragraphs. © In the introduction we mention what type of building itis, its location and its special features. In the second paragraph we give historical facts about the building (e.g. who designed it, when it was built, etc). © In the third paragraph we describe the exterior of the building In the fourth paragraph we describe the interior of the building. In the conclusion we write general remarks about the building and a recommendation to visitors, We use past tenses to write about the historical facts and present tenses to describe the building, its location, ete. 11° Read the rticle and number the Paragraphs in the correct order. What is the main topic of each paragraph? FA] There are over one hundred and thirty rooms in the White House. Many of them are ‘themed’ — for example, in the Red Room all the furnishings are red. ‘There is also a Green Room and a Blue Room, all filed with valuable works of art collected over the years by the ‘many presidents who have lived in the White House. In addition, there is a swimming pool, a gym, a theatre and alibrary to entertain the President and his family. The White House is set in beautiul gardens an be viewed from the terraces on either side main building. At the back entrance there is a ul semi-circular portico, and fountain atthe front there it lama Have you ever wondered what it’s like in the home of the world’s most powerful man? Well, you can find out if you visit the White House, the official home of the President of the United States of America. It is situated on Pennsylvania Avenue, in Washington, D.C. [1B] in conclusion, the White House is ‘one of the most exciting buildings in the world. Visitors to the Capital should not miss the opportunity to see for themselves the rooms where America’s President lives ‘and works. ‘The mansion was designed by lishrAmercan [anitect James Hoban and was completed in 1800. = first occupant was President John Adams, a it ves the great Theodore Roosevelt who later ofcially peed it the ‘White House’, because of its white san brickwork. 12 Four Walls and @ Roof o) Read the rubric and underline the key words, then label the notes with the headings. Finally, use the notes to talk about Windsor Castle. The editor of your school magazine has asked you to write an article about a famous historic building you have visited. Write your article, describing the building. (120-180 words) exterior * interior * recommendation '* name, location, special features ® historical facts Windsor Castle — word's largest inhabited castle; buit high above iver Thames, near London; superb view of countryside building started over 900 years ago by Wiliam the Conqueror, serious fire in 1992 = now fully restored ‘enormous building, covers large area; long chiveway leads to huge courtyard; stone towers; wns public can” see State Apartments, fine collection of art (works by da Vinci, Michelangelo), beautiful fumiture, porcelain one of most spectacular castes in world — don't miss chance to see home of England's kings & queens Paragraph 5: b) Use the notes above and the plan below your article about Windsor . Use the article in Ex. 2 as a a name, location, special features historical facts description of exterior description of interior recommendation 28 What is “an annual event”? What is the most interesting/ ‘exciting annual event you have attended? When/where was it? What is the reason why the event is held? What happens during the event? 2 — Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions. Ona recent visit to another country you attended a fascinating annual event. Write an article about the event for your school magazine, describing what happened both before and during the event, and saying how you eel about the experience. (120-130 words) What type of composition is this? Which of the following do you think are main topics in the article? Puta tick (7). . preparations for the event description of town/area where the event took place the clothes people wore, the food they ate, ete . your feelings/general remarks about the experience ... description of the event itself how you got there, where you stayed .. what the event is, when/where/why itis held ... What you did after the event finished 3 Read the article and label the paragraphs with these headings, then find the topic sentence: the main bedy paragraphs and suggest alternatives. preparations ‘© name, place, time, reason * feelings, general remarks description of event itset Introduction Main Body Concusion 4 ‘The Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth | was recently lucky enough to attend the a Stampede, one of Canada’s most spectacular festivals. | love the Wild West, so | was in heaven There is no doubt that buying ready-made clothes is faster and easier than making your own, but if you are one of the many people who have problems finding clothes that fit propery, the solution might be for you to make your own clothes. This choice offers some definite advantages. Firstly, Taking your own clothes is often the only way to get ‘exactly what you want. It is difficult for most of us to find ready-made clothes which are not only the right size and colour, but which also fit in all the right places. Another advantage is that you can be sure your home-made outfit is original. As a result, when you go out on that special ‘occasion you are much less likely to meet someone wearing the same dress as you! BB on the other hand, making your own clothes has its disadvantages as well. For one thing, it is not always cheaper than buying ready-made clothes. You need a good sewing machine, which can be very expensive, and using the best fabric and sewing materials adds to the cost of an outfit. What is more, dressmaking takes skill and patience, so its usually tiring and time-consuming. BD In conclusion, though, | believe that if you have enough interest and ability, making your own clothes is well worth the time and trouble, After all, it is the only way to guarantee complete satisfaction.