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................................................................................................ 1 !

...........................................................................................................................12
........................................................................................................................................................13
( 1 7 ) ................................................................... 13

I.
( 8 ) ..................................................................... 17
( 9 1 2 ) ................................... 18
( 13 15)
21
( 1 4 ) .......................................................................................................................... 22
( 1 5 ) .............................................2 3
( 16 2 6 ) ................................... 2 5
( 16 1 8 ) ..........................................................................2 5
( 1 9 ) ................................................................................................................ 2 8
( 2 0 ) ..................................................2 9
( 2 1 )
30
( 2 2 ) ..................................................31
( 2 3 ) ................................................................................................................ 3 2

( 2 4 ) .

( 2 5 2 6 )

( 2 7 35)
( 2 7 2 8 ) ............................................................................................

36
36

( 29)

( 3 0 ) ........................................................................................................... 3 9
( 30)

( 3 1 3 5 ) ..........................................................................................................................4 0
( 3 2 3 3 ) . ( 3 4 35)

II*
( 3 6 3 7 ) ......................................................................................
45
( 3 8 )
46
- ( 3 9 4 0 ) ......................................................................... 47
($ 41 4 2 ) ............................................. 4 9
( 4 3 44)
51

1*

III.
( 45) 53
( 4 6 4 8 ) .......................................
54
( 4 9 6 9 ) ............................................................................................. 58
( 4 9 ) ................................................................................................................................ 58
( 5 0)

( 5 1 ) .......................................................................................................................... 60
61
( 5 2 6 9 ) .......................................................................................
( 5 2 6 0 ) ................................................................................................................ 61
( 5 2 ) . ( 5 3 ) . ,
( 5 4 5 7 ) : -i ( 5 5 ) ; ( 5 5 ) ,
( 5 5 ) ; () ( 5 6 ) , h ( 5 7 ) .
( 5 8 ) . ( 5 9)

( 6 0 ) ...........................................................................................................................67
( 6 0 ) . ( 6 1 ) .
( 6 2 ) . ( 6 3 )

( 6 4 )
(65)
( 6 6 68)
( 6 7 )
( 6 8 )

69
70
71
72
72

( 6

( 70 8 4 ) .......................................................................................................................... 73
( 7 0 ) ................................................................ 73
( 7 1 8 3 ) ................................................. 74
( 7 2 7 9 ) ; ( 7 3 ) ;
( 7 4 ) ; ( 7 4 7 7 ) , ( 7 5 ) ,
( 7 6 ) , ( 7 7 ) ; ( 7 8 ) ;
( 7 9 ) ; ( 8 0 ) ;
( 8 1 ) : , ( 8 2 ) ;
( 83 )

( 8 4 ) .................................................................................................. 80
( 8 5 2 2 8 ) .......................................................................................
81
( 8 5 1 7 2 ) ...............................................................................................................
81
( 8 5 ) .................................................................................................. 81
( 8 6 103)
82
( ) ( 9 0 9 8 ) : - ( 9 1 ) ,
- j a ( 9 2 ) , -wa ( 9 3 ) , - ( 9 4 ) , -jo ( 9 5 ) ,
-wo ( 9 6 ) , -1 ( 9 7) , - ( 98 )
- ( ) ( 9 9 ) . ( 1 0 0 ) ;
( 1 0 0 ) , (' ' 1 0 0 ) . - ( 1 0 1 ) . -es
( 1 0 2 1 0 3 )

( 104 1 1 2 ) ...................................................................................................... 9 6
(
(

1 0 5 ) . ( 1 0 6 ) .
1,07). ( 1 0 8 ) .
( 1 0 9 ) . ( 1 1 0 ) .
( 1 1 1 ) . ( 1 1 2) .

( 113 121)
( 1 1 4 ) : - , - ( 1 1 5 ) : ( 1 1 5 ) ,
. ( 1 1 6 ) ; - j a , -jo ( 117*), - w a , -wo ( 1 1 8 ) .
( 1 1 9 ) . ( 1 2 0 ) :
( 1 2 0 ) , ( 1 2 0 ) . ( 1 2 1 ) .

( 122 1 2 3 ) .....................................................................................................105
( 1 2 2 ) . ( 123 )

( 124 1 2 8 ) .................. 106


( 1 2 9 - 1 6 1 ) ................................................................................................................... 108
( 1 2 9 1 3 4 ) . ( 1 3 5 1 4 2 ) : I ( 1 3 6
1 3 9 ) : ( 1 3 6 ) , ( 1 3 7 1 3 9 ) :
11 ( 1 4 0 1 4 1 ) ; 1 1 1 ( 1 4 2 ) . ( 1 4 3 1 4 6 ) :
( 1 4 4 1 4 5 ) ,
( 14 6) ( 1 4 7 ) . - ( 1 4 8 ) . ( 1 4 9 ) :
, wesan ( 1 4 9 ) , don w il la n ( 1 0 5 ) .
( 1 5 1 ) .
( 1 5 2 ) .
( 1 5 3 ) . ( 1 5 4 1 5 5 ) . ( 1 5 6 1 5 8 ) .
( 1 5 9 1 6 1 ) .

( 1 6 2 - 1 6 7 ) ................................................................................................................ 135
( 164167).
( 1 6 8 ) ................................................................................................ 137
( 1 6 9 ) ............................................................................................................................. 138
( 1 7 0 ) .................................................................................................................................. 139
( 1 7 1 ) ................................................................................................................... 139
( 1 7 2 ) ................................. 140
( 173 2 2 8 ) ................................................................................................................ 141
( 1 7 4 2 0 7 ) .............................................................................. 141
( 174 1 8 4 ) ......................................................................... 141
( 175 1 7 8 ) .................................................................................. 141
( 1 7 5 ) ..........................................................................................................141
( 1 7 6 1 7 8 ) ................................................................................................. 142
( 177). ( 178)
( 179 1 8 4 ) .................................. 142
( 1 7 9 ) ....................................................................* .................................143
( 179). ( 179).
( 1 8 0 ) .......................................................................................................... 143
( 1 8 1 ) ..................................................................................................... 144
( 1 8 2 ) ..........................................................................................................144
( 1 8 3 ) ...............................................................................................................144
( 1 8 4 ) ..................................................................................................... 144
( 1 8 5 ) ..................................................................................................... 145
( 186187).
( 188189)
(190 191)
148
hit { ( 1 9 2 ) ........................................................................ 148
( 1 9 3 1 9 5 ) ......................... 148
( 194).
( 195).
( 1 9 6 )

( 197 202)

(197 2 0 7 ) .........................

15.0
151
151

( 198). .
( 199). ( 200).
(. 201). ( 202).
( 2 0 3 2 0 4 ) ................................................................................................. 154
( 2 0 5 ) ............................................................................................................... 155
( 2 0 6 2 0 7 ) ...................................................................................................... 156

( 2 0 8 2 2 8 ) ......................................................................... 157
( 208)
.................................................................... 157
( 2 0 9 ) ............................................................... 157
( 2 1 0 228)
............................................ 157
( 2 1 1 2 1 2 ) . ( 2 1 3 ) .
( 2 1 4 ) . ( 2 1 5 2 1 6 ) .
- ( 2 1 7 ) .
( 2 1 8 ) : ( 2 1 9 ) , ( 2 2 0 ) ,
( 2 2 1 ) , ( 2 2 2 ) ,
( 2 2 3 ) , ( 2 2 4 ) ,
( 2 2 5 ) , ( 2 2 6 2 2 7 ) . ( 2 2 8 ) .

IV.

( 2 2 9 2 3 0 ) .........................................................................
( 2 3 1 2 3 3 ) ...................................................................................
( 2 3 4 2 3 5 ) ..................................
( 2 3 6 2 4 2 ) .................................................
( 2 4 3 2 4 7 ) .......................................
( 2 4 3 2 4 5 ) ............................................
( 2 4 6 ) .....................................................................................................................
( 2 4 7 ) ..........................................................
( 2 4 8 ) ..............................................................................
( 2 4 9 2 5 1 ) ........................
( 2 5 2 2 6 1 ) ..................................

( 2 6 2 ) ........................................................................................................................................

165
167
170
171
176
176
180
180
182
183
186
191

( 263). ( 264).
( 2 6 5 2 6 8 ) ..............................................................................
( 2 6 9 3 0 3 ) ...................................................................................
( 2 7 0 2 8 4 ) ...........................................................................................................
( 2 7 0 ) ..........................................................

193
195
195
195

( 271). ( 272273).
( 274): ( 274),
( 275), ( 276),
( 277),
( 278283), ( 284)
( 2 8 5 2 9 1 ) .....................................................................................................

( 2 9 2 2 9 8 ) ...............................................................................................................................
( 2 9 4 2 9 5 ) ......................................................
( 2 9 6 2 9 7 ) ..........................................................

( 2 9 8 ) ...................................................................................................................................

( 2 9 9 3 0 2 ) ......................................................................................................
( 3 0 3 ) ......................................................
( 3 0 4 4 2 4 ) ..............................................................................
( 3 0 4 377)
...........................................................................................................
( 3 0 4 3 1 3 ) ........................................................................................
( 3 1 4 321) .
........................................................................................

202 *
204
206
2 06
208
208

210
211
211
211
218

( 314316).
( 317). ( 318).
( 319). ( 320). ( 321)
( 3 2 2 326)
...................................................................................... 222
( 3 2 7 328)...... ........................................................................................... 224

327),

($ 328)

( 3 2 9 ) ..........................................................
(
3 3 0 3 3 4 ) ...........................................
(3 3 5 3 3 6 ) ...........................................................
( 3 3 7 3 6 5 ) .........................................................................................................................

226
226
2 28
230

( 3 3 8 3 4 1 ) . ( 3 4 2 3 4 5 ) .
( 3 4 6 3 4 7 ) .
( 3 4 8 3 5 1 ) . - ( 3 5 2 ) .
( 3 5 3 3 5 4 ) : gon ( 3 5 3 ) , don willen ( 3 5 4 ) .
( 3 5 5 3 6 5 ) :
( 3 5 5 ) , ( 3 5 6 3 5 8 ) , ( 3 5 9 3 6 0 ) .
( 3 6 1 ) . ( 3 6 2 ) :
( 3 6 2 ) . ( 3 6 3 3 6 5 ) : ( 3 6 3 3 6 5 ) .

( . 3 6 6 - 3 7 0 ) ....................................................................................................................
( 3 7 1 ) ..........................................................................................................
( 3 7 2 ) ..............................................................................................................................
( 3 7 3 ) ..............................................................................................................................
( 3 7 4 ) .......................................................................................................................................
( 3 7 5 ) .........................................................................................................................

( 3 7 6 ) .....................................................................................................................

249
251
251
252
253
253
254

: , . : ,
. - : , . ( ) : , .

( 3 7 7 ) .....................................
( 3 7 8 4 2 4 ) ...............................................................................................................
( 3 7 9 ) ...............................................................
( 3 8 0 4 0 9 ) .............................................................................
( 3 8 1 3 8 8 ) .........................................................................
( 3 8 1 ) .........................................................................................................
( 3 8 2 ) ...............................................................................................................
( 3 8 3 ) ..........................................................................................................
( 3 8 4 ) .........................................................................................................
( 3 8 5 ) .................................................................................................
( 3 8 6 ) ..........................................................................................................
( 387)
( 3 8 8 ) .....................................................................................................
( 3 8 9 393)
( 3 9 4 397)
( 3 9 5 ) ......................................................................................................
( 3 9 6 ) ........................................................................
( 3 9 7 ) ..........................................................................................................
, (3 9 8 4 0 6 ) ..............................................

258
259
259
260
2 60
260
260
261
261
261
262
262
262
262
264
264
266
266
267

( 4 0 2 4 0 5 ) . ( 4 0 6 )

( 407)
2 70
( 4 0 8 4 0 9 ) .......................................... 271
( 4 1 0 4 2 4 ) .................................................................................. 272
( 4 1 1 ) .................................................................. 272
(4 1 2 424)
273
( 4 1 2 ) . ( 4 1 3 ) .
( 4 1 4 ) . ( 4 1 5 ) .
( 4 1 6 ) : ( 4 1 6 ) ,
( 4 1 7 ) , ( 4 1 8 ) ,
(. 4 1 9 ) , ( 4 2 0 ) , ( 4 2 1 ) ,
( 4 2 2 ) , ( 4 2 3 ) ,
( 4 2 4 )

V.

( 4 2 5 4 3 1 ) ..................................................... 277
X V . ( 4 2 5 431) . . . 277
( 4 3 2 4 3 3 ) ............................................................................................ 284

( 4 3 4 4 4 1 ) ...............................................................
( 4 4 2 4 4 3 ) ...............................................................
( 4 4 4 4 5 2 ) ....................................................................
( 4 5 3 4 5 4 ) ........................................................................
( 4 5 5 ) ..........................................................................................................
( 456 463)
( 4 5 8 ) ...............................................................
( 4 5 9 4 6 0 ) .......................................................................................
( 4 6 1 462)
( 4 6 3 ) ......................................................................................................
( 464)
X V I I
( 4 6 5 - 4 6 6 ) ..............................................................................................................................
X V I I I X X . ( 4 6 7 4 6 9 ) .....................................................
( 4 7 0 ) .............................................................................
( 4 7 1 472)
( 472)
( 4 7 4 5 2 3 ) ..................................................................................
( 4 7 4 5 0 5 ) ..........................................................................................................

286
291
293
298
299
300
301
302
304
306
306
307
308
309
310
311
313
313

[-] ( 4 7 4 4 7 6 ) . 1
( 4 7 7 ) . ( 4 7 8 ) . ( 4 7 9 4 8 7 ) .
[] ( 4 8 8 ) . ( 4 8 9 ) .
( 4 9 0 5 0 5 ) : [] [] ( 4 9 0 ) ,
( 4 9 1 ) . [*] [ :] ( 4 9 2 ) . [*]
1 ( 4 9 3 ) , au [:] ( 4 9 4 ) . ( 4 9 5 4 9 6 ) .
[:] ( 4 9 7 ) . X V I I . ( 4 9 8 5 0 3 ) :
[] [] [w] ( 4 9 8 ) , . [] [] ( 4 9 9 5 0 1 ) , [:] [i :]
( 5 0 2 ) , ( 5 0 3 ) . ( 5 0 4 5 0 5 )

( 5 0 6 5 2 1 ) ...................................................................................................... 330
[%] ( 5 0 6 ) . [1] [k, m , f, v] ( 5 0 7 ) .
[w] ( 5 0 8 ) .
( 5 0 9 ) . ( 5 1 0 5 1 1 ) . [d] [6]
[] ( 5 1 2 ) .

[j] (5 1 3 520) . . . .
( 5 2 1 ) ............................................
( 5 2 2 ) ............................................................................................
( 523)
. . .
( 5 2 4 5 2 6 ) .............................................................................
( 5 2 5 5 8 7 ) ..........................................................................................................
( 5 2 5 5 2 7 ) .......................................................................................
( 5 2 5 526)
( 5 2 7 5 2 8 ) .............................................................................
( 529)

335
338
338
339
339
340
340
340
341
342

( 5 2 9 5 3 0 ) .
( 5 3 1 ) . ( 5 3 2 ) .
( 5 3 3 ) . ( 5 3 4 )

( 5 3 5 5 3 7 ) ............................................................................................ 344
- ( 5 3 5 ) . ( 5 3 6 5 3 7 ) .

( 5 3 8 ) ..........................................................................................................

345

( 5 3 8 ) . ( 5 3 8 ) .

( 5 3 9 ) ....................................................................................... 346
( 5 4 0 5 7 9 ) ............................................................................................................... 346
( 5 4 0 5 4 2 ) . ( 5 4 3 5 4 8 ) .
( 5 4 9 ) . ( 5 5 0 ) .
( 5 5 1 5 5 6 ) .
( 5 5 7 5 5 9 ) :
( 5 5 8 ) . ( 5 5 9 ) . -
( 5 6 0 ) . be, go , do, will ( 5 6 1 5 6 4 ) .
( 5 6 5 5 7 4 ) : ( 5 6 5 ) , ( 5 6 6 5 7 0 ) .
( 5 7 1 5 7 4 ) . do
( 5 7 5 5 7 6 ) . ( 5 7 7 5 7 9 ) .

( 5 8 0 ) ........................................................................................................................
( 5 8 1 ) ................................................................................................
( 5 8 2 ) ....................................................................................................................
( 5 8 3 ) ........................................................................................................................
( 5 8 4 5 8 5 ) ..........................................................................................................
( 5 8 6 ) .............................................................................................................................
( 5 8 7 ) ...............................................................................................................
............................................................................................
( 5 8 8 597) . . .
( 5 8 9 5 9 3 ) ........................
( 5 9 0 ) .....................................................................................................
( 5 9 1 ) ..........................................................................................................
( 5 9 2 ) ..........................................................................................................
( 5 9 3 ) ...............................................................................................................
( 594)
( 5 9 5 5 9 6 ) .......................................
( 5 9 7 ) .......................................................................
( 5 9 8 6 0 0 ) ..................................................................................

367
368
368
369
370
371
371
371
372
372
372
373
373
374
374
375
376

I. . II. . III.
IV. V. . VI. .
( 6 0 1 609)

380

...................................................................................................................385
......................................................................................................................................390

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.

.
: f/ b, ft/d, h / g , h w/ w , s / r .


,
.
.

20. ,

, ,

. ,
, ,
() . ,
, ,
. , ,
29


, , ,
, .
:
,
,
( ),
. ,

() ,

. ,
, .

21. ,
,
,
,
,
?
-
.
, , :
,
, ,
.
.
,
, . . . :
,
,
. , ,
,
, - ,
-, -, - .
, , ,
, ,
.
, .
, ,

, .
, .
,

( ,
)
,
\
1 . . .
. ., 1952, . 3 9 .

30

.
,
,
,

.
, ,
,

.
-
. , ,

,
, . . .
.
,
*. , b, t d ,
k g : b, d,
g , , t,
. , ,
: , t, (. .
), b, d, g (. .
).
, t, ,
f, {>, h.
. , ,
.

22.
,
.
: ( ),
, ,
j . , *saetian > settan
. ,
,

. , -, j
. , . ,
(.
16 20),
. ff
2:
1 . K u r y l o w i c z . L e sens des m u t a ti o n s co n so na n tiqu e s. .
Esquisses lin g uisti q ues . W r o c l a w , 1960, p. 2 4 0 247.
2
, : . . b a i t r s / .-a. bit tor ,
. sn u trs/ .-a. sn o tt o r .

31

:
*saetian > settan * ( . satjan)
*staepian > steppan *
*sae3ian > *
*raecian > reccan/reccean * (. . rakjan)
*framian > fremman *
*taelian > tellan *
*saelian > sellan *
*cnusian > cnyssan
*swaefian > *sweffan > swebban *
*hleahian > hliehhan, hlyhhan * (. . hlahjan)

23.
.
,
.


.

. :
.-.

.
. noct-em
.

. Apfel
. nahts
. Nacht

.-.

. octo
, okto
.

. ahtau
. acht


. :
.- .

.-.

. frater * . . flos - .-a. blorna


, phrator
.-.
*
,
, .

.

24.
,



32

, .
,
(Brechung).
:
i .
.
1.
1, i, j
.
. :

.
.
.
.

medius .-a. midde


ventus .-a. wind
edere
.-a. etan
ferre
.-. beran

, ,
.
, i j:
, . .

. +
, .
.
2.
:
,
;
. :
. sunus .-a. sunu; . iugum .-.
( < *3 0 ) 1.

.
. ,
, .
,
:
i, , h i .

, h .
: . sedere . sitan, ferre
. bafran; sequi . saftoan
.
ai
.
1
41.
2

. .

33

i .
.
.
,

25.
,
1. .
., , : -/, --/-,
--/-, -/, --/-, --/, --/, --/-; . : -/.
,
. , leipo
(
) elipon leloipa ,
,
: lip-/
lei-/loi-. , ,
.

.
, ,
,
, .
//
( ).
:
;
;
(. . ).
26. ,
,
2 . IV .
,
,
,
,
.

.
1 abla ut g ra d a t io n ,
, , a p o p h o n ie.
2 . 32, 33.

34

II
III
IV
V

reisan1
kiusan
bindan
stilan
giban

.
. .

rais
kaus
band
stal
gaf

.
. .

risum
kusum
bundum
stelum
gebum

risans
kusans
bundans
stulans
gibans

, :

II
III
IV
V

.
. .

.
. .

ai

au

U
U

U
U


i,
i/a/.
,
i //.
.
.
, i // .
,
,
(
), ,
. ,

i // .

, ,
. ,

.
, ,
, , .
.
,
1 ei [ i :] .
, (. 14)
, ei
[ i : J .
2*

35

,
,
.
,
/ 1,

, sedeo sedi;
lego legi. ,
i // ,
.
, ,

. ,

;
, ,
. -, i
.
,
// , (. 24)
i // .
.

27. ,
,
, , ,
. , . .
IV .,
. ,
, , ,
,
.

.
,
,
. : 1) ,
2) , 3) .
.
: .
:
1 i . 24.

36

,
.
. ,
,
,
.
,
, , 1.
-,

.
, .
,
:
,
-, : fadar ,
, swistar . .
-
. ,
,
.
28.

: . dagam ,
gibom , gastim , sunum .
. ,
dagam dag-, - - ; gibom gib-,
-- - . .
, - ,
, . . --, --, -i- --,
.

: . dagans, gibos, gastins,
sununs. ,
: dags,
giba, gasts; sunus
.
1

. , ,
-
Ia ukaR ,
IV . dags ,
dae .
- - , ,
.

37



. ,
,
,
:
, :

. .

, ,
, ,
.
, ,
, . .
.


29.
:
1. : --, --, -1-, --.
.
2. --.
1.
3. : -s- --.
4. .
;
,
,
.


, ,
,
.
1
. ,
(, )
, :
der Tag , des Tages, dem Tage,
,
,
: der Lowe, des Lowen,
dem Lowen.
, .

38


30.
,
. , ,

. , bonus
I II : bonus
, II hortus ,
bonum II
vallum , bona
I silva \
,
.
, ,
.
:
1.
(. . ),
(. . -).

,
; ,
.
.
2.
:
,

.
, -
, .
,
,
-: , strabos strabon ,

(Strabon),
I . . .; platys Platon ,
.

,
,
. ,
:
-
39

, ,
, ,

.

31. ,
, .
,

(. 25), ,
-d- ( - t - ) *.
,
-, ,
,
.


32.
().
, ,
.
; ,
pello pepuli ( *pepoli),
/ pel-/pol-.

. ,
,
,
; ,
, ,
, . . ,
.
, -, : ,
.
- . ] .
,
, . . .
,
( 25).
1 ,
,
. ,
,
.

40

: lei'po *
( ); elipon ( );
leloipa ( ).

, :
,
. .
:
, .
,
, .
, :

,
(. 148).



.


33.
: 1) , 2)
, 3) ,
4) .

.
25 .
VI ,
. ///.
.
,
.
, ,
VI , ///.
;
, > ,
. ,
faran for forum farans.
VII .
VII :

) haitan
) letan

.
. .

.
. .

haihait
laflot

haihaitum
lailotum
41

haitans
letans

VII () .
VII () ///,

/.

, . . ,
.

.
, pello pepulf; mordeo
momordr, curro cucurri . .

. , -,
, ,
, -
-.
: , .
.


34. ,

.
:
.

.
, -d-
(.-a. don, . . tun).
,
, : .
. hausjan :
hausida ,
hausidedum . -dedum,
, ,

tun '
taten *.
,
,

1 . d .
(. . 25).

42

, . , , ,
, . amatus, deletus, lectus, auditus.
.-. t , d
( 19).
,

,
.

.


,
' ,
-t-,
.

,
.
,
,

.
35. , ,
,
. , ,
.
:

I
II
III
IV

hausian
salbon
haban
fullnan

.
. .

hausida
salboda
habaida
fullnoda

.
. .

hausidedum
salbodedum
habaidedum
fullnodedum

hausips
sal bops
habaips

,
I -j-, II -, III -ai-,
, , , IV
----- ()-.
, ,
, . . ,
. , ,
,
, ,
43

,
IV :
;
, fullnan , fraqistnan
, gahailnan . .
-
, , weaken, stif
fen, redden .

: ,

,
,
.

II.

36. - ,
.
, V , ,
\ : ,
2.
: , ;
, ;
, ,
.
,
(, ),
1 , ( B e d e B a e d a )
, . I, . 15.
2
( T a c i t u s , Corn eliu s, . 55 . . 120 .)
, . 40;
E u d o ses, , , .
(C laudius P t o l e m a e u s,
11 . . .) 11 II .

45

,
. IV . . .

;

( ),

V .
,
.


IV . . .,
(Pytheas) ( ),

,
, -
.


,

.
37.
: - . - : 1)
,
( ),
2) ,
( )

, ,
,
- ( X V I I I .), ,
. : 1) ,
2) , E r s e , 3) (M anx)
, .


38. 55 . . .
.
, , ;
.
54 . ,
:
46

1.
43 . . . .
,
,
. 80- I .,
, ( )
( ). ,
,
.
.
, , .
,
- .
, ,
. IV .,
,
.

, V . 410 .

(
);

.


39. V .
. 449 .
Hengest Horsa, ,
.

600 . (VI .)
.
, :

--;
; -
.
,

. V .,
,
.
( ), (1
, . IV , . 2 0 3 6, . V , .
8-23.

47

( X . ,
)

-), (
) ' (
). ,
: IX .,
XI . . , XI I I . ,
, , ,
,
. ,
, .
;
X II .
40. ,
, ,
.
.
, ,
, -,
,
1.

,
, ,
. ;
,
, ,
2.
: , 60 0 .
,
,
,
. ,
- ,
,
,
,
3.
,
, (
) .


41.
: 1) ( -), 2) , 3) .
:
( -)
(
1 A. J I . . . ., 1950, . 36.
2 , . 37.
3 , . 42.

49

V .)
(VII .) 1100 .;
1100 1500 .;

1500 .
.

, 1500 1660.
, (1100, 1500),
;
,
XI X II . XV
XVI . ,
, 1789 . 1917 .,
.
,

,
1066 ., .


.
'(1455 1485 .).
42.
.
(Sweet, Henry, 1845 1912)
, - :
(full
endings):
, sunu ' , sin 3an '.
,
(levelled endings):
[] (
): sune, singen.
(lost
endings): : son, sing.

.

,
, .

, . .
, ,
,
.
, ,
,
50

, ,
,
. ,

,
.
,
.


43.
.
, .

: ,
(
,
);
,
.

:
1) ,
, , . . .

;
2) . , ,
, , ,
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
(
rhymes to the eye), ,
far: war, lo ve: move. ,
, , , light: write,
,
g h light
;
3) , ,
.
XVI X V II .
,
,
; ,
, ,
.
51

44.

.

VII .
. ,
,
, ,
, .

, ,
,
.
,
,
, : ,
IV . (. 8).
,
, ,
-
,
, .
, ,
, .
,

.

, .

,

.


, ,
,
.
,

. ,

, ,
.
, .

III.



45. , ,
,

: , , , , ,
, .
, . 828 . -

.
.
, , (
100 - ) .
VI . -
, , .
597 . I

.
,
.
53


(642 670). VII .
.
.

.
-
,
,
- .

46.
:
.

; .
,
(Ruthwell) - .

.

,
- (Clermont-Ferrand).

.
1. , ,
V III .
-
.

,
. -
,
;
. ,
, (
g) ;
.
: f)
(
)
[w].
1 . . .
, . 3- ( ., 1953, . 13).

54


V II .;
,

, .
47.
: (Northumbrian,
, );
(Mercian, )
( -) (West Saxon, ,
). ,
(Kentish, ). 55

:
IX .
.
48.


:
.

( 849 900 .): 1) Cura Pastoralis
56

( 1 ( 540 604 .)
, 2) ,
, , V .;
, 3)
(470524),
4) - ( 891 .),
5) (X .), 6)
( XI .).
.
; .
.

( V I I I .
)


(IX .)
.
. L L X X
.



.

.
: ,
, , ,
, , .

. -, ,
, ,
.

,
.

57


49. , ,
.
: i

: ie io

[]
man, hat; ,
Mutter;
Gemiit.
, . .
.

, : , , land, lond
, , .
.
,
, : da3as (. dagos); ,
macian . .
: habban (. haban), asce , wascan .
.
ai , : stan (. stains), hatan (.
haitan), cnawan .
. ,
: dae3 (. dags), baed ,
,
, : dae3es , waeter (. wato).
:
1) 1 . , ,
. . . IV V
( 60): staelon (. stelum), (.
berum), spraecon , maeton ,
, daed (. de|)s); 2) 2
i (. 3 4 ) ,
ai.
I : haelan , draefan , laefan .
: 1)
i (. 24)
III, IV V : helpan , stelan
, sprecan , beran (. hilpan, stilan,
bafran);
2) i- , :
, bendan .
58

i ;
I , :
deman , .
i . i
i; ; : bindan (. bindan), niman (. niman).
i
ie , niht (nieht,
nyht).
. 1
ei ( ).
I , :
wrltan , bidan , (. greipan).
,
hi (hie, hy).
(. 14).
, ,
II, III , IV : , worden
, stolen (. kusans, waurjbans, stulans).
& :
(. manna), hond (. handus).
, 3od
(. go|3s); . .
VI .: scoc , hloh .
(. 14);

II III , : curon , bundon
, hulpon , wurdon (. kusum, bundum, hulpum, waiir|3um).
0 0 . ,
, , htis (. htis),
II : lflcan
, .
.
i ,
wyllen , 3ylden .
i.
.
i
, mys , fyr .
1.
, , io, ie,
,
( 5154).
, ,
.
beam , deaj} ,
II ,
59

: ceas , 1 (. dau"f)us, kaus,


lauk).
iu.
II : ceosan , beodan
(. kiusan, biudan).
.

50. ,
IV .
( 25),

. , ,
I
i / /
, i (. reisan
rais risum risans), ,
ai ,
(.-a. risan ras rison risen).
II
, iu
, . .: .
biudan budum budans .-a. beodan bead budon boden. (
i / / , )
.
129 130
.

. ., : bellfan laf
, forleosan leas beran baex.
, faran for , rldan rad .

51.
. : , b, m , f, v; : t , d,
3, n, s, r, 1; : , , h.
cs.

