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INSULATION CO-ORDINATION CALCULATION

Reference :

IEC-60071-2 and IEC-60099-5

BASIC INPUT DATA


Installation Data:
Elevation of the installation above sea level (H), m

1000

Isokeraunic level

34

(Based on IS 2309 : 1999)

System Data:
Nominal system Line-Line voltage ( Un), kVrms

230

Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage (Us), kVrms (phase-to-phase)

245

Fault level, kA/1sec

40

System Earthing

Effectively Earthed

Temporary overvoltages duration (Tt), seconds

Transmission Line Data


Transmission line span length (Lsp), m

400

Number of lines terminating on the substation (n)

Number of conductors per bundle of the transmission line

Lightning performance of the transmission line (Rkm)

0.0015

(Considering 0.15 outage per 100km per year)

Acceptable failure rate of the transmission line (Ra)

0.0025

(Considering 1 outage in 400 years)

Surge Waveshape Modelling and Overvoltage Factors


The characteristics of the surge considered in the analysis as per IEC60071-2 is as follows:
Temporary overvoltages: The representative temporary overvoltage is considered to have the shape of the standard short duration (1 min)
power-frequency voltage. This is as per Section 2.3.1 of IEC.
Slow front overvoltages: The representative voltage shape is the standard switching impulse (time to peak 250 s, and time to half-value
on the tail 2500 s). This is as per Section 2.3.3 of IEC.
Fast front overvoltages: The representative shape of the lightning overvoltage is the standard lightning impulse(1,2/50 s). This is as per
Section 2.3.4.1 of IEC.
CALCULATION
Step1: Selection of Lightning Arrester Protection Level
Max continuous phase to earth voltage = Us/3, kVrms

141.45

Max temporary phase to earth overvoltage , kVrms

198.03

Maximum Temporary Overvoltage Factor (refer Step-2)

1.40

Surge arrester must withstand maximum phase to ground temporary overvoltages without any damage.
Temporary overvoltages withstand strength of surge arrester must be UTOV

>=

198.03 kV

Amplitude and duration of temporary overvoltages, the duration of which is between 0.1 s and 100 s can be converted
to an equivalent amplitude (Ur) with a duration of 10 s (corresponding to the duration of the rated voltage in the operating duty test).
Ur =

UTOV x (Tt/10)m

Exponent describing power frequency voltage v/s time of arrester (m)


Ur > =

189.12 kV

0.02

------ ------------------------------------

(A)

The surge arrester has to withstand maximum phase to ground continuous voltage of the 230 kV system.
Hence , maximum continuous overvoltages of the surge arrester must be MCOV
Moreover, Ur is 125 % of Maximum continuous operating voltage.
Ur = 1.25 x MCOV >=

176.81 kV

-------------------------------

(B)

The rated voltage must fulfill the conditions (A) and (B).

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>= 141.45 kV

INSULATION CO-ORDINATION CALCULATION


Class III, 198 kV, 10 kA, residual voltage xx kVp Surge Arrester is selected
Standard Maximum Continuous Overvoltage MCOV =

195 kVrms

Switching Impulse protective level of the surge arrestor ( Ups), kVp

450

Lightning Impulse protective level of the surge arrestor (Upl), kVp

550

SUMMARY OF THE SELECTED SURGE ARRESTER DATA


Arrester rated voltage
195 kV
Standard Switching impulse protection level
450 kVp
Standard Lightning impulse protection level
550 kVp
Nominal discharge current (NDC)
10 kAp
Step 2: Determination of the Representative Overvoltages (Urp)
2.1 Power-frequency and Temporary Overvoltages:
Temporary overvoltages in the system can be caused due to Earth Fault, Load rejection or their combination.
Overvoltage due to Earth Fault
Earth Fault overvoltage factor (k)
Phase - Earth Representative overvoltage (Urp), kV

1.30
184

Overvoltage due to load rejection


As per IEC 60099-5, for load rejection of generator transformers the temporary overvoltages may reach amplitudes up to
1,4 p.u. for turbo generators.
Load Rejection overvoltage factor (k)
1.40
Phase - Earth Representative overvoltage (Urp), kV
198
Phase - Phase Representative overvoltage (Urp), kV
343
Combined effect of earth fault and load rejection
Earth fault can combine with load rejection to give rise to overvoltage amplitudes. Such a combination do not arise as
the system configuration changes after the load change. The earth-fault factor at generator transformers with earthed
neutral is less than 1 after being disconnected from the system;
The representative temporary overvoltages are the highest obtained considering all possible sources. Hence,
Phase - Earth Representative overvoltage (Urp), kV
198
Phase - Phase Representative overvoltage (Urp), kV
343
2.2 Slow front Over voltages :
Slow front overvoltages due to earthfault needs to be considered only in systems with resonant neutral earthing, which
is not applicable here.
Figure 2 Ratio between the 2 % values of slow-front overvoltages phase-to-phase and phase-toearth

