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CIVL2611 Introductory Fluid Mechanics

CIVL9611 Introductory Fluid Mechanics

Tutorial 1. Assumed Knowledge & Dimensions and Units


(The problems marked with

will be explained at tutorials.)

Statics and dynamics


1.

Consider a hinged gate as show below. The gate is of length and is hinged at one
end and tethered by a cable at the other. The gate has a mass of 20 kg. Two 20-N
forces act as shown. What is the tension in the cable, and what is the reaction force
(magnitude and direction) acting on the hinge?
Cable

20N
Gate
20N
Hinge

2.

A mass is placed on a smooth inclined plane with an angle of 37 degrees to the


horizontal. If the inclined plane is 5-m long, how long does it take for the mass to
reach the bottom of the inclined plane after it is released from rest?

3.

Looking from above, three ropes are tied to an 8-kg object with forces being exerted
as indicated. What is the object's acceleration?
N
W

E
S

4.

4N

8N
3N

A 5500-kg helicopter is travelling in level flight as shown below. What is the force F
provided by the rotor?

Calculus
5.

6.

Differentiate the following functions with respect to x:


(a)

f ( x ) = 3x 2

(b) f ( x ) =

(c)

f ( x ) = ln( x )

(d) f ( x ) = ln (x 2 )

1
x

(e) f ( x ) = e ax

(f)

(g) f ( x ) = sin ( x )

(h) f (x ) = sin (x 2 )

f (x ) = e ax

Carry out the following single integrals:


1

(a)

xdx

(b)

1
(c) dx
x
1

x dx

(d)

sin (x ) dx
0

(e)

e dx
x

7.

Carry out the following double integrals


1 1 y

1 1

(a)

xdxdy
0 0

(b)

dxdy
0 0

Vectors and vector calculus


8.

A force acting at a point is given by F = 2 i + 3 j + 5 k where i, j , and k are the unit


vectors in the x, y and z directions. What is the magnitude of the force?

9.

The velocity of a fluid flow u at a point has components in the x, y and z directions of
ux, uy, and uz respectively. The fluid flows through a surface which is characterised by
the outward unit vector normal to the surface given by n = a x i + a y j + a z k . What is
the dot product of u and n ?
How do you interpret the value of the dot product?

10. What is the cross product of two vectors in the same direction?

11. The vector operator is defined as, in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates,


u y
u


. This form is called the
i +
j so that, for example, u = x +
x
y
x
y
divergence of the velocity. Consider the Cartesian form of the divergence of the
velocity applied over a small rectangle of dimension x and y . What is a physical
interpretation of the statement that u = 0 ?
12. A measure of the rotation of a fluid is its vorticity. The vorticity is defined as
= V , where is a vector operator and V is the fluid velocity vector. This is
also known as the curl of the velocity, which is a vector since the cross product of two
vectors is a vector. In three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates, is written as


i +
j + k and V is given by V = u i + v j + wk . Look up the formula for
x
y
z
the curl of the vector = V .

Dimensions and units


13. Determine the dimensions of the following quantities in the MLT system:
(a) Volume

(b) Acceleration

(c) Work

(d) Pressure

14. If p is pressure, d is diameter, V is velocity, and is fluid density, determine the SI


units and dimensions (in the MLT system) of the following quantities:
(a)

(b) pV

(c)

p
V 2

1
C D V 2 A ,
2
where V is the wind speed, the density of the air, A the cross-sectional area of the
building, and CD is the drag coefficient. Determine the dimensions of the drag
coefficient.

15. The force, F, of the wind blowing against a building is given by F =