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A

Summer Training Report


On
Rail Over Bridge

GAUTAM BUDDHA UNIVERSITY

SUBMITTED TO:
SUBMITTED BY:
Dr.Shilpa Pal
Vikash Kumar

(12/ice/057)

Acknowled
gement
I would like to
thank respected
Mr. Sanjeev
Kumar for giving
me such a
wonderful
opportunity to
expand my
knowledge for my
own branch.It
helped me a lot to
realize of what we
study for.
Secondly, I would
like to thank my
parents who
patiently helped me
as i went through
my work and
helped to modify
and eliminate some
of the irrelevant or
un-necessary stuffs.
Last but clearly
not the least, I
would thank The
Almighty for
giving me
strength to
complete my
report on time.

CO
NT
EN
T:1.Introdu

ction:1.1about
project
2.Pile
foundation:
2.1 Types of
pile
foundation
2.2 test on
pile
foundation

Material
testing:3.1 test for
cement
3.2 test for
sand
3.3 test for
concrete

INTRODU
CTION
Details of
project
Client: indain
railway(ncr)
construction agency:
HCA PVT LMTD
Type of contract : Item
rate
total length of rob: 1 km
cost of project: 15 crores
contract period: 18
months

Some important
specification
total no of piles: 280
diameter and depth of
piles: 1000mm and 15m
deep
total no of
pier:35(bottom 9m and
top 8m )

steel used :fe415 and


fe500
depth of pile cap:1.5m
grade of concrete:m35
steel quantity
diameter of one
pile:1000mm
clear cover:75mm
diameter of pile used for
ring:10mm
diameter of pile ring:1000-2*75=850mm
circumference of pile
ring:3.14*850=2.669m

no of ring in the pile:100


so total lenghth of ring
bar=100*2.669=267m

Vertical bars:
diameter:20mm
lenghth of one single
bar :20.9m
no of the bars;15
so total lenghth of
pile;15*20.9=313.5m
total weight of steel used
in one pile:938.8kg

for pile group having 8


piles total weight of
steel:8*938.8=7511 kg

ABOUT PILE:
Pile
foundations
consist of piles
that are dug
into soil till a
layer of stable
soil is reached.
Pile
foundations
transfer
building load to
the bearing
ground with the
greater bearing
capacity. Pile
foundations are
useful in
regions with
unstable upper
soil that may

erode, or for
large structures.
Pile foundations are
often required to resist
lateral loading. Lateral
loads come from a
variety of sources
including wind,
earthquakes, waves,
and ship impacts. The
lateral capacity of a pile
is usually much smaller
than the axial capacity
and as a result groups
of piles are often
installed to increase the
lateral capacity of the
entire foundation
system. When vertical
or plumb pile groups do
not provide sufficient
lateral resistance the
piles can be battered in

order to mobilize some


of thehigher axial
capacity to resist the
lateral load.

Pile Foundation
Piles are
relatively long,
slender
members that
transmit
foundation
loads through
soil strata of

low bearing
capacity to
deeper soil or
rock strata
having a high
bearing
capacity. They
are used when
for economic,
constructional
or soil condition
considerations it
is desirable to
transmit loads
to strata beyond
the practical
reach of
shallow
foundations. In
addition to
supporting
structures, piles
are also used to
anchor
structures
against uplift

forces and to
assist structures
in resisting
lateral and
overturning
forces.

HISTORY OF PILE
FOUNDATION:
Pile foundation have been
used for many years, for
carrying and transferring the
loads to soil considered to be
weak in structure due to the
soil conditions. In the early
stages of development,
villages and towns were
located in the close vicinity
of lakes and rivers due to the
availability of water , and,
also, to ensure proper
protection of the area.
Therefore, the weak bearing
ground was reinforced by the
use of timber piles that were
manually forced into the
ground, or fixed into the

holes that were filled with


stones and sand. The
primitive methods of pile
installation were modified
after the industrial
revolution, and the
techniques of installation by
steam or diesel driven
machines were introduced.
With the advancement in the
technologies of soil
mechanics and other related
disciplines, superior piles and
pile installation system have
been developed.

NECESSITY OF
PILE
FOUNDATION:

When the strata at or


just below the ground
surface is highly
compressible
and very weak to
support the load
transmitted by the
structure.

When the plan of the


structure is irregular

relative to its outline


and load distribution.
It would cause nonuniform settlement if
a shallow foundation
is constructed. A pile
foundation is required
to reduce differential
settlement.

Pile foundations are


required

for

the

transmission
structure

of
loads

through deep water


to a firm stratum.

Pile foundations are


used to resist
horizontal forces in
addition to support
the vertical loads in
earth-retaining
structures and tall
structures that are
subjected to
horizontal forces due
to wind and
earthquake.