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INSULATION CO-ORDINATION CALCULATION


Particular surges affecting line entrance equipment
Line re-energization from remote substation can result in 2 % overvoltages at the open-end line entrance at the substation of
Ue2 = 3 p.u (maximum) as per IEC-60071-2. Hence from Fig-2, Up2 = 1.5 Ue2 = 4.5 p.u.
The representative overvoltages for external line entrance equipment, before applying surge arresters, are the
truncation values of these overvoltage distributions:
Uet = 1,25 Ue2 - 0.25 =

3.50 pu

700

kVp ( Equation D.2 of IEC60071-2)

Upt = 1,25 Up2 - 0,43 =

5.20 pu

1039

kVp (Equation D.8 of IEC60071-2)

Surge affecting all equipment


All the equipment located in station is subjected to slow-front overvoltages due to local line energization and re-energization.
However, these sending end surges are much lower than at the receiving end (remote station). It can result in 2% overvoltages
of Ue2 =1.9 p.u (maximum) as per IEC-60071-2. Hence from Fig-2, Up2 = 1.53 Ue2 = 2.9 p.u.
The representative overvoltages for external line entrance equipment, before applying surge arresters, are the
truncation values of these overvoltage distributions:
Uet = 1,25 Ue2 - 0.25 =
2.125 pu
=
425
kVp ( Equation D.2 of IEC60071-2)
Upt = 1,25 Up2 - 0,43 =
3.195 pu
=
639
kVp (Equation D.8 of IEC60071-2)
Surge arresters at the line entrance
Switching impulse protective level of surge arresters (Ups), kVp

450

Slow-front ph-earth representative overvoltage with the use of surge arresters (Urp), kVp

410

Slow-front ph-ph representative overvoltage with the use of surge arresters (Urp), kVp

820

Hence slow front representative overvoltages are:


For line entrance equipment:
------phase-to-phase

820

kVp

------phase-to-earth

450

kVp

------phase-to-phase

639

kVp

------phase-to-earth

425

kVp

For other equipment except line entrance:

Step 3: Determination of the Co-ordination withstand voltages (Ucw)


3.1 Temporary Overvoltages :
For temporary overvoltages co-ordination factor is: Kc =
Hene co-ordination withstand voltages are:
-----phase-earth
Ucw =
-----phase-phase
Ucw =

198
343

1 (refer to Clause 3.3.1 of IEC-71-2)


kV
kV

3.2 Slow-front overvoltages :


The slow front representative over voltage obtained must be adjusted by the co-ordination factor Kcd to account for
the skewing of the statistical distribution of the slow-front overvoltages.

Figure 6 Evaluation of deterministic co-ordination factor Kcd

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INSULATION CO-ORDINATION CALCULATION

For line entrance equipment 2% overvoltage value (phase to earth)


Ue2 =
3.00
p.u.
=
600
kVp
Ups/Ue2 =
0.75
From figure-6 of IEC-60071-2, corresponding to Ups/Ue2, co-ordination factor

Kcd =

#VALUE!

For line entrance equipment 2% overvoltage value (phase to phase)


Up2 =
4.50
p.u.
=
900
kVp
2Ups/Up2 =
0.91
From figure-6 of IEC-60071-2, corresponding to 2Ups/Up2, co-ordination factor

Kcd =

1.00

For other equipment 2% overvoltage value is (phase to earth)


Ue2 =
1.90
p.u.
= 380.08
kVp
Ups/Ue2 = 1.18
From figure-6 of IEC-60071-2, corresponding to Ups/Up2, co-ordination factor

Kcd =

1.00

For other equipment 2% overvoltage value is (phase to phase)


Up2 =
2.90
=
580
2Ups/Up2 =
1.41

p.u.
kVp

1.00
From figure-6 of IEC-60071-2, corresponding to 2Ups/Up2, co-ordination factor
Kcd =
Hence co-ordination withstand voltages are:
For line entrance equipment:
------phase-to-earth
#VALUE! kVp
------phase-to-phase
820
kVp
For other equipment:
------phase-to-earth
425
kVp
------phase-to-phase
639
kVp
3.3 Fast-front overvoltages :
As per Cl-3.3.3.1 of IEC-60071-2, by considering co-ordination factor kc=1, the Fast-front Representative overvoltage is
equal to Co-ordination withstand voltage.
A
L
Co-ordination withstand voltage is given by:
U =U +

cw

Following data are considered for finding Fast-front coordination withstand voltage:
1) Lightning protective level of arrester :

To ground
To ground

Figure 3 Diagram for surge arrester connection to the protected object, where
a1 : length of the lead connecting the surge arrester to the line
a2 : length of the lead connecting the surge arrester to earth
a3 : length of the phase conductor between the surge arrester and the protected equipment
a4 : length of the active part of the surge arrester
U : impinging overvoltage surge.

