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Prof. Bharat M. Dogra

Department of Automobile Engineering
Indus Institute of Technology and Engineering
Indus University


Metal working,
Elastic and plastic deformation
Concept of strain hardening
Hot and cold working
Rolling: Principle and operations, Roll pass sequence
Forging, Forging operations, Forging: Method of
forging, Forging hammers and presses
Wire and tube drawing processes.
Principle of forging tool design
Cold working processes: Shearing, Drawing Squeezing,
Blanking, Piercing, deep drawing, Coining and
Metal working defects
Cold heading and Riveting.

Metal Working
of working with metals to create individual
parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
The term covers a wide range of work from
large ships and bridges to precise engine parts
and delicate jewelry.
It therefore includes a correspondingly wide
range of skills, processes, and tools.

Elastic and plastic deformation

Concept of Strain Hardening

Work hardening, also known as strain
hardening or cold working, is the
strengthening of a metal by plastic
deformation. This strengthening occurs
because of dislocation movements and
dislocation generation within the crystal
structure of the material.

Cold Working
Plastic deformation of metals below the
recrystallization temperature is known as cold working.
It is generally performed at room temperature.
In some cases, slightly elevated temperatures may be
used to provide increased ductility and reduced
Cold working offers a number of distinct advantages,
and for this reason various cold-working processes
have become extremely important.
Significant advances in recent years have extended the
use of cold forming, and the trend appears likely to

Advantages of cold working

1. No heating is required
2. Better surface finish is obtained
3. Better dimensional control is achieved; therefore
no secondary machining is generally needed.
4. Products possess better reproducibility and
5. Better strength, fatigue, and wear properties of
6. Directional properties can be imparted.
7. Contamination problems are almost negligible.

Disadvantages of cold-working
1. Higher forces are required for deformation.
2. Heavier and more powerful equipment is
3. Less ductility is available.
4. Metal surfaces must be clean and scale-free.
5. Strain hardening occurs ( may require
intermediate annealing ).
6. Undesirable residual stresses may be produced

Hot Working

Plastic deformation of metal carried out at

temperature above the recrystallization temperature, is
called hot working.
Under the action of heat and force, when the atoms of
metal reach a certain higher energy level, the new
crystals start forming. This is called recrystallization.
When this happens, the old grain structure deformed
by previously carried out mechanical working no longer
exist, instead new crystals which are strain-free are
In hot working, the temperature at which the working
is completed is critical since any extra heat left in the
material after working will promote grain growth,
leading to poor mechanical properties of material.

Advantages of hot working

No strain hardening
Lesser forces are required for deformation
Greater ductility of material is available, and
therefore more deformation is possible.
Favorable grain size is obtained leading to
better mechanical properties of material
Equipment of lesser power is needed
No residual stresses in the material.

Disadvantages of hot working

Heat energy is needed
Poor surface finish of material due to scaling of
Poor accuracy and dimensional control of parts
Poor reproducibility and interchangeability of
Handling and maintaining of hot metal is difficult
and troublesome
Lower life of tooling and equipment.

Rolling is a metal forming process in which the
thickness of the work is reduced by
compressive forces exerted by two rolls
rotating in opposite direction.
Flat rolling is shown in figure. Similarly shape
rolling is also possible like a square cross
section is formed into a shape such as an Ibeam, L-beam.

Important terminologies
Bloom: It has a square cross section 150 mm x
150 mm or more.
Slab: It is rolled from an ingot or a bloom and
has a rectangular cross section of 250 mm
width or more and thickness 40 mm or more.
Billet: It is rolled from a bloom and is square in
cross-section with dimensions 40mm on a side
or more.

Coining Vs Embossing

The difference between coining and

embossing is that the same design is created
on both sides of the work piece in embossing
(one side depressed and the other raised ),
whereas in coining operation, a different
design is created on each side of work piece.

Drawing is a metal forming process involving
pulling a work piece (cold or hot) through a
die providing reduction of the cross section of
the work piece

Drawing is the process most commonly used to
make wires from round bars; this process is very
similar to extrusion, except that instead of
pressure from the back end, in drawing, the wire
is pulled from the side where it emerges from
the circular die.
Dies are made of specially hardened tool steels,
or tungsten carbide. Diamond dies are used for
drawing very fine wires. Drawing may be hot
(the stock is heated to a high temperature for
processing), or cold (the stock is not heated).

Wire and Bar Drawing

Change in size of work is usually given by area reduction:

r = area reduction in drawing;

Ao = original area of work;
Af = area of final work;