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CHN:424 INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL
CHN:424 INDUSTRIAL
POLLUTION CONTROL
Ø CHN-424 Industrial Pollution Control Ø Examination : 50% Ø Sessional : 50% ØMTE :
Ø CHN-424 Industrial Pollution Control
Ø Examination
: 50%
Ø Sessional : 50%
ØMTE
:
25
ØCW
:
20 Presentation
Topics in a group
5 Regularity in class
Suggested Books
Suggested Books
WhyWhy IndustrialIndustrial PollutionPollution Control?Control? l Intergovernmental Penal on Climate Change (IPCC), 1988
WhyWhy IndustrialIndustrial PollutionPollution Control?Control?
l
Intergovernmental Penal on Climate Change (IPCC), 1988
l
Substantial changes are happening to our environment
Air, water and soil being affected- Delhi PM2.5, CNG, Diesel,
Petrol; industries-air and water
l
US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
l
Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change
New Delhi
l
Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi
l
State Pollution Control Boards/Pollution Control
Committees
FINAL YEAR PROJECT- air and water pollution, SWM and noise pollution
SWACCH BHARAT
TYPICAL AIR POLLUTION
TYPICAL AIR POLLUTION
SMOG DUE TO AIR POLLUTION
SMOG DUE TO AIR POLLUTION
AIR POLLUTION DUE TO VEHICLES Total vehicles: 78 LAKHS Daily reg: 3000+ From other states:
AIR POLLUTION DUE TO VEHICLES Total vehicles: 78 LAKHS Daily reg: 3000+ From other states:

AIR POLLUTION DUE TO VEHICLES

AIR POLLUTION DUE TO VEHICLES Total vehicles: 78 LAKHS Daily reg: 3000+ From other states: 20-30,
AIR POLLUTION DUE TO VEHICLES Total vehicles: 78 LAKHS Daily reg: 3000+ From other states: 20-30,

Total vehicles: 78 LAKHS Daily reg: 3000+ From other states: 20-30, 000/day Odd/Even formula, change in office timings

WATER POLLUTION
WATER POLLUTION
WATER POLLUTION
WATER POLLUTION
SOLID WASTE:MUNICIPAL/E/INDUSTRIAL SWACCH BHARAT- MAIN COMPONENT
SOLID WASTE:MUNICIPAL/E/INDUSTRIAL SWACCH BHARAT- MAIN COMPONENT

SOLID WASTE:MUNICIPAL/E/INDUSTRIAL SWACCH BHARAT- MAIN COMPONENT

SOLID WASTE:MUNICIPAL/E/INDUSTRIAL SWACCH BHARAT- MAIN COMPONENT
SOLID WASTE:MUNICIPAL/E/INDUSTRIAL SWACCH BHARAT- MAIN COMPONENT

THE EFFECTS OF POLLUTION

SHORT TERM

1. HUMAN HEALTH

2. VEGETATION AND ANIMALS

3. MATERIALS AND STRUCTURE

4. ATMOSPHERE, SOIL AND WATER BODIES

LONG TERM PLANET

Insecticides Herbicides PM, PM10,PM2.5, PM1.5,NANOPARTICLES ( up to 100 nm) Allout, Dhoop, Havan samgri, Fog
Insecticides
Herbicides
PM, PM10,PM2.5,
PM1.5,NANOPARTICLES
( up to 100 nm)
Allout, Dhoop, Havan
samgri, Fog chal raha hai

VEGETATION AND ANIMALS

1.

Photosynthesis process - PM hinders the sun rays

2.

FACTORS: plant species, age, nutrient balance, soil condition, temperature, humidity, wind velocity and solar insolation

3.

Acid deposition- SOx, NOx

4.

O3 impacts the plant growth

5.

Animals are impacted the same way as human beings

6.

Acidification of lakes, ponds and heavy metals- biomagnification and bioconcentration

7.

Usage of non-biodegrable materials- polyethylene :

soil, sewer lines, nallas, and intake by animals

8.