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pl

[ ( )]
n Lsp +La
Upl =

550

kV

INSULATION CO-ORDINATION CALCULATION


2) L is equal to a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 according to figure 3 of IEC60071-2:

L=
L=

3) Transmission lines, a bundle of 1 conductors entering the station :


Factor A for overhead lines (Referring to table F.2 of IEC-60071-2)
4) Transmission line span length (Lsp) :
5) Lightning performance of the transmission line (Rkm):
6) Acceptable failure rate of the transmission line (Ra):
7) Overhead line section with outage rate equal to acceptable failure rate (La), m

30
30

m
m

( internal insulation)
(external insulation)

4500
400
0.0015
0.0025
1666.6666667

8) Minimum no. of overhead lines connected :


3
Ucw =
Co-ordination withstand voltage for internal insulation :
572
kVp
Ucw =
Co-ordination withstand voltage for external insulation :
572
kVp
Note: Fast-front overvoltages affect the phase-to-phase and the phase-to-earth insulations in same way.
Step 4: Determination of the Required withstand voltages (Urw)
The required withstand voltages are obtained by applying to the co-ordination withstand voltages two correction factors, i.e.,
recommended safety factor Ks and atmospheric correction factor Ka as defined in cl. 4.3.4 and 4.2.2 of IEC-60071-2
Safety factor (Ks) :
Ks = 1.15
For internal insulation:
Ks = 1.05
For external insulation:
Atmospheric correction factor (Ka) :
Altitude correction factor:
Altitude above sea level (in meters)

Ka = em(H/8150)
H = 1000

Value of m can be found from Figure-9 of IEC-60071-2 :


For power-frequency withstand voltage:

m=

0.5

For switching impulse withstand voltage (phase to earth)

m=

0.94

For switching impulse withstand voltage (phase to phase)

m=

1.00

For lightning impulse withstand voltage

m=

1.00

For power-frequency withstand voltage (phase to phase and phase to earth)

Ka =

1.063

For switching impulse withstand voltage (phase to earth)

Ka =

1.122

For switching impulse withstand voltage (phase to phase)

Ka =

1.131

For lightning impulse withstand voltage (phase to phase and phase to earth)
Required Withstand Voltages :
The value for the required withstand voltages are obtained from following formulas:
For external insulation
Urw = Ucw x Ks x Ka
For internal insulation
Urw = Ucw x Ks
For temporary overvoltages:
--- external insulation:
phase-to-earth
Urw =
198 x 1.05 x 1.063
phase-to-phase
Urw =
343 x 1.05 x 1.063
--- internal insulation:
phase-to-earth
Urw =
198 x 1.15
phase-to-phase
Urw =
343 x 1.15
For slow-front overvoltages:
--- external insulation:
phase-to-earth (line entrance equipment) Urw =
###
phase-to-ph (line entrance equipment)
Urw =
820 x 1.05 x 1.131
For other equipment
--- external insulation:
phase-to-earth
Urw =
425 x 1.05 x 1.122
phase-to-phase
Urw =
639 x 1.05 x 1.13
--- internal insulation:
phase-to-earth
Urw =
425 x 1.15
phase-to-phase
Urw =
639 x1.15

Ka =

1.131

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221
383

kV
kV

228
394

kV
kV

###
973

kV
kV

501
759

kV
kV

489
735

kV
kV

INSULATION CO-ORDINATION CALCULATION


For fast-front overvoltage:
--- external insulation:
phase-to-earth
phase-to-phase
--- internal insulation:
phase-to-earth
phase-to-phase

Urw =
Urw =

679
679

kV
kV

Urw =
Urw =

658
658

kV
kV

Step 5: Conversion to withstand voltages (Uw)


Conversion of switching impulse withstand voltage to power frequency withstand voltages (SDW)
The Required switching impulse withstand voltages are converted to equivalent short duration power-frequency
withstand voltage (SDW), according to table - 2 of IEC-60071-2

For line entrance equipment


-------External Insulation:
phase-earth
phase-phase
For other equipment
--------- External Insulation:
phase-earth
phase-phase
For Internal Insulation (GIS):
phase-earth
phase-phase
For Liquid-immersed insulation:
phase-earth
phase-phase