.
, ,
68.

.
60

1.
,
[],
1 , 3od , , sin 3an .
2. ,
1
[], da3as , sor 3 , fol 3 ian .
3. ,

[j], : 3 iefan ,
, d3 .
, : sec 3an ,
.

52.

.
. :
> + , 1 + ,
+ h ; :
* > , *add>eald , * 2eh ta>eah ta
, *seh>seah .
> + , 1, lh, h +
h ; : *h erte>h eo rte
, *m elcan>m eolcan , *selh>seolh
, *fe h > fe o h , .
,

(),
.

. ,
, ,
st
; arm, aid, ahta, sah.

53.
.
, sc.
61

,
sc .
:
e > i e : * 3e f a n > 3iefan , * 3e ld a n > 3 ieldan ,
> : * 3a e f> 3eaf , * 3a e t> 3eat , *caester>ceaster , *scael > sceal
> : 3aefo n > 3eafon
> : *scacan>sceacan
> : *scort>sceort
, , , 3 iefan,
3 ieldan . ,
i 3iefan
,
(,
Mickiewicz).
.
sceacan,
: scacan, scort . .

54.
,
.
.

i
55.
, i ( j)
.
*.
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
.
.

,
u m la u t, m u ta tio n ,
tap h o n ie, a p o p h o n ie,
(. 25 ).

62

.
, , *.'
,
,
;
.

,
.

i ( j)
.
.
, IV .,
,
1. ,
, . . ,
, , , ,
, , ,
. ,
V VI .
i
.
i, , ( 2 4),

(
).

. , ,
*fu llia n > fy lla n ,
>
:
; j,
,
. ,
,
j, , ,
, . ,
, ,
, j, ,
.
:
j,

,
(VI .) , ,
.

63

. ,
i
, . . ().

. i
:

> :

*fram ian>frem m an
*sandian>sendan
*nam nian>nem nan (. , )

ae>e:

*taelian>tellan
*saelian>sellan
*saetian>settan , (. saet )
* 11 > 1 (. 1 )

> : *larian>laeran (. 1 )
*halian>haelan (. hal )
>

( 1): *o fstian >efstan


)

0>

( ); dom ian>dem an (. dom


),
*wopian>w epan (. wop )

> :

(. ofost

*fu llia n > fy lla n (. full )

u > y : *c 0|3ian >cy])an (. );


*ontunian>or]tynan (. tun )

ea>ie:

ierm^u * (. ); hliehhan
*hleahian. ie i, :
irmpu, yrm]bu; hlihhan, hlyhhan ( 28).

>1:

seliefan * 3eleafian (. 3eleafa ); hieran


*hearian. , :
3elyfan; hlran, hyran.

eo >ie:

afierran *afeorrian (. feorr )


ie i, : afirran, afyrran.

>:

3etrTewe * 3etreowi (. treow ).


, : 3etriwe, setrywe.

,
.

64

e o > i o , , :
3e]node, 1 * 3e]3eodi (. eod ).

i
.
, , ,
. :
1) , ,
( ) ,
. , , //,
[], tellan
, net ,
, etan , medu '; 2) ,
,
. , , //,
[], fyllan
, pytt , . *
.

()
56.
(, , ) . (back
u m la u t) ,
, .

.
(, 1) (, f, ).
, ,
:
i> io :

h i r a > h i o r a ( ), silu f > s i o l u f *, f a s t > l i o f a s t , s i f o n > s i o f o n *, c l i p a s > clio p a s *,


l i m u > l i o m u *. io : heora, se olufr
. .

>:

herot>h eorot

>:

saru>searu

, h e f o n > h e o f o n , e f o r > e o f o r

*.

*.

, w i-,
, i-, : w i d u >
wiodu , c w i c u > c w i o c u *. wio
wu wudu, cwucu.

h
57. ,
,

. ,
i, ,
i j , i

. .

65

() . ,
, ,
, ,
.
.
,
: n e ah t, n i e h t , niht n yh t.
*naeht (.
. nahts). , n ie h t, ,
(., , e a > i e i
* e a l d i r a > i e l d r a , * a f e o r r i a n > a f i e r r a n . .).
ie i,
, , n y h t ,
,
i. ,
neaht nie ht.
, neaht - ,
, i-.
, h,
-

. .

, m e a h t e ,
m iehte, m ih te , m yh te , .

58.
,
. :
1. ah + eah+
+ h .
VI ( 133):
slean *slahan; *3wean *c3wahan.
2. e h -f-, ih +
h : seon *sehan;
3efeon * 3efehan; teon *11h;
*|)ihan.
3. oh -f h
: fon *fohan, hon *hohan.
4. ,
, : sae *saee (
); * ( ).

59. IX .
n d, Id, m b , : bindan > bindan ;
bunden > biinden ; cild > cild ; wild > wild
; climban > climbaii .
66

,
, : cildru (. 102).
,
(
).

60. ,

.
, ,
, (
),
.
: [v],
[f].

1, ,
, .
, ,
:
wif ,
wifes wife
.
:
hof
, hofes,
hofe .

, : .
. Weib, Weibes ' Hof,
Hofes .
v./f
,
.

[0] [3],
5..
, III weor|)an
,
, ,
wear]), ,

,
s, z.


. ,
.
, , II *
fleah,
. .
. , !
,
.
, ,

.

61.
, cild, ,
, [tj4].
, ,
[ t j] ,
ch. sc,
scip, [| ] .
[J4],
sh.
.
, [ ] : ,
, wec3 . . (.-. singe, bridge, wedge
[d3]). dg
.

62,
, ,
:
-f t > ht

-f-t>ft
+ 1 > ss
: sohte (. secan ), 3esceaft
(. scieppan ); wisse (. witan ).
h , f , s , >.
, .
,
. h
.
68

: brohte * *br5hte <


*bronhte < *branhto (. brinjan); pohte *
pOhte < *onhte (. |); softe
*s 2fto (. . sanft); fif (. . fiinf); 30s
(. . Gans); us (. . uns); (. .
ander); dust (. . Dunst); (. . Mund).
fn mn, . . f
.
. :
s te fn > s te m n , efn > emn .
fm > mm wifman > wimman .
d
t, . . . 2-

, : bintst
bindst ( bindan); stentst
stendst ( standan); cepte , ;
, wyscte . . (. 136).
h , : *tihan > teon
, *fonhan > *fohan > *foan > fon .
d ;
: fri 3nan > frinan ,
sae3d e> sa ed e , maesden > maeden .

6 3 . ,
.
.
, :
jiridda > jiirda ; rin nan > irnan, iernan
.
, -
, , , ,
, :
* ^ f d a , *rnan . . , , ,
, : "jjirda, irnan.
, :
s. ,
: ascian > ax ia n ; wascan > w ax an .

.

64.
, : 'Eoforwicceaster , 'eadi3r a . , 'nor|>eweardum .
, ;
, : of 'dune ,
under'fon , ' , 3e'f>eode .
69



65.
, , ,
, ,
,

" o n W V W e e n

flh y p O 'b n & fe u n i

,
\

e c u p i n I

&~- f k ^ ^ < | er,5 r ^ '^ unJ'r 'e a r ,S e '


/ i j r d f e v ? n 6-ue- ( jr fta f tmcLe- pojtjtajui ,

1m iceln efse- n tm <% rtan tnctn

i ita^J>*bce- otifrlatib
jiom p fse- Ccoye-vC
Je n ife r
.jftpg-e- v e a h |)cef
Iff

( X I .)

70

. ,

,

j ;
;
, . .
;
,

.
, ,
.
, ,
, ,

,
,
, ,
(
), , , ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.

.



6 6 .
.
,
.
, .

.

.
,
.

. : . .
( ., 1951); - . ai (
, 1956).

71


67. , ,
,
.
.
. , ,
,
(. 52 57). , :
+ ,
- ,
- sc- .
. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
1.

. , , ,

, .
, ,
, - ,
, . .
.

68. .
, , , ,
, ,
.
, , f [ f ],
[ v ] . :
[v] , [f]
. [v] , ,
. :
((] [V] .
: [s] [z ], [0] [9 ].
IS] [Z] ,
(0] [ 9 ].
,
(. 46).
, .
,
, .



69.
. :

,
: s t re t , , slepan .

&1

:
,
, , -, .

72


, : s t r e e t , sleep.
: delan .

ie, i, ,


, ,
,
: dlad .
14 , , :
aid , all .

; ,
iofu,
eofu , , b e eota n .

: h, ht, , :
esah ,
, , : ; h,
, i
, : ; h, , , , rh, lh
, : sex ; ,
: .

.

: *d earni > derne .
,
: *h e a r i a n > heran , * e l e a f i a n >
elefan .

, : hear, believe ( ).
- , - , sc-
:

,
efan , ,
seeld .

311 3

70.
:
.
:
1. .
,
. ,
,
-. ,

, :
) : faeder , modor , ,
tunse , lot , niht , heorte .
) : neowe , , riht
, 1 .
) : sittan , , beran ,
teran .
2. . ,
,
. ,
73

,
-. , ,
:
) : eorf)e , land , sae ,
heall , sand , .
) : , .
) : findan , sinsan , steorfan
.
3.
,
. .
, , clipian .


71. ,
, : 1)
,
, 2) .

.

72.
,
:
1. , . .
.
2. , . .
.
3. , . .

.

.



.
,

1,
.

., , . .
( -, 1949) . .

(JT., 1949).

74


73.
.
, , ,
.

74.
.
, , .
, . .
, ,
. . .

75. ,
,
.
. ,

,
.
, , -ere
, : fiscere , fu elere
, w rl te r e , .
, , :
fjrowere . -a reis,
, lais areis , bokareis
- , . .
-estre ,
, :
sp in nest re ,
baecestre
- . . :
w i t e estre
.

-nd,
-ende, , : freond , , feond
, , h<lend
,
demen d , w ealden d
.
- m p a tr o n y m i c a
, . . ,
, , :
, , , /E d e lw u lf in

. .
, :
l y t , . .
-
,
, (

75

), : osl in
, d e o r li n
, h y r l i n . .
-e str e ,
,
-.
* - i n
. : yden ( < * udin), . od; fyxen
( < * f u x i n ) , . fox.
-nis ,-nes
:
odnis , r e n e s .
.
-Jj ;
, : treowj}
tre ow , { {jeof .
.
-u|>, - :
{ , fiscojj , huntojj .
- 11113, - m 3
: , , , raBdin .
.
. ,
, dom , ( .- . doom)
-dom wisdom , freodom
.
had ,
: ci ld had , ma |)had .
lac - l a c :
( .- . berea v e ), w e d la c , scl n l a c ,
; raBden ,
-raeden freondraeden , sibbraSden , mannra^den
.
-scipe (. sciepp an )
freondscipe , weorjjscipe , e b e o r scip e (
) .

:
;
(
-)
,
* - i n . : 1 1 , stre n 3 U
s t r o n , brSedu brad , h s t u hat
, haBlu hal , ieldu eald ,
wr3e|j{ju w r a .

76. -ede
- - , : m icelheafded e
; , : hocede
, h e a le d e . .
-ih te ,
, : staenihte
sta n , d yrnih te dorn ( *d urn).


, .
: h a l i ( hal ), m od i ( mod ,
), m i s t i ( mist ), i si ( I s ),
b y s i , d ys i . .

76

-
:
ylden * ( old
* uld ), w yllen ( w ulle ), staenen
( stan ), linen (
).
-isc

,
:
is , F r e n c i s c , W e l i s c , *
( W a l a s ); m en n is c , folcisc *.
.
-su m ,
: sibbsum (sibb ), (
), h ie rsu m (h ieran , ).
.
-fe ald (. fealdan 4)
: p rle fe ald , seofonfeald , m a n i feald
.
-full ( full )
: sorsfull , synnfull
, c a r full .
- le a s ( leas )
: slSBplSas
,
eleaf leas
,
arleas
, re c cele as
.
-lie ( 11 ; . Leic he )
:
, freondlic , luflie , , ,
odlic , d e a d l ic , (
) .
-weard ,
: h am w eard , middeweard
, inneweard .

11

77. -s- :
clSensian ( claene ), b le tsian *b led sia n
( blod ; ), rim sia n
, mSersian .
-1- ( - la c )
: nealSBcan , serih tlaecan .
- e tt - : b li c c e t ta n ,
s p o re t ta n , c o h h e t ta n , ce a h h e t ta n *.

78. - - , , ,
a rlsa n , a w a ca n , aberan , a b y s ian
. .
- ( )
-, :
hwser ahwaer ; hwaefer ahwaejjer
.
* i - (,
- ) * 1- >
( ), ^-, -,
-:
& h w r ( * a - i - h w ^ r ) , Se hwilc ( * a - i-h w i-lic); hwaefjer
( * a - i-hwaeper).

77

be- (. bl be )
.
,
-, -.
: , , behon , b esettan
, bewSpan , b e f e n c a n , b enim an ,
beheafdian .
for- : fordon
, forweorjjan .
- , () .
. :
, (for , ),
ef (folc ),
emynd
, , .
m is- : misllci a n , misdaed .
of- : ofslean , ofteon
^ .
on- ( e n t- , - en tlassen, em pfangen) (.
- ): onb indan , o n la ca n .
, : onfon , ondrSedan .
t o - (. . zer- zerbrechen ,
zerreifien): tob re can , totera n .
u n- : uncujj .
: undSed (. . ).
.
wan- : w anh al ^ .

3 1

79. .
, ,
, .
:
)
+ , : ^ f e n t i d ,
oldsmid ; ) +
, ,
: cw ic -seo lfo r ( .: ).
: )
+ : wln-sSed ; )
+ - : w ld -c od ; 3)
+ ;
, : blid-heort
, laed-mod .
,
: M nandae ( .: ) , Tiwesdae
( .:
, ) , Wednesd ae (.: ) ,
f)unresdae
( .: , ) , F r i edae (.:
) , S $ te r n e sd a e ( ) , Sunnandae
( ) ; E n la la nd (.: ) ,
F r a n c n a l a n d ( ) ; w i t e n a emot
( .: w ita m ot-, . m e ta n
* m o t i a n ) ; S n o t in sa h a m ( .: ',
. . ), Oxenaford ( .: ), dae e se a e
( .: , .- . daisy).

;
: efenjjrowian
( .: ).

78

80.

. ,
, ,
.


81.
: 1) ,
,
, 2)
,
, 597 .; ,
, V II .

82. , ,
, ,
- .
: straet (. -a. street) , . strata (via)
; weall ( .-a. wall) . vallum;
( . -a. kitchen) . coquina; myln (.- m ill)
. molinum; pi (.-. pepper) .
piper; win (.-. wine) . vmum.
castra
: Chester, Manchester,
Winchester, Worcester, Leicester; . colonia
Lincoln, Colchester .; . portus
Portsmouth, Bridport; . strata
Stratford, . fossa Fossway, Fosbrooke.

,
.
( )
.
.
: biscop (.-. bishop)
. episcopus, . epfskopos; cleric (.-. clerk) *
. clericus, . klerikos; apostol (.-. apostle) *
. apostolus, . apostolos; deofol (.-. devil)
79

. diabolus, . diabolos; maesse {.-. mass) ' .


missa; munuc {.-. monk) ' . monachus, . nachos; masister {.-. master) ' . magister; scrifan
{.-. shrive ') . scribere.

: biscophad ', bis , scrift .
,

; , , eastron,
,
. ,
,
: sodspell {, ' ), firenes .


83.
.
dun {.-. down) ,
( of dune
down ), dun , binn {.-. bin) .
, -,
, -
.
:
. amhuin Avon, Evan; . uisge
Exe, Usk, Esk; . cothair Car
narvon; dun, dum Dumbarton, Dumfries, Dunedin;
llan Llandaff, Llandovery, Llandudno; kil
Kilbride, Kilmacolm; c o i l l Kilbrook, Killiemore; ceann
Kebadre, Kingussie; inis Innisfail; inbher
Inverness, Inverurie; bail Ballantrae, Ballyshannon.
, ,

,
.

84.
. ,
,
, , ,
. ,
rinc, > secs, , freca, :
80

beado-rinc, , here-rinc -, hilde-


, hilde-rinc , - ,
3uf>-freca , 3flj>rinc , 3ilf>-wi3 a
', hea5o-lif>end ', heado-rinc ,
helm-berend ; : -
, beado-mece , -wine ;
( hearpe): -wudu , 1 .

85. ,
,
: , , ,
, , , .
.
, ,
.
, , . .
. .
.

. . :



, ,
,
,
, 1.

.
-
,
. -,
. , ,
,
.
,
, .

1 1

J . . . .
. ., 1957, . 63.

81

. ,
.
.

86.

, ,
,
.
87.
, .
-:
;
: .

. , ,
, , fseder ,
sunu , , , eorl , ceorl ;
modor , dohtor , cwen
, ides .
, ,
. ,
, fot , ende
, ; 3 iefu , tun 3e ,
burh ; scip , word ,
. , ,
- ,
,
.

. ,
wlf , wifman, wimman
. mae3den
.
;
,
, ,
-,
.

82

88.
. (
, . 105).
89.
: , , .
<
, . 115)1.

.
. ,
2-
:
oppidum , oppida;
3- , ,
opus , opera.
, , ,
, ,
,
,
, .
,
,
;
,
.
, -

2- -urn,

(, iiortum hortus
, lupum lupus . .).


.

.

( )
90.
( 27, 28)
.

, ,
,
, , ,

83

,
- - : faeder modor
, , sweostor .

,
:
, ,
dae3 -, ,
, ,
,
--.

- 1

91. -
.

.
-as;
: 1) ,
2) .


- ; 2
.


;
-.
, -, .
-
, , 2-
hortus , oppidum .
,
.
,
.

,

,
. , ,
S. . C a r p e n t e r An I n t ro d u c t io n to the S tu dy of the A n g lo -S a xo n L a n
g u a g e ( B o s t o n , 1891). C m . 103.
.
, , : ban
, 11 , fyr . ,
, : word
, bearn . .

84


- - .

-. ,
-
. , , . . .

. ,
,
,

- .

.
.
.
.

stan
stanes
stane
stan

scip *
scipes
scipe
scip

ban *
banes
bane
ban

.
.
.
.

reced
recedes
recede
reced

.
.
.
.

stan as
stana
stanum
stanas

scipu
scipa
scipum
scipu

ban
bana
banum
ban

nieten
nietenes
nietene
nieten v
\

reced
reced a
recedum
reced

nietenu
nletena
nletenum
nietenu


. ,

,
.
.

.
.
.
.

das
dasas
dases
dasa
dasum
d ase
dasas
das
85

fa t
fates
fate
fa t

fatu
fata
fatum
fatu

, -f

;
, : ]) ,
pae^es, pa^as;
, lifes,
Hf .

,
, : t a ce n , ta cnes; h eafo d
, h e a fd e s; tu n jo l ,

tunsles.

, -Ih, h
, ;
, : seolh : seoles,
seo le.
- , , : )
, eorl , helm , h r i n , ;
) dor , hof , , word , deor
, , .

-/

92.
-.

-j- .
( -ja-)
, ,
-, ( 22);
,
-

-.

.
.
.
.

here
hrycses
her(i3)es

her(i3)e

here

ende
endes
ende
ende

.
.
.
.

()
cynnes

()
86

rice
rices
rice
rice

.
.
.
.

hryc 3(e)as
()
hryc 3(i)um
hryc 3 (e)as

her(i) 3(e)as
her(i)3(e)a
her(i)3um
her(i) 3(e)as

endas
enda
endum
endas

cyn(n)
cynna
cynnum
cyn(n)

nc(i)u
ric(e)a
ric(i)um
ric(i)u

-ja , , : 1)
wec3 , , fiscere ; 2)
net , bed wite .
-ja
, , 2-
gladius , officium .

-wa

93.
-.

.
.
.
.

bearu
bearwes
bearwe
bearu

bealu
bealwes
bealwe
bealu

.
.
.
.

bearwas
bearwa
bearwum
bearwas

bealu
bealwa
bealwum
bealu

-u - : bearo , b ea lo .
, , : ) .
snaw , jjeaw , Oeow ; ) . searu , t re o w
, cn eow .

94. -
.
: 1)
, 2) .

-;

.

.
.
.
.

swajiiu
swa|)e
swape
swape

for
fore
fore
fore

87

tisol *
ti 1
tisole
1

.
.
.
.

swapa
swapa
swapum
swapa

fora
fora
forum
fora

tiso la
tiso la
tisolum
tiso la


, : sawol ,
saw le; frofor , frofre.
, , ,
sceam u , ondswaru , lufu ,
, ,
, ides .

-
,
1- silva .

- .

-. ,

(. ),
- . , ,
- - ,
-.

-jo

95.
-.

-j- .
( - j o - )
.

.
.

, ,
, sec , hild , .

sibb ,

-j o
,
1- copia .
88

-wo

96.
-.

.
.
.
.

sceadu
sceadwe
sceadwe
sceadwe

maed
msedwe
maedwe
maedwe

sceadwa
sceadwa
sceadwum
sceadwa

maedwa
maedwa
maedwum
maedwa

, , beadu , n earu
, l<s .

-/

97. .
- (
) - (
).
.

.
.
.
.

sise
sises
sise
sise

hyll
hylles
hylle
hyll

sife
sifes
sife
sife

.
.
.
.

sise, siseas
sisea
sisum
si 3e, siseas

hyllas
hylla
hyllum
hyllas

hilt "
hiltes
hilte
hilt

sifu
sifa
sifum
sifu

hilt
hilta
hiltum
hilt


, :
1 , Seaxe *, Mierce , Norphymbre
, Dene .
:

.
.
.
.

1
1
1
1

Mierce S e a x e
-, ( 99 ): M ie rcn a , S e a x n a .

89

.
.
.
.

hyd ,
hyde
hyde
hyd

hyde, hyda
hyda
hydum
hyde, hyda


- -.
s * :
s s , saS, sae;
safcs, s $ w a , saem, s s ;
: sae (saSs),
saB; saB, saBwa,
s3Bm, saB. 5 ,

; aBwa,
.
, , : ) :
, , m ete , bite ; daBl ,
iest ,
dry nc ; 2) : spere , flaBsc ; 3)
cw e n , w ih t .

- i
,
3- finis .

98.
.
-
.

-;

.

.
.
.
.

sunu
suna
suna
sunu

feld
felda
felda
feld

.
.
.
.

suna
suna
sunum
suna

felda
felda
feldum
felda
90

duru
dura
dura
duru

dura
dura
durum
dura

handa
handa
handum
handa

hand
handa
handa
hand


:
sunu suno, suna;

suna
sunu, suno. feld
- ,
-: feldes,
felde,
feldas.

, ,
: w in te r
w in tr a .
, , ) :
wudu , medu ; weald , sumor ;
) :
nosu ; flor .

1
2

-
4- fructus .

- ( )
99.
-,
-;
, ,
.
.

.
.
.

naman

cwene *
cwenan
cwenan
cwenan

.
.
.
.

cwenan
cwenena
cwenum
cwenan


- -, ,
, .
- , ,
: ) : j u m a , w ita , steo rra ,
, d e m a ; ) : , he orte ,
sunne ; 3) : .

91

-
braedu , fyrhtu .
- ( -)
-
, . . -
.
.

-
,
3- nomen .


100. ,
, ,

n p i ^
*-*


turn

.
. ^&*'. ]'<m<*TnUt hflfcscm-Sytfan
, . .
fy*inj
U cymv^lyo
,
Cp
mdpt -mdi oyfy fbji&a.|i
jaU.

X&pui
hyazfr yoyfl'jtttMoy* Jwi ytWib
?
Jttba,. hflm ftil^obcrr
yaxnp'
'*

yum-9f mj i e n t p t n epbyyiU.
*| yytrtn
.

fwljz/k hljrzjec(bbe<.at or^cec 5


-,
Ml
iojrr
dftfr nt Tmlrr^.

. Crfzbmx bev&Wshtwb enbfypjtlbcL htkj&P'


,
trfctobfr fkljdj' rr&OflC Ittrib

,
rton'Mh'JbcnG'jolc
W e & d ttt n4yj*^t.

nUj^* yijc pfymn onfam jwnjfr'. VVyedtytif >|iyt)C
.
' aJi P
p p t jpbflcc homaa

yftyycyon cvrotfijvt_5 #mb ya

|. jra tit*'
*11 Sfa?btjUL
3- ,
fimCPmtyfr mfte ffttpffabv foyux {eflalanb fffcui
: pes (
yobr^v. Sjylc v<$^ ^<^yAc6rjM&ffo tflay* *ccuOi
ped-,
e^o ^n bkvb ftcei bflp|u>5 |MTiime<
'&^ t S g r f lc b + ojObtti .-jJ^Sen
ped-is), pax
Inm^&Uutan brtyfr &'. jrcyiji
( -,
cp^-bjifnc en/jftyn^.ye'cnytH^^fpcyqw^Jii^
-is), rex
|> Sfrjmm Jrjiffcji*;
on cywiA
*'
( reg-,
rmijuiNwj < ^ v tiutn frjiaunf'. (& rtfrno a itf a p
reg-is) . .

^( & '

TTiaxnfciy ^^ lrrp5 crnnib I n ^

ctoyt]
c1Jaa w e d jp m b mi\&!

fijuwbU.
^jjm
baurgs ,
,
-

( X I .)
92

-i
baurgim.

,
.

:

mann , fot top *


.
fotes
topes
. mannes
fet
tep
. menn
fot
top
. mann

.
.
.
.

menn
manna
mannum
menn

fet
fota
fotum
fet

tef)
tof>a
topum
tef>



,
. ,
*manni,
- i ,

,
. ,

- i ; ., , .
pedi , . podi.
,


.

.
haele|> monaf)
,

.
--.
,
,
-; ,
93

,
.
.

.
hnutu
.
hnute
,
.
hnyte

.
hnutu
boc
.
.
.
.

mus
muse, mys
mys
mus

hnyte
hnuta
hnutum
hnyte

boca
bocum

30s

byris

.
.
.
.

30s
36se,

3es

sosum
ses

mys
musa
mflsum
mys

byris
bursa
bursum
byris

mann w lf m a n , w im m an '
*. :
, s a t , , wloh , duns , furh
, sulh , turf , ru t , IQs , druh ' ,
, , , niht , {) .
;
, 1, . niht

;
n ih te , n ih te s, nih te .
scrQd
: scr yd.
ealu
, ,
eale{ja.


3- pes, pedis
, pax, pacis .

-
101. -
, :
faeder , , modor , dohtor , sweostor
.
.
94

.
.
.
.

bro *


broJ

faeder
faeder, -es
faeder
faeder

.
.
.
.

modor
modor
meder
modor

dohtor '
dohtor
dehter
dohtor

. faederas
. faedera
. faederum
. faederas

bropor
bropra
broprum
bropor

modru, -a
modra
modrum
modru, -a

sweostor '*
sweostor
sweostor
sweostor

dohtor, -tra,
dohtra
dohtrum
dohtor, -tra,

-tru sweostor
sweostra
sweostrum
-tru sweostor

-
, ,
3- pater.

-es1
102.
,
-. -
-es
(, . 19).

.
.
.
.

lamb cealf cild *


lambes
cealfes
aeses
cildes
lambe
cealfe

cilde
lamb
cealf

cild

.
.
.
.

lambru
lambra
lambrum
lambru

cealfru
cealfra
cealfrum
cealfru

cild, cildru
cilda, cildra
cildum
cild, cildru

,
- , , -
faeder,
-es.

95

cild
-
-
(. 91). , , ,
--.

(. )
(. ), 3-
genus .
103. ( 91),
,

.
1958 .
. . . 1.
:
(, wealh, baecere, stede),
(scip, land, feorh, wite),
(talu, 3lof, daed),
D - (, byrne, ),
( sunu, hond; , rldend, haelef),
fot, 30s).


.

104.
: , , ,
, , ,
.


105. , ,
,
1 2- .

R. Q u i r k

and . L . W n n. An Old E n g lis h G ra m m a r . L o n d o n , 1958.

96

1-

2-

.
.
.
.

ic
mln
me
me, mec

pfi
p in
pe

he
his
him

p e ,p e c h in e

1-

2-

we

h it wit
his
uncer
him unc
hie, hi hit
unc, uncit
heo

fire
eower
fis
eow
fis, usic eow,eowic

2-

hire
hire

.
.
.
.

1-

3-

3it
incer
inc
inc, incit

3-

hie, hi, hy, heo


hiera, hira, hyra, hiora, heora
him
hie, hi, hy, heo

,
( ).

self (seolf, sylf) , : he hit sylf ne3eseah
; swa self talast .
, ;
self a ne-dorste under 3ewin aldre
.


, : hyrte
hine hord-weard ; he hyne wyrpte .

self, : ic pa sona eft me sylfum andwyrde .


106.
.
min, pin, uncer, incer, fire, eower
(. 114).
, sin ,

.


107. ,
,
,
: s mann (the man); seo sae (the sea);
paet lond (the land).
4

. .

97

so

.
.
.
.
.

s5
paes

!
,

seo

par ,
,

fjes

pes
,
. (,

) -s
,
se, (,

) -s ,
. ,

.

.
.
.
.
.

|)isses
18,
f)isne,
, j)is

1
jjisses
fissum, ^
f>is
, pis

.
.
.
.
.

peos, pios
pisse
pisse
pas

{Mssa
f>issum, fjeossum

108. hvva? ? hwaet?


? .
.
.

hwa
hwaes
68

hwaet
hwaes

.
.
.

hwaem
hwone

hwaem
hwaet
hwy, hwl

hwilc ? ( *hwilic)
(. 114).


109. : 3ehwa (
hwa), 3ehwilc ,
, selc ( *a- 3 i-lic) , swilc
( ) se ilea
( ).


110. sum -
- .

111.
.


112.
, : 3as, man hset Alpis , ;
butan paim dsele, under Dena onwalde waes ,
.
sepe,
se .
: Historia Anglorum, A lfred of ledene on
enslisc awende ,
, ieldran, pas stowa
hioldon , .
, se,
, ,
, (.
-, -, -, -).
, se
, : se dryhten,
sc eow pa mapmas 3eaf , *.
,
4*

99

, . .

.

113.
(, ), (
) (,
, , ).
,
, :
.

,
( 30).


