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220+ Law and Economics Professors Urge Congress to Reject the TPP and Other

Prospective Deals that Include Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS)


September 7, 2016

Dear Member of Congress:

Last March 2015, members of the legal community wrote to congressional leaders and
administration officials to oppose the inclusion of Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS)
provisions in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment
Partnership (TTIP). We write now to express our extreme disappointment that the final text of
the TPP that was finally made public in November 2015 did not heed those warnings about this
controversial provisions negative consequences for our legal system. Those concerns expressed
in the 2015 letter were based on past agreements and leaked texts from the TPP negotiations.
Unfortunately the final TPP text simply replicates nearly word for word many of the problematic
provisions from past agreements, and indeed would vastly expand the U.S. governments
potential liability under the ISDS system.
We therefore urge you to protect the rule of law and our nations democratic institutions and
sovereignty by rejecting this TPP as long as ISDS is included. While there is still time, we urge
you to pressure the United States Trade Representative (USTR) to change course in the TTIP
negotiations and in negotiations of other prospective agreements, such as the Bilateral
Investment Treaty (BIT) between the United States and China, to ensure that ISDS is not
included in any of those pacts.

ISDS grants foreign corporations and investors a special legal privilege: the right to initiate
dispute settlement proceedings against a government for actions that allegedly violate loosely
defined investor rights to seek damages from taxpayers for the corporations lost profits.
Essentially, corporations and investors use ISDS to challenge government policies, actions, or
decisions that they allege reduce the value of their investments.

The problem with ISDS is not that it allows private corporations to sue the government for
conduct that harms the corporations economic interests. Indeed, U.S. domestic law already

recognizes the importance of granting private citizens and entities (including foreign
corporations) the power to take legal action against the government in order to help promote
effective implementation of the law and adherence to the Constitution. Over the past two
centuries, the United States through citizens, elected representatives, and courts has
established a framework of rules that govern such lawsuits against the government and
continually refines those rules through democratic processes. These include rules on court
procedures and evidence, which are designed to ensure the fairness, legitimacy and reliability of
proceedings; rules on who may bring lawsuits and under which circumstances, which are
designed to balance the right to sue with the need to ensure that government regulation in the
public interest is not made impossible due to unlimited litigation; rules on the power of courts,
which are designed to ensure that judges do not overly intrude on legitimate policy decisions
made by elected legislatures or executive officials, and to ensure that federal judges do not
unduly interfere with state law and policy; rules on appropriate remedies, which are crafted to
achieve diverse policy aims such as deterrence, punishment, and compensation; and rules on the
independence and accountability of judges who decide cases against the government.
Through ISDS, the federal government gives foreign investors and foreign investors alone
the ability to bypass that robust, nuanced, and democratically responsive legal framework.
Foreign investors are able to frame questions of domestic constitutional and administrative law
as treaty claims, and take those claims to a panel of private international arbitrators,
circumventing local, state or federal domestic administrative bodies and courts. Freed from
fundamental rules of domestic procedural and substantive law that would have otherwise
governed their lawsuits against the government, foreign corporations can succeed in lawsuits
before ISDS tribunals even when domestic law would have clearly led to the rejection of those
companies claims. Corporations are even able to re-litigate cases they have already lost in
domestic courts. It is ISDS arbitrators, not domestic courts, who are ultimately able to determine
the bounds of proper administrative, legislative, and judicial conduct.

This system undermines the important roles of our domestic and democratic institutions,
threatens domestic sovereignty, and weakens the rule of law.

In addition to these fundamental flaws that arise from a parallel and privileged set of legal rights
and recourse for foreign economic actors, there are various flaws in the way ISDS proceedings
are meant to be conducted in the TPP. In short, ISDS lacks many of the basic protections and
procedures of the justice system normally available in a court of law. There are no mechanisms
for domestic citizens or entities affected by ISDS cases to intervene in or meaningfully
participate in the disputes; there is no appeals process and therefore no way of addressing errors
of law or fact made in arbitral decisions; and there is no oversight or accountability of the private
lawyers who serve as arbitrators, many of whom rotate between being arbitrators and bringing
cases for corporations against governments. Codes of judicial conduct that bind the domestic
judiciary do not apply to arbitrators in ISDS cases.