SDW = Urw x (0.6 + Urw/8500) =


SDW = Urw x (0.6 + Urw/12700) =

###
659

kV
kV

SDW = Urw x (0.6 + Urw/8500) =


SDW = Urw x (0.6 + Urw/12700) =

330
500

kV
kV

SDW = Urw x 0.7 =


SDW = Urw x 0.7 =

342
514

kV
kV

SDW = Urw x 0.5 =


SDW = Urw x 0.5 =

244
367

kV
kV

Conversion of switching impulse withstand voltage to lightning impulse withstand voltages (LIW)
The Required switching impulse withstand voltages are converted to equivalent Lightning impulse
withstand voltage (SIW), according to table - 2 of IEC-60071-2
For line entrance equipment
-------External Insulation:
phase-earth
phase-phase

LIW = Urw x 1.3 =

###

kV phase-earth

LIW = Urw x (1.05 + Urw/9000) = 1127

kV phase-phase

For other equipment


-------External Insulation:
phase-earth

LIW = Urw x 1.3 =

651

kV phase-earth

phase-phase

LIW = Urw x (1.05 + Urw/9000) =

860

kV phase-phase

For Internal Insulation (GIS):

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INSULATION CO-ORDINATION CALCULATION


phase-earth

LIW =

Urw x 1.25 =

611

kV

phase-phase

LIW =

Urw x 1.25 =

919

kV

phase-earth

LIW =

Urw x 1.1 =

538

kV

phase-phase

LIW =

Urw x 1.1 =

808

kV

For Liquid-immersed insulation:

Step 5: Selection of standard withstand voltages (Uw):

Based on the required withstand voltages, Standard voltages

given in Table-2 of IEC 60071-1 are selected.


Table 5.1-Summary of required withstand voltages
Valus of Uw are:
External insulation
-----in kv rms for short-duration power
frequency
-----in kV peak for switching or lightning
impulse
Short-duration
power-frequency
Switching impulse
Lightning impulse

phase-earth
phase-phase
phase-earth
phase-phase
phase-earth
phase-phase

Line entrance
equipment

Other
equipment

Urw(s) Urw(c) Urw(s)


221
383
###
973
679
679

###
659
--------###
1127

Urw(c)

221
383
501
759
679
679

330
500
--------651
860

Internal
insulation
(GIS)

Internal
insulation
(Liquid
immersed
insulation)

Urw(s) Urw(c) Urw(s) Urw(c)


228
394
489
735
658
658

342
514
--------611
919

228
394
489
735
658
658

Converted values for a lightning impulse test are retained so that converted values for a short-duration
Power-frequency test need no more consideration.
Selected Standard Short-duration Power-frequency withstand voltage
395
kV (r.m.s value)
Selected Standard lightning impulse withstand voltage for line entrance equipment
1300
kV (peak value)
Selected Standard lightning impulse withstand voltage for other equipment
950
kV (peak value)
Selected Standard lightning impulse withstand voltage for GIS
950
kV (peak value)
Selected Standard lightning impulse withstand voltage for Liquid Immersed insulation 850
kV (peak value)
Note: For line entrance equipment phase-phase spacing has to be determined based on the BIL of 1300kVp

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244
367
--------538
808

INSULATION CO-ORDINATION CALCULATION


Maximum Allowable Distance between Surge Arrester and Generator Stepup Transformer:
Based on the standard lightning impulse protective levels obtained in the calculation, the maximum allowable distance
of separation between the surge arrester and the generator stepup transformer can be found out as indicated below.
As per Cl.2.3.4.5 of IEC-60071-2,
For fast front overvoltages : Urp = Upl+2ST..(A)
where,
Urp = Representative overvoltage due to lightning (considered from Electrical Desgin Criteria)
Upl = Lightning impulse protective level of Surge Arrester

Urp = 1300 kVp


Upl = 550 kVp

As per Table-8 of IEC-60099-1


Rated arrester
voltage
Ur
(kVr.m.s)

Nominal steepness
of
wavefront
(kV/S)

0,15 < Ur 0,3


0,3 < Ur 0,6
0,6 < Ur 1,2
1,2 < Ur 10
10 < Ur 120
120 < Ur 200
200 < Ur 300
300 < Ur 420
Ur > 420

10
10
10
8.3 Ur
7 Ur
6 Ur
1300
1500
2000

S = Nominal Steepness of the Impinging Surge (From Table-8 of IEC-60099-1)

S=

T = Travel time of the lightning surge (Eq.3 of IEC-60071-2) = L/c


c = Velocity of light

1300 kV/s

c = 300 m/s

From equation (A),

T=

Hence, maximum allowable distance of separation between the surge arrester and the protected equipment, L =

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0.29 s
87

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INSULATION CO-ORDINATION CALCULATION


Annexure-I

Reference :

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IEC-60071-2 and IEC-60099-4, 5