114.
,

,
, ,
. , ,
.
,


, (, blind) ,
-ata (, blindata). -,

.
.

- -
1.
-, -

1)
115.

( -i -)
.

100

-;

.

.
.
.
.
.


blaces
blacum
blaecne
blace

blace
blacra
blacum
blace

3od
3odes
36dum

blaca
blacra
blacum
blaca

30d
3odes
3odum
3od
3ode

sodne
3ode

.
.
.
.

blacu
blacra
blacum
blacu

.
.
.
.
.

blacu
blaecre
blaecre
blace

blaec
blaces
blacum
blaec
blace

.
.
.
.

3ode
3odra

sod
3odre
sodre
3ode

3od

soda
sodra
3odum
soda

sodra
sodum
3od

sodum
3ode

2)
116.
,
.

.
.
.
.
.

101

eadi3
ead(i) 3es
ead(i) 3um
eadis
ead(i) 3e

eadis
ead(i) 3es
ead(i)3um
eadisne
ead(i) 3e

ead(i) 3u
eadisre
eadisre
ead(i) 3e

.
.
.
.

ead(i)se
eadisra
ead(i) 3um
ead(i)se

ead(i)su, eadis
eadisra
ead(i) 3um
ead(i)su, eadis

ead(i)sa
eadisra
ead(i) 3um
ead(i)sa

-ja , -jo

117.
-, -. .

.
.
.
.
.

swete
swetes
swetum
swetne
swete

swetu
swetre
swetre
swete

swete
swetes
swetum
swete
swete

.
.
.
.

swete
swetra
swetum
swete

sweta
swetra
swetum
sweta

swetu
swetra
swetum
swetu
-wa, -wo

118. -wa, -wo


-, -.

.
.
.
.
.


nearwes
nearwum
nearone
nearwe

nearu
nearwes
nearwum
nearu
nearwe

.
.
.
.

nearwe
nearora
nearwum
nearwe

nearu
nearora
nearwum
nearu

nearu
nearore
nearore
nearwe

nearwa
nearora
nearwun
nearwa

-i
-ja, - jo . , , *,
swice . -
w la cu cw ucu .

102


119.
,
.
- (,
).

.
.
.
.

soda
sodan
36dan
36dan

3ode
36dan
36dan
36de

36de
36dan
36dan
36dan

36dan
36dra (sodena)
36dum
36dan


120.
-ja , -jo.

.
.
.
.
.

drincende
drincendes
drincendum
drincendne
drincende

drincende
drincendes
drincendum
drincende
drincende

.
.
.
.

drincende
drincendra
drincendum
drincende

drincendu
drincendre
drincendre
drincende

drincendu
drincendra
drincendum
drincendu

drincenda
drincendra
drincendum
drincenda


, .
,
.
:

. .
. .

writen
writene

teald
tealde

writen
writen(u)
103

teald
teald

writen(u)
writena

teald
teald

. .
. .

writena tealda
writenan tealdan

writene tealde
writenan tealdan

writene tealde
writenan tealdan


121. ,
-z- -st - -,
-i-; ., ,
swings swinpoza swinposts manags
managiza managists ( .
.-. ; . 19).

, - -, -st -i-.

;

.

earm
blaec

earmra
blaecra

earmost
blacost


:
eald
strons
1

ieldra
strensra
1

(< * e a ld ir a )
( < *stron 3ira)
( < * l o n 3ira)
( < * 1)

ieldest
strensest
lensest
sin sest

(<
(<
(<
(<

*ealdist)
*stron 3ist)
*lon 3ist)
* 3eon 3ist)


.
( bet era
betst

36d
\ selra
selest
yfel

wiersa
wierest

mi cel

maest

laessa
lytel
laest

:
feor
neah

fore

fierra

furpra
104

fierrest, fyrrest
niehst, nyhst
aErest
fyrest


122. 1 3 .
4 19 ,
,
, ;
, ,
-es -, -, -um.
1 .
Mt/

. twesen
.
.
. twesen

tfl, twa
twesea, twesra
twSim, twam
til, twa

. fine, prT, fry


.
.
. frie, fr i, fry
4 feower
5 fit
6 siex, six, syx
7 seofon, siofon,
syfon
8 eahta
9 n ison
10 tien, tyn, ten
11 endlefan
12 twelf
13 friotien e,

-tyne
14 feowertlene
15 fiftiene

twa
twa

jrio, freo
, freora

, freo

frfo, freo

16 siextiene
17 siofontlene
18 eahtatlene
19 nisontlene
20 twentis
(< *tw e3 en ti3 )
30 f r itis
4 0 feower tis
5 0 flfti 3
6 0 siextis, s ix tis
70 hundsiofontis
8 0 hundeahtatis
90 hundnisontis

frio, freo
100 hundteon-

tis , hund,
hundred
110 hundaelleftis
120 hundtwelfti3
200 Q hund
300 hund
1000 ffisend
2000 fiisendu

twesen, tu, twa ,


bu, ba.

: 22 twa and tw entis, 48 eahta and feowertis.
an
,

, : fa 1 far an micel ()
.
sum
, , : waes sum brofor ()
105

; stod him sum mon aet swefn


() .
, ,
: he
waes swype spedis man .


123. ,
, ;
.
1 forma, fyresta
2 , aefterra
3 Joridda, JMrda
4 feorfja
5 fifta
6 siexta, sixta,
syxta
7 siofofa
8 eahtopa
9
10 teof>a
11 endlefta

12 twelfta

13 3reoteo3a
14 feowerteo3a
15 fifteo3a
16 siexteoSa
17 siofonteoSa
18 eahtateo3a
19 nisontgoSa
2 0 twentisoSa
3 0
4 0 feow ertisoSa
5 0 fiftisoSa

6 0 s ie x tis o S a
7 0 hundsiofontiso d a
8 0 hundeahtati
9 0 h u n d n ison ti
1 0 0 hundteonti
1 1 0 hundaellefti
1 2 0 hundtw elfti


: 2 2 twa and tw entisoSa twentisum;
48 eahta and feowertisoSa eahtoda feowertisum.

124.
,
.
125.
.
.
, : Finnas and Beormas sprsecon an
3epeode ()
.
, : eart Beowulf se wi|j Brecan
wunne? , ?
126. ,
: cyninsa setruman ; folces serihtu
; sarsecses ;
106

: eall seo , nu is on
1, friora monna ,
( ) '.

, : | dasa faesten
, . . ' '.
,
, ,
, . ., : full wraetta ond wira
; firenlusta claene '
; mor9res scyldi 3
; , ,
, . ., : ic | biddan
wilie anre bene (.:
); | bad westanwindes
; wundrade ic swi9e, swi9e sodena
wiotona , .

. , ,
, : 3if peof brece
mannes hus nihtes ;
monn sepe his sewealdes monnan ofslea ,
.

.
,
: irnef) wi> his eardes .
127. ,
,
. ',
', , . ., : Ohthere saede his hlaforde, y E lf^d e ,
; he bebad Tituse his suna ,
; ic sona selfum andwyrde
; sins rne hwaethwusu -.
,
, , , ,
. ., : faet is
; waes him man \1 .

. ,
: on sande , fram fondum , won
wif) winde .


.
, ,
107

, ,
, , : A lfred cyning hatep sretan
WaerferS biscop his wordum
; tryddode setrume micle '
; ealle feorh e a ljia n
; opre narnan ; ilcan
; ceolum llSan .

, ,
.

,
: mid scipe 99 .

, : sewiton mid waese ;
mid folce .
128. ,
,
, : se here paet lond 3eode ;
pone cynins Bursraed ofer sae adraefdon
.
, :
hyne (.:
; . . mich hungert); mec lonsade '
(.: ); hine lyst .
, : sefeaht
wip pone here ; on land sti 3on
.
,

, : let him ealnewes paet weste land on
paet steorbord, and pa widsae on baecbord pry da3as
,
. ealnew es
pry dasas .


129.
. ( V II)
:
,
1 3-
, 2-
108

,
;
1.
, ,

(grammatischer Wechsel), (. 19);

,
.

f.

.
. .

.
. .

I
[]

[I]

writ *
fsnipan *

wrat
snap

writon
snidon

writen
sniden

[u ]

[]
boden
coren

II
[]
beodan
fceosan

[]
bead
ceas

budon
curon

I I I
)

[i]
drincan
)

[ ()]
dranc

[]
druncon

[]
druncen

I +

[]
helpan

[]
healp

[]
hulpon

[]
holpen

) + , +

[]
[]
steorfan
stearf
fw eorSan wearS
feohtan

feaht

[u]
sturfon
wurdon
fuhton

[o]
storfen
worden
fohten

,
.
; , , . ( . S w e e t .
A N ew E n g lis h G r a m m a r . V. I. O x f., 1892) I
V I I , II V I , II I I I I , I V IV, V V , VI I, V II II;
. (R . u c h o n . H is t o ir e de la lang ue a n g la ise . V. I.
P a r i s , 1923) I V , II IV , III I I I , I V I,
V I I , VI V I , V I I V II.

109

IV
I,

[]
stael
baer

[]
stelan

[]
staelon
baeron

[]
stolen
boren

[]
tredan

fcw epan

[]
traed
cwaep

Jae]
traedon
cwaedon

[e]
treden
cweden

[]
foron

[a]
faren

VI
[a]
faran

[]
for

V II
hatan

feallan
cnawan

het
feoll
cneow

heton
feollon
cneowon

haten
feallen
cnawen

130.
(. 25). ,

, ,

.

,
( 24). , II

(budon boden) ,
,
, ,
,
,
.

III helpan, steorfan,
weorpan feohtan.
131. I : b ellfan ' , cllf a n ' ,
d rlfa n ' , ' , b lt a n ' , s l lt a n ' , besmltan ' , 3 e w ltan ' , bldan ' , 3 lid ' , rldan
' , si id ' , s t r i d a n ' , ' ,
sican ' , ' , s cin a n ' , arisa n '
, 1 1 1 {) ' .

110

I scrlfan
' , s c r lb e r e ' .
II : ' , c l e o fa n ' , c e o w a n
' , fle o ta n ' , e o ta n ' ,
re o t a n ' , n e o t a n '
, s c e o t a n ' ,
' , b ow an ' ,
' , f ^ o s a n ' , t ^ o s a n ' , fo rleo sa n ' ,
' .

III : a) bindan ' , fin dan ' ,


rindan ' , sw indan ' , w indan ' , ' ,
sinn an ' , spin nan ' , w in nan ' , '
, sin an ' , s p r i n an ' , s t i n an ' , s w in an '
, sinca n ' , clim b a n ' , ' ,
s w im m a n ' .
) delfan ' , sw e l an ' , m e ltan ' ', sw eltan '
, bellan ' , sw ellan ' , mel can ' .
) ce o rfan ' , hweorf an ' , w eorpa n
' ,
' , ' .

IV : cw elan ' , hela n ' , te ra n


' , b re ca n ' .
V : m etan , swefan , wefan *,
cnedan , sp re ca n , w re ca n , lesan ,
etan ( S t ) , wesan
( 149).
VI : 1 , rafan , h la d an ,
w adan , d r a an , , , s c (e)acan
, w ascan, w a x a n (. 63).

VI I : ) []

: blondan
' , o n d rS d a n
, r s d a n , , l s t a n , s l S p a n ,
laca n , sca dan ; ) [] : fe a ld an
, heald an , w e ald a n , s e a l ta n , w e alcan
, sponnan ; ) [ ]: b e a t a n , wan , , \^ , blowan , flowan
,
rowan , hlowan , rowan , spowan
, bla w an , cr aw an ( ), m aw an , sawan
, ra w a n .

132. (
, ) V II
, :
V II
. ,
,
: heht hatan
het; leolc lacan
; leort laetan . ,
, feallan ,
feoll cnawan
cneow, , ,
,
f, . . ,
,
. ,
V II .

111

133.
.
: 1)
; 2)
-i ; 3)
4) .
1.

III V :
III .
V .

sieldan
sielpan

seald

siefan'
sietan

3eaf

seat

3uldon
3ulpon

solden
3olpen

seafon
Seaton

siefen
sieten

2.
()
-j-
V VI :
V .

biddan
()
sittan
VI . swerian
hebban
f hliehhan
staeppan
scieppan 1
( sceddan

baed
1

saet
swor
hof
03
stop
scop
scod

baedon
laeson
saeton
sworon
hofon
630
stopon
scopon
scodon

beden
lesen
seten
sworen
hafen
hlaesen
stapen
sceapen
sceaden

3. ,
-h-, (I, II, V .V I,
V II ):
I .
11 .

V .

VI .

f
f
t
f
f
f
|

f
t
f
f
V II . f
f

tah
|>ah
wrah
teah
fleah
3efeah
seah

tison
i 3on
wrison
tuson

3efaegon
sawon,
s $ 3on

slean


flean
lean

5wean
fon
( < *farihan)
hon
(< * h a n h a n )

slos
fl03
I63
9wo3
fens
hens

sloson
floson
30
9w63on
fenson

teon
eon
wreon
teon
fleon
sefeon
seon

112

tisen
i 3en
wri3en
to 3en

sewen,
sawen,
se 3en
slaesen

1
Swaejen
fansen


.
4. :
1) II
[] [];
II . :

'

leac

lucon

locen

,
, dufan , lutan , scufan
, slupan , supan .
2) I II
:
baerst burston

berstan
braesd brusdon
brejdan
fraejn frusnon
frijn a n , frinan
(friinon)

Saersc 6urscon
Serscan

orn
urnon
iernan

biernan
born burnon
mearn murnon
murnan

spearn spurnon
spurnan

straejd strusdon
strejdan

borsten
brojden
frusnen
(friinen)
Sorscen
urnen
burnen

spornen
strosden

3) IV :
niman

'

,
c(w)6m

,
c(w)6mon

cumen

niman
.
cuman , -,
, .
VI
-:
standan

stod stodon standan

VI
-:
waecnan woe wocon wacen
134.
.
I; III , ; IV, V I; II, III ,
V, V II .
;
(
, sprecan, .-. speak V IV); ,
113

, ,
.
.


135.
,
. IV
(Tiinfullnan, fullnoda, fullnodedum )
.

: ,
.

- -on,

.
.

136. I
-i
. 1. -i
, .
2. () ,
- -, -i
, - , ()
, -
, --, -i , ,
. . ( ; . 22).

1.

deman
hieran
2. a) nerian
styrian
6) fremman
cnyssan

demde
hierde
nerede
styrede
fremede
cnysede

demed
hlered
nered
styred
fremed
cnysed

-d-
-t- ( );
-t -ed:

3retan

114

cepte
3rette

cept, ceped
3ret, 3reted

+ d
+ t,
-d, -t, -ded, -ted:

sendan
restan

*
*

sende
reste

send, sended
rest, rested

137. I
, - j- , ,
.

, .

. ,


,

. (, )
,

.

(. 345 550).
sellan
tellan
cwellan
taec(e)an
raec(e)an
laecc(e)an
()
sec(e)an
wyrc(e)an
3enc(e)an
3ync(e)an

sealde
tealde
cwealde
tahte
rahte
laehte
bohte
sohte
worhte
Sohte
Suhte

seald
teald
cweald
taht
raht
lseht
boht
soht
worht
Soht
Suht

,

. III
: -/1-,
-t-.
,
I :
brohte broht
115

138. I
;

,
, : drenc(e)an * *drancian drincan *;
senc(e)an * *sancian sincan *; cwellan * *cwaelian cwelan ; spren3(e)an
* *spran 3 ian sprin3an *; a-swebban ,
* *swaefian swefan ; laEdan *la|>ian
*; *rasian risan *.
139. I :
berian , derian *, erian *, ferian ,
herian , amerian , werian *, 3ewerian , byrian *, spyrian *,
*, ternman , trymman *, dennan
, wennan , clynnan , dynnan
, hlynnan *, hrissan , sce35an ,
sweSSan *, wreSSan *, wec3(e)an ,
3ic 3(e)an , settan , feran , laeran
*, celan , haelan *, 3 iernan *,
draefan *, laefan , fysan , dry3(e)an
, hlepan , metan *, wysc(e)an*,
byldan *, bendan , wendan *,
efstan *.

I I
140.
-oja- -- .

(-ode, -od) --
. -oja- -i-;
-ian.

macian
lufian
hopian

macode
lufode
hopode

macod
lufod
hopod

i-
, -i- ( -oja-) ,
.
141. II : lofian *, stic ia n ,
ea rd ia n , endian , scea w ian , w eordian
, w undria n , faestnian , maersian *.

116

I I I
142. III
III -ai.
.
III
.

,
. ,
, -j-.

I . habban
; , hebban
- , VI
hebban (. 133).
:
[]
[] (. 33),
- -, .

( ; 22),
-j- .
III
- . ,
, I II .
,
,
.

habban
libban
sec 3(e)an
hyc3(e)an
()
smea 3(e)an
freo 3(e)an
feo 3(e)an

haefde
lifde
sae3de, saede
ho3de
Sreade
smeade
freode
feode

haefd
lifd
sae3d, saed
ho 3od
Sread
smead
freod
feod


143.
,
, . ,
.
117

144.
.
I wrltan

. . 1 .
2 .
3 .
. .

writ

2 . writap

write
)
writest, writst > write
writep, writ J
writap
writen

wrat \
write > write
wrat J
writen
writon

writan

. to writenne (wrltanne):

writende ( 3e)writen

III bindan

. .

1 . binde
'j

2 . bindest, bintst I binde


bind
3 . bindep, bint j

. .
bindap
binden 2 . bindap

band, bond 'j


bunde
>bunde
band, bond j
bundon
bunden

bindan

bindende

( 3e)bunden

-e- 2 3-
;
-d -t, -dp -tp 3-
-t.
.
-,
.

2-
-, -
, : nu binde we.
1
to.

118

2 3-

()
-i-,
-st,

, helpan hilpst,
hilpf), feallan fielst, fielf), ceosan ciest, desf),
cuman cymst, . . , ,

.
145. , -h-,
: -h- ,
.
V seon

. . 1 . seo
2 . sTehst
3 . slehp
. .
seop

seo
seon

seoh

2 . seo|)

seah
]
sawe
> sawe,
seah
j
sawon, sse3on sawen, sse3en

seon

seonde

( 3e)sewen, ( 3e)se3en

VII fon

.
.

. 1 . fo
'j
2 . fehst >
3 . fehfi J
.
fof>

fo
fon

fens
fense
fens
fen son

foh
2 . fo

>

fense
fen sen

fon

fonde

(se)fansen, (se)fonsen

146.
: 2 3-
2-
119

-i-
, .

. 2-
I -;
I
.
I styrian 1

styre

2 . styriaf)

. . 1 . styrie
2 . styrest styrie
3 . styref ,
. .
styriaf) styrien

styrede
styredest
styrede
styredon

styrede
styreden

sty rian

styriende

( 3e)styred

I tellan

. . 1 .
2 .
3 .
. .

telle
'I

telest, tellest >


telle tele, tell
telefj, te lle f

tellaji
tellen 2 . tellaf

tealde
tealdest > tealde
tealde
tealdon
tealden

tellan

tellende

( 3 e)teald

II luffian

. . 1 . lufie
2 . lufast
3 . lufaf)
. .
lufiaf)

lufode 'J
lufodest 1 lufode
lufode
lufodon
lufoden

lufa

2 . lufiaf)

lufiende
120

( 3e)lufod

III sec3(e)an

. . 1 .
2 .
3 .
. .

saesst (sasast) > sae3e(sa 3a)


saesf) (sa 3af>)

sec 3(e)af>
secsen 2 . sec 3(e)a

saesde 'j
sae3dest > saesde
sae3de
sae3don saesden

sec3(e)an

sec3ende

( 3e)sae3d

III libban

. . 1 . libbe 'l
2 . liofast >
3 . liofafj
. .
libbaf)

libbe
libben

liofa

2 . libbaf)

lifde
lifdest
lifde
lifdon

v lifde

lifden

libban

libbende

( 3e)lifd

III habban

. . 1. haebbe
\

haefde ")
2 . hafast, haefst > haebbe
hafa
haefdest > haefde
3 . hafaf),
haeff

haefde
. .
habbajj
haebben 2 . habbafi haefdon
haefden

habban

haebbende

( 3e)haefd


ne: ne habban > nabban, ne haebbe > naebbe, ne haefde >
naefde.
121

147.
, .

- .
, , haitan

( ):
. .
. .

1 . haitada
2 . haitaza
3 . haitada
haitanda

haitaidau
haitaizau
haitaidau
haitaindau

.

.
.

, , , ,
, .
V II hatan
1 3- hatte
hatton. hatte, -,
haitada (.
. satida . -a. sette), hatton

.
,
.

, , ,
.
, . .
.


, . .
.
(. 159, 160).

-
1+8. -
.
,
122


. ,
wat,
witon; wisse wiste.
,
I (.,
, ras rison),
(wisse < *wit-te).
,
,


(. 32). ,
.
:
,

.
- .
,
, ,
( 34), , .
-
, ,
:
; ;
. .

,
perfectum praesens, : memini , novi , odi
.
oida pepoitha '.
-
,
.
,
, . , ,

V ( --
),
,
V
.
man sceal
, ,
, :
man
123

munon, sceal sculon.


,
IV .
, -

, IV .

( = )

wat \
wast (< *w a tt) > wite
wat J

1) . . 1 .
2 .
3 .
. .

wite

witen 2 . witap

witon

( )

. wisse, wiste
. wistest, wistest
. wisse, wiste

. .

> wisse,
1 wiste

witende

wissen,
wisten

wisson, wiston

. .

witan

witen

ne: ne wat > nat, ne wisse > nysse.

2) . . 1 .
2 . ahst
3 .
. .

ahte }
ahtest > ahte
ahte I

ahton

4) . . 1 .

^\

dusan

dusen

duson

ahten

3) . . 1 . deas
duse
2 .
3 . deas
. .

dusende

'j

unnan
2 .

> Qdest >

3 .
. .


124


5) . . 1 .
2 . canst
3 .
. .

cuSest

cunnen

cunnen,

3orfte \

3urfe Sorftest > 3orfte 3urfan


Sorfte I

6) . . 1 . 5earf
2 . 8earft
3 , 5earf

Searfende
. .
7) . .

. .

5urfon

Surfen 3orfton
dorste
dorstest
dorste

dear(r)
dearst
dear(r)

durre

durron

durren dorston

Sorften
dorste
dorsten

sceolde \

]
8) . . 1 JI. sceal(l)
2 . scealt
> scule sceoldest > sceolde sculan
J
sceolde I
3 . sceal(l)
. .

sculon

9) . . 1 . man
2 . manst
3 . man

sculen sceoldon sceolden


munde \

> mune mundest > munde munan


I
munde I

munende
. .

munon

munen mundon munden

10) . . 1 . ^
2 . meaht
>
i
3 .
. .

munen
meahte, mihte
^
meahtest, mihtest [> mihte
meahte, mihte
J

meahton, mihton

mihten

masende
11) . . 3 . *

. .

3enohte

moste \
12) . . 1 . mot
2 . most
> mote mostest > moste
3 . mot
J
moste I
. ,

moton

moten moston
125

mosten


, wesan '

1+9. ,
, . .
.
: be-, wes- e s -1.
: . . sein war bin, .
, . sum fui. , -
, , ,
, ,
.
,
: be-, . fu-,
. - phy-,
(. . physis ).
:
.: . , . aller je vais j irai.

, .: je vais nous allons.
-,
, : ,
,
, . .
.
, wesan

. . 1 . ,
2 . eart, bist
3 . is,
. .

sint, ,
sind (on)

)
wes, beo
slen, sin, , wesap, beop

syn

wesan,

. . 2 . waeron waeren

wesende, beonde

1 wesan
. : ,
: wesan,
, wes- es-, , .

126


ne: ne is > nis, ne waes > naes, ne waeron > naeron.
wesan waes waeron V
s .
, be-,
.

gode
eodest
gode

1
. . 1 .
2 . 3gst }
3 . )
.

2 .

godon

3ande,
!

()

2 3-

.
don wlllan

150.

don

. . 1 . do
2 . dgst
3 . dgp

do

do

. .

don 2 . dop

dop

dyde
'i
dydest | dyde
dyde
dydon

dyden

donde

don

(3e)don

don 2 3-

.

.
/ .
127

wlllan ''

. . 1 . wille
2 . wilt
}
3 . wil(l)e )

wille

wolde
woldest \ wolde
wolde
)

. .

willen

woldon

w illa^

wolden

willan

willende


ne: ne wille > nylle, nelle; ne wolde > nolde . .


1. :

:
\


151.
,
. h- w-.
:
1. habban : ne habban > n ab b a n , ne haefde > naefde.
2. wesan : ne is > nis, ne waes > naes, ne waBron >
naBron.
3. w itan : ne w at > n a t, ne w ito n > n yto n, ne w iste >
nyste.
4. w illa n : ne wille > nylle, nelle, ne wold e > nolde.

, ,
. .

1 5 2 .

(IV .) ,
,
1 ,
w ilja n
: w il ja n , wileis , w ili, w ile im a , wileijj, w ileina.

128


.
,
,
. ,
, , 2.
:
, ,
,
(
3 - ).
,
.

( ,
):
-.

,
, , .

(. 1 5 9 , 160 ).


153.
.
,
, , ( 3 2 ) , ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
, , .
, ,
, ,
,
, . . ,
.
.

,
^ - . ^ - 1 ,
IV .
- . , ,
,
,
.
2 1 3-
, :
,
-.

. .

129

, . .
,
, . .
. , seah ,

eseah .
band
eband.
. - ,
,
. , , cu man ,
- ,
sae3de : {ja com
he on to t u n erefan
; O hthe re saBde his h la forde, , paet he e alra Norjjmonna
norjjmest bude , ,
.
nim a n , : Ond fjy
namon W e s t s e a x e fri{j wi{j {jone here (
: ) () .
,
, (
),
- ( ).
,
, , -
, , , ,
.

.
( 159, 160).

3
3

154.
.


. , ,

: eft - mot
to medo m odis, sippan -leoht ofer ylda beam opres dosores,
sunne swesl-wered supan scmep , ,
,
, , , .

: Of forp se heretosa, sepe rmn
folc , ; Ic paes
purhrumne.sefan raed 1, he frod ond 3od feond
oferswypep
, , , .

be - , : hi
3ef^fred e ; bip laest genemned
; ic nat hwaenne mine dasas
, .
130


,
. sculan
willan ,
,
.
sculan
,
: nu ic eower sceal frum-cyn witan
; swa sceal man don
. , ,
,
, : ic { 3odan sceal for his mod-f)raece
maOmas beodan
; sceal hrinsnaca ofer heafu lac and luf-tacen
.
willan
.
, : hyde se-f)e wylle ,
; ic hine sweorde swebban nelle .
;
: w ille ic asecsan
; ic f>aes wine D enisa, frean Scildinsa frinan wille
, ; nu wylle we
ymbe Europe londsemsere areccean '
.
,
.
1 5 5 . ,
,

, .
: f>aes ofer Eastron 3efor JE p ered cynin3, and he rfxode
fif , .

haefde
, : hie haefdon hlera cynin3 aworpenne ( ) .
( 356 .).

1 5 6 . ,
, .

,
,
5*

131

. , ,
, ,
: swae claene hlo waes opfeallenu on 1cynne, paet swipe feawa waeron behionan Humbre, pe hiora
cupen understondan on en3lisc oppe furpum an aerend3ewrit of
laedene on en3lisc areccean ()
,
, -

.

157.
.
, . , far to
heorde and me twa pa betstan tyccenu
; wes us larena
3od (. . ).
, ,
: on saelum wes, 3old-wine
, .
158.
.
.
.

, : se ,
f he , .

, : haefde ic aelteowe penas, naere ic
pus eapelice oferswlped ,
; 3if waere her, naere min
bropor dead , .

, .
, : onsende H i3elace, 3if mec
hild nime, beaduscrflda betst ,
(. . ), ;
, ,
: ic de bebiode #aet # do, swae ic 3ellefe, #aet wille
, , , ;
: him waes leofre, #aet hine man
ofslo3e ponne hine man 3ebunde ,
, .


, : ne meahte ic aet hilde mid Hruntin3e
wiht 3ew yrcan, peah paet waepen du3e 132

() , ; 3ebad
wintra worn, he on we3 hwurfe ,
.

: he saede #aet Nor^manna land waere swype 1 and swyjbe
smael ,
; ] sae3don hie paet him paet llcede and leof waere
, .

: ahsi3e eft hu 1 sio sibb 3estode ,
; # bip 3esaed hwaet 3edafeni3e to donne
, ; hie woldon witan hu
heah waere to pam hefone and hu #icce se hefon waere o##e hwaet
paer ofer waere , ,
, .


159.
,
.
,
habban .
,
, ,
, .

.
hie haefdon hiera
cynin3 aworpenne (. 155 ). :
( ).

: ()
.
,
,
- , ,
:
.
.

: haefde se 3oda 3 e a ta leoda cempan (:
, . .
( ) );
nu scealc hafaf) purh drihtnes miht daed 3efremede (:
,
. . () ).
133

,
, : haefde niri3-wuldor 3rendle to3eanes, swa 3efrun3on, sele-weard
aseted (: ,
, , . .
() , ).
,
, asetedne.
,
wesan, ; ,
.
,
: is his eafora nu heard her cumen
(: ); her synd 3eferede
feorran cumene .
,
,
habban .

habban.

160. ,
wesan, weorpan
.
; ,
,
. , , ) waes 8 3Upfana
,
, : , . .
, (
). wearp ofslaesen
. ,

: wesan,
, weorpan .
, ,
,
: ,
. , ,
weorpan,
,
,
. , habban
wesan,
, .

.
134

161.
. ,

willan
, ,
: nolde ic sweord beran, wsepen to wyrme, 3if ic wiste
hu wifj psem 1 elles meahte 1 wijxsrlpan
, , ,
; ic suna
rninum syllan wolde 3uf)3ew2edu, pser me 3 ifepe swa am i3 yrfeweard aefter wurde lice 1
, , ()
. , ,
.

sculan

, : ic Jaaes purh
sefan raed 1, hu he frod ond 30d feond oferswypef) 3yf him
edwendan aefre scolde bealuwa bissu

, ,
, , -
.

.

162.
, . . -
, , . .
.