Crude and HCs spilling/seepage/leakage in sea

EFFECT ON VEGETATION
EFFECT ON VEGETATION

EFFECT ON VEGETATION

EFFECT ON VEGETATION
EFFECT ON VEGETATION
EFFECT ON ANIMALS
EFFECT ON ANIMALS

MATERIALS AND STRUCTURE

1. Effects on metals- ferrous : iron; nonferrous- do not contain iron :

zinc, aluminum, copper and silver

2. Moisture, type of pollutant and temperature- corrosion 100 times in England than an arid African location

3. AC units very prone to CFC leakages near nallahs

4. SOx and NOx, H2S,O3 responsible

5. Electrical contacts - pitting

6. Stone- CaSO4, and CaSO4.2H2O: both water soluble

7. CO2 with moisture forms carbonic acid which reacts with lime stone to form bicarbonate again water soluble

8. PVC- brittle now uPVC in market : Due to O3

9. Natural and synthetic rubber have the same fate as PVC

10.Fabrics, dyes, paint, leather, paper and glass

11. Dissolved solids in water damage the pipelines, plumbing and fixtures

EFFECT ON BUILDINGS
EFFECT ON BUILDINGS

EFFECT ON BUILDINGS

EFFECT ON BUILDINGS
EFFECT ON BUILDINGS

ATMOSPHERE, SOIL AND WATER BODIES

1. Visibility- smog formation (0.001-2 micron: smog); (3-70 micron fog)

2. Precipitation: Wilson’cloud chamber (1927 Nobel prize) ; silver iodide particles, cloud bursts- very common now a day

3. Atmosphere haze: 0.1-1.0 micron

4. Acidic deposition in soil and water bodies

Haze Smog

Haze

Smog

PLANET- LONG TERM

1. Global warming- CO2: Fossil fuel usage

2. Ozone holes-CFC usage

3. Ground water contamination

4. Surface water contamination

5. Soil degradation

usage 2. Ozone holes-CFC usage 3. Ground water contamination 4. Surface water contamination 5. Soil degradation
China USA India Russia Japan
China
USA
India
Russia
Japan
FiveFive elementselements 1. Water, ज ल 2. Air, व ा य ु 3. Earth, प
FiveFive elementselements
1. Water, ज ल
2. Air, व ा य ु
3. Earth,
प ृ)व ी
4. Space, आ क ा श
5. Fire, अ /0न
WaterWater 1. All the living systems need water and contain water 2. Life on earth
WaterWater
1. All the living systems need water and contain
water
2. Life on earth is due to water, 70% water cover
3. God of water, इ 34 (Indra) when He is roost?
4. Ganges water, (Shelf life: long); BOD/COD
5. Water pollution - treatment strategies
Effluents from industries and agrichemicals (Punjab)
Ganga and Yamuna river cleaning- Namami Gange project
Ground water, lakes, sea water is contaminated
AirAir 1. Air needed by the living systems 2. Without air no survival 3. God
AirAir
1. Air needed by the living systems
2. Without air no survival
3. God of air, वा य ु(Vayu), Pr ā na
4. Pranayam : oxygen transfer rate –Yoga day June 21
5. 78.08% Nitrogen and 20.95% Oxygen + other gases
6. Combustion: Co,CO 2 , NO x , SO x , SPM, RSPM, PM
2.5, Hg, arsenic, HCs, VOCs etc.
Paper industry: Dioxin 100 times lethal than cyanide
Carbon dioxide: 397 ppm (present)
280 ppm (1750)
Greenhouse gases: CO 2 , N 2 O, H 2 O, O 3 , CH 4 , CFCs
EarthEarth 1. We eat which is grown on earth 2. Photosynthesis process: biomass 3. Goddess
EarthEarth
1. We eat which is grown on earth
2. Photosynthesis process: biomass
3. Goddess of earth, प ृ)व ी, Prithvi
4. Soil is getting contaminated
Pollution air/water
Lead in Maggi noodles ?
Lead pipes in water supply
Lead compound for plumbing
(2PbCO3 ·Pb(OH)2)
SpaceSpace 1. Solar energy Space 2. Photosynthesis process- leaf: chemical reactor 3. Solar energy into
SpaceSpace
1. Solar energy
Space
2. Photosynthesis process- leaf: chemical reactor
3. Solar energy into biomass and other forms of
energy: hydro, coal, petroleum, wind etc.
4. God of space, आ क ा श, Aakash
5. O 3 depletion: CFCs and space shuttles,
rockets etc. ; UV radiations
FireFire 1. Combustion 2. Carbon and Hydrogen - Exothermic reactions 3. CI and SI engines,
FireFire
1. Combustion
2. Carbon and Hydrogen -
Exothermic reactions
3. CI and SI engines, cooking, thermal power
plants
4. Goddess of fire, अ /0न , Agni
5. Because of fire air pollution
6. Every thing is getting into CO 2 and H 2 O
which are converted back by photosynthesis
process to complex biomass species and the
on…
process goes on …
goes
Environment 1.Atmosphere: layer of air that surrounds our planet 2.Hydrosphere: liquid envelop that surrounds our
Environment
1.Atmosphere: layer of air that surrounds
our planet
2.Hydrosphere: liquid envelop that
surrounds our planet
3.Lithosphere: solid earth, including earth’s
crust and part of the upper mantle
4.Biosphere: living organisms that inhabit the
above spheres
Environment • Atmosphere…air to breathe • Hydrosphere …water to drink Days w/o water • Lithosphere