BASIC INPUT DATA


Installation Data:
Elevation of the installation above sea level (H), m

271.5

Isokeraunic level

34

(Based on IS 2309 : 1999)

System Data:
Nominal system Line-Line voltage ( Un), kVrms

400

Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage (U s), kVrms (phase-to-phase)

420

Fault level, kA/1sec

40

System Earthing

Effectively Earthed

Temporary overvoltages duration (Tt), seconds

10

Load Rejection overvoltage factor (k)

1.5

Earth Fault overvoltage factor (k)

1.3

Transmission Line Data


Transmission line span length (Lsp), m

400

Number of lines terminating on the substation (n)

Number of conductors per bundle of the transmission line

Lightning performance of the transmission line (Rkm)

0.0015

(Considering 0.15 outage per 100km per year)

Acceptable failure rate of the transmission line (Ra)

0.0020

(Considering 1 outage in 500 years)

Surge Waveshape Modelling and Overvoltage Factors


The characteristics of the surge considered in the analysis as per IEC60071-2 is as follows:
Temporary overvoltages: The representative temporary overvoltage is considered to have the shape of the standard short duration (1 min)
power-frequency voltage. This is as per Section 2.3.1 of IEC.
Slow front overvoltages: The representative voltage shape is the standard switching impulse (time to peak 250 s, and time to half-value
on the tail 2500 s). This is as per Section 2.3.3 of IEC.
Fast front overvoltages: The representative shape of the lightning overvoltage is the standard lightning impulse(1,2/50 s). This is as per
Section 2.3.4.1 of IEC.
CALCULATION
Step1: Selection of Lightning Arrester Protection Level
Max continuous phase to earth voltage = Us/3, kV rms

242.49

Max temporary phase to earth overvoltage , kVrms

363.73

Maximum Temporary Overvoltage Factor (refer Step-2)

1.50

Surge arrester must withstand maximum phase to ground temporary overvoltages without any damage.
Temporary overvoltages withstand strength of surge arrester must be U TOV

>=

363.73 kV

Amplitude and duration of temporary overvoltages, the duration of which is between 0.1 s and 100 s can be converted
to an equivalent amplitude (Ur) with a duration of 10 s (corresponding to the duration of the rated voltage in the operating duty test).
Ur =

UTOV x (Tt/10)m

Exponent describing power frequency voltage v/s time of arrester (m) =


Ur > =

363.73 kV

0.02

------ ------------------------------------

(A)

The surge arrester has to withstand maximum phase to ground continuous voltage of the 400 kV system
Hence , maximum continuous overvoltages of the surge arrester must be MCOV
Moreover, Ur is 125 % of Maximum continuous operating voltage.
Ur = 1.25 x MCOV >=

303.11 kV

-------------------------------

(B)

The rated voltage must fulfill the conditions (A) and (B).
Class IV, 390 kV, 20 kA, residual voltage 972 kVp Surge Arrester is selected
Standard Maximum Continuous Overvoltage MCOV =

315 kVrms

Switching Impulse protective level of the surge arrestor ( U ps), kVp

850

Lightning Impulse protective level of the surge arrestor (U pl), kVp

1050

SUMMARY OF THE SELECTED SURGE ARRESTER DATA


Arrester rated voltage
14
kV
Standard Switching impulse protection level
850
kVp
Standard Lightning impulse protection level
1050
kVp
Nominal discharge current (NDC)
20
kAp

10 of 36

>= 242.49 kV

PROJECT NO.
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INSULATION CO-ORDINATION CALCULATION


Annexure-I

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Step 2: Determination of the Representative Overvoltages (Urp)


2.1 Power-frequency and Temporary Overvoltages:
Temporary overvoltages in the system can be caused due to Earth Fault, Load rejection or their combination.
Overvoltage due to Earth Fault
Earth Fault overvoltage factor (k)
Phase - Earth Representative overvoltage (Urp), kV

1.30
315

Overvoltage due to load rejection


As per IEC 60099-5, for load rejection of generator transformers the temporary overvoltages may reach amplitudes up to
1,4 p.u. for turbo generators.
(more than 1.4, to be on conservative side)
Load Rejection overvoltage factor (k)
1.50
Phase - Earth Representative overvoltage (Urp), kV
364
Combined effect of earth fault and load rejection
Earth fault can combine with load rejection to give rise to overvoltage amplitudes. Such a combination do not arise as
the system configuration changes after the load change. The earth-fault factor at generator transformers with earthed
neutral is less than 1 after being disconnected from the system;
The representative temporary overvoltages are the highest obtained considering all possible sources. Hence,
Phase - Earth Representative overvoltage (Urp), kV rms
364
2.2 Slow front Over voltages :
Slow front overvoltages due to earthfault needs to be considered only in systems with resonant neutral earthing, which
is not applicable here.
As per Cl. 2.3.3.7 of IEC-60071, with the use of surge arresters, the maximum slow-front overvoltage (and thus the slow -front
representative overvoltage) is equal to the switching-impulse protective level of the surge arrester i.e. U rp = Ups
Phase - Earth Representative overvoltage (Urp), kVp
850
Step 3: Determination of the Co-ordination withstand voltages (Ucw)
A. Determination of Ucw for internal insulation (such as transformers) for power-frequency, slow-front and
fast-front overvoltages
3.A.1 Temporary Overvoltages :
For temporary overvoltages co-ordination factor is: K c =
Hene co-ordination withstand voltages are:
-----phase-earth
Ucw =