If the TPP text were approved by Congress, we would not only be entrenching this inherently
flawed mechanism, but significantly expanding it. While the first investment treaty with ISDS
was concluded in the late 1960s, investment treaties with ISDS were not widely negotiated until
the 1990s, and ISDS claims only emerged in earnest in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Thus, we
really only have roughly 15 years of experience with this mechanism. Additionally, the United
States has only one investment treaty in force with a major capital exporting state, Canada,
meaning that only a relatively small share of foreign direct investment in the United States
roughly 10 percent is protected by a treaty with ISDS. The TPP would double the percentage of
covered investment in the United States, and if included in the TTIP as well, the amount of
covered investment in the United States would rise significantly to approximately 70 percent;
that would be a seven-fold increase in U.S. exposure to costly litigation and liability.

Before we further entrench and expand this relatively new area of law, the legal and policy
communities must reflect on this experiment.

In recent years, corporations have challenged a wide range of environmental, health, and safety
regulations, fiscal policies, bans on toxins, denials of permits including for toxic waste dumps,
moratoria on extraction of natural resources, measures taken in response to financial crises, court
decisions on issues ranging from the scope of intellectual property rights to the resolution of
bankruptcy claims, policy decisions on privatizations of prisons and healthcare, and efforts to

combat tax evasion, among others. Nearly 700 cases have been filed against approximately 100
governments over the past few years. There were 50 known ISDS cases launched in the regimes
first three decades combined. But the number of cases has soared in recent years. According to
the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), in 2015 alone, 70 ISDS
cases were launched more than in any previous year.

Fundamentally, the United States has typically only agreed to supranational adjudication in
exceptional and justified cases and after resolving a range of complex legal and policy concerns
about the scope and depth of supranational review and authority over domestic policies and
decisions, the role of public, private and affected stakeholders in the legal process, and the
available remedies to aggrieved parties. ISDS and its expansion through the TPP and TTIP
brushes aside these complex concerns and threatens to dilute constitutional protections, weaken
the judicial branch, and outsource our domestic legal system to a system of private arbitration
that is isolated from essential checks and balances.

For the above reasons, we urge you to reject this TPP as long as it includes ISDS and ensure any
future investment treaty, such as the TTIP and the BIT with China, excludes ISDS.

Thank you for your consideration.

Sincerely,

1.

Laurence H. Tribe

2.

Joseph Stiglitz

3.

Jeffrey D. Sachs

4.

Cruz Reynoso

5.

Dani Rodrik

6.

Lisa E. Sachs

7.

Alan B. Morrison

8.

Amy Kapczynski

Carl M. Loeb University Professor


Nobel laureate in economics, University
Professor
Director, Earth Institute, Columbia
University
Professor Emeritus
Professor of International Political
Economy
Director, Columbia Center on Sustainable
Investment
Lerner Family Associate Dean for Public
Interest & Public Service Law
Professor of Law

Harvard Law School*


Columbia University
Columbia University
University of California, Davis,
School of Law
Harvard Kennedy School
Columbia University
George Washington University Law
School
Yale Law School

* Organizational affiliation for all signatories is included for identification purposes only; individuals represent
only themselves, not the institutions where they are teaching or other organizations in which they are active.

9.
10.
11.

Jose Antonio Ocampo


David Singh Grewal
Peter Halewood

Professor
Professor
Professor of Law
Jay and Ruth Caplan Distinguished
Professor of Law

12.

Stephen E. Gottlieb

13.

Gregory S. Munro

Professor, Retired

14.
15.
16.
17.

John Willoughby
Maria Floro
Robert A. Blecker
Robin Broad

18.

Ann Shalleck

19.

Brandon Butler

20.

Michael W. Carroll

Professor, Department of Economics


Professor, Department of Economics
Professor, Department of Economics
Professor, School of International Service
Professor of Law and Carrington Shields
Scholar
Practitioner-in-Residence, Intellectual
Property Law Clinic
Professor of Law and Director, Program on
Information Justice and Intellectual
Property

21.

Peter Jaszi

22.

Sean Flynn

Professor of Law

24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

William John Snape,


III
T. J. Davis
Helen de Haven
Joseph Ricciardi
William Van Lear
Bryan Snyder
Susan P. Koniak

Associate Director, Program on Information


Justice and Intellectual Property
Professorial Lecturer in Residence
Fellow in Environmental Law and
Practitioner-in-Residence
Attorney and Professor of History
Associate Professor
Associate Professor of Economics
Professor of Economics
Senior Lecturer, Economics
Professor of Law

30.

Jeanne Koopman

Visiting Researcher of Economics

31.