Piles are required

when

the

soil

conditions are such


that

washout,

erosion or scour of
soil may occur from
underneath

shallow foundation.

In case of expansive
soil, such as black
cotton soil, which
swell or shrink as
the water content
changes, piles are
used to transfer the
load below the
active zone.

Collapsible soils,
such as loess, have a
breakdown of
structure
accompanied by a
sudden decrease in
void ratio, when
there is increase in
water content. Piles
are used to transfer
the load beyond the

zone of possible
moisture changes in
such soils.

Pile foundation
v/s well
foundation:

Well foundations
provide a solid and
massive foundation for
heavy loads as against a
cluster of piles which
are slender and weak
individually and are
liable to get damaged
when hit by floating
trees or boulder rolling
in river bed.

Wells provide a large


section modulus with
the minimum cross
sectional area and hence
efficient in taking large
vertical and horizontal
loads even when the
unsupported length is
large.

Concreting

of

well steining is
done under dry
and

controlled

conditions

and

hence quality of
work is assured,
however

same

cannot hold good


in case of cast-insitu bored piles
where
concretingis

to

be done under
water or below
ground

level.

Even in case of
precast piles, the
concrete

is

subjected

of

heavy

stresses

during

driving

operation

and

consequent
damages cannot
be ruled out.

When scour takes


place, the piles act as
long struts and have
to be designed for
buckling
which

stresses,
are

quite

heavy due to the


bending

moments

contributed by the
longitudinal

forces

on the bridge deck


due to tractive effort
and braking forces.

It is difficult to drive the


piles through the strata
having

boulders

tree logs

and

which are

frequently encountered
in alluvial soil, whereas
in the case of a well
foundation

there

is

sufficiently access to
remove the obstruction.
Quite often the skin
friction developed is of
much magnitude as to
prevent further driving
of a pile although a firm
stratum has not been
reached.

The adoption of pile


foundations
is
advantageous over well
foundations
where
the soil characteristics
and conditions of water
table are such that the
phenomenon of blow
occurs
during
dewatering of the well.

Increased
mechanization and

advent of new
machinery have brought
down the cost of
foundation with piles
considerably low in
comparison to well.

New testing techniques


for checking the
integrity of piles and
information about
strata through piles
have passed or resting
have removed the
uncertainty of load
carrying capacity of
piles to large extent.

Pile
have

foundations
a

clear

advantage

over

well foundations in
terms of

speedy

construction.
Wherever time is
the criterion, the
pile foundation is
the natural choice.

TYPES OF PILE:

End Bearing piles.

Friction piles.

Settlement
piles.

Tension piles.

Laterally loaded piles.

Piles in fill.

reducing

Piles are often used


because adequate
bearing capacity
cannot be found at
shallow enough
depths to support the
structural loads. It is
important to
understand that piles
get support from both
end bearing and
skin friction. The
proportion of
carrying capacity
generated by either
end bearing or skin
friction depends on
the soil conditions.
Piles can be used to

support various
different types of
structural loads.

END
BEARING PILES:

End bearing piles are those


which terminate in hard,
relatively impenetrable
material such as rock or very
dense sand and gravel. They
derive most of their carrying
capacity from the resistance
of the stratum at the toe of
the pile.

FRICTION PILES:

Friction piles obtain a


greater part of their
carrying capacity by skin
friction or adhesion. This
tends to occur when piles
do not reach an
impenetrable stratum but
are driven for some
distance into a penetrable
soil. Their carrying
capacity is derived partly
from end bearing and
partly from skin friction
between the embedded
surface of the soil and the
surrounding soil.

SETTLEMENT
REDUCING PILES:

Settlement reducing piles


are usually incorporated
beneath the central part
of a raft foundation in
order to reduce
differential settlement to
an acceptable level. Such
piles act to reinforce the
soil beneath the raft and
help to prevent dishing of
the raft in the centre.

TENSION PILES:

Structures such as tall


chimneys, transmission
towers and jetties can be
subjected to large
overturning moments and
so piles are often used to
resist the resulting uplift
forces at the foundations.
In such cases the
resulting forces are
transmitted to the soil
along the embedded
length of the pile. The
resisting force can be
increased in the case of
bored piles by underreaming. In the design of
tension piles the effect of
radial contraction of the
pile must be taken into
account as this can cause
about a 10% - 20%
reduction in shaft
resistance.

