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History of badminton

The history of the development of modern badminton is a very long


and complex one. Below is a brief account of the history of the game.
Origins of the Game
The sport of badminton has its origins in ancient civilisations in
Europe and Asia. The ancient game known as battledore (bat or
paddle) and shuttlecock probably originated more than 2000 years
ago.
In the 1600s Battledore and Shuttlecock was an upper class pastime
in England and many European countries. Battledore and Shuttlecock
was simply two people hitting a shuttlecock backwards and forwards
with a simple bat as many times as they could without allowing it to
hit the ground.
Contemporary

Badminton

A contemporary form of badminton - a game called Poon, was played


in India in the 1800s where a net was introduced and players hit the
shuttlecock across the net. British officers in the mid 1800s took this
game back to England and it was introduced as a game for the guests
of the Duke of Beaufort at his stately home Badminton in
Gloucestershire, England where it became popular.
In March 1898, the first Open Tournament was held at Guildford the
first 'All England' Championships were held the following year.
Denmark, the USA and Canada became ardent followers of the game
during the 1930s.
IBF Established in 1934
Then in 1934, the International Badminton Federation was formed,
with the initial members including England, Wales, Ireland, Scotland,
Denmark, Holland, Canada, New Zealand and France, with India joining
as an affiliate in 1936.

The first major IBF tournament was the Thomas Cup (world men's
team championships) in 1948. Since then, the number of world events
has increased with the addition of the Uber Cup (womens team),
World Championships (individual events), Sudirman Cup (mixed team),
World Junior Championships and the World Grand Prix Finals.
Commonwealth Games Sport - 1966
Badminton was introduced as a Commonwealth Games program sport
in Kingston Jamaica in 1966 and has been part of every
Commonwealth Games program since then. Initially all five disciplines
were included singles (men, women), doubles (men, women) and
mixed doubles with the Teams Event included in the program in later
Commonwealth Games.
Olympic Games Sport - 1992
Badminton is a relatively new Olympic Games sport. After being a
demonstration sport in Munich in 1972, badminton became an Olympic
sport in Barcelona in 1992 with the singles and doubles disciplines
introduced for the first time in the Olympic Games. In Atlanta in 1996,
a mixed doubles event was included and this is the only mixed doubles
event in all of the Olympic sports.
The following countries have won medals in badminton at an Olympic
Games since its introduction in 1992 - China, Denmark, India,
Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia and Russia.
Susi Susanti from Indonesia won the womens singles in Barcelona,
becoming Indonesias first medallist in the 40 years Indonesia had
competed at the Games. In the same Olympic Games, Alan Budi
Kusama won Indonesias second gold medal in the mens badminton
singles.

History of table tennis


All About Table Tennis
Like most other sports, table tennis had humble beginnings as a
parlor game, open to anyone with access to a table, paddle, and ball.
The game began in the 1880s, when lawn tennis players adapted their
game to play indoors during the winter.
Ping-Pong is a trademark name for table tennis and associated
equipment. The name Ping-Pong was invented by the English firm J.
Jaques and Son at the end of the 1800s and later trademarked in the
United States by Parker Brothers, the board game company.
The game quickly caught on, and as early as 1901, tournaments were
being conducted with over 300 participants. The Ping-Pong
Association was formed but was renamed The Table Tennis
Association in 1922.
In 1902 a visiting Japanese university professor took the game back to
Japan, where he introduced it to university students. Shortly after, a
British salesman, Edward Shires, introduced it to the people of Vienna
and Budapest, and the seeds were sown for a sport that now enjoys
popularity all over the world. In Britain, table tennis had also begun to
spread outside the distinctly middle-class confines of London, and
leagues sprang up in provincial towns as far apart as Sunderland and
Plymouth. In 1922, an All England Club was formed, which boasted
such luminaries as Jack Hobbs the cricketer and other famous names
of the time from the world of sport. The Daily Mirror organized and
sponsored a nationwide tournament in which there were 40,000
competitors.
Table tennis was firmly on the map, and on April 24, 1927, the English
Table Tennis Association was born, under the chairmanship and
direction of Ivor Montague, son of Lord Ewatthling. He was not only to
become the architect of modern-day table tennis, but he also achieved
critical acclaim as both a director and film producer. At the time, The