Dr. Kevin P.
Gallagher

32.

Matas Vernengo

33.

Mayo C. Toruo

34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

Aydin Cecen
Andrew Friedman
Jeremy K. Kessler
Spencer J. Pack
Angela B. Cornell
Lourdes Beneria
K. Babe Howell

23.

Professor of Global Development Policy;


Research Director, Center for Finance, Law
& Policy
Professor of Economics
Chair, Department of Economics; Professor
of Economics
Professor of Economics
Lecturer in Law
Associate Professor of Law
Professor of Economics
Clinical Professor of Law
Professor Emerita
Associate Professor

Columbia University
Yale Law School
Albany Law School
Albany Law School
Alexander Blewett III School of
Law, University of Montana
American University
American University
American University
American University
American University Washington
College of Law
American University Washington
College of Law
American University Washington
College of Law
American University Washington
College of Law
American University Washington
College of Law
American University Washington
College of Law
Arizona State University, Tempe
Atlanta's John Marshall Law School
Babson College
Belmont Abbey College
Bentley University
Boston University
Boston University African Studies
Center
Boston University, Frederick S.
Pardee School of Global Studies
Bucknell University
California State University, San
Bernardino
Central Michigan University
Columbia Law School
Columbia Law School
Connecticut College
Cornell Law School
Cornell University
CUNY School of Law

41.

Pamela Edwards

42.

Jennifer Olmsted

43.

45.

Jedediah Purdy
Paul DeWitt
Carrington
William Moner

46.

David S. Levine

Associate Professor; Affiliate Scholar;


Fellow

47.

Liza Vertinsky

Associate Professor

48.

Maritza Reyes

Associate Professor of Law

49.

Antonio Callari

50.

Sean Flaherty

51.

Susan K. Sell

52.
53.

Adam Levitin
David Luban

Sigmund M. and Mary B. Hyman Professor


of Economics
Professor of Economics, Chair of
Economics
Professor of Political Science and
International Affairs
Professor of Law
Professor of Law and Philosophy

54.

Yaniv Heled

Assistant Professor of Law

55.
56.
57.

Paul Hancock
Laurie Nisonoff
Christine Desan

58.

Duncan Kennedy

59.
60.
61.
62.

Gerald Frug
Lucie White
Martha Field
Martin Melkonian

63.

Richard W. Wright

Professor Emeritus of Economics


Professor Emerita of Economics
Leo Gottlieb Professor of Law
Carter Professor of General Jurisprudence,
Emeritus
Louis D. Brandeis Professor of Law
Louis A. Horvitz Professor of Law
Langdell Professor of Law
Adjunct Associate Professor of Economics
University Distinguished Professor and
Professor of Law

64.

Lea Shaver

Professor of Law and Dean's Fellow

65.
66.

Shaianne Osterreich
Anton Korinek
Marie Christine
Duggan

Associate Professor Economics


Assistant Professor

Harvard Law School


Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
Hofstra University
Illinois Institute of Technology
Chicago-Kent College of Law
Indiana University McKinney School
of Law
Ithaca College
Johns Hopkins University

Professor of Economics

Keene State College

44.

67.
68.

Steve Cohn

69.

James DeVault

70.

Thomas Masterson

Professor of Law
Professor of Economics and Director of
Middle East Studies
Robinson O. Everett Professor of Law
Harry R. Chadwick, Sr. Professor Emeritus
of Law
Assistant Professor

Charles W. & Arvilla S. Timme Chair in


Economics
Professor of Economics, Department Head
Research Scholar and Director of Applied
Micromodeling

CUNY School of Law


Drew University
Duke University School of Law
Duke University School of Law
Elon University
Elon University School of Law;
Stanford Law Center for Internet and
Society; Princeton Center for
Information Technology Policy
Emory Law School
Florida A&M University College of
Law
Franklin & Marshall College
Franklin & Marshall College
George Washington University,
Elliott School of International Affairs
Georgetown University Law Center
Georgetown University Law Center
Georgia State University College of
Law
Green Mountain College
Hampshire College
Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School

Knox College
Lafayette College
Levy Economics Institute of Bard
College

71.
72.

Mark A. Peterson
Lauren E. Willis

73.

Imre S. Szalai

74.

M Isabel Medina

75.
76.
77.

Cynthia Ho
Cecilia Ann Winters
Michael Waxman

78.

Paul M. Secunda

79.