363.73

1 (refer to Clause 3.3.1 of IEC-71-2)


kV rms

3.A.2 Slow-front overvoltages :


The slow front representative over voltage obtained must be adjusted by the co-ordination factor Kcd to account for
the skewing of the statistical distribution of the slow-front overvoltages.

Figure 6 Evaluation of deterministic co-ordination factor Kcd

The slow front over voltage is limited to about 2.0 p.u by the use of closing resistors implemented on the line circuit breakers
Thus value of the phase-to-earth overvoltage having a 2 % probability of being exceeded :
Ue2 =
2.00
p.u.
=
686
kVp
Ups/Ue2 =
1.24
From figure-6 of IEC-60071-2, corresponding to Ups/Ue2, co-ordination factor
=
Co-ordination withstand voltage:
850
kVp

11 of 36

Kcd =

1.00

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INSULATION CO-ORDINATION CALCULATION


Annexure-I

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3.A.3 Fast-front overvoltages :


As per Cl-3.3.3.1 of IEC-60071-2, by considering co-ordination factor kc=1, the Fast-front Representative overvoltage is
equal to Co-ordination withstand voltage.
A
L
Co-ordination withstand voltage is given by:
U =U +
cw

pl

Following data are considered for finding Fast-front coordination withstand voltage:
1) Lightning protective level of arrester :

[ ( )]
n Lsp +La

Upl = 1050

kVp

To ground
To ground

Figure 3 Diagram for surge arrester connection to the protected object, where
a1 : length of the lead connecting the surge arrester to the line
a2 : length of the lead connecting the surge arrester to earth
a3 : length of the phase conductor between the surge arrester and the protected equipment
a4 : length of the active part of the surge arrester
U : impinging overvoltage surge.
2) L is equal to a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 according to figure 3 of IEC60071-2:

L=
=

3) Transmission lines, a bundle of 2 conductors entering the station :


Factor A for overhead lines (Referring to table F.2 of IEC-60071-2)
4) Transmission line span length (L sp) :

28
28

m
m

( internal insulation)
(external insulation)

7000
400

5) Lightning performance of the transmission line (R km):


6) Acceptable failure rate of the transmission line (R a):
7) Overhead line section with outage rate equal to acceptable failure rate (L a), m
8) Minimum no. of overhead lines connected :

0.0015
0.002
1333
3

Co-ordination withstand voltage for internal insulation :

Ucw =

1088

kVp

Co-ordination withstand voltage for external insulation :

Ucw =

1088

kVp

Note: Fast-front overvoltages affect the phase-to-phase and the phase-to-earth insulations in same way.
B. Determination of Ucw for external insulationfor power-frequency, slow-front and fast-front overvoltages
Determination of the co-ordination withstand voltage for external insulation is carried out for slow-front overvoltages using the statistical
method because of the nature of the insulation. Astatistical method could also be applied to fast-front overvoltages but this is generally
not necessary for voltages in range II.
3.B.1 Temporary Overvoltage :
These are the same as for the internal insulation
3.B.2 Slow-front overvoltages :
The value of the statistical co-ordination factor K cs comes from choosing a risk of failure of the insulation. As per Figure 8 of IEC 60071-2
, for a usually acceptable value of R in the range of 10 -4, the value of Kcs is 1.15
Kcs =

1.15

Statistical overvoltage :

Ue2 =

686

kVp

Co-ordination withstand voltage:

Ucw =

789

kVp

Statistical co-ordination factor :

3.B.3 Fast-front overvoltages :


The determination of the co-ordination withstand voltage for fast-front overvoltage is not necessary since the lightning impulse
withstand voltage of the minimum clearances that result from the switching impulse withstand voltage will be in excess of those
that should be determined solely by the lightning impulse withstand voltage required for the non - self - restoring insulation.
Step 4: Determination of the Required withstand voltages (Urw)
The required withstand voltages are obtained by applying to the co-ordination withstand voltages two correction factors, i.e.,
recommended safety factor Ks and atmospheric correction factor Ka as defined in cl. 4.3.4 and 4.2.2 of IEC-60071-2
4.1 Safety factor (Ks) :
Ks = 1.15
For internal insulation:
Ks = 1.05
For external insulation:
4.2 Atmospheric correction factor (Ka) :
Altitude correction factor:
Altitude above sea level (in meters)

