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Acrylate Processing Aids

and Impact Modiers

Contents

02

04

Sustainable Development

05

Experience in Acrylates

06

Processing Aids

10

Impact Modiers

Wherever you go, Degussa is with you all the way. You know us
as Germanys third largest chemical company and global market
leader in speciality chemicals. As your partner along the entire
value chain in the plastics and rubber industries, Degussa offers a
unique product portfolio of high-quality plastics additives. More
than 70 years of experience in methacrylate chemistry combined
with the versatility of acrylate chemistry allow us to tailor additives properties according to our customers requirements. With
excellent products and considerable innovative strength, and
intelligent networking of our expertise, we represent progress.

As the worlds leading supplier of methacrylate chemicals,


Degussa has modern know-how in the manufacture of monomers and their polymerization to modier resins. Within our
R & D facilities research scientist combine market stimuli with
scientic discoveries to create innovative products. In close
collaboration with our customer, we continuously develop new
applications for our DEGALAN additives.

03

Sustainable Development
Since Degussa is the worlds leading supplier of methacrylate
chemicals, the brands provided by its Business Units conform to
the highest standards of quality and reliability. These products
satisfy all customer requirements in terms of composition, safety,
innovation and competence in each of the relevant markets. The
companys responsibility for the range of products and services it
offers is not only limited to complying with laws, regulations and
agreements, but also extends to job security.
Darmstadt, Sales and Marketing

We audit the environmental


management systems at our sites
on the basis of the eco-management and audit scheme
(EMAS No. 761/2001) and to the
ISO 14001 management system.

Wesseling, Production Site

Hanau, Research & Development

04

All our business processes meet


the quality management requirements of DIN EN ISO 9001.

Experience in Acrylates
Degussas acrylate expertise dates back to the year 1901 when
Otto Rhm wrote his dissertation entitled Polymerization
Products of Acrylic Acids. This work established the basis for
later research that focussed on the commercial utilization of this
chemistry.
Nowadays, Degussas range of products and services comprises
high-quality specialties and customer-oriented application
technology. Integrated production structures help to conserve
energy and resources in accordance with the guiding principles
of sustainable development.

A wide range of acrylate monomers to choose from in combination with controlled polymerization parameters allows us to tune
the properties both in processing and nal product. E.g., the glass
transition temperature (Tg) of the acrylate polymers strongly
depends on the nature of the ester substituent group.

Tg [C]

Methylmethacrylate
MMA

110

n-Butylmethacrylate
n-BuMA

20

n-Butylacrylate
n-BA

-56

05

Processing Aids
An important characteristic of PVC is its ability to incorporate
additives such as plasticisers, stabilizers, impact modiers and
PMMA processing aids quickly and in sufcient quantity. This
ability derives from the morphology of the PVC powder grain,
particulary from its sub-structure characteristics ranging in size
from 100 m to 150 m and imparting to the powder grain a
more or less porous structure.

macromolecules

domains
(0.1 m)

primary particle
(1-2 m)

secondary
particle
(100-150 m)

In order to achieve a homogenous melt when processing rigid


PVC, the PVC matrix has to be broken down and the powder
grain has to be split into primary particles. This process is improved by the use of acrylate processing aids. Since the particulate structure of PVC essentially determines the rheology of the
PVC melt, acrylate processing aids are able to control the fusion
of the PVC and to ensure the formation of a homogenous melt.
DEGALAN processing aids are acrylate co-polymers which are
highly compatible with PVC with a molecular weight that exceeds 1,000,000 g/mol. These polymer chains enhance internal
friction and heat transport between the PVC particles. In addition, acrylate processing aids create intensive friction between
the PVC melt and metallic surfaces, thus improving energy inux.
The targeted use of acrylate processing aids allows processors to
control and inuence the homogeneity, viscosity and elasticity of
the PVC melt, as well as its plastication and gelation. All of these
are key factors in PVC processing and prerequisites for nished
products of consistently high quality. Processing aids can therefore be used to optimize dimensional stability, surface quality,
impact strength and processing latitude.