Jonathan Hersh

Lecturer

80.

Sean A. Pager

Professor

81.
82.
83.
84.
85.

Christoph Henkel
Eva Paus
Shahrukh Rafi Khan
Carlin Meyer
Frank W. Munger

Professor of Law
Professor of Economics
Visiting Professor of Economics
Emeritus Professor of Law
Professor of Law

86.

Brook Baker

Professor

87.

Dan Danielsen

88.

Karl Klare

89.

Thomas Lambert

90.
91.

Douglas Donoho
Joel A. Mintz

Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and


Professor of Law
George J. & Kathleen Waters Matthews
Distinguished University Professor
Assistant Professor of Public
Administration and Policy
Professor of Law
Professor of Law

92.

Joseph Harbaugh

Professor Emeritus and Dean Emeritus

93.

Jon M. Garon

Dean and Professor of Law

94.

Timothy A. Canova

Professor of Law and Public Finance

95.

Micah Berman

Assistant Professor of Public Health and


Law

96.

Amy Cohen

Professor of Law

97.
98.

Mary C King
Anca Voicu
Avraham Izhat
Baranes
Benjamin Balak
Charles P. Rock

Professor Emerita, Economics Department


Associate Professor

Ohio State University Moritz College


of Law
Portland State University
Rollins College

Visiting Assistant Professor

Rollins College

Associate Professor of Economics


Professor of Economics

Rollins College
Rollins College

99.
100.
101.

Clinical Professor of Law (retired)


Professor of Law
Judge John D. Wessel Distinguished
Professor of Social Justice
Ferris Family Distinguished Professor of
Law
Professor of Law
Professor Emerita
Professor of Law
Professor of Law and Director, Labor and
Employment Law Program

Lewis & Clark Law School


Loyola Law School, Los Angeles
Loyola University New Orleans
College of Law
Loyola University New Orleans
College of Law
Loyola University of Chicago
Manhattanville College
Marquette University Law School
Marquette University Law School
Massachusetts Institute of
Technology
Michigan State University College of
Law
Mississippi College School of Law
Mount Holyoke College
Mount Holyoke College
New York Law School
New York Law School
Northeastern University School of
Law
Northeastern University School of
Law
Northeastern University School of
Law
Northern Kentucky University
Nova Southeastern University
Nova Southeastern University
Nova Southeastern University
College of Law
Nova Southeastern University
Shepard Broad College of Law
Nova Southeastern University
Shepard Broad College of Law
Ohio State University

102.
103.
104.
105.

Harry Kypraios
Kenna C. Taylor
Philip Kozel
Beth Stephens

106.

James Gray Pope

107.

109.

Paul Tractenberg
Yana van der Meulen
Rodgers
Nina Shapiro

110.

Tracey M. Roberts

Visiting Professor

111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.

Kathleen McAfee
Philip Jimenez
Charlotte Garden
Tayyab Mahmud
Jon Romberg
Tai Young-Taft
Jerome Joffe
Michael Asimow

Professor of International Relations


Professor of Law
Associate Professor
Professor of Law
Associate Professor
Assistant Professor of Economics
Assoc. Professor (retired)
Visiting Professor of Law

119.

Mateo Taussig-Rubbo

Professor of Law

120.

Athena D. Mutua

121.
122.
123.
124.

Martha T. McCluskey
Ted P Schmidt
Howard Botwinick
Edith Kuiper

Professor of Law, Floyd H. & Hilda L.


Hurst Faculty Scholar
Professor of Law
Associate Professor
Associate Professor of Economics
Associate Professor

125.

Brishen Rogers

Associate Professor of Law

126.

David Kairys

Professor of Law

127.

Peter K. Yu

Professor of Law

128.
129.
130.

Barry Herman
Michael Cohen
Sakiko Fukuda-Parr

131.

Ellen E. Deason

Visiting Faculty
Professor of International Affairs
Professor
Joanne Wharton Murphy/Classes of 1965
and 1973 Professor in Law

132.

Margot E. Kaminski

Assistant Professor of Law

133.

Thomas Michael
Power

Professor Emeritus of Economics

The University of Montana

134.

Cynthia Nance

Nathan G. Gordon Professor of Law &


Dean Emeritus

University of Arkansas

108.