Environment
• Atmosphere…air to breathe
• Hydrosphere …water to drink
Days w/o
water
• Lithosphere …food to eat
• Biosphere …food to eat
Months w/o food
Minutes
without air
Resources: fossil fuels,
ores, uranium, thorium
Environment
Environment
Atmosphere Age of earth Oxygen : 4.6 Billion year : 0% 2 Billion years ago
Atmosphere
Age of earth
Oxygen
: 4.6 Billion year
: 0% 2 Billion years ago
Constant components (fix over time and location)
Nitrogen
78.08%
Oxygen
20.95%
Argon
0.93%
Neon, Helium, Krypton
0.0001%
Atmosphere Variable components (variable with time and location) Carbon dioxide 0.0397% - of concern Water
Atmosphere
Variable components (variable with time and
location)
Carbon dioxide
0.0397% - of concern
Water vapor
0-4%
Methane
traces
Sulfur dioxide
traces
Ozone
traces
Nitrogen oxides
traces
Others: dust, volcanic ash, snow and rain
Layers of the Earth's atmosphere
Layers of the Earth's atmosphere
Atmospheric temperature: vertical structure
Atmospheric temperature: vertical structure
Vertical structure of atmospheric pressure
Vertical structure of atmospheric pressure
Atmosphere zones The zones are not sharply delineated and their elevation varies with both time
Atmosphere zones
The zones are not sharply delineated
and their elevation varies with both
time of year and latitude
Troposphere 1.Thickness from sea level: 18 km; Everest 8848 m 2.Pressure at top is 10%
Troposphere
1.Thickness from sea level: 18 km; Everest
8848 m
2.Pressure at top is 10% of atmosphere 76
mm of Hg
3.Air movement is vertical as well horizontal
4.Weather/clouds formation/rains
5.Air cools progressively with height
6.Temperature: -6.5 o C/km
HUMAN ACTIVITIES ARE DISTURBING
TROPOSPHERE
Tropopause 1.Thin layer between troposphere and stratosphere: 4 km 2.Air is completely dry 3.The elevation
Tropopause
1.Thin layer between troposphere and
stratosphere: 4 km
2.Air is completely dry
3.The elevation where the temperature
no longer decreases with altitude
Stratosphere 1.This extends up to 50 km and comprises of ozone 2.Ozone is 2-8 ppm
Stratosphere
1.This extends up to 50 km and comprises
of ozone
2.Ozone is 2-8 ppm
3.In the middle and upper stratosphere,
air temperature increases progressively
with height
4.Heated by ozone
5.Lower stratosphere is isothermal
(constant temperature with height)
Stratopause The elevation where the temperature no longer increases with altitude
Stratopause
The elevation where the temperature no
longer increases with altitude
Mesosphere 1.Mesosphere is from 50 to 90 km 2.Temperature again decreases here 3.Intermediate zone between
Mesosphere
1.Mesosphere is from 50 to 90 km
2.Temperature again decreases here
3.Intermediate zone between stratosphere
and thermosphere
4.Air cools progressively with elevation
Mesopause The elevation above the mesosphere where the temperature no longer cools with altitude
Mesopause
The elevation above the mesosphere where
the temperature no longer cools with altitude
Ionosphere 1.Next is thermosphere or ionosphere extending to 350 km 2. Oxygen is in ionic
Ionosphere
1.Next is thermosphere or ionosphere
extending to 350 km
2. Oxygen is in ionic form heat is absorbed
3. Temperate rises again
Outer limit of atmosphere 1. Difficult to define 2. At 32,000 km, the Earth’s gravitation
Outer limit of atmosphere
1. Difficult to define
2. At 32,000 km, the Earth’s gravitation pull equals
centrifugal force of the Earth’s rotation
TRISHANKU
Ozone measurement Developed by G.M.B. Dobson, 1920s; Professor at Oxford University All the ozone over
Ozone measurement
Developed by G.M.B. Dobson, 1920s; Professor at Oxford University
All the ozone over a certain
area is compressed to o C
and 1 atm and forms a 3 mm
thick slab corresponding to
300 DU
1 DU = 0.01 mm thickness of ozone at o C and 1 atm (STP)
US sky
: 300 DU
Minimum at Antarctica : ~100 DU
Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometer
Total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS)
Ozone holes: when concentration of ozone reduces more than 50%
Antarctica: 25 million km 2 in 2001
Antarctic ozone Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer
Antarctic ozone
Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer
Carbon Dioxide (a) Global atmospheric concentrations of three well mixed greenhouse gases Methane Nitrous oxide
Carbon Dioxide
(a) Global atmospheric concentrations
of three well mixed greenhouse gases
Methane
Nitrous oxide
Sulphur
Global Climate Change
David D. Houghton
48
oxide Sulphur Global Climate Change David D. Houghton 48 Indicators of the Human Influence on the