ETTA had a membership of 19 leagues but now has over 300, with
around 75,000 registered players.
The first world championships were held in 1927 and were won by a
Hungarian, Dr. Jacobi. Apart from the famous Fred Perry redressing
the balance for England in 1929, this was to be the start of an
unprecedented run of success for the Hungarians, who completely
dominated the game throughout the thirties. Their team was led by the
legendary Victor Barna, whose inspiration and skill did so much to
elevate the game to sports status.
The 1950s saw the game turned upside down by the invention of the
sponge or sandwich rubber, this new material for bats, which, up until
now, had been a relatively simple affair with a universal thin covering
of pimpled rubber.
Until this time, spin had played only a minor part in a game that had
been dominated by the defensive style of play. But these new bats or
paddles, introduced by the Japanese, had the capacity to move the
ball around in an almost magical way. The ITTF, the games governing
body, was quick to legislate in a bid to control this new development,
seen in some quarters as equipping players with an unfair advantage.
The thickness of the sponge and rubber sandwich was controlled and
remains so to this day. But the nature of the game had been changed,
establishing the fast attacking speed and spin style of the modern
game.
Today, the sport both in England and abroad is very well established
and is growing each year. The culmination of this has been its
recognition as an Olympic Games sport, being featured for the first
time in the 1988 games in Seoul. Television coverage of the mens
singles final attracted an incredible worldwide audience of 2 billion. In
China, the game is played by literally millions at work, in school, and in
community parks. Chinese top players are regarded as national heroes
with pop star statuses.

TABLE TENNIS TERMINOLOGY

Backhand

A shot done with the racket to the left of the elbow for
a righthander, the reverse for a lefthander.

Backspin

Backward spin placed on the ball. Also called


Underspin.

Bat

Same as racket.

Blade

Wooden part of bat.

Block

A quick, off the bounce return of an aggresive drive


done by just holding the racket in the ball's path.

Chop

A chop is a heavy underspin shot. I it usually executed


away from the table and below the tabletop. A chop
forces the ball to drop downwards when it hits an
opponents paddle.

Chopper

A style of play where chopping is the primary shot.

Closed

Holding the racket such that he racket's hitting surface


is aimed downward, with the top edge leaning away
from you.

Counter-

A drive made against a drive. Some players specialize in

drive

counter-driving.

Cross-

A ball that is hit diagonally from corner to corner.

court
Dead

A ball without any spin.

Deep

A ball that lands deep on the table. A serve that will not
bounce twice on the opponent's side of the table if
given the chance is also considered deep.

Down the

A ball that is hit along the side of the table, parallel to

line

the sidelines, is hit down the line.

Drive

The basic topspin shot executed close to the table.


Also called a counter, counterdrive, or smash.

Drop shot

Short placement - very close to the net. A key point in


making a drop shot is to not allow the ball to fall off the
table after the first bounce. i.e. Drop shots should
bounce at least twice on the opponents side of the
table before falling off.

Flat

A ball that has no spin, usually travelling with good


pace.

Flick or flip A topspin shot generated over the table close to the
net, usually with the power generated only from the
upper arm or the wrist. Used to start offense on a short
ball.
Footwork

How a person moves to make a shot.

Forehand

Any shot done with the racket to the right of the elbow
for a righthander, the reverse for a lefthander.

Game

Set. Each game is played to 11 points unless a deuce


occurs.

Game

Last point of a game.

Point
Hitter

A style of play where hitting is the primary shot.

Inverted

The most common racket covering. It consists of a


sheet of rubber on top of a sponge where pips of the
rubber point inward, so the surface is smooth.

ITTF

International Table Tennis Federation, founded 1926, is


the world governing body of the sport, and its members
are the table tennis Associations of more than 150
countries.

Junk

Rubber that produce no spin, such as anti-spin and longpips.

Kill

A putaway shot. Ball is hit with enough speed so the


opponent can not make a return.

Let

Service ball hitting the net or a distraction that causes


the point played over.

Lob

Usually used when in the player is in the backcourt in a


defensive situation. The player hits the ball as high as
he can - usually with a combination of topspin and
sidespin. The deeper the ball lands on the table, the
more difficult it will be for his opponent to smash.

Loop

The shot that currently dominates the sport. This is an


extreme topspin shot. One the Mazunov brothers
(russia) won a spin competition being 'clocked' at 9000
rpm. A loop, when exectued properly can curve in the
air as a curveball does in baseball. This curve allows
the player to hit the ball harder and still rely on the spin
of the ball to cause the ball to dive down onto the table.
Also, a loop will 'skip' on the table top taking sharp
changes in directions. A loop will also tend to 'pop'
upwards when it strikes the opponents racket.
The opponent has to deal with
A curving ball,
A ball that changes directions when it hits the table,
and
A ball that will jump off his racket unpredictably unless
he compensates for spin.
A loop will also counter heavy spin (topspin or
underspin) from an opponent. It can be executed above
or below the tabletop, close or far away from the table.

Looper

A style of play where the primary shot is the loop.

Open

Holding the racket such that he racket's hitting surface


is aimedward, with the top edge leaning towards you.