LATERALLY
LOADED PILES:
Almost all piled
foundations are subjected
to at least some degree of
horizontal loading. The
magnitude of the loads in
relation to the applied
vertical axial loading will
generally be small and no
additional design
calculations will
normally be necessary.
However, in the case of
wharves and jetties
carrying the impact
forces of berthing ships,
piled foundations to
bridge piers, trestles to
overhead cranes, tall
chimneys and retaining

walls, the horizontal


component is relatively
large and may prove
critical in design.
Traditionally piles have
been installed at an angle
to the vertical in such
cases providing sufficient
horizontal resistance by
virtue of the component
of axial capacity of the
pile which acts
horizontally. However the
capacity of a vertical pile
to resist loads applied
normally to the axis,
although significantly
smaller than the axial
capacity of that pile, may
be sufficient to avoid the
need for such 'raking' or
'battered' piles which are
more expensive to install.
When designing piles to
take lateral forces it is
therefore important to take
this into account.

PILES IN FILL:

.
Piles that pass through layers
of moderately- to poorlycompacted fill will be affected
by negative skin friction,
which produces a downward
drag along the pile shaft and
therefore an additional
load on the pile. This
occurs as the fill
consolidates under its
own weight.

TYPES OF PILE
COSTRUCTION:
Precast Driven Piles
These are usually of RCC or
pre-stressed
concrete and generally small
in size for ease in handling.
The main
advantage of this type of pile
is that its quality, in terms of
dimension,
use of reinforcement and
concrete, can be ensured as the
piles are
cast in a yard under controlled
conditions. However care is
needed
while handling, transporting
and driving the pile to avoid
damages.
More to it, the limitation of
length depending upon the
capacity of the

driving equipment is a
disadvantage as these cannot
be taken very
deep except by joining.
Generally, the depth over
which these are
used is restricted to 36 mtr.
Driven Cast-in-Situ PilesA steel casing pile with a shoe
at the
bottom is driven first to the
required depth. The
reinforcement cage
for the pile is then lowered
inside the casing and the pile
is concreted.
As the concreting of the pile
proceeds upwards, the casing
is
withdrawn keeping a suitable
overlapping length. When
such piles
are driven in soft soil and the
tube is withdrawn while
concreting, it
affects resistance and changes
the property of the soil and
this also
affects the capacity of
individual piles. These are not
suitable for use
in soft soils, in greater depths
or where keying with the rock
is
required.
Bored cast-in-situ piles
In the bored cast-in-situ
process, a larger
diameter casing is used. A
casing of 3 to 4 m in length is
provided on
top of the bore hole which is
driven with the help of a
bailor. Boring
further below this casing is
carried out by chiseling and
the side walls
are kept stable by circulating
bentonite slurry inside the
bore hole.
The boring is continued up to
the layer decided for founding
the

structure. After reaching the


desired founding level, the
chisel is
removed, bore-hole flushed,
reinforcement cage lowered
into the
hole, and held in position by
tack welding it to the support
bars at the
top of the casing.
After this, concreting is
carried out by using tremie,
keeping its end
always below the top level of
rising concrete. The concreting
is
continued till a good quality
concrete is seen at the top of
the bore
hole. After this, the tremie is
removed and when the
concrete has
reached the top, the casing
pipe on the top is also
removed. The
bentonite mix should be
periodically checked for its
specific gravity
and changed as, due to
constant use, it can get mixed
with the soil
and deteriorate in quality. This
type of pile can be used even
where
the pile is keyed into the rock
as chiselling in the rock can be
carried
out more easily. These piles
serve as bearing-cum-friction
piles. The
diameters of such piles are
generally more than 1.0m and
can go up
to 3.6m or more. They can be
used singly or in group and are
good
replacements for well
foundations required for
bridge piers in rivers

with clayey and mixed soils.

Bored pre-cast piles In


this, as the name itself
suggests, a hole is
bored using a casing and a
pre-cast pile is inserted into it.
After
securing it in position, the
casing is withdrawn. A
particular process
used for bored pre-cast piles is
the Benoto process which
involves a
steel tube being pushed into
the soil, turned and reversed
using
compressed air. The tube is in
the form of a casing and is
driven for
the entire depth after the soil is
progressively grabbed from
the tube.
The process is continued till
the tube reaches the predetermined
level. Then the pre-cast pile is
lowered inside and held in
position.
The tube is lifted gradually
after filling the annular gap
between the
pre-cast pile and the soil by
grouting.
Driven steel piles Steel
piles can be circular or in
other structural
shapes. The circular ones are
made in the form of either
welded or
seamless piles. Usually steel
or cast iron piles used earlier
for bridge
structures are of longer
diameter and screw type.
These were used in
past when loading was less.
These piles are suitable for
being driven
through cohesive soil to reach
up to the hard strata and to
serve as
bearing piles. They are not
suitable where heavy scour is
expected

and for foundation for bridges


when foundations are situated
wide
apart.
Driven timer piles
Timber piles have been
extensively used in
America. These have been
used in India on the railways
and highways, for temporary
bridges. Timber piles are of
hard wood, and
used in natural form with thin
end cut or suitably sized. They
are used
mostly as end-bearing piles in
clusters. They are normally
used in
lengths of 12m and extended
by splicing for use in deeper
channels.
The piles protruding above
bed/low water level are
suitably braced in
cluster.