Indicators of the Human Influence on the Atmosphere During the Industrial Era

(b) Sulphate aerosols deposited in Greenland ice

Latin word (whiteness)
Latin word (whiteness)

49

Global Climate Change

Received solar radiation/reflected

David D. Houghton

Hydrosphere 1. 70.8% earth’s surface is covered by water 2. 60-70% of living world 3.
Hydrosphere
1. 70.8% earth’s surface is covered by water
2. 60-70% of living world
3. Physiological reactions in aqueous phase
4. Total quantum of water : 1.4 B km 3
5. Salty sea water : 97.6%
6. Fresh water
:
2.4%
7. Renewable in nature
8. Important food source
9. Easily polluted
10. Must be purified
11. Major industrial and agriculture input
Distribution of fresh water Location % of total Snow, ice, glaciers Accessible ground water Lakes,
Distribution of fresh water
Location
% of total
Snow, ice, glaciers
Accessible ground water
Lakes, reservoirs, ponds
Saline lakes
Soil moisture
Moisture in living organisms
Atmosphere
Wetlands
Rivers, streams, canals
86.9
12.0
0.37
0.31
0.19
0.19
0.039
0.011
0.0051
Freshwater as a resource in India ØRenewable through evaporation from the seas and precipitation (solar
Freshwater as a resource in India
ØRenewable through evaporation from
the seas and precipitation (solar powered)
ØDemands for freshwater include:
§Agriculture & livestock (79.6%)
§Power generation (13.6%)
§Domestic(3.5%)
§Industry (3.3%)
ØDemand increases with increasing population
ØUnequal distribution of freshwater
Interlinking of rivers: solution of water problem
Rain harvesting
Rain harvesting
Lithosphere
Lithosphere
Lithosphere 1.Land area: 26% 2.Supports all the living systems and provides a wealth of raw
Lithosphere
1.Land area: 26%
2.Supports all the living systems and provides
a wealth of raw materials which has made
the civilization to develop
Lithosphere: India Ø 2.4% of world’s land Ø 15% of world’s population Ø Per capita
Lithosphere: India
Ø 2.4% of world’s land
Ø 15% of world’s population
Ø Per capita land availability, ha
Russia
8.43
USA
7.39
Australia
6.60
China
0.98
India
0.48
Lithosphere: India Ø Land use categories, Mha Cultivable land Forest land Nonagricultural land Barren and
Lithosphere: India
Ø Land use categories, Mha
Cultivable land
Forest land
Nonagricultural land
Barren and pasture land
Fallow land -PV
142 (46%)
67 (22%)
20 (6.5%)
55 (17.8%)
25 (8.0%)
Ø Mineral exploration
Rich in coal, HCs, bauxite, copper, gold,
nickel, uranium, thorium etc.
Lithosphere: India Ø Food resource Self sufficient in agriculture produce I in world in sugar
Lithosphere: India
Ø Food resource
Self sufficient in agriculture produce
I in world in sugar production
I in milk production, 97 million tonnes
Live stock, 25% of world
Chicken/Fish: Antibiotics
Ø Forest resource
21.68 % forest cover
reduction in global warming
Movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans in billions of tons of carbon Global

Movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans in billions of tons of carbon

Global Climate Change

David D. Houghton

per year. Yellow numbers are natural fluxes, red are human contributions in billions of

tons of carbon per year. White numbers indicate stored carbon.

Conclusion Ø We need to preserve our planet Ø Air Ø Water Ø Soil
Conclusion
Ø We need to preserve our planet
Ø Air
Ø Water
Ø Soil