Associate Professor of Economics


Professor of Economics
Professor of Economics
Professor of Law
Professor of Law & Sidney Reitman
Scholar
Professor Emeritus

Rollins College
Rollins College
Rollins College
Rutgers Law School

Professor

Rutgers University

Professor of Economics

Saint Peter's University


Samford University, Cumberland
School of Law
San Francisco State University
Santa Clara University
Seattle University School of Law
Seattle University School of Law
Seton Hall University School of Law
Simon's Rock College
St. John's University
Stanford Law School
State University of New YorkBuffalo

Rutgers Law School


Rutgers Law School

SUNY Buffalo Law School


SUNY Buffalo Law School
SUNY Buffalo State
SUNY Cortland
SUNY New Paltz
Temple University Beasley School of
Law
Temple University Beasley School of
Law
Texas A&M University School of
Law
The New School
The New School
The New School
The Ohio State University Moritz
College of Law
The Ohio State University Moritz
College of Law

135.

Michael Reich

136.

Pamela Samuelson

137.

Pranab Bardhan

Professor
Richard M Sherman Distinguished
Professor of Law
Professor of Graduate School

138.

Charles L Knapp

Professor or Law

139.

Mark N. Aaronson

Emeritus Professor of Law

140.

Naomi Roht-Arriaza

Distinguished Professor of Law

141.

Catherine Fisk

142.

Erwin Chemerinsky

143.

Chiara Piovani

144.

Haider A. Khan

145.

Tracy Mott

Chancellor's Professor of Law


Dean of the School of Law, Distinguished
Professor of Law, Raymond Pyke Professor
of First Amendment Law
Assistant professor
John Evans Distinguished University
Professor
Associate Professor, Economics

146.

Karin Wedig

Assistant Professor

147.

Annecoos Wiersema

Professor of Law

148.

Paula R Rhodes

Associate Professor

149.

Stephen L. Pepper

Professor of Law

150.
151.

Maxine Burkett
Annemarie Bridy

Professor of Law
Professor of Law

152.

Ariana Levinson

Associate Professor of Law

153.

Frank Pasquale

Professor of Law

154.

Marley Weiss

Professor of Law

155.

Peter Spiegler

Assistant Professor of Economics

156.

Gerald Epstein

Professor of Economics

157.

J. Mohan Rao

Professor of Economics

158.

James K. Boyce

Professor of Economics

159.

Mwangi wa Gthnji

160.

Robert Pollin

161.
162.
163.

Arthur MacEwan
J K Kapler
Julie A. Nelson

Associate Professor, Economics


Department
Co-director and Distinguished Professor of
Economics
Professor Emeritus of Economics
Associate Professor
Professor of Economics

University of California, Berkeley


University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Hastings
College of the Law
University of California, Hastings
College of the Law
University of California, Hastings
College of the Law
University of California, Irvine
University of California, Irvine
University of Denver
University of Denver
University of Denver
University of Denver, Josef Korbel
School of International Studies
University of Denver, Sturm College
of Law
University of Denver, Sturm College
of Law
University of Denver, Sturm College
of Law
University of Hawai'i
University of Idaho College of Law
University of Louisville Brandeis
School of Law
University of Maryland
University of Maryland Francis King
Carey School of Law
University of Massachusetts
University of Massachusetts,
Amherst
University of Massachusetts,
Amherst
University of Massachusetts,
Amherst
University of Massachusetts,
Amherst
University of Massachusetts,
Amherst
University of Massachusetts, Boston
University of Massachusetts, Boston
University of Massachusetts, Boston

164.
165.
166.
167.
168.

Philip I. Moss
David Abraham
Elizabeth Inglesias
Thomas E. Weisskopf
Ann Markusen

Professor of Economics
Professor of Law
Professor of Law
Professor of Economics (Emeritus)
Professor
Distinguished Research Professor of
Economics
Professor of Law and Butler, Snow,
O'Mara, Stevens, and Cannada
Distinguished Lecturer

University of Massachusetts, Lowell


University of Miami
University of Miami School of Law
University of Michigan
University of Minnesota

169.

Cyrus Bina

170.

Mercer Bullard

171.

Hendrik Van den


Berg

Professor Emeritus

University of Nebraska, Lincoln

172.

Kay Kindred

Professor of Law

173.

Marcus Hurn

Professor of Law

174.

Alfred Dennis
Mathewson
Deborah M.
Weissman

Dean & Henry Weihofen Chair in Law

176.

Amitava Krishna Dutt

177.

Marty Wolfson

Reef C. Ivey II Distinguished Professor of


Law
Professor of Economics and Political
Science
Professor of Economics Emeritus

178.