TYPE OF
MATERIAL USED
TIMBER
As the name implies, timber
piles are made of wood
.Historically, timber has been a
plentiful, locally-available
resource in many areas.
Today , timber piles are still
more affordable than concrete
or steel. Compared to other
types of piles (steel or
concrete), and depending on
the source/type of timber,
timber piles may not be
suitable for heavier loads. A
main consideration regarding
timber piles is that they should
be protected from rotting
above groundwater level.
Timber will last for a long
time below the groundwater
level. For timber to rot, two
elements are needed: water

and oxygen. Below the


groundwater
level, oxygen is lacking even
though there is ample water.
Hence, timber tends to last for
a
long time below groundwater
level. It has been reported that
some timber piles used during
16th century in Venice still
survive since they were below
groundwater level. Timber that
is to be used above the water
table can be protected from
decay
and
insects
by
numerous forms
of wood preservation using
pressure treatment (ACQ,
CCA, creosote, etc.).

Splicing timber piles is still


quite common and is the
easiest of all the piling
materials to splice. The normal
method for splicing is by
driving the leader pile first,
driving a steel tube (normally
60100 cm long, with an
internal diameter no smaller
than the minimum toe
diameter) half its length onto
the end of the leader pile. The
follower pile is then simply
slotted into the other end of
the tube and driving continues.
The steel tube is simply there
to ensure that the two pieces
follow each other during
driving. If uplift capacity is
required, the splice can
incorporate bolts, coach
screws, spikes or the like to
give it the necessary capacity.

STEEL
Pipe piles are a type of steel
driven pile foundation and are
a good candidate for
Battered piles. Pipe piles can
be driven either open end or
closed end. When driven open

end, soil is allowed to enter


the bottom of the pipe or tube.
If an empty pipe is required, a
jet of
water or an auger can be used
to remove the soil inside
following driving. Closed end
pipe piles are constructed by
covering the bottom of the pile
with a steel plate or cast
steel shoe. In some cases, pipe
piles are filled with concrete to
provide additional moment
capacity or corrosion
resistance. In the United
Kingdom, this is generally not
done in order to
reduce the cost. In these cases
corrosion protection is
provided by allowing for a
sacrificial thickness of steel or
by adopting a higher grade of
steel. If a concrete filled
pipe pile is corroded, most of
the load carrying capacity of
the pile will remain intact due
to the concrete, while it will be
lost in an empty pipe pile. The
structural capacity of pipe
piles is primarily calculated
based on steel strength and
concrete strength (if filled). An
allowance is made for
corrosion depending on the
site conditions and local
building codes.
Steel pipe piles can either be
new steel manufactured
specifically for the piling
industry
or reclaimed steel tubular
casing previously used for
other purposes such as oil and
gas
exploration. H-Piles are
structural beams that are
driven in the ground for deep
foundation application. They
can be easily cut off or joined
by welding or mechanical
drive-fit
splicers. If the pile is driven
into a soil with low pH value,
then there is a risk of

corrosion, coal-tar epoxy or


cathodic protection can be
applied to slow or eliminate
the
corrosion process. It is
common to allow for an
amount of corrosion in design
by simply
over dimensioning the crosssectional area of the steel pile.
In this way the corrosion
process can be prolonged up to
50 years.

PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE PILES
Concrete piles are typically
made with steel reinforcing
and prestressing tendons to
obtain the tensile strength
required, to survive handling
and driving, and to provide
sufficient bending resistance.
Long piles can be difficult to
handle and transport. Pile
joints can be used to join two
or
More short piles to form one
long pile. Pile joints can be
used with both precast and
prestressed concrete piles

COMPOSITE PILE
Composite pile is a pile
made of steel and concrete
members that are fastened
together,
end to end, to form a single
pile. It is a combination of
different materials or different

shaped materials such as pipe


and H-beams or steel and
concrete.
Location and type of

structure
Ground conditions
Durability
Cost
There are many factors that
can affect the choice of a piled
foundation. All factors
need to be considered and
their relative importance taken
into account before reaching a
final decision.