Paddle

Same as racket.

Penholder

A type of grip giving the best possible forehand but the


most awkward backhand of the conventional grips.

Pips

The small conical bits of rubber that cover a sheet of


table tennis rubber.

Pips out

A type of racket covering. It consists of a sheet of pips


out rubber on top of a layer of sponge. The pips point
outward, the opposite of inverted.

Point

A unit of scoring in table tennis.

Push

A push is an underspin shot executed over the table,


and usually close to the net. This is a passive shot that
is used when it is impossible to attack a ball.

Racket

Same as bat.

Rally

The period in which the ball is in play.

Rating

A number that is asigned to players after their first


tournament. The better the player the higher the rating
should be.

Receive

The return of a serve.

Serve

The first shot, done by the server. It begins with the ball
being thrown up from palm of hand and struck by the
racket.

Shakehand The most popular grip. It gives the best balance of


forehand and backhand.
Sidespin

Spin placed on a ball to allow it to curve left or right in

the air. Usually utilized in combination with the topspin


of a loop.
Smash

A putaway shot. Ball is hit with enough speed so the


opponent can not make a return.

Spin

The rotation of a ball. Topspin: Spin placed on a ball to


allow it to curve down onto the table.

Stroke

Any shot used in the game, including the serve.

Topspin

Spin placed on a ball to allow it to curve down onto the


table.

Twiddle

Same as twirl.

Twirl

Turning of the paddle, used for confusing opponents on


which side of the paddle is being used. Not as
deceptive now due to the two color law, namely black
on one side and bright red on the other side. Usually
utilized with combination bat.

Umpire or

An official who keeps score and enforces rules during a

Referee

match.

BADMINTON TERMINOLOGY
Attacking clear : An offensive stroke hit deep into the opponent's
court.
Backcourt : Back third of the court, in the area of the back boundary
lines.

Backhand : The stroke used to return balls hit to the left of a righthanded player and to the right of a left-handed player.
Base position : The location in the centre of the court to which a
singles player tries to return after each shot; also called "centre
position".
Baseline : The back boundary line at each end of the court, parallel to
the net.
Carry : An illegal stroke in which the shuttle is not hit, but caught and
held on the racket before being released; also called a "sling" or
"throw".
Centre line : A line perpendicular to the net that separates the left
and right service courts.
Clear : A shot hit deep into the opponent's court.
Doubles : A game where a team of two players play against another
team of two.
Doubles sideline : The side boundary of a doubles court.
Drive : A fast and low shot that makes a horizontal flight over the net.
Drop shot : A shot hit softly and with finesse to fall rapidly and close
to the net in the opponent's court.
Fault : A violation of the playing rules.
Feint : Any deceptive movement that disconcerts an opponent before
or during the serve; also called a "balk".
Flick : A quick wrist-and-forearm rotation used to surprise an

opponent by changing an apparently soft shot into a faster passing


shot.
Forecourt : The front third of the court, between the net and the short
service line.
Forehand : The stroke used to return a ball hit to the right of a righthanded player and to the left of a left-handed player.
Game : The part of a set completed when one player or side has
scored enough points to win a single contest.
Hairpin net shot : A shot made from below and very close to the net
and causing the shuttle to rise, just clear the net, then drop sharply
down the other side so that the flight of the shuttlecock resembles the
shape of a hairpin.
Halfcourt shot : A shot hit low and to midcourt, used effectively in
doubles play against the up-and-back formation.
High clear : A defensive shot hit deep into the opponent's court.
Kill : Fast downward shot that cannot be returned.
Let : A minor violation of the rules allowing a rally to be replayed.
Long Service Line : In singles, the back boundary line. In doubles a
line 2-1/2 feet inside the back boundary line. The serve may not go
past this line.
Match : A series of games to determine a winner.
Midcourt : The middle third of the court, halfway between the net and
the back boundary line.

Net shot : A shot hit from the forecourt that just clears the net and
drops sharply.
Passing shot : A shot which passes the opposing player or team.
Push shot : A gentle shot played by pushing the shuttlecock with a
little wrist motion.
Rally : The exchange of shots that decides each point.
Serve : The stroke used to put the shuttlecock into play at the start of
each rally; also called a "service".
Service court : The area into which a service must be delivered.
Different for singles and doubles.
Set : To choose to extend a game beyond its normal ending score if
the score is tied with one point to go.
Short service line : The front line of the service courts 1.98 metres
from the net. Singles : A game where one player plays against another
player.
Singles sideline : The side boundary of a singles court.
Smash : A hard-hit overhead shot that forces the shuttle sharply
downwards into the opponent's court.
Wood shot : A legal shot in which the shuttle hits the frame of the
racket.

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