, , { , { , { ,
]3ider , , hwonne? ? , hwaer? ? ,
hwider? ? , hwonan? ?, , her ,
hider , heonan . ,
, : sona , oft , eft
, swa . .
,
.
, -

,

.
135

, ,
: hwilum (
hwil
); : # ic . . . # boc wendan on en3lisc
. . . hwilum word be worde, hwilum and3it of and3iete
. . . . . .
, (. .
, ).
, -,

( ; .
, 115 .). -
.
,
, : wide , deope ,
faeste , hearde , freondlice .

163.
,

-lie ( , ,
, , , -).
, ,
luf 11 freondlic .

- , ,
, ,
: .

, . . -,
( - + -),
.
-
,
-, , bealdllce beald
, * bealdlic .


164. ,
,
, : -
-st .
--:

wide *

widor
136

widost

165.
,
, : 1 1 , feor(r)
fierr , softe seft , ] ief)
4 . , , ,

-, -i-; ,
, , -.
166. ,
,
, :
wel
yfele
micele
lytle

betre
wiers, wyrs
mare
laesse

best
wierst, wyrst
maest
laBst

167. ,
,
. ,
sofdice : f)a him ! waes,
3esae3d so|)lice sweotolan tacne heal-|)e3nes hete
,
(. . ); swa we sojblice sec3an hyrdon
, , he sofdice saesde ofer ealie
.
, .
, ,
,
- .

.
1

168.

,
.
,
.
,
. -

(
) .
(1 947).

137

, : ond ymb feower niht ridon twesen


eorlas up (:
) . ,
, ,
,
,
-; .:
. . : ic stise
; astah on heofonum ; ic
inn ; com in ealdor ()
.
, , ,
: waes aefter wiste
wop ahafen (:
).
,
, ,
.
,
,
.

169.
.
, .

.

: 1) , . . ,
-
; 2) , . .
. , ,
, ,
, ,
, .
: of
, , at , , fram , to , wi , be ,
, , , under , ofer , aefter .
: beforan ( *be + foran),
bfltan ( *be + fltan), ,
, . .
,
, :
be ,
, : aet stunda 3ehwam
138

, for unfri|)e
- .
,
] menn of Lundenbyris fetodon scipu
.


. , ,
, ,
.

170.

.
.
,
,
. , ,
, . ,
, . (
,
; . 169 ).
a n d , .

. . . .

. . .

- 3if .
hw onne
( ), ( ), ( ),
, |>aet(te) , swa ^ ,
, . .

(. 213 .).

171-

.
. -, ,
,
, . (
, ,
). ,
, . . ,
.
139


: ia , , wa .
-,
hwaet,
, ,
, ,
: Hwaet! we -Dena in -
- prym gefrtinon !
! ,
: Hwaet! aet secsan efne swa hwylc ^, swa
| cende !
, .

.

172. -
, :
. ,
- ;
-, -, -, -, :
, { heo rta . .
-
-es ( -)
-, : { j r e saules .


{,
{ (. se, seo). ,
, :
fj- .
-
- , : drinca , sin a . -

-, - (. -), : ic drincu ; ic sin o .
- -
-s
(. -st), . . -
{, : {ja drinces , Jja lufodes . 3-
-es
(. -efj), : he drinces .
-as (. -a{j); hi a drincas
.
-s -{j
. , 3-
is .
-and e (. -end e), :
drincande . .

arun (. sind, sindon,
beo}j).

. , ,
I : s t i an st ij e d e ;

630

140

rippede; h n n a n * hrlnade;
II : reo h te ; supan sQpede;
II I : bin dan binde; d ri n an
d i d; sw in an s w in j d e ; w orpan
w orpade; strae dan * s t r i d e ; f r e nan fr e nade;
VI : hebban hefde; V I I
: slS p a n slaepte; ondraedan ondraEdde, sc ea d an
scead ade.
,
, ,
.

173. ,
, ,
.
,
.

,
.

174.
, :
, ,
. ,
.

175.
, : com se foresprecena swylce hider on Bryttas
; pa stod him sum
mon aet fmrh swefn ;
ponne wif) norpan Donua aewielme and be eastan Rine sindon
Eastfrancan
.

: 1) : ] aras he from ) slaepe
; haebbe we scortlice 3esaed mb Asia lond141

; 2)
: paet waes 36d ! ! ; paet
is wynsum won3 ; 3 ) :
hwa 3estillep paet? ?

176. ,
, .

177. .
:
pis aerendsewrit A sustinus ofer sealtne sae supan brohte iesbuendum
; haefde pa sefohten foremaerne blaed Iudip at
; pa aras he fram
paem slaepe .

cunnan, motan :
ne con ic noht sinsan ; no he wiht fram
me flod- feor fleotan meahte
.

178. .
- .
wesan () ,
weorpan .

;
, : paet waes 3od !
! ; hals is min hwit ;
wurdon blipe burhsittende (.:
) ; underne Froncum ond Frysum fyll cynin3es wide weorpep
.
+ : here waes on lustum
.

179.
(
) . , ,
142

.

, ,
,
, . . ,
.

He forlet f)2et hus fiaes 3ebeorscipes


; f>a heht heo sesomnian ealle f)a selaeredestan men
.

: parn wife pa word wel licodon


; waes se iren-fireat waepnum wurpad ; saesde him,
hwelce ^ he onfens , ; mael
is me to feran .
: he had westanwindes
; ic paes wine D enisa, frean Scildinsa frinan
wille , .

Nu haebbe we scortlice 3esaed ymb Asia londsemaere


; ne f ) aefter saelum
; f>a aras he fram paem slaepe
.

180. ,
(,
, . .),
, .
: he waes swyfie spedis man
; ic forfxm of f)yssum sebeorscipe ut eode
; sunu min, hlyst mfnre lare ,
.
143

181.
.
, : him waes
ealnew ej paet land on paet steorbord
; ne muntas steape stondap
, ; on feawum stowum styccemaelum wfciap Finnas ;
he saede paet Norpmanna land waere swype 1 ond swype smael
, .
,
: pa waes on pa tid iCpelbryht haten on Cent
(.:
( ) ; in pysse abbudissan mynstre waes sum bropor
; he bude on
lande norpweardum wip pa WestsaB ,
.

182. ,

: her iCpelstan , eorla dryhten, beorna bBahsifa, and
his bropor eac, Eadmund , ealdorlansne tlr 3eslo3on aet
saecce , , ,
, ,
.

183.
, , :
sunu min, hlyste minre lare , ;
aris, faeder mfn , ; ia, leof, ic hit eom ,
, .

184. '
, : witodlice seo stemn is Iacobes stemn
, ; fram sylle medubenc moni3 mine !
, (.: )

,
,
, .

144


185.

.
,
,
.

.

186.
:
1) ,
2) .
(
) (
). , ,
6 3 , 37 .
: straet waes stan-fah; sti3 wisode aetsaedere
, ; hete waes onhrered, hord-weard
oncniow mannes reorde ,
() .
: lixte se leoma
; naes seo fracod hilde-rince
; ne nom he in wicum, W eder-3eata leod, m a 9 m-aehta
, , ; waes
sio swytswadu Sweona ond 3eata, wael-raes weora wide 3esyne
,
; waes se 3rim m a 3aest 3rendel h aten
; waes seo hwil micel .
,
.

, , ,
, , f)us .
: com in ealdor ()
; waes be feaxe on flet boren 3rendles heafod
;
saesdon ! saeliQende () ;
is ^ines maesnes blaed ane hwile
; waes fela of feor-wesum fraetwa
3elaeded ;
aet stod hrinsed-stefna ,
. : her braec se here on
145

fri 9 ; aras
he from slaepe ; het heo somnian ealle selairedestan men
; 5 wundrade ic ;
seslede he su 9 rihte .
(,
, ), ,
,
, : her 11 forf>ferde
; nu ic suna minum syllan wolde sewaedu ; nu ic,
Beowulf, , betsta, me for sunu wylle freosan
, , , , ()
.

187. ,
,
, ,
, ,
. , :
oft Scyld Scefins sceaSena , meodosetla ofteah , , ,
, ; we |>aet ellen-weorc estum
miclum feohtan fremedon
, ; ic hine hraedlice heardan clammum on
wael-bedde wriSan
; sona him sele- sides
w ersum , feorran-cundum for 5 wisade ,
, , .
,
70 ;

,
.
- : Eadmund him wi|>feaht,
and Deniscan sise namon, and cynins ofsloson, and !;
lond all seeodon , , ,
. AL1
pe\+
stan cyning and Ealchere dux micelne here ofsloson aet Sondwie
on Cent, and nison scipu sefensun and sefliemdon

,
.
: her Ceorl aldormon sefeaht wi
men mid Defenascire aet W icsan b earse
.

, : Ohthere saede his hlaforde, ^ l f r e d e
146

, ! he ealra nor^mest bude


, ,
; he f>as andsware onfens, on he sona sinsan ,
.
(
);
, : he cwae3 ! he bude
no^ew eardum \1 Westsae ,
; he saede 3 aet NorSmanna land waere
s w ^ e 1 and s w ^ e smael ,
.

188. ,
, enslisc 3ewrit ;
mislfcum and m anisfealdum bissum
; hu 3esseli3lica tida
; se foresprecena ; ealle
; aefter for 3 yrnendre tide
.
, , ealle ;
; his suna twesen ,
.
:
wine min , freo-drihten min ; Beowulf
leofa . ,
,
, Sidroc eorl se alda .

, : 3etruman , NorSmanna land ,
Seaxna od , monna mod
. , , ,

, : on healfe
.
,
: ,
, : micle meras fersce
.
189. ,
, : ^ ond Aitfred his
; w e a ^ ofslaesen
Lucumon cynses !, ond Wulfheard Friesa, ond iEbbe Friesa,
147

ond i 9 elhere Frlesa, ond ; E 9 elferp cynses 3eneat


, , ,
, , .


190. ,
: hu lomp eow in 1? ? him
on fyrste 1 aedre mid yldum, paet hit wearp eal-
, ()
.
191.
, : sySSan aerest wearS feasceaft funden, he
paes frofre 3ebad
, ; aledon pa leofne peoden on
bearm scipes .
,
, ,
.
, .

hit

192.
hit
, , ,
. : ne-waes hit
1 , paet se -hete a9 um-sweorum aefter wael-ni9 e waecnan scolde () ,
- ; ne-sceal
dyrne sum wesan () -
.

it
there is.


193.
.
, : all pas pin3 peode 3edafenap cup hab148

ban *.
, , ,
. ., : H iselac sinne seseldan in sele hean
faesrefricsean
; him ne con
.
: he si3e-hredi3 secean com maerne peoden ,
, .

to, : hie mon paet land to sceawienne .
, : 1
is to ( :
); soddaedum, pa hy forhosdun to donne
, ;
pin spor to fin d an n e .
,
: micel is to (. . ) .

, ,
, : 3ewat pa neosan hean
. huses () ;
com of under mist-hleofmm 3rendel
() .

, : him budon drincan sebitrodne wlndrenc .

194. ,
, ,
,
accusativus
infinitivo .

, ,
1.

: seon ,
hyran , sefrisnan , ,
, , ,
1
. . "
(J1., 1947).
.

14

hatan , laetan , . .
: seseah he in recede rinca m anise, swefan sibbe-3edriht
, ,
; fyr-leoht seseah, blacne leoman beorhte sclnan ,
, , ; ne-hyrde ic
cym licor ceol sesyrw an ,
; ic f>aet lond-buend, leode mine, sele-raedende secsan hyrde, paet hie sesawon swylce twesen micle mearcstapan moras healdan, ellor-saestas , ,
, , , ,
; pa ic wide fraesn weorc gebannan ,
; pone here he let mit paem scipum ponan
wendan ;
let hi syppan faran ham .

,
, .
.

, (X .).

1 9 5 .

, ,
, : sesyh 9 sorh-cearis on his suna bare wlnsele
westne wind-sereste, reote berofene ,
, ,
( = , . . . ); sedep him swa
sewealdene worolde daelas
; saesdon hine sundorwlsne ,
.

;
, : he seseah swapendum
windum pone 1 ahefenne ,
; forlaetenre ceastre, he com
, ( = , ).

1 9 6 .
.
, : nan f)ins his
150

willan wiSstandan ;
nan man ne bude him ;
he dorste f>in3 ascian
. ,
, ,
naht, noht ( ,
na + wiht ); : necon ic noht sinsan
() . ,
, ,
noht.

197. ,
, .
, , ,
( )
, ,
(. 202 ).
,
, ,
.
.
.

198.
,
. . , . ,
, .
,
. ,
: cyn insas, onwald haefdon Saes folces ,
; hie hiora sibbe hiora siodo hiora onweald innanbordes 3ehioldon ond eac ut hiora e 3 el rymdon
,
; ic fur3 um anne anlepne ne
; ieldran, 3 as stowa hioldon, hie lufodon
wisdom4 , ,
; we habba 3 forlaeten welan
wisdom , .
151

,
.
, ,
: cyninsas . . . 3ode ond his aerendwrecum
hiersumedon . . . ; we him
ne cunnon aefterspyrisean ;
sins me hwaethwusu - ; saesde him, hwelce
3ife he onfens , ; rehton
hie him ond saesdon sum hal is spell
.

,
, , :
swi3 e oft on sem ynd ; hu him
speow .
, .
: pa wundrade ic swipe swipe para sodena wiotena
, ; he sceolde
bidan westanwindes . ;
, -, ,
.

199.
. , : syxa
sum , - , dosra sehwilc ,
para .

200.
. , : sodes
wyrpe sons ; morpres scyldis
.
, -,
, , . .
.
: peah he him leof waere
, waes sehwaeSer 1
.

201.
.
, , 152

,
: f>aes landes sceawuns ( f>aet land
sceawian ).

,
, ,
. . : sio lar laedensepiodes
; |- .

202.
.
,
. , ,
,
.
:
, . . ,
.
, , ,
- , ,
, - ,
, ,
. , in : in 1 ; in woruldhade ;
on , ; on ; on londe ;
me com on ; | awendon hie
hie on hiera 3ef)iode
.
,
-
, ,
in on . ,
,
.
. ,
,
. , ,
, . . . ,
, , , :
hu 3esaeli3Hca tida pa waeron 3eond 1
; to
, : ut waes to neata
scypene ; ymb
, : hu siorne hie waeron ymb
153

lare ymb liornunsa ymb ealle pa piowotdomas


,
.
, , fram, ofer, aet
- . ,

.

203.

.
, , . . ,
, ,
,
.
.

. ,
, , .
,
. ,
?
,
. . . , . .
,
.
.

.

: 1) : hu. gesaelislica
tida ; para sodena wiotona
; purh wise wealhstodas ;
oprum mislicum ond manisfealdum bissum
; 2)
: hu 3iorne hie waeron ; paette
aefre menn sceolden swa reccelease weorpan -
.
,
, ,
, : pa cyninsas,
pone onwald haefdon paes folces ,
; pissa woruldpinsa ; pas stowa
.
,
. ., : para
154

sodena wiotona, siu waeron 3iond 1


, ; pa boc wendan on
enslisc, is senemned on laeden Pastoralis
, - .

204. -

.
, -
.
,
.
-
.
, ,
,

,
, pa aras he fram slaepe ond eall paet
he slaepende sons faeste on semynde haefde ond wordum sona
monis word in paet ilce sem et sode wyrpes sonses to sepeodde
, ,

, ,
,
he , 3 -
aras sons
- haefde sepeodde.

205. , , ,
, ,
, ,
. .
,
. , ,
: A lfre d cynins hatep
sretan WaerferS biscep his wordum luflice ond freondlice

. luflice freond
lice

1 . . .
, . 7- ( ., 1956, . 187 .).

155

hatef) 3retan.
,
Waerferd biscep
his wordum.
,
, ,
.

206.
,

.
.

( )
.
,
{. 2 0 3 , 2 0 4 ), , : purh wise
wealhstodas ; ealla obrae cristnae dioda .
, ,
,

.
,
, : in 9 ysse abbudissan
mynstre ; purh 3odes 3iefe
.
207. , ,

.
,
.

:
,
, , ,
,
; ,
,
.

.
156

208.
, ,
.


209.
,
.
,
: fand f)a f)aer-inne sedriht swefan
aefter symble; sorse ne cufion, wonsceaft wera, wiht unhaelo
;
, , .
and , of)f)e
, . : waes he, se mon, in weoruldhade jeseted
of> f)a tide, f)e he waes 3elefedre yldo, ond he naefre leof>
3eleornade , ,
, ,
; ic me mid dom 3ewyrce, mec
deaf) nimef) () ,
; f>a Beormas haefdon swipe wel hira land;
hie ne dorston paeron cuman ()
; ()
.


210.
,
.
.
,
. .
.
.
.

211.
. ,
: him on fyrste 1,
157

aedre mid yldum, paet hit wearp eal , heal-aerna maest. Scop
him Heort naman, se pe his wordes seweald wide haefde
, ,
. , (),
.
: Him on mod beam paet he
heal-reced hatan wolde, medo-aern micel, men sewyrcean
, , ,
; me com swi5 e oft on 3emynd, hwelce wiotan iu waeron
3eond ,
; me pyncp betre, 3if eow swa pyncp,
paette, we eac sume bee . . . on paet sepiode wenden
, ,
. . . ; waes aefter dasum,
paet se com to pam ealonde ,
.

212.
, -, .

213.
. i
paet, : he saede paet he bude norpeweardum
, .

.
: he saede paet: he bode norpweardum :
.
,
paet: ,
,
, ,
.

. , , hyne
fyrwet braec, hwaeper collen-ferhp cwicne sem ette in pam wonsstede
Wedra peoden * (),
( ) .
hwaeper
, ;
:
, :
( ) .
hwy-;
der :!
158

Men ne-cunnon, hwyder hel-runan hwyrftumscripap ,


.

.

, .

2 1 4 .
paet; . : he cwaep
paet he biide norpeweardum , .
, , :
cwaep he wolde on meces setan , ()
() ; ic wene
w it sind oferswipde , () () .

3if, hwaeper . ,
: men ne cunnon to sope, sele-raedende, haelep under heofenum, hwa hlaeste onfens
, , ,
; hine fyrwyt braec mod-3ehydum, hwaet pa men waeron
,
(.: ).
, 3if hwae
per: , 3if him waere niht setaese ,
; no hie faeder cunnon, hwaeper him waes acenned
, ; hine
fyrwet braec, hwaeper collenferp cwicne sem ette in pam won3-stede
W edra peoden ellen-siocne, he hine forlet
, ,
, ; 3ehwa 3if pses
beboda and opre pilllce habbap stede on his h e o rta n
,
- ; wenstu hwaeper hine habban
, - ; he nat
hwaeper he wyrpe is , .

sculan ,
: bead paet 1 man swa don sceolde ,
; pa 3ebudon him Perse paet hie haefden prie
winter sibbe wip hie ,
; hine baed paet h eh im sendan sceolde
ealle , ; he 1 ealle
Crecas paet hie Alexander wipsocen ,
.
159

,
,
: cwaep he - ofer swan-rade secean wolde, maerne
peoden, pa him waes manna pearf ()
, ,
.

, : he nyste hwaet paet sopes waes ,
; ofost is selest to , hwanan eowre
cyme syndon , (.:
).
/

215.
.
, se
, . . sepe.

;
, , '.
, ,
.
216.
, . . ,
, , , . .
,
, ,
: nalaes he hine laessan lacum teodan,
peod-3estreonum, ponne pa dydon, pe hine aet frumsceafte forp
onsendon aenne ofer y 3 e umbor-wesende
, ,
,
, .
: hwaet syndon searo-haebbendra
byrnum werede, pe pus brontne ceol ofer lasu-straete laedan cwomon,
hider ofer holmas? ,
,
, ?

, , ,
, swa,
, : madelode,
on wicse saet, ombeht unforht ,
, ; paet secsan maesefne swa hwylc ,
swa pone cende aefter -cynnum
, '.
160

217.
, : ic
, Bearht-Dena, biddan wille, eodor Scyldinsa, anre bene:
3aet me ne forwyrne, wlsendra hleo, freo-wine folca, nu ic pus
eorran cwom, paet ic mote ana ond mmra eorla sedryht, pes
learda heap, Heorot faesian , ,
, , ():
, , , ,
, ,
, ( ) .

: Ic paes purh rumne sefan raed 1, hu
he frod and 36d feond oferswyde
, , ,
.

218.
, ,
. ,
, .

.

219. :
, ponne, hwanne , sippan , ,
, penden , oppaet .
: he pas andsware onfens, he sona
sinsan ,
; ponne he 3eseah pa hearpan him nealaecan, ponne aras he
far sceome from symble ,
, .
ponne, ,
ponne .

.
: heold,
penden lifde, 1 ond 3Up-reow, 1 de Scyldin3as ,
, ,
(. . , ); naifre him
deap scepep on pam willwonse, penden woruld stondep
, ;
se eadsa mot . . . wunian in , oppaet wintra bip pusend urnen
^

. .

161

. . . ,
; sewat pa neosian, sippan niht becom, hean huses
, , .

220. .
,
, : Hwearf pa hraedllce, saet,
eald ond unhar mid his eorla sedriht
(), , ,
.

221.
forpaempe, forpaem .
: pa cirdon hie -in on , for- hie ne dorston forp bi si3lan for unfripe; for- Saet land waes
eall on opre healfe eas
,
- ,
; waes seo hwll micel, twelf wintra tid
torn 3epolode wine Scyldin3a, wanna 3ehwylcne, sldra sor3a;
fordam syddan wearS ylda bearnum undyrne cud, 3yddum ,
paette 3rendel wan hwlle wi3 H rodsar ,
, ,
,
, , .

222.
paet , :
swa sceal 3ode 3ewyrcean, fromum feoh-3iftum on
faeder aerne, paet hine on ylde eft 3ewunien w il-3esi3as, ponne wl3
cume, teode 3elaesten
, ,
, ,
( ) .
,
, laes (): ,
: forpon ic \eof werud 1 wille -fremmende, paet
ower hus 3efaestni3en, py laes hit ferblaedum windas toweorpan
, ,
,
.
162

223. paet.
swa .
,
.
swa: swa claene hio waes opfeallenu on
!, Saet swipe feawa waeron behionan Humbre, 3 e hiora
understondan on en3lisc furSum an aerend3ewrit of laedene on en3lisc awendan ()
,
, -

.
: eode ellen-rof, paet he for eaxlum 3estod Deni3a
fre3an , .

: . . . .

224. 3if
naefne () , : he me habban wille dreore
fahne, 3if mec dea 9 nime ,
; nis paet seld- waepnum 3eweorSad,
naefne his wlite 1, aenlic ansyn
, , ,
.

225. ()
, : pone si 9 -faet him snotere ceorlas lyt-hwon 1,
peah he him leof waere ()
, .

226. swa : nalaes


hi hine laessan lacum teodan, peod-3estreonum, ponne pa dydon,
pe hine aet frumsceafte for3 onsendon aenne ofer y 3 e umbor-wesende
,
, ,
, ; naefre ic maran 3eseah
eorla ofer eorSan, ponne is eower sum sec3 on searwum
, () ,
.
6*

163

, swa,
, :
wearde heoldon in pam faestenne, swa pam folce 3eomorm6dum
Iudip bebead ,
.
2 2 7 .
,
. ,
,
: . . . swa Saette, swa hwaet
swa he of 3odcundum stafum purh boceras 3eleornode, paet he aefter
medmiclum faece . . . in en3lisc3ereorde wel 3eworht forp brohte
,
(: ) (:
), . . .
.

, :
hy 3edop paet bip oferfroren, sam hit sy sumor sam winter
(), ,
(. . ,
) .

2 2 8 .
, :
waes him eallum 3ese3en, swa-swa hit waes, paet him w ^re from
drihtne sylfum heofonlic 3ifu forsifen ,
,
.
,

.

IV.


2 2 9 .
- ,
.
V III . -
, -
. IX .
. 878 .
. ,
, ; Danelag 1 . ,
,
.

;
.
.
1 .: , . . .

165

X . , 1013 .
.
; 1016 .
.
.
1042 .
, -
.
166

230.
. ,
,

.

: ,
(
), ,
,
,
.

.
,
.

- ;


,
.

: (. 250 ).


231. 1066 . .

.
(Norman < Norfman
). IX .

. 912 .,
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
X I ., ,

.
1066 . .
, ,
, ,
167

. 14 1066 .

. ,
,
. -
:
, ,
. ,
, , .
,
.
-
. , ,
.
.
, , ,
.
(1066 1087) 200.000
. .
(1135 1154)

, .
( 1203 .)
,
.

. , ,
;
:
.
, , ,
;

.
232.
.
, ,
( XI I I .):
pus com Engelond into Normandies hond.
And pe Normans ne coupe speke po bote hor owe speche
and speke Frensh as hii dude atom, and hor children dude
also teche.
So that heiemen of pis lond, pat of hir blod come,
holdep alle pulke speche, pat hii of horn nome.
Vor bote a man conne Frensh, me telp of him lute;
168

Ac lowe men holdej) to Engliss and to hor owe speche yute.


Ich wene ] no ] in al ] world contreyes none,
pat ne holdep to hor owe speche, bote Engelond one
.
,
, -, ,
. ,
, ,
. , -
, ,
.
, ,
, .
X IV
(Ranulphus Higden, 1364 .) Polychronicon
( , 1387 . (John Trevisa):
j)is apairynge of ] bir|)etonge is by cause of twey ingis: oon
is: for children in scole, a3enus |)e usage and maner of alle o|>er
nacions, compelled forto leve her owne langage and forto constrewe her lessouns and her ingis a Frenshe, and have]) si])])e at
f)e Normans come first into Englond. Also gentilmennus children
bej) ytau3t forto speke Frenshe from ] tyme, ])at j)ei rokked
in her cradel and speke and playe wif) a childes brooche.
- ;
: ,
,
-,
, . ,
- ,

.

. X II
XI I I .
.
(. 265 267).
233.
. X II XI I I .

. ,
,
.
169

,

,
: XI I , X I I I XI V .
: 1)
X IV .
; 2)
: .


234. 1066 .
:
1. :
, ,
,
.
2.
.
3. ,
.
,
,
.
XI I , XI I I X IV

;
.
,
( ) *
.
X IV .
;
. XV .
.
235.
, .

. ,
, IV ( 1399
1413). -
,
. .
,
-; XI I I .
170

;
1440 .
;
.
, 1258 .
III
( ).
X IV . .
1362 . ( III) ,
, ,
,
.
.

. , X IV . -
,
,
,
: Dieu et mon droit
.

,
,
.


236. ,

.
, X IV .

,
,
. ,

.

.
-
:

,
,
.
,
.
171

1 :
1.

2 .

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.
13.
14 .
15.
16.
1 7.
18.
19.
20.

21.
2 2.
23.
24 .
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.

;
.
.
.
237. X IV .
: , .
,

.
.

:
,
.
, Polychronicon
(Ranulphus Higden), :
Men of fte est wi|) men of |>e west, as it were under pe same
partye of hevene, acordep more in sownynge of speche, pan men
of pe norp wip men of pe soupe. perfore it is, pat Mercii, pat
bep men of myddel Englond, as it were partyners with pe endes,
understondep better pe sidelangagis, norperen and soperen, pan
norperen and soperen undirstondip eiper oper.
,
, ,
. ,
, (),
(. . ), ,
.

(William of Malmesbury,
X II .):
Alle langages of Norphumbres, and specialiche at 3orke, is
so scharp, slittenge and frotynge and unschape, pat we souperen
men may pat language unnepe understonde.
, , ,
, , , ,
.
238.
,
. ; ,
. XI I I .

;
.
X IV .
.
173




.







.

,

;
,

,

,

.


.



.
, ,
, ,
,
.
, -
, - () -
.

: III 1258 .,
( X IV .),
(1340 1400), (1325 1408) (1320 1384).
,
-
-.
, X IV .
-eth,
,
-, .
3-
174

hii they ( ;
, , 250); ( .-. -)
. . X IV .
,
.
.
239. X IX . 1

. ,

. ,
, .

, .
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
;
,
,
, ,
,
2.
240. , , II
IV, .
.
-ende ,
-inge.
241.
(Jo h n W y c l i f W y c l if f e ) .
,
X V I .

,
.
, ,
, .
- . ,
, .- . -- -i-,
-- --. 3-
-ip, -, -is, -s
;
-.
1 , . T e n B r i n k . Ch au cers Sprache and V erskunst. L e ip
zig, 1884.
2 H. C. W 1 d. A H is t o r y of Modern Colloquial E nglis h. O xfo rd , 1953,
p. 55.

175

242.

- X IV XV .
,
, .
, , --
-i-,
--, .
-- -- - -Q(lpnd, hpnd),
-a- (land, hand),

.
.
(
, , . .)
;
,
. , ,
-and,

-nd (lpnd, hpnd . .). ,
.
,


.

243.

.
;

.

:
1.
[:],
,
. ,
[] [:],
.
trouble , couch 176

iVtncr'tftcuroen m-lbuierfm^'cu(cu'^te\^ &<%


Iperfptofypitoia. gucr frifttiaao cdtatg-" ag-rtco
EE

' . - | - ' - - - ?" , | >- f = = V

tom bllpttb affcer'calufw^ulluc(fertq>bucl^uertet


iv
/ qytao guitaym ieft fetmmttoe- ^

q tm tix h # omcu- Cmou cuccuT^d fmgefbu oiodu nf#ife


a ftigjlm o- ^ t E g -^^nac.guf^itttootUmar. in o f Sh

rilnifaiirem <\ tiMaEem btioWtlo kW


J - r
bidder ^^|^|^*!^^^
Vu nauer'nu* nig az^fiti?wc^oarc^iJf^tciicr fc&tr#uicncrrc
it /fo It &noratnypffrcni^^hc^c^raliuf^fic&c*cai$>
^yauftc&nef
-faahW fpaao um nfl<m gcii<Kg.

\f^

,
_ .iboctwen
. ircpm tfwfyw acnfotW
img cuoro m ijflm g cuau-|(hgfflfyat^q<mem m fiitf
1=5 = 5
-,---------------- ^

...? 1 " 'W^iflpalffoiifttlftriwiaSldtJf

Itng" CU O ll^0T>1^ t W i t t w c f t u t w p n g ' 1^

( 1250 .)