LOCATION AND
TYPE OF
STRUCTURE
For structures over water, such
as wharves and jetties, driven
piles or driven cast-inplace piles (in which the shell
remains in place) are the most
suitable. On land the choice
is not so straight forward.
Driven cast-in-place types are
usually the cheapest for
moderate loadings. However,
it is often necessary for piles
to be installed without
causing any significant ground
heave or vibrations because of
their proximity to existing
structures. In such cases, the
bored cast-in-place pile is the
most suitable. For heavy
structures exerting large
foundation loads, largediameter bored piles are
usually the
most economical. Jacked piles
are suitable for underpinning
existing structures.

GROUND
CONDITIONS

Driven piles cannot be used


economically in ground
containing boulders, or in clay
when
ground heave would be
detrimental. Similarly, bored
piles would not be suitable in
loose
water-bearing sand, and underreamed bases cannot be used
in cohesionless soils since
they are susceptible to
collapse before the concrete
can be placed.

DURABILITY
This tends to affect the choice
of material. For example,
concrete piles are usually used
in marine conditions since
steel piles are susceptible to
corrosion in such conditions
and
timber piles can be attacked by
boring molluscs. However, on
land, concrete piles are not
always the best choice,
especially where the soil
contains sulphates or other
harmful substances.

COST
In coming to the final decision
over the choice of pile, cost
has considerable importance.
The overall cost of installing
piles includes the actual cost
of the material, the times
required for piling in the
construction plan, test loading,
the cost of the engineer to
oversee installation and
loading and the cost of

organisation and overheads


incurred
between the time of initial site
clearance and the time when
construction of the
superstructure can proceed.

PILE LOAD TEST

Load tests
determine the
allowable load, the
settlement under
working load, or
the soundness of a
pile. Load tests
may be conducted
in compression or
tension. Lateral
load tests are
seldom justified.
The following
considerations
must be made.

The test piles should


be of the same type
and driven by the
same equipment as
for
construction.

Test
loading
should
not

be

initiated
less than
24 hours
after
driving
piles

in

cohesionl
ess soils
and

not

less than
7 days in
cohesive
soils.

The load is
usually
applied by a
hydraulic
jack reacting
against dead
weights or
against a
yoke fastened
to a pair of
anchor piles
(as shown in
figure ).
Anchor piles
should beat
least 5 test

pile diameters
from the test
pile.

The test load should


be

twice

proposed

the
design

load as estimated
from the dynamic
formula,

static

formula, or other
means.

Readings
of
settlement
and
rebounds
should

be

referred to
a

deep

benchmark
and
recorded to
0.001 feet.

Procedures:
The

loading

procedure may be
carried out either by
the continuous load

method

or

constant

rate

penetration

the
of

(CRP)

method.

Continuous load: The


load is applied in
seven increments,
equal to , , 1, 1, 1
, 1, and 2 times the
allowable load
assumed for design.
The load is maintained
constant at each

increment until there


is no settlement in a 2
hour period. The total
test load should
remain in place until
settlement does not
exceed 0.002 feet in
48 hours. The total
load should be
removed in
decrements not
exceeding one fourth
of the total test load
with intervals of not
less than one hour.
There bound should

be recorded after each


decrement is

removed. A curve
may then be prepared
showing the
relationship between
the load and
deflection (figure 56). This procedure is
most reliable where it
is necessary to
estimate the
settlement of piles
under the design load.
The allowable load is
taken as one half that
which caused a net
settlement of not
more than inch or
grosssettlement of 1
inch, whichever is
less. The continuous
load method is rarely
justified in military
construction because
of the excessive time
requirements.

Constant rate of
penetration :The pile is
jacked into the ground at a

constant rate, and a


continuous record of the load
and deformation is taken.
The test proceeds
rapidly and requires
the services of
several observers.
Results of the test are
not too sensitive to
the rate of
penetration. The load
is increased until the
pile fails by plunging
or the capacity of the
equipment is reached.
Results of the test are
plotted
(figure 5-7). The
allowable load is
considered to be 50
percent of the
ultimate bearing
capacity defined by
the intersection of
lines drawn tangent
to the two basic

portions of the load


settlement curve.

The constant
penetration rate
method, a very
rapid test, is
particularly suited
for military
construction.

LIMITATIONS OF PILE
LOAD TEST
Pile load tests do not take
into account the effects of
group action on bearing
capacity unless a group of
piles is loaded. The
settlement of a pile group is
not generally
related to the settlement
recorded during a load test on
a single pile. Settlement must
be estimated as discussed
below from consideration of
soil compressibility within
the zone of the influence.