Ka = em(H/8150)
H = 271.5 m

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Value of m can be found from Figure-9 of IEC-60071-2 :


For power-frequency withstand voltage (for polluted insulators design):

m=

0.5

For switching impulse withstand voltage (phase to earth)

m=

###

For lightning impulse withstand voltage

m=

1.00

For switching impulse withstand voltage (phase to earth)

Ka = 1.017
Ka = ###

For lightning impulse withstand voltage (phase to phase and phase to earth)

Ka = 1.034

For power-frequency withstand voltage (phase to phase and phase to earth)

A. Required Withstand Voltages :


The value for the required withstand voltages are obtained from following formulas:
For external insulation
Urw = Ucw x Ks x Ka
For internal insulation
Urw = Ucw x Ks
For temporary overvoltages:
--- external insulation:
364 x 1.05 x 1.017
phase-to-earth
Urw =
--- internal insulation:
364 x 1.15
phase-to-earth
Urw =
For slow-front overvoltages:
--- external insulation:
###
phase-to-earth
Urw =
--- internal insulation:
850 x 1.15
phase-to-earth
Urw =
For fast-front overvoltage:
--- external insulation:
1088 x 1.05 x1.034
phase-to-earth
Urw =
--- internal insulation:
1088 x 1.15
phase-to-earth
Urw =

388

kV rms

418

kV rms

###

kVp

978

kVp

1181

kVp

1251

kVp

Step 5: Conversion to Switching Impulse Withstand voltages (SIW) and Selection of Standard Insulation levels (Uw) from
Required Withstand Voltage (Urw)
The required short-duration power-frequency withstand voltages are converted to an equivalent switching impulse withstand
voltage (SIW), according to table 3.

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5.1 Conversion of power frequency withstand voltage to switching impulse withstand voltages (SIW)
For Internal Insulation (Liquid Immersed Insulation): SIW = U rw x 2.3
SIW = 962 kVp
For External Insulation : SIW = Urw x 1.7
SIW = 660 kVp
5.2 For Internal Insulation (Liquid Immersed Insulation)
Urw = 418 kV rms
Uw = 450 kV rms
Urw = 978 kVp

Urw for temporary overvoltage:


Standard withstand voltage as per IEC 60071-1:
Urw for slow front overvoltage:
Standard switching-impulse withstand voltage as per IEC 60071-1:

Uw = 1050 kVp
Urw = 1251 kVp
Uw = 1300 kVp

Urw for fast front overvoltage:


Standard lightning-impulse withstand voltage as per IEC 60071-1:
5.3 For External Insulation

Urw = 388 kV rms


Uw = 450 kV rms
Urw = ### kVp
Uw = 950 kVp

Urw for temporary overvoltage:


Standard withstand voltage as per IEC 60071-1:
Urw for slow front overvoltage:
Standard switching-impulse withstand voltage as per IEC 60071-1:
Urw for fast front overvoltage:

Urw = 1181 kVp


Uw = 1300 kVp

Standard lightning-impulse withstand voltage as per IEC 60071-1:


Note: For line entrance equipment phase-phase spacing has to be determined based on the BIL of 1300kVp
Maximum Allowable Distance between Surge Arrester and Generator Stepup Transformer:

Based on the standard lightning impulse protective levels obtained in the calculation, the maximum allowable distance
of separation between the surge arrester and the generator stepup transformer can be found out as indicated below.
As per Cl.2.3.4.5 of IEC-60071-2,
For fast front overvoltages : Urp = Upl+2ST..(A)
where,
Urp = Representative overvoltage due to lightning (considered from Electrical Desgin Criteria)
Upl = Lightning impulse protective level of Surge Arrester

Urp = 1425 kVp


Upl = 1050 kVp

As per Table-8 of IEC-60099-1


Rated arrester
voltage
Ur
(kVr.m.s)

Nominal steepness
of
wavefront
(kV/S)

0,15 < Ur 0,3


0,3 < Ur 0,6
0,6 < Ur 1,2
1,2 < Ur 10
10 < Ur 120
120 < Ur 200
200 < Ur 300
300 < Ur 420
Ur > 420

10
10
10
8.3 Ur
7 Ur
6 Ur
1300
1500
2000

S = Nominal Steepness of the Impinging Surge (From Table-8 of IEC-60099-1)