: hous [hu:s] (.-a. hus) ; out [u:t]


(.-. ut) ; loud [lu:d] ( .-. hlud) .
, , ow: cow [ku:]
(.-. cfl) ; how [hu:] (.-. hu) ; down [du:n]
(.-. dun) .
2.
[u] .
: . -

, .
[]
, u ( v ) , n, ,
. . , .
,
, cume, , cimie . .
.
[] ,
[] - .
[] , , comen ['kumon]
(.-a. cuman) ; som [sum] (.-a. sum) ;
sone ['suno] (.-a. sunu) ; loue ['luve] (.-a. lufu) ;
bigonne [bi'guno] (.-. )
biginnen .
3. [:] ( )
ie.
[ie], -
X II . [], ie .
chief [tfe:f] ,
, relief [re'le:f] 4
: field [fe:ld] (.-a. feld) ; thief
[0e:f] (.-a. peof) , lief [le:f] (dp.-a. leof) .
4. [] ,
( 376), , : fur .

.
1. } 3 [0] [3]
th: this .-a. |)is ; three .-.
| .
2. [v],

f, v,
X V II . ):
over, ouer (.-a. ofer) ; love, loue (.-a. lufu) ;
: very , avengen .
3. [tj] ch;
chair , chambre
: t^chen , child . .;
[!] ,
, g, j, dg: courage
, joy , bridge .
4. [J] sh,
sch, : ship, schip , shal, schal
.
5. [] , , ,
, ,
h;
178

[%] [h].
- ]%], ,
, gh, g
, h
. , light [lixt] ,
night [nixt] , right [rixt] , broughte ['brouxto] ,
soughte ['souxto] .
6. []
, : drinken (.-a. drincan),
king (.-a. cyning), knowen (.-a. cnawan).
,
ki .
7. [kw]
cw qu, : quellen (.-a. cwellan).
8. [j] ,
, : yet
(.-a. 3 iet), (.-. ), (.-. ).
244. ,
,
,
.

i .
(
),
.
, i,
: rabbi , taxi
, : bacilli, genii.
i ,
: ryden (.-a. ridan), wryten
(.-a. writan).

w. w
you
thou.
ow [:]
,
.
, ow
[]. ow
[:], :
, [ou]: slow ,
snow , crow , low ; ,
[u:]: cow , now , how , down .
, X V II .,
v :
179

,
; , liuen , louen ,
vsen .
245.
;
,
, .


; ,

, .

246.
,
. , ,
.
(Northern),
(Midland), (Southern).

,
.
, ,
(West Midland) (East
Midland). ,
,
.

247.
:


: Dan Michel, Ayenbite of Inwit
( ) ,
(1340 .). William of Shoreham, ( X IV .).
Poema Morale ( XI I I .).
- : Layamon, Brut (
, - Wace),
XI I I ., . Ancren Riwle
180

''ins Ylfo/r !

^
A
Mjm f e i i w u m n ^ bi koiMrn? bwt b Jnlnta.fr
f f f i o f c t y f t o n i 1 \ W u te tw tu tuti) ftttgtttt.'* ftc

W .;4 rt)attwtt J I jteoulor tdlc-tV>io^cWoA.'fcr

&tlvccn.^cVwkytstcgalctevtluvrtfoc.'i>tiu!t&

ftntcmtCtefonc.' ||t

1*11

l& b u n b w to ^^l^ck ttw ttrfiK JtttCaim ttcgn^.


^ ap v crtttjcicctc^rtto ttu iia s tu

twMc$

dnmfenXqpm

f .'s d ^ b tm vwlTXC-OnftQ" |j|-gcto CumnC-febtSfebarfauilc.-

&'[J>etechmtfaJjic |pw.l)uuifi& 115 ttw


tofitote^tfonctottahtttctltt*.

* ottbiS <wtn
kmfcc.fee bcUI& of
p tf c le h \ b e * ib tw m

&\ cmnatf

engjmefou&tfttfrdbtcn.

tfiubts aWxstc GutlGTtttbttt


yg<Htrl>amft 3 .
V
SOUl(MJCttWilH.dt
Vt{cbcf[dtc5!tcbc

VcdtTjCtrdqjt<teoi|utcfur p| ^wm cm oitt^.igiiduttjeRc


jfefiito**tunt i

tcbtm.i\xaeftttr | Ittl4(fr

VJ

cmefy\wittt 1>tort

<jffldl&ca.t<b.i

JlnMwnto-d^Atoc.lubcabTffiVtfpiijMBis dli>uutemndt*ct7]
fttctwm-bgtwm lucttgWca lof.^||^va(wie.0tU>m*6jintc\bc?ait /

[fUttulfcflteemir^ giQrlc ta)c-'buui>-(f


>ndwtmlimnrt^malig&sem^^vctffuu ftf>rc.*vcUjaffienMt (j)
[ & ^ V ] dvft^t-fttcds ^ n e > 4

fcrounibt&rittft>tten<m V* / rtc\vvn&. tjefc&fc 1


&.& {ratm tt& i4anui/ / <kng/t*gltoaCt;i>fmu(uu>.
fttfcdfroubis elftr.'VVftteU*5 1\'(&> Afftem
> ** [( te n twme- v 4$
t^b o ejef

JMb.offamna

TcWbotmffl quote.*ItelEjCvJroffcBw-TC fukte jnu Niluvof


iutwes. la^etmmlctte ^ ttwmtct-of ?'| tr tms
m lgtf V f r a t f o T t t < a b a > u f ) .v utmrt gdgfitpen.

X I I I .)

), X III ., , ,
. Robert of Gloucester,
( 1300 .). The Owl and the Nightin
gale ( X I I I .). John Trevisa.
Polychronicon Ranulphus Higden (1387).


: ,
(X II I .). William of Palerne ( ,
X IV .), Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight
( X IV .).
: King Horn (, X III .). Havelok
the Dane ( X I I I .). Orm, Ormulum ( ,
XIII .). Robert Mannyng of Brunne, Handlyng Synne (
., ,
1300). Genesis Exodus ( X I I I .). Debate of Body and Soul (X III .),
Peterborough Chronicle ( -
1132 1154).
. III (1258 .),
, Adam Davy (
X IV .), .


Richard Rolle de Hampole, The Prick of Conscience (
, , XIV .). Thomas
Castleford. ( X IV .). Towneley Plays
(, X IV .). York Plays (, X V .).

Barbour, Bruce (
, 1375 .). I. The ingis Quhair (
, , XV .).

248.
,

182

. ,
,
,

,
.

.

,
(: brotherhood , redynesse
, herty )
, :
cniht, , ,
( knight)
; sellan
(sellen) , . .
.

249.
^ .
,
.
:

dom ,

fisc

stan

hlaford
wind
dae3
heafod
treo

wis
soO
hal

domr

sunu

fiskr
konongr
steinn
eipr
lavarSr
vindr
dagr
hofo3
tre
kyn
viss
sa5r
heill

heorte
hiarta
tima
time
oxa
oxe, uxe
fot
fotr
faeder
faQer
modor
moOer
seoc
siukr

kuOr
bitan
bita
fleotan
fliota
seo3an
sioDa
bindan binda
weorQan
verOa

bera
beran
stelan
stela
cweOan kueOa

lytel
litell
micel, mycel mikell

gerr
183

sunr

3od

ic
bidan


3 iefu

go9r
ek
bida
gripa
egg
giof

sittan
faran
hebban
standan
hatan
feallan

sitia
fara
hefia
standa
heita
falla

250.
.

.
, ,
, .

, ,
.
, : lagu (.-. law) ,
wrang (.-. wrong) , husbonda (.-. husband)4
, sister , casten (.-. cast) , callen
(.-. call) , taken (.-. take) , feolaga (.-. fellow)
, skye (.-. sky) , , .


3- . peir
hie
they; peirra hira
their; peim him
them. peah
thogh, though.

at ,
: at be .
ado at do.

, : fylcian , lip ,

.

, : by (. ) Kirkby,
Whitby, Derby; toft (. toft) , ,
Langtoft; beck (. bekkr) Troutbeck;
ness (. nes) Inverness, Caithness .
251.
,
,
184

. , ,

.
.
, :


.
. , ,
- 3 iefan ( );
gefa ( g).
, X IV ., yiven, yeven
,
3 iefan. , XV .,
give g.
g
3 . ,
. ,


. , ,
.
, .-. 3 ietan, . geta: X IV .
gete. ' ,
, ,
,
. ,
3-,
:
. , , 3 ieldan
yelden,
yield , ; 3 iernan
yernen, yearn.
.
sweostor, swustor,
suster,
.
systir.
XV ., sister (
[] [i]).
, ,

.
, , .
,

, , . . , ,
.
185

252.
,
X II . X I I I X IV .

;
, 1265 .
.

1.
, ,
, .

, ,
.
,
.
.
:
1.
; .
2. ; ,

, .
3. ,
,
, .
253.
, .
:
1. , .
: prince , , baron ,
noble , governen , government
, royal , court , , justice
, judge , condemnen , aquiten
(.-. acquit), sentence .
king
queen.
2. : werre (.-. war), army
, bataille (.-. battle), regiment , lance
, (coat of) mail , castle , banner ,
harness , , siege , victory .


.
. .

186

3.
: religion ,
saint , frere (.-. friar), preyen (.-.
pray), sermon , conscience , cloistre
(.-. cloister), chapel .
4 : bocher (.-. butcher),
peintre , (.-. painter), tailor .

: miller , shoemaker
, shepherd , smith .
5. : art , colour
, figure , image , column ,
ornament .
6. : plesir (.-. pleas
ure), leysir (.-. leisure), ese (.-. ease),
feste (.-. feast), dinner , soper (.-.
supper), rosten (.-. roast), deintee (.-.
dainty).
, ,
- :
air , place , coveren , river ,
large , change .
, ,
, : amity (
) friendship; moiety
( )
half . .
254. , ,
.
, I . ,
. -
, , :
beef ; calf veal , sheep
mutton , pig pork .

- , ,

, .

beginnen commencen. -
beginnen , a commencen
. .
,
, : work labour, life exis
tence.
,
,
.
137


,
:
Therefore, you clown, abandon, which is in the vulgar leave,
the society, which in the boorish is company, of this female,
which in the common is woman; which together is, abandon the
society of this female, or, clown, thou perishest; or, to thy better
understanding, diest1.
, (society company),
boorish -;
die, -, .
255.
.
, , riviere
; montagne ;
paix fri.
; ,
-.

, , ,

.
,
.

. , ,
haerfest, *
autumn ,
automne,
harvest *. *
.
3ebed, *,
preiere,
preiere, .-. prayer.
beads
, *.
* ,
, ,
,
, *.
256. , ,
.
,
:

W. S h a k e s p e a r e .
As Y o u Lik e It. V, 1, 52;
. J e s p e r s e n Grow th and S tr u c t u r e of the E n g lis h L a n g u a g e . (Oxford ,
1940, p. 9 1 .)

188

,
. . ( mots populai res) . ,
, . deslderare > .- . desirer > . -a. desiren ; .
fr a te r > .- . frere > . -a. frere , ; . c a th ed ra > . . ch aie re > . -a. ch a ir ; . ca m era > .- . ch am b re > .-.
ch a m b re . .
,
I X X I V . ,
(
m ots s av a n ts). , , . d ig n ita te m > . . dignete > . -a. d ig nitee ; . positionem > .- .
position > . -a. positio n . .
,
,
, : physique , , monarque
.
, ,
, : , petti > . tia > .- . piece > . -a. piece ; , garris > .- . gartier > .-. g a r t e r .
257. , , ,
,
. , ,
,
, .
, , .-. werre (.-. war).
w err e, , , wer (. 2 58). .- . gard en g a rd in < .
g a rt o ; .- . w a it e n . w a it ie r < , w ah te n .
258.
.
, . 58 51 . . .
, ,
. , ,
,
, : w err a > . werre, guerre : kausjan > .
ch o is i r . V . . . .
(- ),
, ,
, . 486 .
493 .
.
F r a n c i a . - ,
, ,
.
, .

, .
:
1. : w ard e, guarde * < , w ard a , w a it ie r , guaitie r
< .
w ahte n;
maresch al
< ,
mara h sk alk ; halberc < , halsberg; g ant < .
w a n tu ; gonfan on < , gunjjfano.
2. : wage, gage < .
w a d ja ; harengu e < , hring ; ordel < .
ordail (. . U rteil); b an n ir < , bannen.
3. , . .: faldestuel < , fa ld is tol;
banc < bank.

189

4. : gard in , jard n < , g ard in ; cr evise < .


krebis; esturgeon < , stu r jo .
5. : Charles < . K a rl; Geoffrey < . Gaufrid;
Louis < . H lo d w ig; R i c h a r d < . R ik h a rd ; H enri < . H e in ri k ;
W i ll a u m e , Guillaume < . W i li h e l m ;
Rogie r < .
Hrof>gair;
Rol
and, R olland < . H ro fd and.

.
259.
: ,

, ,
.
: )
, ,
)
, .
.


,
( XI I I .),
. Anc rene R iw le ( ),
,
, .
O rm ulum . ,
. Ancrene R iw le
; O rm u lu m .

260.
, .

; , -,
, : terr e .
,
, . . .
. -,
, ;
, ; ,
. (
) , ;
X V . ( ).
, ;
.
:
h o 'n o u r > 'honour , c o 'ra g e > 'c o rag e
,
n a 't u r e > 'nature , p re 'sen te n , 'present .
261. ,

.
, ,
, ,
, .

- -
.
, ,
,
, , ,
.
,

190

,
,

.

, .
, , V II .
:
, ;
, :
b iscop , munuc . .

.

, ( )
, ,
. , ,
: .

riv iere, riv er.
,
. , , ,
-
serve(n) servir; onfon
rec eve(n) re ce vo ir .
, ,
, ,
. , baron
, .



262. ,

. :
,
,

,
.


, : husbandry , , goddess
.
.

263.
-a n c e , - e n c e : ign o ran ce , arr ogance, en tran ce, repentance, innocence
. . ,

191

.
hindrance ,
hinder .
- m e n t,
, governm ent, t r e a t m e n t , agreem en t, ,
:
fulfilment , b ereavem en t , am a ze m en t ,
bew ild erm ent , .
-ess ( ),
, ,
princess, co untess, baroness.
: sh epherdess , goddess , m u r
deress .

-et, : coron et , ca b in et .
- , : islet , circ let
. -let,
: s t r e a m l e t , ringlet , leaflet
.
-age, c o u ra g e, c a r ri a g e , m a r ri a g e .,

luggage , leakage .
-,
I (
- a tu m ), ,
- , ,
: l e s s e e , , .
tru ste e
.
-ard ( )
coward , bastard .
w i z a r d (
wis ), drunkard , dullard ;
niggard .
-al ( . -aille)
. fune
ral , refusal , proposal .
burial .
- ab le , -ible,
, ,
a d m irab le , tolera ble, legible, flex ible .
readable
, unbearab le , understandable .

264.
.
, , d i s - f des-, ,
(disapp o in t, disdain)

: disown , disburden : d is
trust .
- ( . in-), ,
encage , encircle . .,
endear , embed
( nb > mb).

192

265. XI ., . .
, ,
:
1. ,
(francien) Ile-de-France.
2. , ,
.
3.

.
,
,
. ,
,
,
.
: - ( -) .
-
:
.
:
And Frensh she spak ful faire and fetisly,
After the scole of Stratford atte Bowe,
For Frensh of Paris was to hir unknowe2.
- ,
;
.
- ,
X II X III ., (Wace),
.
X IV . - ;
,
, -
Speculum meditantis Mirrowr de lhomme (
[]).

- , -

.
X IV . ,
.


.
2 G C h a u c e r . Canterbury Tales. Prologue. 1 2 4 126.

. .

193

266. -
-ei, -
e + i: lei < .-. legem ; preie
< .-. preda; veile < .- . veia; s treit < -.
st re ctu m ; leisir < .-. lecere.
- -ei ,
-ei -oi (
loi, proie, voile, etro i t, loisi _ [ w a]).
-
.
u: f < .-. florem; hure < .-. horam;
honur < .-. honorem; colour < .-. co lorem ; iabur
< .-. l a l w e m .

, ( eu); fleur,
heure, co ule ur, labeur.
- +
- u: munt < .- . m o n te m ; frunt ' < .-.
fr ontem; round < .-. rot ondum > rotondu.

ga.
: c a m b re < .-. ca m e r a m ; ca ch ie r < .- . c a p ti a ; g a rd in < , g a rd in .
[tfa] ( c h a ) , ga [d a] ( j a ): ch a m b re , ch asser, ja rd in .
[tf] ( ch ) [ t s ] ,
: cach ie r < .- . ca ptiare, lanch ier < .-. l a n cia re .
, w-,
w- , : w e r r e < .
w e rr a ; wage < , w a d i ; w ard e r < , w a r t e n ; W i l
lia m < . W i li h e l m .
w- gu-: gue rre , gage, g ua rde r, G uillaum e.
+ ,
+ ,
- a u : chaunce , d aun ce , co maunder
, b raunch e . ;
, X I V ., ,
[], [ n t j ] , [ m b j : st ra n g e , bra nch e, c h a m b re .

267.
, ,
-
.
.
-. ,
viage ' - veiage;
voyage. carite (.
caritatem);
charite.
, catch chase.
captiare,

: catch , chase ,
.
194

268.
, : [tj]
[J], ch ;
[1] [],
g, j . oi [wa]
. ,
,
, .

269.
.
,
.



.

270.
:
(. . )
.
.
( ,
59) ,
.

, ,
, -
. ,
, ,
, . . era
.
, -,
,
.
, ,
.
,
; ,
.
7*

195

, ,
.
, ,

( 292). ,

,
. ,
;
, ,
, .

.


271. ,
, . , cepte > kepte (
), fedde > fedde (
feden ), wisdom > wisdom
(. wis ).

( ).
,
: Id, nd, mb: binden , wende
( wenen ), herde (
).

, ,
st, msesta, masta
, laesta , eastan > esten . .
, st
: maest, mast, laest, est. ,
breost > brest , bla est> blast ,
fyst > fist, dust > dust , . .
.

: laferce > laferce > larke
, hali 3dae3 > haliday
, superne> sutherne
,.


272. X I I I . .
-

,
196

. , , .
X I I ., X I I I .
. ? Q,
, ; ,
; Q Q .
: caru > ; talu > tale
, macian > maken , nama > name , werian >
w^ren , stelan > stolen , speken > sp^can ,
hopian > hppen , smocian > smpken .
i ;
, . . i > , > , : w ikes >
wekes , yfel > ifel > evel , dures > d o r e s .
;
- .

: .

. ,
,
; , , .- . hwael ,
hwalas : : hwal (
) : hwales ( ).
; whale
[weil], w hales [weilzj
. , ,
, : . - . heofon ,
heofones : h^ven
( ), hevnes ( ).

[ h e v n ] , heaven ,
; ,
[ h i : v n ].
, , .
, ,
. , .- . gamen
, g am nes > .- . g am e, gam ne, .-. game [geim]
g am m o n ]'] (. b a ckg am m o n ); . - .
sceadu , sceadwe, .-. shade, sh adw e, .- shade
[fei d] () shadow [ ' J*aedou] (); . a. m d
, maedwe > .-. m$de, medwe, .-. mead [ mi:d]
(.) meadow ['m e d o u l .

273.
.

nd, Id, mb ( 59); ,
,
.
. : wild [i:],
[ai]; bewilder
, wilderness [i]; child
[i:] > [ai], children
[i]; hind , behind [i:] > [ai], hindrance
, hinder [i]
197

, , [i] wind ,
, ,
windmill (.
wind [waind] , ).

. .-. , >
many [' ] , ; , > any [ 'e m ]
-, raedi3 , raedse > ready ['redi] .

274. .

. -
: , ;
, . . , - ,
a: man, .
-.
,
Q.
, , , : fa >
fp , ham > hQm , > gpn , rad > rQd ,
snaw > snpw , stan > stQn , ban > bpn ,
> mpre , hat > hpt , cnawan > knpwen .

275.
a: glaed > glad , aeppel > appel , waes > was .
- (West Midland)
: aeppel > eppel, waes > wes.
. 1 ,
: slaepan > sl^pen , laetan > l^ten .
(, ) 1
,
: slepen,
leten.
, ,
-
, , ,
,
, -
.
,
198

2 (
),
, ,
: dsel > dl , sse >
.
2 ,
: del, se.


2 7 6 .
. -
i. ;
. ,
, [],
; , fyrst
first , ferst
fyrst
; , hy 11 hill,
hell, hyll. [] > [i] ,
[], [i]
i. []
, ,
.
. ,
, fyr fir -
, f , fuir - . [] ui.
- []
, [tii] [],
, fruit , suit .


2 7 7 . , , i, , :
bettre , tellan > tellen , >
, tef) > teth , sinsan > singen , wille ,
writan > writen , tima > time , folc > folk .
: fot ,
> .
X I I I . [] > [].
[];
ui. , gud , buk , fut .
, : sunu > sone
['suno] , full , hu > how , tun > town ,
fit > out .
199

278.
.
( ).
: eald > aid , healf > half , earm > arm
. Id
.
e a ld > e a ld > ld , : healden >
> halden , eald > ^ld , tealde > t^lde .
(
); Id
Q, : aid > aid > Qld, haldan > halden > holden, talde > talde > tplde.
; Id
, : aid > aid,
haldan > halden, talde > talde.
,
,
,
. , ,
,
,
. , ,
eald
aid.
,
,
, aid Qld ( .-.
old).
i- Id . .
: ie > , -
, (, -
) .
() , : ieldra, ldra > iilder
, fiellan, fyllan > fiillen .
- > a: alder, fallen.
, -
: elder, fellen.
h +
.
eah > eh, eih, : seah > seh, seigh ,
eahta > eighte ; eah > ah, auh,
: saugh, aghte, aughte. i-
h h +
ie, i, : mieht, miht ;
,
2 00

i: meht, miht.
might,
might [mait]
(. 506).
2 7 9 .
. : beam > ; stream > strfm ;
hleapan > l^pen ; east > $st ; leaf > l^f ;
feawe > ffwe ; dead > d|d ;
deap > d|th
; bread > brfd .
ye, y a , :
dead > dyed, dyad .
ye: deop > dyep . ,
, .
2 8 0 . ,
- -
X I V . ( );
X I I . . : heorte > horte, herte
, steorra > storre, sterre , steorfan > storven, sterven
.
i- ie > i,
, io > ,
io > i ;
> . , fyrre > fiirre, firre, ferre
; yrre > iirre, irre, erre .
,
,
, , : seofon >
soven, seven ; heofon > hoven, heven .
2 8 1 . eoh t ig h t
; ight : knight
; tighten ; .-. knight [nait], fight [fait]
(. 506).
2 8 2 .
( ), : deop > dep, deep ,
deor > der, deer , ceosan > chesen , seoc > sek,
seek .
io, i
, ; , ,
> , : siolfo r > seolfor > selver .

2 8 3 . . ie, i,
-
i, ii: 3 ietan > yiten, yiiten , 3i e l d a n > y i l den, yulden , .-.
: yeten, yelden. yiven, given
201

-
. ,
,
: sceacan > shaken , sceolde >
sholde .

284.
. , ,
( []),
, , - > - :
bindan > binden, tel 1an > tellen . .; sunu > su ;
-as > -es: stanas > stpnes .

.
X I I I .,
, , ,,
. , ,
i, : askid
, bundin , - -u: fadur ,
stonus .

285. ,
( ,
), i
i, [tj*], :
cild > child , wrecca > wrecche , hwilc >
which , aelc > ch , bisecan > bisechen ,
tsecan > t^chen , streccan > strecchen ,
1 > lacchen , > r^chen ,
cirice > chirche , ic > ich , cycen > kichen ,
switch > swich, such ( < *swilic).


. ,
. : kirk
, mikel , birk , ik .
[] seken , pinken
, penken , rekken , wirken
(.-. sec(e)an, pync(e)an, penc(e)an, recc(e)an, wyrc(e)an)
2 3-
secst, seep, pencst, pyncp
. ., .
202

286. [sc] [J]: scip >


ship , sceal > shal , scfnan > shinen .

[] [tf], [sk] [J], : seken
bisechen ; picken pitchen ;
bank , bench ; scateren
shateren . skirt
shirt , screchen , shreken
[sk].
287.
[da], : bryca > bridge , h r y c a >
ridge , , > edge , , > midge
, secaan > seggen , bycaan > biggen ;
senaean > sengen, singen henae >
hinge .
seggen, leggen seien, sayen,
leyen, layen,
seide, saide (<saeade), leide, layde (<*laeade).
288. f ,
: faeder > vader , faet > vat , fox > vox ,
fla e sc > v l^ s h , freond > vrend , fyrst > viirst, verst
, for > vor , , finger > vinger , fela >
v^le .
s -
, : syn ne>zen n e , s e c a a n >
ziggen , swerian > zw^rien , seolfor > zelver
,1 seofon > zeven .
289. v
, : hafoc ,
hafces > havkes > haukes (
hauk); nafoaar > navgar > nauger2.

, -,
- .
-
: a nauger > an a u g er .

(- m eta n a ly sis).
,
, -. , , . -a. efete
. -a. ewte, newte (an ew te > a n e w t e ), .-. newt.
. -a. ekename , .-. n ick n am e .
.- . ( . ) .- . apron (
napron > an ap ro n).
,
-s, ,

. , . -a. aelmesse (

203

, : hlaefd 1 > lavdi > lady


, heafdes ( heafod ) >
h^vdes > h^des h^d; hlaford > lpverd > lprd , ; laferce > lavrke > larke
.
v : a e fre > ^ v e r, , pfer > pver, Qr .
290. h- ,
hi-, hn-, hr-, : hlaford > lprd , ,
hnutu > nute , hrin 3 > r i n g .
, hn-, hi-, hr-
, 1 ,
.
291.
maken : makede > makde >
made; maked > makd > mad.
take(n) : taken > takn > tan.

292.
,
, , ( 278),
.
.
[j]
[]
.
293.
i, , , -,
, . .
,

w. ,
:
1. i:
83 > a i , ay, : > dai, day , mae3 > m a i , may
, 1 > lai, lay , fae3er > fair, fayr
.
. a l im o s in a , eleem osy ne ) .- . almes > .- .
alms; .- . rich esse ( . richesse) .- . rich es; .- .
.-. b urie l, .-. burial (
funeral, );
. ch e rise (cerise) .- . .- . c h e rr y .

204

> ei, , : v/ > wei, wey , se^l > sei 1 ",


> rein ,

> ei, , : > grei, grey , > hei .


2. w:
> aw, : 1 > drawen , > gnawen
> ow

, sa 3u > sawe , .
( ), :
.

> Qwen


,
,
, , (. 49).
[j] [ ]
,
.
: 1) ,

; 2) 1
,
.
3. :

i + 3 > I , : i3el > II , ti 3ele > tile ; si 3pe >


sithe .
: sti 3en > stien .
y + 3 > ( - ),
: > ; > bieth ;
- - + >
iii: riiie, biiieth; : y + 3 > e i : reye, beieth.
> ( - ),
: dry3e > d r i e ; -
- y + 3 > G i , u: druie, driie,
y + 3 > e i : dreie.
+ h > eih > ih, : heah > heih > high ; n e a h >
neih > nigh .
-f , h > ei > , : 1 > leien > lien ; peoh>
thigh .
4. :
+ > ( ou, ow), : fu3ol > foul *.
u + 3 > G ( ou, ow), : > bowen
, .
, w
() I :
1 > lw, : 3al 3e > g a l w e ,

> rw, : > morwen ; bor 3 ian > borwen


; fol 3ian > folwen .
205


2 9 4 . ,
h,
:
a - f h > a u h , a u g h , : naht (<*n aw iht) > naught ;
rahte > raughte .
a H - h > ough ( ), :
dah > dough ; a + h >
> ag h : dagh.
o + h < o u g h , :
brohte > broughte
, troh >
trough .
o + h > 6 u g h , u g h , : ploh > plough , boh > bough
, > inough .
ough ,
,
(. 243).
(. 494) ,
.
2 9 5 . ,
[], . . - -,
X I I I [t j] , [ l t j ] , [ntj4].
, , .-a. mycel
['miitjel] > ['m u tjel]; .-a. swylc [swflltJ]>
> [swultj] > [swutj4]; .-. ['kiitjan] > ['kutJen];
clyccan cliichen > cluchen; crycc >
criicche > crucche; 1 > ciiggel > cuggel; blyscan
> bliishen > blushen; rysce > rush > rush;
frysce > thriishe > thrushe.
, much, such, crutch, thrush, X V
.

2 9 6 .
. ,
,
:
.
[],
, , -.
, , []

;
[iu] []. , , nature
[natiir], [natiur] [nateur]. []
,
206

eow;
ew.
[],
.
ew () ,
ew . ,
hewe , (.-. heow, hiw)
hue due ;
trewe ('.-. treowe)
trewthe (.-. treowp) true, truth.
clewe (.-. cliwe, cleowe)
: clew clue
( . .),

. rewen (.-. hreowan)
ruen, reuthe
ruth (. ruthless
).
,
ew; ,
crue ( , ,
, . crue,
croistre, croitre ) crew.
mue ( . mue) mew;
.-. ( . pui) pew.
.-. nuell , '
( . newel), newel.
[] ( )
. boeuf [bof] ,
beef [be:f]. people ( [:pi]) , -,
[].
297.
[], [], [2], [], [].
[], . .
,
. [in], [], [on], [Hn].
,
,
. [in], [Tm] ( in,
im) in, im: instance , ,
simple .
[], [ ] , em: offence
, assent , mention , sense ,
entren , member , tempest , resemblen
. [] aun: abandon
, mansion ; chaunce , chaunge ,
207

comaunden , dauncen , graunten


. [on] [u:n] ( oun, own): round
, fount , noun , renown ,
sound , count , counsel .
[] - .



298.
, ,

. ,
:
1. , . .
.
2. ei, .
.
3.
;
.
4. [v] [z]
(. 301).
5. , , .
, X I I I XIV .,
.

( 479).

299.
.

, -,
. oi
,
.
, : point,
joint, poise. ,
, . . , toy (.
. Zeug , ) buoy
, boy
.
oi .
203

300. ,
, .

,
, . . , .
,

,

.