Bearing
stratum
resistance : Where
piles
are
driven
through compressible

soil strata into a


bearing stratum of
sand or other firm
material, the
allowable pile load
is based on the
carrying capacity of
the bearing stratum
without depending
on the short-term
frictional resistance
of the compressible
soils. With pile load
tests, it is generally
not possible to
distinguish between
the short term
carrying capacity of
the
compressible soil and
the long-term carrying
capacity of the bearing

stratum. The capacity


of the bearing stratum
can be obtained by
testing the pile inside
the hollow casing or by
making a load test on
two piles driven about
5 feet a part. One pile
is driven to refusal in
the bearing stratum
while the other is
driven to with in 3 feet
of the bearing stratum.
The difference in the
ultimate loads for the
two piles is equal to
the carrying capacity
of the

bearing stratum.

PILE GROUPS
Piles are more usually
installed in groups, rather than
as single piles. A pile group
must be considered as a
composite block of piles and
soil, and not a multiple set of
single piles. The capacity of
each pile may be affected by
the driving of subsequent piles
in close proximity.
Compaction of the soil

between adjacent piles is


likely to lead to higher contact
stresses and thus higher shaft
capacities for those piles. The
ultimate capacity of a pile
group is not always dependent
on the individual capacity of
each pile analyzing the
capacity of a pile group 3
modes of failure must be
considered.

Single pile failure


Failure of rows of piles
Block failure

The methods of insertion, ground conditions, the geometry of the pile group and how the
group is capped all effect how any pile group will behave. If the group should fail as a
block, full shaft friction will only be mobilised around the perimeter of the block and so
any increase in shaft capacity of individual piles is irrelevant. The area of the whole base
of the block must be used in calculating the end bearing capacity and not just the base
areas of the individual piles in the group. Such block failure is likely to occur if piles are
closely spaced or if a ground-contacting pile cap is used. Failure of rows of piles is likely
to occur where pile spacing in one direction is much greater than in the perpendicular
direction.

UNDERREAMED PILES
Underreamed piles are bored cast-in-situ concrete piles having one or more bulbs
formed by enlarging the pile stem with a suitable cutting tool. Enlarged base in the
form ofunderream bulb made in the strata of good bearing provides larger bearing area
and piles of greater bearing capacity can be constructed. These piles have been
extensively used in India to support a wide variety of structures in almost all types of
soil strata on the basis of safety and economy.

MATERIAL TESTING

The following are the quality tests on


cement at construction site:(a) The colour of the cement should be uniform. It should be grey colour
with a light greenish shade.
(b) The cement should be free from any hard lumps. Such lumps are formed
by the absorption of moisture from the atmosphere. Any bag of cement
containing such lumps should be rejected.
(c) The cement should feel smooth when touched or rubbed in between
fingers. If it is felt rough, it indicates adulteration with sand.
(d) If hand is inserted in a bag of cement or heap of cement, it should feel
cool and not warm.
(e) If a small quantity of cement is thrown in a bucket of water, the particles
should float for some time before it sink.
(f) A thick paste of cement with water is made on a piece of glass plate and
it is kept under water for 24 hours. It should set and not crack.
(g) A block of cement 25 mm 25 mm and 200 mm long is prepared and it
is immersed for 7 days in water. It is then placed on supports 15cm apart
and it is loaded with a weight of about 34 kg. The block should not show
signs of failure.

Test To Check Fineness Of Cement


FINENESS
So we need to determine the fineness of cement by dry sieving as per IS: 4031 (Part 1)
1996.The principle of this is that we determine the proportion of cement whose grain size is
larger then specified mesh size.The apparatus used are 90m IS Sieve, Balance capable of
weighing 10g to the nearest 10mg, A nylon or pure bristle brush, preferably with 25 to
40mm, bristle, for cleaning the sieve.
Procedure to determine fineness of cement
i) Weigh approximately 10g of cement to the nearest 0.01g and place it on the sieve.
ii) Agitate the sieve by swirling, planetary and linear movements, until no more fine material
passes through it.
iii) Weigh the residue and express its mass as a percentage R1,of the quantity first placed
on the sieve to the nearest 0.1 percent.
iv) Gently brush all the fine material off the base of the sieve.
v) Repeat the whole procedure using a fresh 10g sample to obtain R2. Then calculate R as
the mean of R1 and R2 as a percentage, expressed to the nearest 0.1 percent. When the
results differ by more than 1 percent absolute, carry out a third sieving and calculate the
mean of the three values.
Reporting of Results
Report the value of R, to the nearest 0.1 percent, as the residue on the 90m sieve.

Test To Check Consistency Of Cement


CONSISTENCY
The basic aim is to find out the water content required to produce a cement paste of
standard consistency as specified by the IS: 4031 (Part 4) 1988. The principle is that
standard consistency of cement is that consistency at which the Vicat plunger penetrates to
a point 5-7mm from the bottom of Vicat mould.
Apparatus Vicat apparatus conforming to IS: 5513 1976, Balance, whose permissible
variation at a load of 1000g should be +1.0g, Gauging trowel conforming to IS: 10086
1982.

Procedure to determine consistency of cement


i) Weigh approximately 400g of cement and mix it with a weighed quantity of water.
The time of gauging should be between 3 to 5 minutes.
ii) Fill the Vicat mould with paste and level it with a trowel.
iii) Lower the plunger gently till it touches the cement surface.
iv) Release the plunger allowing it to sink into the paste.
v) Note the reading on the gauge.
vi) Repeat the above procedure taking fresh samples of cement and different
quantities of water until the reading on the gauge is 5 to 7mm.
Reporting of Results
Express the amount of water as a percentage of the weight of dry cement to the
first place of decimal.

Test To Check Initial And Final Setting Time


Of Cement
INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING TIME
We need to calculate the initial and final setting time as per IS: 4031 (Part 5) 1988.
To do so we need Vicat apparatus conforming to IS: 5513 1976, Balance, whose
permissible variation at a load of 1000g should be +1.0g, Gauging trowel
conforming to IS: 10086 1982.

Procedure to determine initial and final setting time of cement


i) Prepare a cement paste by gauging the cement with 0.85 times the water
required to give a paste of standard consistency.
ii) Start a stop-watch, the moment water is added to the cement.
iii) Fill the Vicat mould completely with the cement paste gauged as above, the
mould resting on a non-porous plate and smooth off the surface of the paste making
it level with the top of the mould. The cement block thus prepared in the mould is
the test block.
A) INITIAL SETTING TIME
Place the test block under the rod bearing the needle. Lower the needle gently in
order to make contact with the surface of the cement paste and release quickly,
allowing it to penetrate the test block. Repeat the procedure till the needle fails to
pierce the test block to a point 5.0 0.5mm measured from the bottom of the
mould.The time period elapsing between the time, water is added to the cement
and the time, the needle fails to pierce the test block by 5.0 0.5mm measured
from the bottom of the mould, is the initial setting time.
B) FINAL SETTING TIME
Replace the above needle by the one with an annular attachment. The cement
should be considered as finally set when, upon applying the needle gently to the
surface of the test block, the needle makes an impression therein, while the
attachment fails to do so. The period elapsing between the time, water is added to
the cement and the time, the needle makes an impression on the surface of the test
block, while the attachment fails to do so, is the final setting time.

Test To Check Soundness Of Cement


SOUNDNESS
Soundness of cement is determined by Le-Chatelier method as per IS: 4031 (Part 3)
1988.
Apparatus The apparatus for conducting the Le-Chatelier test should conform to
IS: 5514 1969
Balance, whose permissible variation at a load of 1000g should be +1.0g and Water
bath.

Procedure to determine soundness of cement


i) Place the mould on a glass sheet and fill it with the cement paste formed by
gauging cement with 0.78 times the water required to give a paste of standard
consistency.
ii) Cover the mould with another piece of glass sheet, place a small weight on this
covering glass sheet and immediately submerge the whole assembly in water at a
temperature of 27 2oC and keep it there for 24hrs.
iii) Measure the distance separating the indicator points to the nearest 0.5mm (say
d1 ).
iv) Submerge the mould again in water at the temperature prescribed above. Bring
the water to boiling point in 25 to 30 minutes and keep it boiling for 3hrs.
v) Remove the mould from the water, allow it to cool and measure the distance
between the indicator points (say d2 ).
vi) (d2 d1 ) represents the expansion of cement.

FIELD TEST FOR BULKING OF FINE AGGREGATES


AIM
To determine necessary adjustment for the bulking of fine aggregate, in the
field.

APPARATUES
250 ml measuring cylinder
PROCEDURE
(I) Pour the dump sand in to a 250 ml measuring cylinder up to the 200 ml
mark.
(II) Fill the cylinder with water and stir well (sufficient water should be
poured to submerge the sand compleately and it can be see that the sand
surface is now below its original level)
(III) Take the reading at the sand surface (Y ml)
CALCULATIONS
% of bulking { (200/Y)- 1] x100
Report the percentage bulking of the sand to the nearest whole number.
RESULT
Percentage bulking of field sample=
Moisture contents %age by wt.