Barbara J. Fick

Associate Professor of Law

179.

Jaime Ros

Professor Emeritus of Economics

180.
181.
182.

James M. O'Fallon
Dorene Isenberg
Nathaniel Cline

183.

Richard McIntyre

184.
185.

Ann C. Hodges
Bikku Kuruvila

Professor of Law, Emeritus


Professor of Economics
Assistant Professor
Professor and Chair, Department of
Economics
Professor of Law
Visiting Scholar

186.

Tim Iglesias

Professor of Law

187.

Gregory Keating

188.

William E. Forbath

189.
190.
191.

Gunseli Berik
Hans G Ehrbar
Korkut Erturk

192.

Stephen C. Bannister

175.

Vice Dean for Faculty and Academic


Affairs and William T. Dalessi Professor of
Law and Philosophy
Lloyd M. Bentsen Chair in Law; Associate
Dean of Research, School of Law;
Professor of History
Professor of Economics
Associate Professor Emeritus
Professor of Economics
Assistant Professor, Department of
Economics

University of Minnesota, Morris


University of Mississippi School of
Law

University of Nevada Las Vegas


School of Law
University of New Hampshire School
of Law
University of New Mexico School of
Law
University of North Carolina School
of Law
University of Notre Dame
University of Notre Dame
University of Notre Dame Law
School
University of Notre Dame, Kellogg
Institute for International Studies
University of Oregon School of Law
University of Redlands
University of Redlands
University of Rhode Island
University of Richmond
University of San Francisco
University of San Francisco School
of Law
University of Southern California
Gould School of Law
University of Texas at Austin
University of Utah
University of Utah
University of Utah
University of Utah

193.
194.

Elaine McCrate
Stephanie Seguino

195.

Robert Aronson

196.
197.

Charles P. Dykman
Alexia Kulwiec

198.

Joel Rogers

199.
200.

Farida Khan
Marcelo Milan

Professor
Professor
Betts, Patterson & Mines Professor of Law
Emeritus
Adjunct Professor
Assistant Professor, Lawyer
Sewell-Bascom Professor of Law, Political
Science, Public Affairs, and Sociology
Professor of Economics
Assistant Professor of Economics

201.

Michael C. Duff

Professor of Law

202.
203.
204.
205.
206.
207.

Robert N. Covington
Jennifer Taub
Joan Vogel
John D. Echeverria
Liz Ryan Cole
Timothy Stoltzfus Jost

208.

John N. Drobak

209.
210.

William Burnham
Julie Matthaei

Professor of Law Emeritus


Professor of Law
Professor of Law
Professor
Professor
Professor
Professor of Economics, and Professor of
Political Economy
Professor of Law Emeritus
Professor of Economics

211.

Roger Even Bove

Retired Associate Professor

212.

Karl Petrick

Associate Professor of Economics

213.

Howard I Kalodner

Dean and Professor of Law Emeritus

214.

Leora Harpaz

Professor Emeritus

215.
216.

John Miller
Neil H. Cogan

217.

Peter L. Reich

218.

Dr. Sheila D. Collins


Christopher L.
Blakesley

Professor of Economics
Professor of Law
Professor of Law and Director,
Environmental Law Concentration
Professor Emerita of Political Science
Barrick Distinguished Scholar & Cobeaga
Law Firm Professor of Law
Doris S. & Theodore B. Lee Professor of
Law
Emeritus Professor of Economics
Professor Emeritus
Joseph M. Field '55 Professor of Law

219.
220.

Jeffrey W. Stempel

221.
222.
223.

John Sheahan
Paulette Olson
Douglas Kysar

University of Vermont
University of Vermont
University of Washington School of
Law
University of Wisconsin Law School
University of WisconsinExtension
University of WisconsinMadison
University of WisconsinParkside
University of WisconsinParkside
University of Wyoming College of
Law
Vanderbilt University
Vermont Law School
Vermont Law School
Vermont Law School
Vermont Law School
Washington and Lee University
Washington University School of
Law
Wayne State University
Wellesley College
West Chester University of
Pennsylvania
Western New England University
Western New England University
School of Law
Western New England University
School of Law
Wheaton College, Norton, MA
Whittier College
Whittier Law School
William Paterson University
William S. Boyd School of Law,
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
William S. Boyd School of Law,
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Williams College
Wright State University
Yale Law School