T = Travel time of the lightning surge (Eq.3 of IEC-60071-2) = L/c
c = Velocity of light

S=

1500 kV/s

c = 300 m/s

From equation (A),


T=
Hence, maximum allowable distance of separation between the surge arrester and the protected equipment, L =

14 of 36

0.13 s
38 m

kcd-Ue2
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.18

1.1
1.08
1.0625
1.0375
1.025
0.9875
kcd-Ue2

0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

1.1
1.075
1.05
1.025
1

Figure 6 Evaluation of deter

m- switching impulse voltage


0
1
200
1
400
0.97
600
0.87
800
0.79
1000
0.7
1200
0.64
1400
0.56
1600
0.5
1800
0.43
2000
0.35

2200
2400
2600

0.35
0.35
0.35

1.025
0.0125
1.0375
Figure 6 Evaluation of deterministic co-ordination factor Kcd

1
2
3
4

4500
7000
11000
17000

Max System Voltage

Rated
Voltage

Maximum Continuous
operating voltage

TOV
Capability

245
245
245
300
300
300
362
362
362
380
400
420
420
420
550
550
550

180
92
228
228
240
264
258
264
276
288
300
330
360
390
396
420
444

144
154
180
182
191
212
209
212
221
230
240
267
291
315
318
336
353

198
211
250
250
264
290
283
290
303
316
330
363
396
429
435
462
488

Switching
Impulse
Residual Voltage

Ligtning Impulse
Residual Voltage

364
388
461
461
485
534
522
534
558
582
607
667
728
788
800
849
897

449
479
568
568
598
658
643
658
688
718
748
823
897
972
987
1051
1111

Nominal system Line-Line voltage ( Un), kVrms


Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage (Us), kVrms (phase-to-phase)
System Earthing
Lightning performance of the transmission line (Rkm)
Acceptable failure rate of the transmission line (Ra)
Surge Waveshape Modelling and Overvoltage Factors
Temporary overvoltages: The representative temporary overvoltage is considered to have the shape of the
standard short duration (1 min) power-frequency voltage. This is as per Section 2.3.1 of IEC.
Slow front overvoltages: The representative voltage shape is the standard switching impulse (time to peak 250
s, and time to half-value on the tail 2500 s). This is as per Section 2.3.3 of IEC.
Fast front overvoltages: The representative shape of the lightning overvoltage is the standard lightning
impulse(1,2/50 s). This is as per Section 2.3.4.1 of IEC.
Step1: Selection of Lightning Arrester Protection Level
Max continuous phase to earth voltage = Us/3, kVrms
Max temporary phase to earth overvoltage , kVrms
Maximum Temporary Overvoltage Factor (refer Step-2)
Temporary overvoltages withstand strength of surge arrester must be UTOV
The rated voltage must fulfill the conditions (A) and (B).
Standard Maximum Continuous Overvoltage MCOV =
Switching Impulse protective level of the surge arrestor ( Ups), kVp
Lightning Impulse protective level of the surge arrestor (Upl), kVp
Arrester rated voltage
Standard Switching impulse protection level
Standard Lightning impulse protection level
Nominal discharge current (NDC)
Step 2: Determination of the Representative Overvoltages (Urp)
2.1 Power-frequency and Temporary Overvoltages:
Earth Fault overvoltage factor (k)
Phase - Earth Representative overvoltage (Urp), kV
Overvoltage due to load rejection
Load Rejection overvoltage factor (k)
Combined effect of earth fault and load rejection
Switching impulse protective level of surge arresters (Ups), kVp

Slow-front ph-earth representative overvoltage with the use of surge arresters (Urp), kVp
Slow-front ph-ph representative overvoltage with the use of surge arresters (Urp), kVp
The slow front representative over voltage obtained must be adjusted by the co-ordination factor Kcd to account
for
3.3 Fast-front overvoltages :
As per Cl-3.3.3.1 of IEC-60071-2, by considering co-ordination factor kc=1, the Fast-front Representative
overvoltage is
Co-ordination withstand voltage is given by:
Following data are considered for finding Fast-front coordination withstand voltage:
Step 4: Determination of the Required withstand voltages (Urw)
Safety factor (Ks) :
Atmospheric correction factor (Ka) :
Required Withstand Voltages :
For temporary overvoltages:
For slow-front overvoltages:
For fast-front overvoltage:
Step 5: Conversion to withstand voltages (Uw)
Conversion of switching impulse withstand voltage to power frequency withstand voltages (SDW)
Conversion of switching impulse withstand voltage to lightning impulse withstand voltages (LIW)
Step 5: Selection of standard withstand voltages (Uw):
Table 5.1-Summary of required withstand voltages
Maximum Allowable Distance between Surge Arrester and Generator Stepup Transformer: