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Name: Tabelisma, Jenny R.

Date: July 1, 2015

Course: BSBA Financial Management


10:00

Time: 9:00

Assignment in Computer and I.T.

Definition of Computer
Computer is an electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in binary form,
according to instructions given to it in a variable program.

Characteristics of Computer

SPEED : In general, no human being can compete to solving the


complex computation, faster than computer.

ACCURACY : Since Computer is programmed, so what ever input we


give it gives result with accuratly.

STORAGE : Computer can store mass storage of data with appropriate


formate.

DILIGENCE : Computer can work for hours without any break and
creating error.

VERSATILITY : We can use computer to perform completely different


type of work at the same time.

POWER OF REMEMBERING : It can remember data for us.

NO IQ : Computer does not work without instruction.

NO FEELING : Computer does not have emotions, knowledge,


experience, feeling.

Classification of Computer

1. Super computer A super computer can be defined as a very strong,


powerful machine though very costly but with a large primary storage.
Super computer is a very sophisticated system, because of this in the
beginning its use was limited to only some of the operations like the
scientific research, weather forecasting, military research etc, but now these
machines are being used more commonly in business organizations etc. The
use of super computers is very effective for performing functions that need
very high speed and also need quick and complex computation.

The processing in the super computers is done in the parallel processing


mode. India too has a super computer, called as the PARAM super computer
developed by C-DAC, under the super vision of Dr. Vijay Bhatkar.

2. Mainframe Computer This type of computer is also highly


sophisticated in nature actually is a power house, with a huge secondary
storage. The CPU of Mainframe computer is very strong, possessing a very
high working speed and also supported with massive memory.

A Mainframe computer has the ability of doing multiple jobs, because of


which it is very commonly used in large scientific and military operations.
Various multiple jobs, being done concurrently can be easily done with the
help of such computers.
3. Mini Computer This type of computer is a small one, unlike the other
types of computers explained above. It is also comparatively cheaper.

Online processing from multiple remote locations can be very easily


performed with the help of a Mini Computer. This type of computer often
finds its use in academic institutions, universities, research laboratories etc.
4. Micro Computer A Micro computer can be referred to as the personal
computer as it is compact and also small in size which makes it very easy to
carry from one place to another. Because of all these plus points, a Micro
computer finds its use not only at home (as a personal machine), but also is
used in office, working place etc.

One major advantage of a micro computer is that by integrating this type of


computer into organization wide network one can easily share hardware,
software and also the data resources. The working of a Micro computer is
very simple supported by a simple operating system.
Micro computers have small primary storage (one input unit and an output
unit) and also a small secondary storage (Diskettes or Cassettes).

Strength and Limitation of Computer

Input and Output

The most fundamental consideration in successful human and computer


interaction is input and output. Input is how information is received, and
output is how information is given. Without either input or output,
interactions would be impossible as there would be no method for the user to
tell a computer what task should be performed, and there would be no way
for the computer to display the results of an operation to the user.
Humans and computers have both input and output channels, and some
channels which are used for both. To receive an input of information humans
typically use the senses of sight, touch, and hearing. Computers use devices
such as keyboards, computer mice, or speech recognition. To output
information, computers mainly use monitors, screens, and audio. Humans
rely on a variety of physical movements to output information, such as

moving a mouse, typing on a keyboard, and producing speech from the voice
box.
The limitations of computer input and output devices strongly affect the
design of systems and interactions. Designers need to design systems that
are compatible with the different methods of input and output users may
employ to interact with applications. For example, a web application needs to
be equally usable for a mouse user, a keyboard user, or an assistive
technology user. Developers need be aware of the strengths and limitations
of input/output devices in order to choose which platform and what devices
would be the most suitable for the system being designed. For example,
when designing a life support system for a hospital would it be best to use a
keypad, a mouse, or speech for input?
Different kinds of computer input and output devices are examined in detail
in the Multimodel input and Multimodal output sections of this course.

Memory

It should be noted that the information is presented here for completeness.


We realise that students taking this course are familiar with the concepts in
this section however it does no harm to restate them.
Just like human memory, computers have different kinds of memory. These
are divided into primary and secondary storage, instead of long-term and
short-term memory in humans. HCI is not concerned specifically with the
technical workings and details of computer memory. HCI instead is interested
in the limitations in capacity and access constraints which will affect the
human user when interacting with computers.

RAM

Random access memory (RAM) allows data to be accessed in any order. This
is unlike computer disk memory which can only be read in a linear fashion.
As a result, RAM can access any data at a constant speed which is much
faster than that of disk based memory. Most RAM is volatile, which means its
contents are lost when the power is turned off.

Flash memory

Flash memory is a form of silicon memory that is somewhere between fixed


content read only memory (ROM) and normal RAM. Flash memory is popular
as it is small, portable, and contains no moving parts. Flash memory is
relatively slow to write, but once written it retains the content even without
power.

Disk memory

For most computers long term data storage is supplied by disks, either
stored on magnetic or optical disks such as: hard disks, CD/DVD disks,
removable hard disks. Unlike human long-term memory, computer memory
does have limits, although those limits are getting higher and higher
exponentially. In contrast to RAM, accessing data on disks is achieved
linearly, and is much slower. However, unlike RAM, all the data stored on disk
memory is not lost when the device no longer has power.

Processing

Computer processing speed is limited by various factors: computation,


memory access, graphics, and network delays. Interface designers need to
be aware of the processing limitations of the device they are designing for, or
else the application could be rendered completely useless. For example, an
application designed for use on a PC could not be executed on an average
mobile phone because the phone has a much smaller processor and
significantly less memory available.

Computation limitations

A processor is limited by how many actions or instructions it can carry out at


any given time. Some tasks or applications are computationally expensive,
which means they need a large amount of processing power, and can take a
long time to process. In these situations, such as installing a new program, it
is advised to present the user with a progress bar so they know the computer
is in action and not frozen, and also to relieve stress by estimating
completion time.

Memory limitations

Limitations imposed by read and write times to memory can cause delays in
interactive performance. Memory reading speeds are much faster than

writing speeds, so long delays are typically only experienced when saving or
writing to memory.

Graphical limitations

Rendering graphics is one of the most computationally expensive processes


computers preform. When Pixar were developing the computer animated
movie Toy Story, a single frame took between four to thirteen hours to
render. In graphically intensive programs, designers need to be aware that
the average user will not usually have a powerful graphics card. In rendering
intensive applications such as computer games, the minimum graphics card
specification to run the program will be written on the packaging.

Network Capacity

When designing programs for use through a network, such as internet


content or shared work spaces, it is important to account for the limitation of
network data transfer speeds. For example, web designers must reduce the
quality of images to ensure a small filesize for quick download.