, .
301. [f] [v]
, ,
:
(.
).
.
, X I I I X I V .
[ v ] ,
,
v (. 240). , ,
: v ain , , v a lu e , veyne ,
vengeaunce , v erray , vic e , v i r t u e .
, [v]
. , ,
-, - ,
-. - ,
.
, , [ v ] .
, [ v ]
( , , -
):

68

he was an esy man to yiv e penaunce



(C anterb ury Tales)
men mote y iv e silv er to the poure freres

(ib id .)
to yeve and lene him of his owne good

( i b i d .)
1-
I h a v e , God w oot, a
, ,

:
large feeld to ere

(.
)
( i b i d .)

,
[f] [v] , :
,
: [f] [v]
.
, [f]
, , . .
[ v ] , parfit , counterf ete
, , cofre . .
,
:

209

, f
, , ,
: ff] [ v ] .

302 . ,

. -, ,
,
. [v]
-
, ,
-
.

,
.

303.
- . ,
,
.
, ,
i: kin (.-a. cynn); fir (.-a. fyr); litel
(.-. lytel).
() . , .-.
merie, .-. ,
berien (
). ,
,
- i, : dreye
(.-. dryse), kesseri (.-. cyssan), fest
(.-. fyst).
. ie, ,
,
, : sheld , shelden (.-. .
scield, scieldan, , sceld, sceldan).
. hieran , , heran
heren. . 3ieldan , .
3eldan yelden (),
ilden ().
.
Id
, - ,
Q, : g\d , hplden .

.
: ld, h^lden.
210

, eah
- , !, :
(.-. ); hye (.-. heah).
: eye, heye.
:

, . . [], [ai]
( , 479), , . .
eye.
,
: high [hai].

304. ( 98),
; ,
, ,
-i -, - -.
, - -
.
.
X I X I I I . ,
, .

;
, . .
, ,
.
305.
,
. ,

.
( 249) ,

, ,
. -
,
,
. , ,
,
.
, ,
. , ,
211

sunu,
sunr. sun-,
, ,
- - .
-
sunu [] (.-. sune).
.
306.
X I X II .

.
-, . .
. X II .
: -es

stQn
dor -es ( .- . -as)

stpn.
-es. X I I . -es
,

. , , name
: names,
,
names; tunge :
tunges; , ,
tunges.
,

: men, fet .
307.
.
,

; , ,
,
-: name ,
tunge , .
:
stanas, stana,
stanum, stanas, :
stones, stone, stonen,
stones. ,

,
212


.
-
-es.
.
308. ,
,
.


. , ,
- -as
( )
.
. ,
,
,
.
.

:
.
-as
-es .
-as

, -es

- .


.
,
-es
.
,
, .
309.
: .

:


.

.
m uru s
, muru m

muri
muros

miirs
rniir

rniir
miirs

;
.
filia
, filia m

filiae
filias

213

f i lie
filie

filles
filles


; ,

. ,
X I V ., - X I I . ,
-
-s (mur miirs), . .
,
. ,
-


. , ,
, ,
.

310.
, ,
.


,
. ,
.



.

., . stpn
.
stpnes
.
stpn(e)

stpnes
stpne, stpnes
stpnes

dor
d^res
dpr(e)

.
d^re,
d$re,

d^re,

d$res
dQres
dQres

.,
.
.

. name
name
name

namen
namen(e)
namen

eye
eye
eye

eyen
eyen(e)
eyen

, , . .
. ,
, , ,
, ,
.
214


(- , -)
;
- ,
-.
-
,
, : ar, synn.
, : hond ,
might , cow .

:
.

.,
.
.

care
care

caren
caren(e)
caren

tunge
tunge
tunge

tungen
tungen(e)
tungen

-
,
-es,
: child ei .
cildru ;
children eiren.
,


( 100), :

., .
.
.

man
fot
mannes
fotes
manne, man fote, fot

toth
tothes
tothe, toth

gos
mus
gose
muse
gose, gos muse, mils

., . men
fet
teth
ges
mis
.
manne, men fote, fet tothe, teth gose, ges muse, mis
.
mannen, men foten, fet tothen,teth gose, ges muse, mis
boc, bok ;
boken, bokes. burh
,
.
byri 3 > buri, biri,
215

bery (. 276)
,
, : Canterbury <
< .-. Cantwarabyris, Cantwaraburs;
Atterbur < .-. aet .


,
,
.
-es stpn dor
; -es
(.-. -as)
stpn; , ,

311. X IV . (, ),
,
.
.

.. ., ., stpn
care dor
.
stpnes cares dpres

stpnes
stpnes

cares
cares

dpres
dpres

, -f, -th,
, : l i f ,
lives, lives; path ,
pathes ( []), pathes.
,

, :
.

., ., . man
men
.
mannes mennes

fot
fotes

fet
fetes

,
.

: thing , ,
hors , shep , swin , der .

: winter
, , moneth , night . ,
, -es ;
thinges, yeres, monthes.
216

,
,
-: oxen; eye, eyen,
yen; fo ton; to ton.
sceoh ,
,
-n: shoshon. -
brother brethren, doghter
, doghtren
suster sustren.
312.
. to, ,
, of.
.
to ,
, .-. eode to his huse ,
:
,
.
of ,
, , .-. he dyde helm of hafelan
; byrelas sealdon win of wunder-fatum
,
: , :
the droghte of Marche , ,
langagis of Norphumbres .
wip,
, , , : 3cfeaht wip pone here
,
: spoken with tonge .

: to +
,
of +
,

wip +
. (. 330 332).
,
,
, ,
, , ,
, .
, -, :
,

,
.
217

313.

(
) .
.
,
, .
, ,
,
, ,
,
:
, ,
,
[], .

. . . . *,
,
. . . ,
( , , )
,
.
.
, ,
.
. . .
,
, , . .
,
,
.
,
, .
, : , ,
. .
.

,
,
.


314.
- :

.
.

1 .

2 .

I, ich

thow
the

he
him

he, she hit, it


hir, her hit, it

.: . . .

.
, , 2, 1951.

218

.
.

1 .

2 .

3 .

we
us

yow

hi,
they
hem, them


:
1. .
2.
( , . ).
3.
;
(him,
hir, hem), (hit); me, the,
us, yow
.
4. 3-
they
hie; (
) , .
5. h hit , ,
,
.
6. she, ,

seo, heo.
, ,
.
315. :

1 .

2 .
.

min, mi

thin, thl

his

1 .

2 .

our

your

3 .

hir, her his

hire, their

min, thin ,
h,
: myn elbowe , myn herte ,
thyn ooth , thy ire ,
: hoolly to be thyn .
,
, : myn be the
travail, and thyn be the glorie ,
. ,
,
my, thy: blisse , thy vengeaunce
* thy child . ,
219

min, thin my, thy


, .
sume of urum, sume of
eowrum -:
ouren, youren,
ourn, yourn; hisn, hern, theirn.

-s,
, , , : the
body is the housebondes ; X IV .
: pis lond salle be yours
.
316.
of
,
a, any, every , : a frend of his
; hors of his ; old
felov of youres ; eny neghebour of myne - ; every knight of
his .


317.
se, seo ,
, -.
, , pat
.
XIV ., , f a t
.

. pps ( .-. pas,

pes) pat.


$ 1'

.
.
.
.

pes,
pen, pan
, pe

per
per

pat,
pes,
pen,
pat,

pet

pan, pe
pet, pe
220

,
per,
pen,
peo,

pe
pe

ps '

.
.
.
.

]3es
pisses
pisse
pesne

pisse
pisse
peos

1peos

]3i
pisses
pisse
pis

pcos
pisse
pissen
peos

X II I .
. , , (.
1200 .) to pan kinge (.-. to
cyninge), mid p a n flode (dp.-a. mid flode), t o
Ancren Riwle of pen epple (dp.-a. of aepple)
mid te word ( , mid pe word;
dp.-a. mid worde). To
.
(X IV .)
.
, pes,

: this (

pis), thise, thes;
that (
paet),
tho, thps.


318.
.
.
.
.

whp, who
wh(3s, whos
whpm, whom

what
whps, whos
what

hwy>why

.


319.
( ) self
himself, herself
themselves. herself
:
.
self ,
221

,
,
: my
self, thyself, ourself, yourself.
.
myselven, himselven, , -,
.
,
.


320. paet,


(. 107, 112),
that,
. : of smale
houndes hadde she, that she fedde with rosted flessh
, '.
( X IV .)
, : which,
whiche who (
whom) , . : this mayde, of which I wol
this tale expresse ,
'; who hath no wyf, he is no cokewold ,
'.

321.

3ehwa 3ehwilc .

^ , selc
, swilc se ilea ; sum
- -; "
either, ech, swich, that ilke,
som, any, noon . ,

the same .

322.
.

222

, .
, ,

,

( 30, ).

.

-. ,
- [],
:

., ., ., .

god

gode

., ., ., .

gode

gode

:
-,
.
, -, : newe
, trewe .

323.
-(e)r, -est (.-. --, -ost),
:
gr^t *
gretter
grettest
glad
gladder
gladdest
fayr *
fayrer
fayrest
324.
:
pld
long
strong

elder
lenger
strenger

eldest
lengest
strengest

325.
1, :

god
evil
muchel
litel

*
*

bettre
werse
mpre
lasse
223

best
werst
mpst, mijst
lst

326.
more profitable, most faithful.
. ,
,
, more most
.

(. 537).
, ,
: and for to make yow the more mery,
I wol my-selven gladly with yow ryde
, ; and whan ye
han examined your conseil as I have seyd, and which partie is
the bettre and more profitable, and hast approved it by manye
wyse folk and olde; thanne shal thou considere . . .
, ,
,
, . . . ; for more solempne
in every mannes sight this feste was, and gretter of costage,
than was the revel of hir mariage
,
; considere whiche of hem been moost
feithful , ; and she the
mooste servysable of alle ;
Nature held on hir honde a formel egle, of shap the gentileste
that ever she among hir werkes fonde, the most benigne and the
goodlieste ,
, ,
.

327.
: 1 (.-. ). 2 two (.-. twa,
). Q>6
w (. whp>who).
tweie(n) (
twesen).
3 thre (.-. ,
). 4 fower, four (.-. feower).
. 5 five
( fife,
f if . . fif). 6 six (.-. siex, six).
7 seven (.-. seofon). 8 eighte (.-. eahta). 9 ,
nin, nfne, nyne (dp.-a. ni 3on) 10 ten (dp.-a. tien, ten
224

). 11 enleven, elleven (.-. endleofan).


12 twelf, twelve (.-. twelf). 13 thirtene (dp.-a. prittiene).
14 fourtene (dp.-a. feowertiene). 15 fiftene (dp.-a. flftiene
). 16
sixtene (dp.-a. sixtiene). 17 seventene (.-. seofontiene). 18
eightetene, eightene (.-. eahtatiene). 19 nisentene, nintene
(dp.-a. ni 3ontiene). 20 twenty (dp.-a. tw en ti3<*tw e3enti3).
3 0 thritti, thirty ( r, dp.-a. pritti)- 40 fourty
(dp.-a. feowertis). 50 fifty (dp.-a. fifti 3). 6 0 sixty (dp.-a.
sixti3). 7 0 seventy (dp.-a. hundseofontis). ,
, h u n d . 8 0 eighty (.-. hundeahtatis). 9 0 ninty (.-. hundni 3onti 3). 100 hundred (.-.
hundred, hund). 1 000 thousand (dp.-a. fmsend).
29, 73 : nine
and twenty, thre and seventy.
,
,
millioun
*.

328. , ,
:
1 first ( .-. fyrest *, ,
.-. forma ). 2 second ( .
second; .-. ). 3
thirde (.-. pridda, * pirda
). 4 fourthe (.-. feower^a). 5 fifte (.-.
fifta). 6 sixte (.-. sixta). 7 sevethe, seventhe (.-. seofoQa;
.-. -n -
seven). 8 eighte (.-. eahtofto). 9 nlnthe (.-. ;
- - nin). 1 0 tenthe
(.-. teopa; - -
ten)1. eleventhe (.-. endleofta). 12 twelfth (.-a. twelfta). 13 19
-tenthe;
(.-. teofa). 20 90

-tith e<d p .-a. -ti^o^a.

1 .- .
8

te o{ja > cp .-a .

. .

tith e > .-a .


225

tith e

[ taidj

*.


329.
. ,
.

( 122).
,
.
Q ( 274),
gn;

.
, Qn ,
, - Q,
.

, .


.

330.
,

,
. ( ,

).


. ,
, .
331.
: ,
.
, : whylom, as olde stories tellen us, ther was a duk that highte Teseus;
of Athenes he was lord and governour ,
, , ;
; .
: this mayde was of age twelf yer and tweye
; syns I twelf
yer was of age .

. ,
226

, :
Aprille with his shoures soote the droghte of March hath perced
to the rote
;
, : he nevere yet no vileynye
ne sayde in al his lyf unto no maner wight
.

, : now go
your wey ; and as he prikede north
and est ; sche wep both
eve and morwe ; it was almost
a spanne brood ; they were
not on ynche asonder
. . ;
that from this toun ne stant but myles thre
; whan he endu
red hadde a yeer or two in this cruel torment ,
; that in my
chamber longe tyme hath i-be
; that slepen al the night with open ye
;
it was me told er ye comher
two houres
,
; . : and if I myght excuse hit any
wise - ; the
somer passeth, and the nightes longe encrescen double wise the
peynes stronge both of the lover and the prisoner ,

, .
,
, ,
, : he yaf the lord .. . sum maner
honest thing . . . - .


(. 383).

to, :
I shal it never telle to child ne wyf
, ; that noman telle his conseil to his
wyf ;
and they to his comaundement obeye
.

332.
, ,
: in his hertes botme gan to striken of hire his fixe
and deepe impressioun
8*

227

; in hope to stonden in
his lady grace ()
; myn owen herte sothfaste suffisaunce
.

of,

, : the droghte of Marche ;
from every shires ende of Engelond
.
, , : he shal wel bee
oon of the gretest men of my contree , ,
; :
whereas he saugh upon a daunce go of ladyes four and twenty
and yit mo ,
; of maystres hadde he moo than thryes ten
, .
333. ,
( 314, 318),
.

, ,
: at Alisaundre he was, whan it was wonne
, ; Art thou nat he, quod
she. ? .

334.
: he lefte hir lye, and on his weye
is went (.: )
.

: youre humanitee assureth us and yeveth us hardinesse
; fortune hath given us this adversitee
; my mooder yaf it me .
, :
another nonne with hir hadde she
; so hadde 1 spoken with hem everichon
(.: ).

335. ^
, , ,
.
228

on
, ( )

-. , aflote
1023 .
:
1. aswowne:
. . . t i l he cam to the selle up-on the floor; and ther aswowne he
lay . . . ;
; yet aswowne he lay . . .
; and with that word she fil aswowne anon
.
2. afered:
of his visage children were aferd
(.: ); for soore afered of
his deeth was he ; royal he was,
he was namoore aferd , .
3. aslepe:
tomorwe at nyght, whan folk ben alle aslepe ,
; for she was falle aslepe a lite
wight ; thy litel witte was thilke
tyme aslepe ; the nyght
is wasted and he felle aslepe , 1.
4. awepe:
and she began to breste awepe anon
.
5. alyve:
for he was yet in memorie and alyve
; no man hath swich that in this world alyve is
( ), ;
and yet more-over, thogh alle tho that ever lived were now alyve
. . . , , - ,
. . . ; . . . t h a t al the folk that is - l i v e . ...
, . . . .
336. ,
-
. ,
,
.

, ,
,
.

. J e s p e r s e n
G r a m m a r . P a r t VI. (Copenhagen, 1942, p. 127 128.)

229

M odem

E ng lis h

337. ,
(, , -
), .
,
, ,
. ,
.


338.
.
-,
-on - []. IV V

,
, . .
, .
,
(II, III ).
.
- -.

.
.
, , X IV .
339.
:

.
. .

.
. .

/
writen
riden

wrgt
rgd

writen
riden

writen
riden

chpsen

chpsen

I I
chosen

ch^s
230

I l l
a) drinken
singen
winnen
binden
b) helpen
) kerven
fighten

drank
sang
wan
bpnd
halp
carf
fa(u)ght

dronken
songen
wonnen
bounden
holpen
corven
foughten

dronken
songen
wonnen
bounden
holpen
corven
foughten

b^ren, bar
stolen, stal
spoken

bpren
stolen
sppken

g?ten, gat

g^ten

shoken
drowen,
wen

shaken
drawen

IV
b^ren
stolen
spoken

bar
stal
spak

V
g^ten

gat

VI
shaken
drawen

shok
drough, drew

dre-

V II
fallen
knowen
hplden
wepen

fellen
knewen
helden
wepen

fell
knew
held
wep

fallen
knowen
hplden
wepen

VI dp.-a. drasan droh dr63o n drasen slean ' sloh slo 3on slaesen
drawen droh
(drow) drowe(n) drawen; slen sloh (slow) slowe(n) slain.


V II .- cnawan , cneow cneowon
cnawen, .- . knowen knew knfewen knowen.


(. 346, 347).
340. ,
IV V
.
, V
, IV , . .
.
sp(r)ecan , wefan
, wrecan , tredan ;
V, IV .
231

sp(r)ecan
wef an
wrecan
tredan

sp(r)aec
waef
wraec
traed

sp(r)aecon
waef on
wraecon
traedon

sp(r)ecen
wefen
wrecen
treden

spoken
w^ven
wr^ken
tr^den

spak
waf
wrak
trad

spQken
w^ven
wr^ken, wrQken
treden, trpden

spoken
w^ven
wr^ken
tr^den

beodan
bead budon boden (II ; .
bieten) biddan baed baedon beden (V
, ; . bitten).
beden b^d bpden
bQden, bidden bad b^den b^den;
bidden.
bidden
, , a beden ,
.
.
bidden
beden . X IV .
:
bidden I
beden /

/ b^den
( bpden

b^den
bpden

II :
fleah
fleah .
,
.
341- ,
( 133),
:
1) III

KJI.

V .

2)

V .

yelden
yelpen
yiven,
given
yeten,
geten
liggen, lien
sitten

yald
yalp
yaf, gaf
yat, gat
lay
sat
232

yolden
yolpen
y?ven,
g^ven
y?ten,
g?ten
leien
s^ten

yolden
yolpen
yiven, given
yeten, geten,
goten
leien
s^ten

VI .

II .
V .

sworen
h$ven
laughen
stepen
shapen
flen
sen

VI .
VII .

sl?n
fangen

II

III .

IV .

VI

swor
hof
lough
stop, stap
shop
fleigh
seigh,
saugh
slew
feng, fong
heng
l?k

hangen
luken, loken
shoven
bersten
breden
threshen
runnen
comen

shof, shef
bars!
braid
thrash
ran
com, cam

nimen

nom,

standan

stod

nam

sworen
hoven
loughen
stopen
shopen
flowen
sawen

sworen
hoven
laughen
stopen
shapen
flowen
seyen, se

slewen
fengen,
fongen
hengen
lQken

slain
fangen

shpven
borsten

shQven
borsten

throshen
runnen
comen, camen
nomen, na
men
stoden

throshen
runnen
comen

hangen
lQken

nomen
standen

liggen ['1]
.-. , lien
.

: 1 : gripen , II : ,
eleven, flen, VII : wepen, slepen, walken, dreden, r$den.


342.
.
I ,
- i - (styrian), II
(lufian, macian) -i - ,
stiren, loven, maken.
-i a n > -ie n -i, :
lovi. II ,
(lufode, macode, lufod,
macod) -e [] (lovede, makede, loved, maked)
. III
seggen, libben, habben
233

seien, liven, haven,


, 2 3-
.

343. XIV .
1, n,

f (v) -d -t;
-rd, -nd, -Id
-rte, -nte, -lte
-rt, -nt, -It. , , II
leornian leornode leornod , bereafian fode bereafod , losian losode losod , ,
I daelan daelde daeled ,
felan felde feled , maenan maende maened
, laefan laefde laefed , hlaenan hlaende
hlaened , 3 yrdan 3yrde 3 yrd , 1dan 3ylde 3yld , by 1dan bylde by Id ,
bendan bende bend , rendan rende rend *,
send an sende send , scendan scende scend
, spendan spende spend , wendan wende wend
lernen lernte lernt; spellen spelte spelt; ber^ven
berefte (berafte) bereft (beraft); losen loste lost; d^len dlte
(dalte) delt (dalt); felen felte felt; m^nen mente ment;
leven lefte (lafte) left (laft); l^nen lente lent; girden girte girt; gilden gilte gilt; bilden bilte bilt; benden bent e bent; renden rente rent; senden sente sent; shenden
shente shent; spenden spente spent; wenden wente went.

344.
.
III
( ): biernan barn burnen burnen (
).
I ( ) baernan baernde baerned
(, ).
; ,
. ,
, .
XIV . burnen,
. , ,
.

ingen rang rungen
rungen III ,
ng i.
345. I
:
234

sellen
tellen
r^cchen
strecchen
byen
thenken, thinken
werken
bringen
recchen
seken, sechen
t^chen
lacchen

splde
tplde
raughte
straughte
boughte
thoughte
vvroughte
broughte
roughte
soughte
taughte
laughte

spld
tpld
raught
straught
bought
thought
wrought
brought
rought
sought
taught
laught

346. ,
, , : ca lle n,
w a n te n , gessen; taken ( . taka) VI
(
) t a k e n tok token taken .
th riv en . {Irifa I
: th r iv e n thr f th r iv e n thriven.
dwellen dwelte dwelt ,
(
. dvelja) felen.
clafiian clafiode c l a f o d
cl^th e n lathed cloth ed;
cladde clad (
klaedde klaefia ).
ridden ( redden, rudden)
hreddan (. . retten )
ryfija .
f 1ingen ( flengja
) I I I () ,
singen. slingen ( . slongva) ,
flingen, II I
-ingen.
run .
( ) : ie rn an arn urnon urnen.
: renna rann runnom runnen.
X I V . : rennen rann runnen runnen.
; ,
burnen.
347. , ,
, : , gendren , punishen . . striv en
, ( . estriv e r , ,
strid) I
striv e n strpf striv en st riven.
c a t c h e n ( . ca ch ier) c a tch e n
cau gh te ca u g h t l a cch e n laughte
laught ( . - . laecc(e)an laeh te laeht) .

235

spoilen , ( .- . ( d e ) s p o l i e r , . depouil ) sp oilte


spoilt spillen sp ilte spilt
,
; . -a. quitten quitte quitt ( . q uitter);
. -a. costen ( .- . co st er; . ).

348.
.
,
(. 284)
-an, -on, - ,
.
, -,
,
. -
,
.
, ^

2 3-
.
349.
.


-eth ( .-. -).
-
( ,
,
-on, -
-); ,
- (. 352).

-es,
.
2 3- .

. .
-ende -ande
. XIV .
-ende, X IV .
-inge ( ;
. 360). -- -ende
236

-(- -i-.
-inde X IV . ,
, -inge.

.

.- - ( -),
, ,
-.
.
350.
XIV .
, .
binden

. . 1 . binde
2 . blndest
3 . bindeth, bint
(. bindes)
. .

)
|I binde

bind

binden
(. bindes,
. bindeth)

bpnd
binden 2 . bin- bounden,
de(th) bpnd

binden

bounden

bindinge bounden
(. blndande)

dflen

(.

d^Ies)
d^len

. .

d^len 2 . d^le(th) delten

dles,
. d^leth)

(.

237

delten

d^len

d^linge
delt
(. d^lande)

haven, han

. 1
2 .
3 .
(.

have \

han

hast

>

have

have

hath J
has)

han

2 . have(th)

hadde
haddest
hadde
hadden

'j
> hadde
J

hadden

(. has,

. hath)

haven, han

havinge
had
(. havande) '

,
v .

, : ne hath > nath,
hadde > nadde.
351.
to -
, , ;
to seene, to donne,
to seyne ( )
to seen, to doon, to seyen.
to for to,
for to tellen.

-
352. - *
, ,
.
.
238

( = . . .)
(,

.)

1) . .

wite

WQt

2 . wpst \ wite

3 . wpt
. . witen, wpt

witen

wiste

I
wisten

witen

witende

witen

2) . . 1 . ouh
2 . owest
> owe
3 . ouh, oweth
. .

\
>

2 . wite(th) wisten

wiste
wistest
wiste

owen

owen

oughte
oughtest
oughte

oughte

oughten

oughten

owen

3) . . 1 . deh, dow \
2 .

>
3 . deh, dow I
. .

doughte
doughtest
doughte

dowe

dowen

j
> doughte

dowen

doughten

doughtei

unne

ouhte
ouhtest
ouhte

ouhte

unnen

ouh ten

ouhten

cunne

couthe, coude
couthest, coude
couthe, coude

couthe,
coude

couthen,
couden

couthen,
couden

dowen
4) . . 1 . an, on
2 .

3 . an, on
. .

\
>
'

unnen

5) . . 1 . can, con
2 . canst, const
. can, con
. .

cunnen, can

cunnen

cunnen
6) . . 1 . tharf.thar
2 . tharst

couth

\
> thurve

3 . tharf, thar I
. .

thurven

thurven
239

thurfte
thurftest
thurfte

) thurfte
thurften

7)

. . 1 .
2 .
3 .
. .

dar
darst
dar
durren

durre
durren

dorste, durste
\ , .
dorstest, durstest > ,ors,e*
dorste. durste
J durste
dorste,
dorsten, dursten
dorsten,
dursten

durren
8)

. . 1 . shal
2 . shalt
3 . shal
.

9)

shulen

. . 11.. man
man \
2 . 3 man 1
.

sholde
sholdest
sholde

shulen

sholden

sholde
sholden

mune
munen

munen

10) . . 1 . may
2 . mayst
. may

shule

mowe

mighte 4
mightest >
mighte
J

mighte

mowen

mighten

mighten

mote

moste
mostest
moste

moste

moten

mosten

mosten

mowen

mowen
11) . . 1 . mot \
2 . most >
. mot '
.


ben gpn

353. ,
.
ben

. .

1 . am

2 . art

3 . is

be

was
wr(e)
was

w^re

w^ren

w|ren

. (. ,
. ^ )

240

. . 2 .

ben

. . 2 . beth

beinge

beand


, : ne am > nam, ne i s >
> nis, ne was > nas, ne w^re > n^re.
gpn 1

. . 1 . gp (ga)
|
2 . gpst (gas) > gp
3 . gpth (gas) * (ga)
.

yede, wente
^
gp (ga) yedest, wentest > yede, wente
>

yede, wente

gon (gas) gpn


gpth
(. gpth) (gan) (gath)

yeden, wenten yeden, wenten

gpn (gan)

gpinge (gande) gp(n) (gan)

yede .- . seeode; wente


wenden.

don willen

354.
.
ddn

. . 1 . do
\
2 . dost (. dos) > do
3 . doth (. dos)'
. .

do

dide(dude, dedeh
didest
>dide
dide
i

don (. dos, don 2 . doth diden


. doth)

241

diden

don

doinge
(. doande)

don

willen

. . 1 . wil, wol
wille,
2 . wilt, wolt |
wolle
3 . wil, wol

wolde \
woldest >
wolde
)

wolde

. .

wolden

wolden

willen
willen, wollen
(. willeth,
. willes)

wold



355. - ,
( 153),
-.
, ,
,
. : ... and
French she spak ful fa ire and fetisly after the scole of S tr a tf o rd a t te Bowe,
for F r e n ch of P a r i s w as to hir unknowe *... -
, ,
. ,
( ),
. ,
, : ...an d after soper pleyen he
big an, and spak of m irth e amonges othere thinges, whan th a t he hadde maad
our rekeninges; and seyde t h u s ... ... ;
, ,
. . . .
. .
: M etellius, the foule ch erl, the swyn, that with a staf birafte
his wyf hir lyf, for she drank w yn, thogh I hadde been his wyf, he sholde
nat han daunted me for drinke , , ,
, ,
; and ther-u pon the wyn w as fet anon; we dronken, and to reste

-
, : y-fa lle , y -c o m e , -brought, y -c la d .
.

242

wente echon, w ith-o uten any longer t ary in g e


; , .
,
.
: in kinges h abit wen te
hir sones two, as heires of hir fadres regnes alle, and H erm a nn e , and Thym alao her names were, as Persiens hem ealle
, , , ; for he was late -come from
his v iag e, and wente for to doon his pilgry mage
; of stud ie took he most
cure and most hede (.:
).
, ,
,
: and whan this w orth y duk hath thus
y-don, he took his host, and hoom he rood anon
, .
rood
: and w han
he rood, men myghte his brydel here gynglen in a w histling wind as clere
and eek as loude as doth the chapel belle (: )
, ,
, .

3 5 6 . ,
, .
, ,
.

,
(
). , , ,
, .
. . ,
, .
3 5 7 .
: lordinges, right thus, as ye have understonde, bar I stifly mine olde housbondes on honde ,
, ,
; but al thing, which that shyneth as the gold nis
nat gold, as that I have herd it told ,
, , ( ) ; I hadde
unnethe that word y-sayd right thus as I have told hit yow, that
sodeynly... , ,
, ... . I shal doon diligence that Pala-

. . .
. , 1955, 1, 2.

243

, that is thyn owne knight, shal have his lady, as thou hast
him hight , ,
, ,
; the mone, whan it was night, ful brighte shoon, and Absolon his giterne hath -take, for paramours, he thoghte for to wake,
and forth he gooth, jolif and amorous, til he cam to the carpenteres hous a litel after cokkes hadde y-crowe ,
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
; ...the holy blisful martir for to seke that
hem hath holpen whan that they were seke ...
, , .
. ,

: and whan this worthy duk hath thus y-don,
he took his host, and hoom he rood anon
,
.

,

. ,

.
,
,
, .
358.
: ful thredbare was his overest courtepy, for
he had geten him yet no benefice, ne was so worldly for to have
office ,
,
; and whan that he had herd Arcites tale,
as he were wood, with face deed and pale, he sterte him up
, ,
; but sovereynly dame Pertelote shrighte, ful louder than dide Hasdrubales wyf, whan that
hir housbond hadde lost his lyf, and that the Romans hadde brent
Carthage () ,
, ,
, .