06

Different DEGALAN products shorten the plastication time and


improve the viscoelastic properties of the PVC melt:
DEGALAN R 230 M
DEGALAN R 230 M is a low-viscosity processing aid specially developed
for transparent calendered lm. It improves the processing properties
of the lm but does not affect transparency and printability. One of the
key advantages of DEGALAN R 230 M is the colour hold it imparts to
formulations under dynamic stress.
DEGALAN 3 FK
DEGALAN 3 FK is a low molecular weight processing aid which imparts
fast gelation combined with good melt ow properties. It allows
processors to reduce plate-out during the calendering process.
DEGALAN 10 FD or 10 F
DEGALAN 10 FD and 10 F are medium molecular weight processing
aids which increase melt viscosity, especially benecial in foam
applications. They signicantly improve the surface gloss of extruded
rigid PVC proles. DEGALAN 10 FD is a low dusting powder
manufactured by a special drying process. The rheological properties
of formulations incorporating DEGALAN 10 FD are equivalent to those
containing DEGALAN 10 F.
DEGALAN 30 FD
DEGALAN 30 FD is a high molecular weight processing aid, specially
designed to increase the melt elasticity of PVC formulations. lt
signicantly improves the ow properties of recipes, especially in
expanded PVC. It is thus possible to control the cell structure of thick
sheets with low foam densities.

07

Typical applications of DEGALAN processing aids in PVC


Application

DEGALAN
3 FK

10 F(D)

230 M

Film

Proles

Dosage [phr]
30 FD
0.8 - 1.2

0.5 - 1.5

Compact sheets

1.0 - 2.0

Free foam sheets and proles

4.0 - 14.0

1.5 - 3.0

Celuka foam sheets and proles

Foam core pipes

5.0 - 8.0

Specially developed processing aids are available from Degussa


for each application and type of processing. DEGALAN processing aids are approved by BfR (Bundesinstitut fr Risikobewertung) and FDA (Food and Drug Administration). For actual
legislative status please contact one of Degussas representatives.

Product properties of DEGALAN processing aids


Properties

Unit

Test method

3 FK

10 FD

10 F

30 FD

Bulk density

g/l

440

490

470

410

470

DIN EN ISO 60

Sieve residue
0.25 mm

wt.-%

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

DIN EN ISO 4610

Loss on drying,
ex works

wt.-%

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

halogen drying

87

86

86

86

85

DIN 53505

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

DIN 55990 part 3


laser diffraction
DIN EN ISO 13320-1

Shore hardness D
(60 s / 23 C)
Density at 20 C
Particle size D50

g/cm
m

40

40

120

30

120

white
powder

white
powder

white
powder

white
powder

white
powder

250

330

605

665

1,000

BfR approval

FDA approval

Dust explosion
category (KST)

ST1

ST1

ST1

ST1

ST1

Appearance
Viscosity number

08

DEGALAN
R 230 M

cm3/g

DIN EN ISO 1628-1

VDI 2263

DEGALAN Processing Aids


Modern production processes for semi-nished PVC products,
with a high output at a constant quality level, call for modication by means of polymeric processing aids.
The products of the DEGALAN range are highly efcient processing aids based on methacrylate, which are characterized
by their excellent compatibility with PVC and offer a number of
further benets:
l rapid gelling and plastication

without processing aid

l higher melt viscosity


l improved tensile strength and extensibility of the melt
l improved surface
l greater surface gloss
l optimized thermoforming properties
l reduced plate-out
l higher output and homogenous foam structure

with 1 phr DEGALAN R 230 M added


(185 C and 20% friction after 5 min rolling)

09

Impact Modiers
Impact modiers are elastomers that are incorporated into a
polymer matrix to absorb mechanical energy. The particles of the
impact modier are tied to the matrix by entanglements of the
free chain ends with the PVC molecules. Elastomeric modiers
make inherently brittle PVC impact resistant while hardly affecting its other mechanical properties.
The use of core-shell impact modiers yields balanced rigidity,
impact strength and hardness. The thermoforming properties of
PVC are hardly affected by core-shell particles.
The efciency of the impact modier depends on the ratio of
soft acrylic rubber core to the surrounding shell as well as on the
degree of cross-linking of the rubber and the size of the primary
particles. Emulsion polymerisation yields a well-dened particle
size which ensures a homogenous distribution in the PVC matrix
combined with an improved processing latitude.
Acrylic impact modiers enhance the weatherability and UV stability of PVC products. Their chemical composition makes
DEGALAN impact modiers especially suitable for rigid PVC
products in outdoor applications.