Bulking % by volume

15

20

25

30

Following are the tests for sand:


1. Silt Content Test of Sand:
The maximum quantity of silt in sand shall not exceed 8%. Fine aggregate
containing more than allowable percentage of silt shall be washed so as to
bring the silt content within allowable limits.
2. Grading of sand: On the basis of particle size, fine aggregate is graded
into four zones. Where the grading falls outside the limits of any particular
grading zone of sieves, other than 600 micron IS sieve, by a total amount
not exceeding 5 percent, it shall be regarded as falling within that grading
zone.
IS Sieve
10mm
4.75mm
2.36mm
1.18 mm
600 micron
300 microns
150 microns

Grading Zone I
100
90 100
60 95
30 70
15 34
5 20
0 10

Percentage passing for


Grading
Grading
Zone II
Zone III
100
100
90 100
90 100
75 100
85 100
55 90
75 100
35 59
60 79
8 30
12 40
0 10
0 10

Grading Zone
IV
100
90 100
95 100
90 100
80 100
15 50
0 15

3. Deleterious materials in sand: Sand shall not contain any harmful


impurities such as iron, pyrites, alaklies, salts, coal or other organic
impurities, mica, shale or similar laminated materials, soft fragments, sea
shale in such form or in such quantities as to affect adversely the hardening,
strength or durability of the mortar. The maximum quantities of clay, fine
silt, fine dust and organic impurities in the sand / marble dust shall not
exceed the following limits:
(a) Clay, fine silt and fine dust when determined in accordance within not
more than 5% by mass in IS 2386 (Part-II), natural sand or crushed gravel
sand and crushed stone sand.

(b) Organic impurities when determined in colour of the liquid shall be


lighter in lighter in accordance with IS 2386 (Part II) than that specified in
the code.
Concrete slump test is to determine the workability or consistency of concrete mix
prepared at the laboratory or the construction site during the progress of the work.
Concrete slump test is carried out from batch to batch to check the uniform quality
of concrete during construction.
Equipment

Mould for slump test, non porous base plate, measuring scale, temping rod.
The mould for the test is in the form of the frustum of a cone having height
30 cm, bottom diameter 20 cm and top diameter 10 cm. The tamping rod is
of steel 16 mm diameter and 60cm long and rounded at one end.

PROCEDURE FOR CONCRETE SLUMP TEST:


1.

Clean the internal surface of the mould and apply oil.

2.

Place the mould on a smooth horizontal non- porous base plate.

3.

Fill the mould with the prepared concrete mix in 4 approximately equal
layers.

4.

Tamp each layer with 25 strokes of the rounded end of the tamping
rod in a uniform manner over the cross section of the mould. For the
subsequent layers, the tamping should penetrate into the underlying layer.

5.

Remove the excess concrete and level the surface with a trowel.

6.

Clean away the mortar or water leaked out between the mould and the
base plate.

7.

Raise the mould from the concrete immediately and slowly in vertical
direction.

8.

Measure the slump as the difference between the height of the mould
and that of height point of the specimen being tested.

Figure-2: Concrete Slump Test Procedure


The above operation should be carried out at a place free from Vibrations or
shock and within a period of 2 minutes after sampling.

RESULT OF CONCRETE SLUMP TEST:


Slump for the given sample= _____mm
When the slump test is carried out, following are the shape of the concrete
slump that can be observed:

Figure-3: Types of Concrete Slump Test Results

True Slump True slump is the only slump that can be measured in

the test. The measurement is taken between the top of the cone and the top
of the concrete after the cone has been removed as shown in figure-1.
Zero Slump Zero slump is the indication of very low water-cement

ratio, which results in dry mixes. These type of concrete is generally used for
road construction.
Collapsed Slump This is an indication that the water-cement ratio

is too high, i.e. concrete mix is too wet or it is a high workability mix, for
which a slump test is not appropriate.
Shear Slump The shear slump indicates that the result is
incomplete, and concrete to be retested.
A mix design can be designed in two ways as explained below
1. Nominal Mix
2. Design
NOMINAL MIX
It is used for relatively unimportant and simpler concrete works. In this type of mix,
all the ingredients are prescribed and their proportions are specified. Therefore
there is no scope for any deviation by the designer. Nominal mix concrete may be
used for concrete of M-20 or lower. The various ingredients are taken as given in
the table below
Max. quantity
of dry
Grade

Aggregates per
50 kg of
cement

Fine Aggregate
to Coarse
Aggregate
Ratio, by mass

Max. Quantity
of water in
litres

M-5

800

M-7.5

625

M-10

480

M-15

330

M-20

250

60
Generally 1:2
but may varies
from 1:1.5 to
1:2.5

45
34
32
30

DESIGN MIX
It is a performance based mix where choice of ingredients and proportioning are
left to the designer to be decided. The user has to specify only the requirements of
concrete in fresh as well as hardened state. The requirements in fresh concrete are
workability and finishing characteristics, whereas in hardened concrete these are
mainly the compressive strength and durability.