() (. 159),
: the domes alle, that from the tyme of King William
were falle , (. . )
.
244


3 5 9 .
,
.
. ,
. ,
, , . .
.
, ,
: singynge he was, or floytinge,
al the day . -,
been
, . (. al this ground
on which we been ryding , ).
3 6 0 .
.
: 1)
-ende; 2)
on - i n s
is on huntinse , .
,
:
is on huntinge ,
, is a-huntinge ,

, is huntinge.
, ,
-ende -inge,
.
,

-ende
- i ns .

-, : we han ben waytinge al this
fourtenight . -
,
,
.

3 6 1 . ,
(. 154),

245

, .

. shal
wil (wol)

, : ther-as the knightes weren in prisoun,
of whiche I tolde yow, and tellen shal ,
, ; but I
was hurt right now thurgh-out myn ye in-to myn herte, that wol
my bane be ,
.
, , ,
.
, shal,
,
: the cherl shal have his thral; this I awarde
, ; ther shal
no deth me from my lady twinne!
!
wil
: and I wol love
hire mawgree al thy might
; What? trowe ye, the whyles I may preche, and
winne gold and silver for I teche, that I wol live in povert wil
fully? ? ,
,
?
,
,
shal wil (wol)
,
.

362.
,
. ,

, : and slepen wollen til the sonne
shyne , ; though it happen
me rehercen eft ; er it
were day, as was hir wone to do, she was arisen
, , .

, : but if thou wene I be thus syk
246

for drede, it is not so ,


, .
,
,
, ,
, .

,
, wolde + ;
ben, ,
.
, ,

wolde-f .

: so that I wiste I sholde you
nat greve, I wolde demen that ye tellen sholde a tale
, , ,
; she wolde wepe if that she saw a mous caught
in a trappe, if it were deed or bledde ,
, ,
; nere thou our brother, sholdestou
nat thryve ,
; but it were al to long for to devyse the grete clamour
; if it nere
to long to here, I wolde han told you fully the manere, how
wonnen was the regne ,
, ;
if 1 might escapen from prisoun, than hadde 1 been in joye and
parfit hele ,
; 1 wolde han trusted, douteless,
that if that I thurgh my disaventure, had loved other him or
Achilles, Ector, or any mannes creature, ye nolde han had no
mercy ne mesure on me , ,
, , ,
- , ,
.

: Allas! that ever knew 1 Perotheus! For elles hadde 1 dwelled with Theseus y-fetered in his prisoun ever-mo.
Than hadde I been in blisse, and not in wo. Only the sighte of
hir, whom that I serve, though that I never hir grace may de
serve, wolde han suffised right ynough for me !
! ,
. , .
, ,
,
.
247


3 6 3 .
. weorf>an,

, ,
.
+
,
.
, , , ,
.

, ,
;
, ,
.
3 6 4 .
: the castel-yate
on my right hond, which that so wel corven was that never swich
another was ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
.
. of Grekes, by oon general assent, than semed me ther was
a parlement at Athenes, up-on certeyn poynts and cas; among the
whiche poynts y-spoken was to have with certeyn contrees alliaunce
, , ,
, ;
(. . )
.
,
, . . : Satan,
envious sin thilke day that thou were chased from our heritage!
, ,
!
, , ,
, .
. : thise wordes al with gold y-writen were. Whan this
was rad, than seyde this olde man
. , .
+ ,
, ;
,
,
.
248

365.
:
,
-
, ,
. , ,
,
:
I may you devyse how that I may be holpe
, (
helpan
); ne hadde he ben holpen by the
stede of bras ; the embassatours ben
answerde for fynal (
andswarian
). ,
.

-
, : he tolde Felyce all his wylle
and lyfe, and how he was bedyn riche wyfe
, .

.

366.
,
- (. 162),
fayr fayre, bright
brighte, high hye, fast
faste.
-,

, newe
newe.

-1,
special specially, thrifty
thriftily.
367. ,
, ,
,
:
gretly
gretter
grettest
,
249


( 164):
longe

lenger

lengest

3 6 8 . ,
:

much
litel
wel
evile

mp, mpre
lasse
bet, bettre
wers, werse

mQst

l^st

best
werst

3 6 9 .
more most (.
, 326). ,
: al mighten tho same thinges
betere and more plentivously ben couth in the mouthe of the
people that knoweth al this
,
; and it is short for it sholde be coud the more
lightly, and for to withholden it the more esily in herte
(),
; lat us see the whiche of hem han
spoken most resonably ,
; he that most curteisly comaundeth, to him men
most obeyen ,
.
3 7 0 .
, .
,

, : anes (
); elles
(
* a l j a - , . . aljis ). (.
, : ,
).
-s, ,

. , , fanon
thane(n), thene(n);
-s thenes, thens (.-. thence).
.-. hwanon? ? .-a. whannes,
whennes, whens, .-. whence; .- . heonan .-.
hennes, hens, .-. hence. .-. siffa n ( s if fan)
.-. sithens, sins, .-. since; .-. neade .-.
250

nedes, .-. needs; .-. ealne wes , *,


- .- . alway, always, .-. always; .-. twlwa
.-. twies, .-. twice; .-. f)riwa .-. thries,
.-. thrice.

371.
,
.
.
. , , ,
.
:
certeinly, certes, sikerly , forsothe .
Certeinly , , :
and certeinly he was a good felawe , ,
; but certeinly no word ne writeth he ,
, ; at the laste certeinly they
dye , , .
Sikerly : but sikerly
she hadde a fair forhead , ,
; now sikerly this is a smal requeste ,
.
,

, .

372. ,
,
. ,
. . . 2, XI X II .
, , X III
X IV ., .
X IV . .

,
, .

1
2

. . . . . ., 1947,
. 72 5 744.
. . . .
, 1947.

251

,
,
.

. ,
, : fro the tyme that he
first began to ryden out, he loved chivalrye ,
, ;
. . .that we pleye a pilgrimage, or goon out of the weye . . .
, ; I
out on the ministres, quod he , ;
for it was trussed up in his walet
; who spryngeth up for joye but Arcite?
, ?; to maken up the lystes roially
- ; cometh up, ye wives,
offreth of youre wolle! , ,
!


-.
, : out,
over, in, on.
,
( ,
-).
,
:
,
,
, ,


3 7 3 .

, , ,
. ,
undernethe ,
: and undernethe hir feet she hadde a mone
( ), beside ,
, : under a tree beside a welle
.


. .
( ., 1949).
.

252

,
-s (
). ,
, onmiddan
amidde, amiddes;
amonge, amonges.
:

.
(. 330 334).

3 7 4 .


. ;
, ,
,
. , , X IV .
.
but, butan
, , , ,
butan ( *be-utan).

, panne , peahpe , forpsempe .
ponne whan (.-. hwanne).
peahpe thogh,
X II . ,
forpaempe
for.
,
. ,
because,
be cause.


.
.


3 7 5 . , -
, .
: ! ! , a ha! !,
alas! ! ( ), f ! (
, !), ha! ha! (
253

), 1! ( !), oh! !, owh! !,


wo! ! , welawey! !
, ,
: and therwithal he bleynte and cryde, A!
: !; a! good Sire
Hoost! I have y-wedded bee. Ax! ! !;
A ha! quod Pandar, here biginneth game! !
, !; And seyde, Fy, alias,
what have I do? : , , ? ;
And seyde, Now, fy on the Grekes alle! :
!; ! ha! the fox! and after him they ran.
, ! .; Lo, here your ende,
of that I shal devyse. , ,
,; Lo! swich it is a millere to be fals!
!; Lo! here he sit, the lechour, in the
tree! , , , ! deere
cosyn Palamon, quod he. ,
. ; mercy, deere fader!, quod this mayde; ,
! .; Ful ofte he seith A llas!,
and Weylawey. : ! .

. , ,
, .
,
.

1
376.
( E a s t Midland),
; - ( W e s t Midland)
- . . 25 6.
-
:
/ .
1.
a: saet > sa t , aet > at *.
, :
faeder > fader >

fader .

:
.. W 1 d. A H isto ry of Modern Collo quial E n g lis h . Oxford , 1953, . 2 7 54;
R . M o r r i s . Specimens of E a r l y E n g lis h . P a r t I. O x fo rd , 1953, . X L
XLV.

254

. 1,
, , :
s p t c > sp ec > speche ; s d > s e d > s e d .

q: t c ( e ) a n > t^ ch en ,
d l > d l , } > ^ .
3. i ( i, ): > bridge
, s y n n > s m n e ; .- . ( i, ): f y r > fir ,
e m y n d > m i n d .
4. : > e r t h e , .- .
: > ^ .
5. +
: > arm , h e a r d > hard ; 11
all: 11> all .
. () eald a l d > p l d : ( e ) a l d >
ld , h ( e ) a l d a n > h p l d e n , t ( e ) a l d e > tplde .
7. () ie
; ;
;
: e rm the , heren (.-. . ie rm ^ u ,
hleran).

2
1

//.
8. 3-
-, -eth: he knoweth;
-
-es.
9.
-en: we knowen.
10.
-, -eth: knoweth.
11. -end(e): bindend(e).
-
-and. X IV .
-inge, -ynge.
12.
3- she (sche,
scho).
13. 3-
he ( ), p e i,
t h e i ( ). hem ,
X V . p eim , them ( ).
3-
here. X I V .
])eir, their ( ),
X V .
14.
are, aren, ben.
15. -, i- ;
-, knowen.

255

-
-
. , ;
u, ui ( - ); XIV .
.
-us, -ud -es, -ed.

/.

1. a: s ae t> sat.
. . >.

l & r a n > lren.
3. : stan ;
XIV ., ai: laird .
4. , i, ( !, : hy 11>
hill, f y r > fir).
5. : e o r j } e > e r t h e .
. +
a: h e a r d > h a r d .
7. () Id a: aid,
halden.

. () ie, , : e rm th e ,
.
9. :
ai>a,

oi>o.
10.

_
ii.

//.

11

. 3-
-es, , he knawes; -es
-
, -
: thou knawes, we, ye, they knawes, I knawes.
12. -ande (
): bindande.
13.

3- sho.
14. 3- th ai,
t h a im , th a ir ( ).
15.
.
16. i- .


1.
( , , ).
X ( V . .
: c w a e d > c w e t h ; cu ad.

256

2.

braef>b rth

: ta ecean> techen.
3. ;
, u, ui,
( ), : > , h y d a n >
> h u y d a n ; f y r > fui .
4. , ,
[], [] [ii], [fi] ( , , , ). , f e o r d a >
fiirthe ; b r ^ o s t > b r u s t . , ,
.
5. +
, :
e a r d > y e r d ; X III .
- ,
: harm .

. eald ld ( e a l d ,
aeld, eld), : h e a l d a n > h q l d e n ; w e a l d a n > w q l d e n ,
XII ., X III .,
ld: hplden, wplden.
7. ie,
i, , .
. , ,
hle ran, hlr an, hyran hlren h uire n; s c i e l d ,
scild, scyld s(c)hiId s(c)hiild.
- ,
.

//.

. 3-
-ef, -if, -f (-eth, -ith, -th).
9.
-ef, -if (-eth, -ith).
10.

-ef, -if (-eth, ith).

11. -inde. -inge


, - .
12.
- ha, he, heo, hue; she, sche .
13. 3-
hi, heo, ha; heom, he, ham ;
here, heore, hore.
14.
ben b e o f , b e f , b u f .
15. i-, - ( .- . $-) .
- .
16. II ,
-ian, -i, -,
: loki, loky ( .- . locia n). -
.

( -)

/.
1. , : saet > s e t , w a e s > w e s ;
- .
. () 1,
, .

. .

257

2,
, .
ie, : cliene .
$.
3. , ,
, , : s y n n e > s e n n e , zenne , m y r i > m e r i e ,
f y r > f e r .
4. iy, ,
io, , . , ie
.
5. (eall, e a rm , eard )
( , , ), -
.
6. eald eld (: , , ).
7. , ia, .
,
,
.
. s- f-
, : s y n n e > z e n n e , f o r > v o r .

//.
9 . 3-
-{), - i ^ ( - e t h , -ith ).
10.
- (-e th ).
11.
- e t (-eth).
12. -inde, X I V .
-inge.
13. 3-
hi. she .
14. 3- hi,
heo, ha . . {)- .
15.
bie|>.
16. i-, - ; -
.
17. -ie , -i, -.


377.
.

-(),
.
-eth.
3-
-eth.
-(e)s
. ,
258

, , ,
-e(s): nede has peer
; ther is a lawe that says thus ,
.

- ( ), - (
).

378.
.
-

.

,
.

, - .

.

, ,
X II X III
.

379 .

. .

. - ,
- ,
, .

.
,
, ,
.
.
. , ,

.
: . E i n e n k e l . H is t o ri s c h e S y n t a x (Grundrift der
g erm anisch en P h ilo lo g ie . Bd . I, G es chich te der englischen S p rach e ); E . E i n e nk e l . Streifziige durch die m itte le n g lisch e S y n t a x , 1887.
9*

259

, ,
.
.

380. , -,
.

. , ,
.

381. , ,
, ,
. : kyng listned sawe
; smale foules maken melodye
; he did aperte fo lie
; so hadde I spoken with hem everychon
; this was a fals cherl and a fals justise!
; that was yelow, and
glytered as the sonne ()
.

382. .
: com neer, and taak
youre lady by the hond
; I speke in prose ; so hadde I spoken
with hem everychon .
: ne mei him
naman eal sw7a wel demen ne swarihte
; eal sceal beon #er &enne cu#
; i ne can ne i ne mai tellen
alle pe wunder ne alle pe pines
.
(): ich am elder pen
ich wes , ; ful worthy was he in his lordes werre
; for Januarie
was bicome hir knight ; I was of
hir felawshipe anon .
260

383. , ,
,
.
,
.

.
: blisse ne mei wiht under stonden ;
hadde he, and servaunts namo ,
; seken lond and see for your winninges
.
: me thinketh
it acordaunt to resoun, to telle you al the condicioun of ech of hem

; wo was his cook, but-if his sauce were poynaunt and
sharp , ;
now have I told you shortly, in a clause, th estat, th array, the
nombre, and eek the cause . . .
, , ,
: and | king
Vortiger of hire come was war
; and to Hengest and his cnihtes he 3ef riche 3eftes
; and at
knight that wol 1 first biginne .

384.
, (, ,
. .),
. : smale fowles maken
melodye ; and let me tellen al
my tale, I preye ,
; this gentil duk doun from his courser sterte
; he nas but seven yer old
; ful worthy was he in his lordes werre
; swelleth the brest
of Arcite .

385.
:
,
261

. : I repente fulle sore


; his deope wounden bledep fast
*; at night were come in-to that hostelrye wel
nyne and twenty in a companye
; for he was late -come
trom his viage ; as
he was wont from yeer to yeer .

386.
,
, : here in the temple
of the goddesse Clemence we han ben waytinge al this fourtenight
;
how asseged was Ipolita, the faire hardy quene of Scithia
, ; the
bisy larke, messager of day, salueth in hir song the morwe gray
, ,
.

387. : herkneth to me, gode men, wiues, maydnes,


and alle men, of a tale, pat ich you wile telle ,
, , , () ,
; child seyd: Justise, held pi moupe
: , .

388.
: and sikerly she was of greet disport , ,
; but certainly no word ne writeth he
, , . .
: Criseyde, at shorte wordes for to telle,
welcomed him , , .

389.

.

.
,
.
262

390.
.

.
King Horn ( X I I I .)
, ,
.
, ,
, :
so priketh hem nature ; so hadde I
spoken with hem everychon
; wel coude he sitte on hors
.
391.
.
,
, ,
. (Richard
Rolle de Hampole, X IV .),
.
:
and in his armes he hem alle up hente
; she hir love him graunted
; : and of this cry they nolde
never stenten, til they the reynes of his brydel henten
, .
392. ,
- ,
.
,
, ,
, : heir male
, court martial , knight errant
, cousin german .
393.
.

:
,
, ,
.

:
263

Whan that Aprille with his schoures sote


The droughte of Marche hath perced to the rote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flo u r ...

,

Aprille
the droughte every veyne
- , .
,
: , the droughte,
hath perced, , every veyne,
, .
the flour
.
,
, . .
;
.

394.

. ,
, ; ,
,
; ,
, .
.

395.
.
:
( )
,
. ,


.
, 264


. : sharpe
speres stronge , fresshe floures
, monthes glade .
, ,
-
, . :
In May, that mother of monthes glade,
That fresshe floures, blewe, and whyte, and rede,
Ben quike agayn, that winter dede made.
, ,
, , , ,
.
,
, . . .

396.

. ,
,
,
.

397.
. ,
. , ,
,

,
, . ,
-

,
. , ,
,
:
his schoures sote ; straunge strondes
.
266

398,
to,
( 193),
(-);
to, , ,
,
.
to
beginnen , longen wishen
. ., : than longen folk to goon on pilgrimages
; she gan so sore
longe to seen her suster
.
, , to,
: but atte laste speken she began , ,
; playen he bygan .

to: she moste by hire leve come soupen in his hous with hym
at eve ; thow shalt this
nyght somtyme, in som manere, com speken with thi lady prively
-
.
399.
to to: and wyteth wele, that bothe too ben vices,
mystrusten alle or ellis alle leve ,
, ; to ben
slayn it were a gretter joye to me, than kyng of Grece be and
Troye ,
.
400.
to: the cradil at hire beddes feet is set to
, ; and yaf hym to the queen,
al at hir wille to chese whethir sche wolde him save or spille
, , ,
.
401.
fo r to, : and specially, from
every shires ende of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende, the hooly
blisful martir for to seeke ,
, ,
. , ,
, : right as the Friday, soothly
for to telle, now it shyneth, now it reyneth faste
267

, () , ,
. for to
, ,
: that for to hunten is so desirous
; Palamon bigan to Venus temple for to gon (.: ) .
, :
, to for to.


402. , . . X I I X III .,

, 1.
hQten , leten ,
maken , ,
: sen , heren . :
& hehte pane due stronge: in sup londe
; and hehte hine bringe:
his maei to pon kinge
; he lette seil and pane maest: lipen mid upen
; heo makede him sune3en on
hire - ; pu iseie pine deorwurpe s u n e ... arisen to blissfulle Hue ,
... ; oper 3 if pu
iherdest peoues breken pine woawes ,
.
403. X IV . ,
, . , ,
, sen , heren ,
maken ,
, maken: causen
, , compellen , constreynen
. . : this prison caused me not for to
crye ; and if so be that
the lawe compelle you to swere ,
; it constreyneth me to doon you grace
.
, ,
,
, . ,
, : but deeth,
that wol nat suffre vs dwellen heer ,

. . . .
.

268

, ../; ...a n d that he wole


graunte hem to arysen out of hir synnes ...
; thanne lat vs considere also of the conseillyng of hem that conseilleden you to taken sodeyn vengeaunce,
wheither it acorde to resoun? ,

?

,
: pei meyntenen pes anticristic prelatis to robbe here tenauntis , -
; pei. . . chargen men to studie hem
(); for poetes feyne mony nowble men
to haue ben geten by Iupiter ,
; B e d e ... provethe
V II yere to faile from the nombre rehersede ,
7 .
, . . , X I I X I I I .
,
X IV .
,
.

404. +
, : the worste kynde of infortune is th is,
a man to have ben in prosperite and it remembren when it passed
is ,
, .
405.
,
.
,
. : high on hors he sat, uppon
his heed a Flaundrish bever hat ,
; b if el that Chaunteclere in al
his pride, his seven wives walkyng by his side, cast up his eighen
to the brighte sonne ,
, ,
; service doon, they soupen al by day
, .

406.
- i n j, -u n j .
,
.
269


, : Do come, he
sayde, my mynstrales and gestours, for to telle tales anoon in my
armynge , , ,

( ) ; and in his harpyng, whan that he hadde
sunge, his eyghen twynkeled in his heed aright
( ),
, ; for with her strogelynge wel and mightily the theef fel over boord
, , .
,
: than schal we alle have ynogh to
done in liftyng up his hevy dronken cors
,
I slough Samson in schakyng the piler
(, ) . ,
, ,
: heygh la b o u r... was at
the service and the fyr makyng .. .
; sir Thopas fel in love longynge
.

407.
, . -
, ,
, .
: neschulen habben no best bute kat o n e
, ; nexst fleshe
neschal non werien no linnene clop
; nefunden he non pat dede
hem sham , ; he nolde
no raunsoun .
noght, nought
noght, not, nat,
, ne: mynde of man may
not ben comprehended .
, , noght ,
: his arwes drouped noght with fetheres lowe
() ; scho es noghte with thaym,
pat will noghte wyrke () ,
; pay do noghte all (:
); pat bep nought ymedled wip oper naciouns
; he forgot it naught (
) ; allebeit I be not worth ; he
270

yaf nat of that text a pulled hen, that seith, that hunters been
nat holy men ,
, .
, nawiht
not, nat
,
,
.

408. , . .
,
,
,
, : . ,
:
,
; , -,
.
, ,
, , ,
,
.
:
,
.
,
, ,
.
,
,
.
409.
, sise niman
, fri|) niman , fon to rice
. , , .

. ,
+ : smale fowles maken melodye
, . . ; y-falle in felawshipe
. . ; made forward
, . . ; to take our wey , . .
; in hope to stonden in his lady grace
() , . . ; songes
make , . . ; make himselven wood
271

, . . ; make avaunt
, . . , ; to h a v e ... aqueyntaunce . . . , . . -; to
have off , . . ; of studie took
he most care and most hede
, . .
; heeld opinioun , . . ; of
nyce conscience took he no keep
, . . ; he . . . hadde the hyer hond .:
, . . , ; he coude
in litel thing han suffisaunce ,
. . ; to take ensaumple
, . . ; greet chere made our hoste us everichon ,
. . .

410.
, .


411.
. ,
.
and,
: under the sonne he loketh, and anon he was war of
Arcite and Palamon ,
; thus endeth Palamon and Emelye; and God
save al this faire companye!
; !
but: he herde it wel, but he ne spak
right noght , .
or: go forth thy way, or I wol caste a ston
, ; cherisse thy wyf, or
thou shalt never thee ,
.

: at sessiouns there was he lord and sire; ful ofte tyme he
was knight of the shire
; ; a shirreve hadde
ha been and a contour; was no-wher such a worthy vavasour
;
.
272

412.
. : who so that troweth nat this, a beest he is
, ; for what man that is entred in
a pley, he nedes moot unto the pley assente
, .

(
): but greet harm was it, as it thoughte me, that on his shine
a mormal hadde he ,
, , .

413.
.
: the sothe is this, the cut fil to the knight
, .

414.
, , ,
. . : me thinketh it acordaunt to resoun to
telle you al the condicioun of ech of hem, so as it semed me, and
whiche they weren, and of what degree, and eek in what array
that they were inne
, ,
* ,
; he wiste that a man was repentaunt , .

415.
. : a clerk ther was of Oxenford also, that
un-to logik hadde longe -go ,
; a sergeant of the lawe,
war and wys, that often hadde been at the parvys, ther was also,
ful riche of excellence ,
(. .
), ,
; with him ther was a Plowman, was his brother,
that hadde y-lad of dung ful many a fother ,
() , .
273

416.
. : but natheles, whyl I have
tyme and space, er that I ferther in this tale pace, rne thinketh
it acordaunt to resoun, to telle yow al the condicioun of ech of
hem , ,
,
; at Alisaundre he was,
whan it was wonne ,
; now draweth cut, er that we ferrer twinne
, .

417.
there where there(as) where(as), :
and forth he wente, shortly for to telle, ther as Mercurie sorted
him to dwelle , , (),
; that other wher him
list may ryde or go , ,
; and with that word Arcite gan espye wher-as this lady
romed to and fro (),
.

418. :
and nyste wher she was, for it was derk ,
, ; ne at this tale I saugh no man
him greve, but it were only Osewold the Reve, by-cause he was
of carpenteres craft , , ,
; the reule of seint Maure or of
seint Beneit, by-cause that it was old and som-del streit, this ilke
monk let olde thinges pace, and held after the newe world the space
,
,

.

419. : and ring this


folkes werk by note, that al the world may of it here
, ; and for
274

the peple sholde seen him alle, whan it was day, he broghte him
to the halle ,
, () .

420. that,
.
: but doun on knees she sat anoon, and weep, that pitee
was to here
(), ; our hertes wern so even
a payre, that never was that oon contrayre to that other, for no
wo ,
- .

421.
. : she was so charitable and so pitous, she wolde
wepe if that she sawe a mous caught in a trappe, if it were dead
or bledde ,
, , ,
; but sore weep
she if oon of hem were deed, or if men smoot it with a yerde
smerte , ()
; and if vouche-sauf
that it be so, tel me anon, with-outen wordes mo, and I wol erly
shapen me ther-fore , ,
, ,
.

422.
though though that, : thogh thou heere
walke, thy spirit is in helle ,
; and though that he were worthy, he was wys, and of his
port as meke as is a mayde ,
, , .
,
: but al be that he was a philosophre, yet hadde he but litel
gold in cofre () ,
.
275

423. , ,
than (
) as (
as ): she was
ful more blisful on to see than is the newe pere-jonette tree
, ()
; me thoughte I saw an egle sore, but that hit semed moche
more than I had any egle seyn , ,
, ,
- ; whit was his berd as is a dayesye
, () ; to Januarie he gaf
agayn his sighte, and made him see, as wel as ever he mighte
* ,
.
,
, , ,
: for as myn auctour seyde, so seye I
(. . , ),
.

424.
as, : right on this same, as I
have seyd, was hoolly al my love leyd ,
, ; but ther may no man,
as men may wel see, bequethe his heir his vertuous noblesse
, ,
.

V.

XV
425. XV .
, .
.

,
- .
. . (. . Wyld).
, XV .
: 1)
, 2)
, 3)
,

: 1) , 2)
, 3) .

XV . (Thomas Occleve cleve, 1370 1450), ,

1 . .

W 1 d. A H istory of Modern Colloquial E n g lis h . O xfo rd , 1953, p. 64.

277

( V).
X V .

.
, ,
.
XV . , ,
(Osbern Bokenam, . 1393 .; Legends
of the Saints 1440 .)
( - );
(Margaret Paston, 1400 1470), ,
(Cel) (
- ).
,
,
. (John
Lydgate, 1370 1451),
, (Sir John Fortescue, 1394 1476)
- ;
(John Capgrave, 1393 1464)
- .
(John Shillingford),
, 1447 1450 .,
(-)
.

426.
XV .

(1455 1485 .).

.
(Bosworth),
I I I .
.

,
, . .
.
,
: .
(Johan
nes Gutenberg) 1438 .
, ,
. , ,
(William Caxton,
1422 1491).
The Recuyeil of the Histories of Troye
. 1476 ., ,
, 1477 .
279

. ( X V .)

The Dictes and Sayinge of the


Philosophers.
,
.

,
, ,

.
, , ,
.
, .
, ;
, , , ,
( i),
, - .

, ,
.
, ,
, ,
IV ( 1461 1483), ,
,
, ,
,
- .

427.
.
, ,
,
.

,
,
.
, . , , .
make, cat, water,
watch, any.
428. XVI .
. ,
,
.

,

1 . .

W 1 d. A H ist o ry of Modern Collo quial E n g lis h . O x fo rd , 1953, p.

281

88.

.
, ( 432),
.

. ,
, (The
Governour, 1531 .) : Hit shall be expedient that a noble
mannes sonne, in his infancie, haue with hym continually only
suche as may accustome hym by litle and lytl to speake pure and
elegant latin. Semblably the nourises1 and other women aboute
hym, if it be possible, to do the same; or, at the leste way, that
they speke none englishe but that which is cleane, polite, perfectly
and articulately pronounced, omittinge no lettre or sillable, as
folisshe2 women often times do of a wantonnesse, wherby diuers
noble men and gentilmennes chyldren (as I do at this daye
knowe), haue attained corrupte and foule pronuntiation. 3
The Arte of English Poesie (1580),
Puttenham, the usual speach
of the Court, and that of London and the shires lying about Lon
don within IX myles and not much aboue. 4
,
,
.

429.

, .
, , ,
bisie besie ' ( -
, ); than then , whan when
; geve give ( -
, ; g
; . 251); fader father , moder mother
( ,
[d > 0]
( 512); service sarvice , ,
derk dark (
,
> , 478). :

- -s: housen houses , shoon shoes

1 nurses
2 foolish
3 The Boke

named Th e Governour devised by Sir T h o m a s E ly o t , K n i g h t ,


Book I, Ch. V, L ondon, D en t, p. 22-23 ( H. . W 1 d, A H isto ry
of Modern Colloquial E nglis h. O x f o r d , 1953, p. 104.
H. C. W 1 d, . ., p. 103.

282

9,*/~eef~<r

I /**"

/**/?
W

G7&B*r

& U fjJ h J b

'

; 3-

-s,
-th, . .
430. ,
;
(H en ry M a ch y n), X V I .
. , ,
v w; w a lu w (v a l u e ), w elv et ( velv e t),
v o m a n (w om an ), V e stm y n ste r ( W e s tm in s t e r) , V o sse ter ( W o r ce ste r).
h , alff ( h a l f ) , ard (hard),
ede (head ); , h ,
, : hanswered (answered ),
h e rth (ea rth ). -ing -, : sta n d y n
(sta nding), sy tty n (sittin g ).

431. ,
, XVI .
,
. XV .,
,
Morte Arthur (Malory, Sir
Thomas, 1470 .),
, XVI .
.
The Faerie
Queene (Spenser, Edmund, 1552 1599),
80 90- ;
(1564 1616).
(Marlowe, Christopher, 1564 1593),
(Jonson, Benjamin, 1573 1637),
(Massinger, Philip, 1583 1640),
(Beaumont, Francis, 1584 1616), (Fletcher, John,
1579 1625) . ,
,
I ( 1558 1603),
(Early Modern
English).


432. ,
,
, , .
,
:
) ,
-- --,
( - --);
)
; 3) ,
, 4) (L o t h i a n ),
, - --, .
,
(, , ), () .
I X ., -,
, . 1018 .
.
.
(1 018 . ) ,

III (10 57 1093),
,

.
, X I I .,
,
. ,
,
,

.

284

:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

21 .
22.
23 .
24.
25.
26 .
27.
28.
29 .
30 .

31.
32 .
33.
34 .
35 .
36 .
37.
38 .
39.
40.

X I I I . .
I

. 1305 .
.
, , ( R o
bert Bru c e ) .
1314 . ,
. 1328 .
.
.
.