crosslinked soft core


(Tg < RT)

hard shell for linkage


to the PVC matrix

DEGALAN E-ST 5 D
DEGALAN E-ST 5 D is a new generation impact modier which is,
although specially developed for prole extrusion, also suitable for use
in most other applications. Thanks to its sophisticated composition and
structure, DEGALAN E-ST 5 D provides outstanding impact strength
even when used at lower dosages than conventional impact modiers. A
special drying process yields a low dusting powder product with dened particle size. Silo storage of DEGALAN E-ST 5 D is possible.

10

Product properties of DEGALAN impact modiers


Properties
Bulk density

Unit

DEGALAN
E-ST 5 D

Test method

g/l

515

DIN EN ISO 60

Sieve residue 1 mm

wt.-%

1.0

DIN EN ISO 4610

Drying loss

wt.-%

1.0

halogen drying

87

DIN 53505

Density at 20 C

g/cm3

1.1

DIN 55990 part 3

Particle size D50

175

laser diffraction DIN EN ISO 13320-1

Shore hardness A

Appearance

white powder

Dust explosion category (KST)


Ignition temperature

ST 1

VDI 2263

none

VDI 2263

Impact strength*

kJ/m2

> 60

DIN 53753

Impact strength*

kJ/m

> 12

BS 7413 : 1991

Elongation at break*

157

DIN 53455

N/mm2

45

DIN 53455

Corner weld stength*

5,800

RAL-RG 716

Shrinkage*

1.4

Tensile strength*

DIN 16830 T1 / 07.91

* 7 phr dosage in a lead-stabilized window profile

DEGALAN Impact Modiers


The all-acrylic impact modiers of the DEGALAN range are
employed especially in applications that require high impact
strength combined with excellent weather resistance and
lightfastness. These include:
l window and facade proles
l downspouts
l eaves gutters
l drainage pipes
l PVC sheets
l garden furniture
l fences
l housings for electrical equipment

impact modier primary particles


(electron microscope image)

We recommend different grades of DEGALAN depending on


the requested impact resistance, mechanical properties and
intended applications.

11

Like a pinch of salt added to a dish, a pinch of Degussa additives satises


to boost the mechanical properties or the processability of thermoplastics
and thermosets tremendously. Degussa which can look back on more
than 70 years of expertise in methacrylate chemistry, provides polymer additives for a variety of applications. The versatility of methacrylate chemistry allows us to tailor the additives properties according to customer
requirements. In close collaboration with our customers, we continuously
develop new applications for our DEGALAN additives.

Processing Aids

Impact Modiers

DEGALAN R 230 M
DEGALAN 10 F
DEGALAN 10 FD
DEGALAN 3 FK
DEGALAN 30 FD

DEGALAN E-ST 5 D
DEGALAN E-ST 6 D

This information and all further technical advice is based on our present
knowledge and experience. However, it implies no liability or other legal
responsibility on our part, also with regard to existing third party intellectual property rights, especially patent rights. In particular, no warranty,
whether express or implied, or guarantee of product properties in the
legal sense is intended or implied. We reserve the right to make any
changes according to technological progress or further developments.
The customer is not released from the obligation to conduct careful
inspection and testing of incoming goods. Performance of the product
described herein should be veried by testing, which should be carried
out only by qualied experts in the sole responsibility of a customer.
Reference to trade names used by other companies is neither a recommendation, nor does it imply that similar products could not be used.
= registered trademark
DEGALAN is a registered trademark of
Rhm GmbH & Co. KG, Darmstadt, Germany
10/0605/02141 (en)

Degussa
Business Segment Plastic Additives
Rhm GmbH & Co. KG
Kirschenallee
64293 Darmstadt
Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 61 51 / 18 - 46 51
Fax:
+49 (0) 61 51 / 18 - 31 95
E-mail: kunststoffadditive@degussa.com
Web: www.roehm.com