,
S co ts,
. ( B a r b o u r , J o h n ) ,
(. 1375 .); X V . The Kjn ges Q uhair
( ) I ( 1 3 9 4 1437).
433.
.
.
ch
[X], : toc h t , n ic h t ; quh, qwh hw,
: quhat , quhow , 3 gh
,
but: but bot . :
-d
-d ( = -ed); , - t , -yt,
l y w y t .
.
1603 . (
VI I)
.

.
( R o b e rt Bu rn s, 1 7 5 9 1796).


434. X V II X V III . ,
.
X V II .,
1660 , X V III .

.
435. X V II .
.
X V II . .

.
1584 .,
,
286

. X V II .
.
,
.
, X V I .,
.

. , 1620 .
Mayflower
, .
,

.
.

436.
,
1649 .

.
XV II ., . . (1660 .).

.

.
,
1611 . ( Authorized Version)
.
I.
, .


.
, ,

,
,
.
(John Bunyan, 1628 1688, The Pilgrim s
Progress, 1678 ., 1684 .)
, ,
, .

.
437. II

- 287

, .
, II
,
.
(, , ,
.) .
,
Thomas Sprat History of the
Royal Society (1667).
, ,
,
;
, .
-
.

( 466).
X V II .
(Samuel Pepys, 1633 1703;
1660 1669 .).

;
(John Ray), 1674 . Collection of
English words not generally used.
438. X V II .,


.

(John Evelyn, 1620 1706),
1665 . (John Dryden, 1631 1700) (Richard Bentley, 1662 1742).
(Joseph Addison, 1672 1719)
(Richard Steele, 1672 1729),
(The Spectator, 1711 1714),
, .

:
,
.
The Humble Petition
of Who and Which, 78 30
1711 ., : We are des
cended of ancient families, and kept up our dignity and honour
many years, till the jacksprat t h a t supplanted us.
,
,
288

that,
- . ,
who which
: paet,
se,
( ), hwa hwilc
; who which
.
135 4 1711 .
On the Conciseness of the English in Common Discourse'

,
, : mob ( . mobile),
incog ( incognito) . .
285 26 1712 . ,
, : clearness and
perspicuity were only to be consulted, the poet would have no
thing else to do but to clothe his thoughts in the most plain and
natural expressions. But since it often happens, that the most
obvious phrases, and those which are used in ordinary conversa
tion, become too familiar to the ear, and contract a kind of
meanness by passing through the mouths of the vulgar; a poet
should take particular care to guard himself against idiomatic ways
of speaking.

439. , XVI
X V II .
. , X V III .,
,

(correctness) X V III . ,
(Alexander Pope, 1688 1744),
1725 .,
.
440. X V II X V III .
,
.
1621 . (Alexan
der Gill) Logonomia Anglica (. e. ).


.
,
, ,
.

(Charles Butler), (English Gram10 . .

289

), 1634 .
.
, : Wee hav in our language many syl
lables which having gotten a nu pronunciation, doo yet retain
their old orthography, so that their letters doo not now rightly
express their sound... the which errour if we will correct... the
question will be whether we should conform our writing to the
nu sound, or reform our sound and return to the old 1.
Grammatica Linguae Anglicanae (1653 .) (John W al
lis).

.

(Christopher Cooper), 1685 ., . .
, Grammatica Anglicana.

,
; , ,
, : heart
' hart '; a notion an ocean ;
a r e a i r ere heir . .

X V III .
(Practical Phonographer), 1701 .
English speech . . . as it is commonly used in England,
particularly in London, the Universities or at Court.
17*24 . Rules for True
Spelling and Writing English.

, .
441. X V III .

.

(Lord Chesterfield, 1694 1773) : The common people
of every country speak their own language very ill; the people
of fashion (as they are called) speak it better, but not always
correctly, because they are not always people of letters. Those
who speak their own language most accurately are those who have
learning and are at the same time in the polite world; at least
their language will be reckoned the standard of the language of
that country. 2 , ,

1
2

. . W 1 d. A H isto ry of Modern Co llo q u ial E n g lis h . O xfo rd , 1953,


p. 169.
Lord Cheste rfield s L e tte r s, L e tt e r 103; H. . W 1 d,
. ., . 19-20.

290


.

(Samuel
Johnson, 1709 1784; 1755 .).
: Most of the writers of English
Grammars have given long tables of words pronounced otherwise
than they are written, and seem not sufficiently to have consid
ered that of English, as of all living tongues, there is a double
pronunciation, one cursory and colloquial, the other regular and
solemn. The cursory pronunciation is always vague and uncertain,
being made different in different mouths, by negligence, unskil
fulness and affectation. The solemn pronunciation, though by no
means immutable and permanent, is yet always less remote from
the orthography, and less liable to capricious innovation. They
have generally formed their tables according to the cursory speech
of those with whom they happened to converse; and concluding
that the whole nation combines to vitiate language in one man
ner, have often established the jargon of the lowest people, as
the model of speech... For pronunciation the best general rule is,
to consider those th e most elegant speakers who deviate least
from the written words.
,
.
X V III .
,

,

.


442. X V II .
. X V II, X V III
X IX . , ,
-
. -
,

.

,
.
- , ,
, (Cornish),
X V III .
*

291

( ) X IX .
(
, Welsh) . 1893 .
; National
Welsh Eisteddfod .
1961 ., 656 .
3 , 26 .
-.
( ),
(Manx), :
.
- , 1961 .,
76,6 . 3 ,
1,1 . .
,
X V II .,
X V II X V III . X IX .
. 1893 .
,
, . .
-
1916 . 1922 .
. 1937 .
(Eire), 1949 .
. ( )
- ,
(Northern Ireland)
.
300 000
1926 . 666 000 1936 .,
.
443. X V III X IX .,

,
.
X V III . ,
,
.
, ( 1947 .)
, , ,
.

.
(1756 1763)
, .

. X IX . 292

,
. X IX .
.
X X ., - ,
.


.
. ,
. -
,
,
. -
, Afrikaans,

. 1961 . -
-
.
1964 .,
270 , 195 ,
54 , 8
11 .


444.
, , ,

L

2.
,
,
.
X X .
,
, .

(Mencken, Henry Louis, 1880
1948). ,
1
: . P a r t r i d g e and L. W. C l a r k . B r itish and
A m e r ic a n Eng lis h since 1900. London, 1951; . . . . . . . , 1961.
2 .: . . .

. . ., 1963.

293


, 1919 .
1 .

, .
( X V II .)

( , , ).
,
, -
, ,
(New England) 6 : , , , , -.
X V I11 .
,
. ,
,
,
,
,
X IX . .
1776 .
,
,
.


,
,
.

445.

:
. 1)
; firm, hurt, learn [fo:rm], [ho:rt],
[1:]. []
;
2) [:] s, f, ft [ae];
class, fast, grasp, ask, laugh, path [klaes], [faest],
[graesp], [aesk], [laef], [].
father, ['f:];
3) [] [] (,
[]): lot [lat], pot [pat], psychology [sai'katedsi] . .


1 . L.

Mencken.

The A m e r ic a n L a n g u a g e . N. Y . ,

294

1919.

. ,
,
. , ,
-our ( )
-or: honor, labor, ardor
. . centre, theatre
center, theater. ,
: thru through, tho
though, defense defence.
catalog ( catalogue),
prolog ( prologue), program ( programme)
. :
,
.

446. .
gotten
get (
got). X V III .,
.

.
, , :
I suggest that he go ( I suggest that he may go
that he should go).
(
)
will
, shall
.

I been, I taken, I seen, . e.
have. , ,
have:
[haev > hov > 9v > v], ,
,
.
447.
.
, ,
: sick ( *
ill); guess (
); fall
( autumn).

,
- .
295

, , ,
: caucus , graft .
:

elevator
candy
back of

lift
sweets
behind

underground
pavement
shop
postman

subway
sidewalk
store
letter-car
rier

, ,
, : corn .
, . , bug . , . .
,
,
,
,
.
: ranch ,
adobe , cinch
.
: squaw , succotash
, mugwump ,
, Chatauqua ( )
.
: banjo (
), pickaninny
( pequeno ).

448.
; , ,
, .
. . 1 :
1) , 2) , 3) (general).*
.

;
.
449. ,
, :
1. [] ,
1 G. Ph .
1925, p. 35.

p. The E nglis h L a n g u a g e

2S6

in A m e r ic a .

Vol.

1,

N .-Y .,

: form [fo:m], first [foist], turn [torn], fir [fo:].



.
2. ff, ss, sk, st, sp, th,
[a:]: chaff [tfaf], pass [pa:s], ask [a:sk], fast [fast], grasp
[grasp], path [pa0], dance [dans].
.
3.
[]: hot [hot], stop [stop], rock [].
.
4. , [:]; port [po:t], court
[:t ] , course [ko:s],
.
5. duty, tune, new [ju :]
[u:]: ['du:ti], [turn],
[:]. -
.
6. stone, home, whole
.
stun, hum, hull.
7. , [],
, [].
idear idea, Hanner
Hannah.
450. :
1. [] (
- ).
2. ff, ss, sk, st, sp, th, []:
chaff [tfaef], pass [paes], ask [aesk], fast [faest], grasp [graesp],
dance [daensj.

.
3.
[a]: hot [hat], stop [stap], rock [rak]
.
4. duty, tune, new [ju:]: f'djuiti],
[tju:n], [nju:].
.
5.
, [] []
down, town [] []
hear, deer, dear, ear.
6.
, first, soft, land.
451. :
1.
[] : farm
[farm ], first [foirst], turn [toirn].
297

,
.
2. f f , ss, sk, sp, th, []
, ;
[:]
.
3. hot, stop, rock []
,
.
4. wa [wa],
water, watch.
5. duty, tune, new
['dju:ti, tju:n, nju:] ['du:ti, tu:n, nu:].
6. ,
.
, *,
,
,
, .
, 2,
.

452.

,
.
, ,
,
3. ,
,

. ,
,
.

~
453.
.
[ai] []
1 G. P h . p. The E n g lis h L a n g u a g e in A m e r ic a . V ol. I, N. Y . ,
1925, p. 35.
2 T , . 35.
3 ,
, ;
,
,
.

298

[] [], : height [hAit], out [eut].


[1, m, ] ,
: film ['filom], known [']. []
.
,
, , , dunch
, frazil , lund
. .

454.
.
[i:] [ii] [01], : sweets
[sw9its], been [biin]. [:]
[iu] [], : boot [biut], [baut].

. stock
;
: stock-holder , stock-house
.; station
. .
: , boomerang
dingo, , ,
, waddy , cooboo , malee
1.


455.
. ,


.
:
1) Pidgin-English , 2) Beachla-Mar 3) Kroo-English .
Pidgin-English
Business English ( );
Pidgin Pigeon
pigeon .
Pidgin English X V III .

, , .
, 12 1914 .,
(
1
: S. J . a k e r . The A u s tr a li a n L a n g u a g e . Syd ney, 1945.

299

), ,
, ,
, Pidgin English.
Pidgin English
.
Beach-la-Mar ,
.
Kroo-English
.
.
.

. --
all.
-- belong, : wife
belong you . .

by and by, : brother belong-a-me by and by he
dead .



456. XV . ,
. .


.

.
, , (Petrarca,
Francesco 1304 1374) (Boccaccio, Giovanni, 1313
1375).
, .

. ,
, ,

.

.
XVI .
: Mop (More, Thomas,
1478 1535), ( 1516 .
) (Erasmus,
Desiderius, 1466 1536), ,
.
.
300

,
, .
, .
,
,
.
XV .,
.
.

.
,
, 1492 .
. 1497 .
.
, ,
.
4 5 7 .
.
,
,
, , ,

,
;

.

,
:
, ,
,
,
, . .
,


, .
, ,
,

.

4 5 8 .
. , :
finale , fresco , violin , cornice ,
301

umbrella *, bandit *, volcano *, balcony


, gondola *, grotto *, motto *, ,
rivulet *.
, ,
: armada * (), renegade *,
desperado *, negro *, sherry *, alcove *,
pavan (), saraband * (), tornado
*, mosquito *, *.

459.
. ,
,
.

. :
1. -ate,
( -atum) I
-are: aggravate *, alleviate *, abbreviate
*, exaggerate *, frustrate
*, narrate *, emancipate *, vacate
*, locate *, separate , irritate
*, lubricate *, extricate *.
2. -ute,
( -utum) III
-uere: constitute , attribute *,
contribute *, pollute *;
sequi,
secutum, : persecute *,
execute *, prosecute *.
3. ,
III : dismiss
*, collect , affect *, contradict
*, assert *, correct *, collapse
*.
4. ,
III , : permit *
permittere ( permissus,
. permission); admit * admittere (
admissus, . admission); compel
* compellere (
compulsus, . compulsion); expel *
* expellere ( expulsus, .
expulsion); impel impellere (
impulsus, . impulse); deduce
* deducere (
302

deductus, . deduction deduct ); induce


inducere (
inductus, . induction); produce
producere ( productus, .
production, product); introduce , reproduce
; conclude concludere
( conclusus, . conclusion);
include , . inclusion; exclude , . exclu
sion; preclude ; allude (
alludere ( allusus, . allusion);
incur incurrere (
incursus, . incursion).
5. ,
-ant ( I )
-ent ( II, III IV ): arrogant
, reluctant , evident , trans
parent , lenient , expedient
, obedient , resplendent ,
patient ; : accident
, incident , Occident , orient
, crescent .
5.
,
-ior.
: superior , inferior ,
exterior , interior , senior , junior
; . minor , ,
.
,

( mots savants, . 256). ,
-tion
.

460. ,
, ,
, X I I I X IV .,
, .
- .
. 304 305.

. , ,
traditio ( )
: ,
, , ;
. .
, .
factum ,
(.
303

feat),
.
defectum .

, , VII .,
. monasterium ( .
monastSrion) mynster, .-.
.-. minster; XV . .-. monastery.

factum
fragilem
securum

fait
fraile
seure

feat
frail
sure

traditionem

traison

pauperum s
defectum
maior
radius (radium)
abbreviare

povre
defait
maire
rai
abreger

redemptionem

ranson

absolvere

assoldre

aggravare
(aggravatum)
allocare (allocatum)
appretiare

aggrever

fact
fragile
secure

tradition

pauper
defect
major
radius
abbreviate

(
,
)
redemption

absolve

aggravate

allocate

appreciate

balsamum
blasphemare
castigare (castigatum)
colligere (collectum)

basme
blasmer
chastier

collocare (collocatum)
dignitatem

allouer
apreiser

treason
poor '

poor
defeat
defeat
mayor

mayor
ray

ray

abridge

(
, )
ransom
assoil

aggrieve
allow

appraise

,
balm
blame
chasten

cull

(,
)
couch

balsam
blaspheme
castigate

collect
coillir
(,
)
coucher
collocate

deintee
dainty
dignity

dainties

304

extraneus
(ex- strange
traneum)
potionem
poison
prosecutum (pro- porsuir
sequi)
rationem
resoun
separare (sepa- sevrer
ratum)
senior(em)
sire
vocalem
vouel
strictum
streit

strange
,
*

extraneous
,

*
potion
poison
pursue prosecute
* ( )
*
reason , ratio
( )

sever separate
*
senior
sir *
vocal *
vowel *
strict *
strait *

461.

.
, ,
:
,
. , , .-. dette *
( . dette) debt,
. debitum. .-. doute
*, * ( . doute) doubt,
dubito. .-. aventure
. aventure adventure
, (. adventura). .-.
parfit * ( . parfait) per
fect . perfectus,
. .-. vitailles * ( .
vitailles) : victuals
[vitlz].
,
X V XVI .,

.


. , , avancen
* avantage ad
305

vance, advantage,
ad-,
avancer, avantage avant
ab ante.

462.
,
(Ascham, Roger, 1515 1568),
,
(The Schoolmaster), (Wilson, Thomas, 1525 1581);
.

(Toxophilus, 1545 .): that will write well in any tongue,
must follow this counsel of Aristotle, to speak as the common
people do, to think as wise men do: as so should every man
understand him, and the judgement of wise men allow him.
Many English writers have not done so, but using strange words,
as Latin, French and Italian, do make all things dark and hard. 1
, ,
,

.

463.
.
.
. :
epoch *, anarchy *, aristocracy ,
democracy * .



464. ,
,
XVI .
.
.

, . . ,
- ,
.
.

The Eng lis h W o rk s of Ro ger A sch am . L d . , 1815, p. 55.

306

1. :
read-able , talk-ative , eat-able
, wondr-ous , hindr-ance ,
dis-belief , en-dear .
2. :
merci-ful , duke-dom , false-hood 1,
use-ful , use-less , quarrel-some
, be-cause , under-value .


XVII

465. X V II .
, ,
, .

. ,

, , .
, .
:
1. - : canoe , hammock
, maize , potato , tobacco ,
mahogany , cannibal , colibri .
2. -: caoutchouc , cayman
( ), jaguar , tapir , buccaneer
( ), condor , puma
, guano , pampas .
466.
.
- , : ball ,
ballet f'baelei] , beau [bouj , billet-doux ['bili-du:]
, bizarre , cajole , caprice
[ko'pri:s] , caress , chagrin f' Jaegrin] ,
coquette , intrigue [in'tri:g] .
, : grotesque
, gazette , miniature , naive
[na:'i:v] , raillery , reprimand ,
ridicule , serenade , suite ,
().

. , (
), ,
: grimace, intrigue, serenade.
: intrigue,
caprice, fatigue, naive, magazine , marine ,
307

quarantine *, ravine , chemise ,


police [i:].
beau [bou] , chateau [Ja'tou] ,
trousseau [tru:'sou] -eau
[].
ch [J]
chagrin, chemise.
t ballet , trait
[trei] , bouquet [bu'kei] , buffet [bu'fei]
(. buffet ['bAfit] ).
s corps (
[ :], [ko:z]), pas
[:] ( ); apropos ['] ,
, debris ['deibri:] .
XVIII X X

467. X V III X X .
.
,
; , ,
, - . ,
: kindergarten (
, ) w a l t z (
X I X .); :
bungalow , dinghy ; :
coolie kowtow ; :
caravan ; : giaour .

,

, : telegraph,
telephone, microscope, oxygen , hydrogen .
,
, : borzoi , samo
var , czar, tsar (
Caesar), verst , knout .
468. ,
,
.

, , , ,
;
,
.
soviet, bolshevik, bol
308

shevism, udarnik, kolkhoz .




, , , sputnik, synchrophasotron
.

469. X X .
. 1913 .
Society for Pure English. :
1) ,
, . .
;
2)
, ; 3)
. Society for Pure
English ,
.

470.
, . . ,
.

- .


.
, , :

physics
biology
zoology
botany
arithmetic

physique
biologie
zoologie
botanique
arithmetique

Physik
Biologie
Zoologie
Bctanik
Arithmetik

geometry
algebra
philosophy
medicine
democracy

geometrie
algebre
philosophie
medicine
democratic

Geometrie
Algebra
Philosophie
Medizin
Demokratie

aristocracy

aristocratie

Aristokratie

monarchy
republic

monarchic
republique

Monarchie
Republik

.
.
.
.

1x1
|

309

socialism
communism

socialisme
communisme

progress
reaction

progres
reaction

Sozialismus
Kommunismus
Progress
Reaktion

. 1


(, . [c^i'omitri], .
[^eome'trij, . [geome'tri:]), , ,
2 .

471.
. ,
,
, ( -).

,
, : answer, work,
walk, look, point, smell, love, hate, accord, rest.

, .

, . .
,

(conversion).
, . . ,
.
,
, , , : act, advantage, ef
fect, air, mention, note, hand, figure, finger.


. , ,
, , ,
-tio n ,
,
-tio n , : mention, motion, sanction, petition.

1 - .
2

: . . .
.
. . ., 1956; . . .
. - , 19 64 .

310

, ,
,
, . . . ,
:
will you pleasure me? ?;
this day shall gentle his condition
; he lessoned us to weep ; they . . .
that . . . askance their eyes . . . . . . .

,
.
472. .


( -),
, heafod
beheafdian .
heed beheeden.
:
head behead, . .
.
,
-
( -)
. -,
X IV .,
. , , .-. casen, enchanten, encirclen, encouragen, ensuren, envenomen,
.-. encase, enchant, encircle, encourage, ensure, envenom.
,
.
,
. ,
,

. , ,
befool belittle , .

473.
,
( 408 .), .

, ,
311

,
. ,
: shall I have the thought
, . . ; have in
mind where we must meet , . . ; you
have too much respect upon the world
, . . (
); keep me company, .: ,
. . ; nor do I now make moan,
, . . ; how to get clear
of all the debts , . .
; and out of doubt you do me now more wrong in making
question of my uttermost than if you had made waste of all I have
, , ,
, ,
, ; . . , ,
,
, ,
.

: do wrong = ; make question =
; make waste = .
. : in what particular thought to work I
know not, .: ,
. . ; we do it wrong
, . . ; . . . and of the
truth herein this present object made probation, .:
, . .
; to give these
mourning duties, .: , . .
; to do obsequious sorrow, .:
, . . ; take it to heart
; let the world take note, .:
, . . ; I must hold my
tongue, .: , . .
; but answer made it none, .:
() , . . ; give it an un
derstanding, but no tongue, .: ,
, . . , ; give every man thine ear,
but few thy voice, .: ,
, . . , ;
the winds give benefit , . .
; he . . . may give his saying deed
, . .
; what loss your honour may sustain
, . . ;
do I take my leave , . . ;
he hath, my lord, of late made many tenders of his affection to
312

jne , ,
, . .
; and hath given countenance to his speech
, . . .

[]

474. []
. [] X IV .
; ,
. X V .
.
[] ;
X IV .,
( 1375 .).
[] ,
,
: tables, hats, windows, books, 3-

: likes, sits, begs, shines, seems, needs
-ed: lived, filled,
stopped, walked.
[] ,
[i] [saz], [zaz], [Joz], [tJa z ], [dsoz], [tod], [dad],
, : asses, houses, washes, watches,
judges, wanted, loaded.
[] [i]
(
) -ed, : learned , wicked ,
ragged , crooked , rugged ,
dogged , blessed .
475. [] :
,
;
-, .
,
.
house, stone, wrote (.-. hous, ston, wrot).
[] ,
-we, : morwe , sorwe , narwe *
313

, : morw, sorw, narw; XVI .


w [ou]: morrow,
sorrow, narrow.
476. []
;

,
: answer , love . .

477.
, : chapiter >
chapter ; hydropisie > hydropsy, dropsy ; cour
tesy > curtsey, curtsy ['k9:tsi] , courtesy ['ka:tisi]
; phantasie > fancy ;
phantasy, fantasy
; medicine ['medsin] , ; colonel ['1nal > ':1] , business [ 'biznis] ;
busyness ['bizinis] ; paralysie > palsy [ 'po:lzi] ; damisel > damsel ; crimesin > crimson ; dirige > dirge (
. dirige ); cop
pice > copse .

or

478. > .
X IV ., X V .
,
;
ear; ,
.
, , :
f e r r e > f a r , sterre > star , werre > war ,
merren > mar , ter > tar ; R:
er > ar; herte > heart [hart] , herthe > hearth [har0] ;
h e r k e n > h a r k , heark [hark] ; ferm > farm ,
dernen > darn , bern > barn ; sterven > starve
; hervest > harvest ; ferthing > far
thing ( ); kerven > carve ; merveil >
marvel , ; dwergh > dwarf (. .
Zwerg). clerk, sergeant Derby,
Berkeley, Berkshire, Hertford er > ar
.
314

,
, : certain, servant,
perfect, universal, university, learn, earnest, stern, mercy, mer
chant . person
: parson
person , ( ,
, [:]).
clerk Derby [:].

[:]
[:], : varsity univer
sity; dezarve deserve; parfectly perfectly; sartain
certain; varmint vermin; sarvant servant;
karchar kerchief.

479. ,

, (the Great Vowel Shift),
XV .
,
, [i:] [:] : [i: > ai], [u: > ]. ;
,
, .

:
u:
i:

ai
i:

t
e:

r
e:
t
T
e:

OU
t1
:

ei
t
1
a:

i
o:

480.
. .
(. Sweet, 1845 1912) . (. Jespersen, 1860 1943) ,
X V III .,
XVI X V II
. . 1
:
1 . J e s p e r s e n .
p. 232.

A Modem Engl i sh

31*

G r a m ma r .

P a r t I. L o ndo n, 1933


( X I V .)


( X V I .)

a'ba:t
fu:l
bi:t

abate
foul
- bite

'
foul
beit

9'beit
faul
bait

. . .
,
,
, XVI .

.

481.
;
:
:
:
i:

>
>
>
>

ei
: > i:
i:
ai

: > ou
: > :
: >

XVI . [:] ( .-. [:])


[i:] ( .-. [:]) speak, beat, mean
meek, meet, keen. X V II . [:]
[:]) [i:],
.

name
grave
sane
2. beat
clean '
speak
lead
3. meet
sleep
keen

see

be
field
chief
receive
seize

4. like
time '
rise
side

1. take

'ta:ko
'naimo
'gra:V9
'san9
'be:t9
kle:n
'spe:k9
'le:d9
'me:t9
sle:p
'ke:n9
se:
be:
f e: Id
tfe:f
re'se:v9
'se:z9
'li:k9
4i:m 9
'ri:z9
'si:d9
316

teik
neim
greiv
sein
be:t > bi:t
' kle:n > kli:n
spe:k > spi:k
le:d > 1i:d
mi:t
sli:p
ki:n
si:
bi:
firld
tfi:f
ri'si:v
si:z
laik
taim
raiz
said

5. boat *
load
moan *
go

6. tool *
moon
food
do
*
7. house
noun

how
down *

bo:t
lo:d
'
:
tori

fo:d
do:
hu :s
nu:n

bout
loud
moun
gou
tu: 1
mum
fu:d
du:
haus
naun

hu:
du:n

hau
daun

482. ,
[:] ( .-. ) [:].
XVI .
,
[:],
[i:] .
, X V II .
[i:],
,
[i:].
,
. ., , sea see ;
heal heel , ; meat meet
. . [:],
[i:],
ie, : field, fiend, chief; ei, :
deceive, receive, seize.
[:] ( .-. )
[]. XVI .
.
[:] ( .-. ) [:].
.
483. ,
, :
. ,

, .
484. [:],
[:], ,
a: hwa , , strac
; .-a. whQ, Qn, strpk. [:]
317

[:]
[:], strok [ > ]
(. 500).
485. ,
, ,
.
.

[: > ei], , []
. ,
1. [:]
, -, , ,
.
. , [:]

. ,
,
. , fa:)
, :
lak . lac ; table . table . .
lac,
table . . . ,
[:] [ei]
,
, , .-. [:] .
, ,

, [: > ei] ,
,
.
[:] [ei] , ,
,
: [: > : > : > : > e i].
, -,
[:] .
[i: > ai]
[: > ].
: [i: > ii: > ei > ei > aei > ail; [u: > uu > ou > ou > au).
486. ,
, ,
, , , . . ,
,
. :
1 , ,
: [] [ ]. . .
. . 4-. ., 1953, . 41, 4647.

318

ei
i:
e:
ai
ou
u:
au

wey
time
seen
sayde
bowe
hous
drawen

ei
i:
e:
ai
ou
u:
au

make
see
sea
time
go
moon
house


,
. , , [i:]
see ,
[:],
time , [i:].
487. (
)
.

.
. . ,
1.
,
, ,
( )
,
.
.

. , , .
(A. Martinet)
.
, . .
.

(. 270273)
:
. ,

[i] [u], [i] [i:] , I ] [:]
,
,
1 W. H o r n . Laut und Leben. Englische Lautgeschichte der neueren
Zeit (1400 1950). Bearbeitet und herausgegeben von M. Lehnert, Bd. I ,
Berlin, 1954, S. 3 8 2 - 4 2 6 .
319

.
[i:] [:]
:
. ,
, ,
1.

, ,
.

.
. - 2.
[] ( 474 .). ,

, -
:
;
tatte, tate tat ( t ,
. . .) tat,
tate tat tat.


;
- .

, , ,
.
: [ai, ei, ou, ].
, ;

, .

488. ,
, .

, ,
.
:

1 A. M a r t i n e t . Economie des changements phonetiques. Traite de


phonologie diachronique. Berne, 1955, p. 248256.
2 . . . .
, . I X , 1959,
. 95 104.
320

1.
2. a.
.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

fate
beat

fa:t
be:t

feit
bi:t

steep
time
boat
moon
house

ste:p
ti:m
bo:t
mo:n
hu:s

sti :
taim
bout
mu:n
haus

fare
fear
bear
steer
tire
boar
moor
power

'f :
fe:r
be:r
ste:r
'ti :
bo:r
mo:r
':

fear 1
f I9r

Stl9r
taiar
bo:r
muar

, tire power,

:
ltai9r > ta9r > ta r ; pau9r > 1 > po:r 1.

[], [] [].

489. ,
,
. , [:]
, ,
droop (.-a. droupen), room ,
(.-a. roum).
[:]. group soup
[:], , ,
,
[: > ] . .
accoutre , route , coup [ku:] ,
. [:] wound
, .
[i:] ,
, [i: > ai] :
machine , police . (. 466). []
,
[: > ei], : vase, promenade, charade . .
[:]
[i:]. []
, [: > i:].

[d] [0], : bread (.-. bread >
' 1 [fear ] , []
, .
11 . .

.321

> cp.-a. br^d); dead (.-. dead > .-. d^d); dread
(.-. dried > .-. dr^d); head (.-. heafod >
> .-. h?d, . 289); lead (.-. lead > .-. ld),
spread () (.-. sprsedan > .-. spr^den);
thread (.-. f)riSd > . a. thr^d); tread (.-. tredan >
> .-. tr^den); red ' (.-. read > .-. r^d); breath
(dp.-. > .-. br^th); death (.-.
dead > .-. d^th); [t] fret (.-. fretan
, *fer-etan, .-. fr^ten); ate [et]
(.-. aet > .-. t), eat; let
(.-. laetan > .-. l^ten; (.-.
let > .-. let); sweat [swet] (.-. swaetan > .-.
sw^ten); threat (-. preat > .-. thr^t);
threaten [Gretn] ; get [get] ,
(.-. 3 ietan, .-. y^ten, g^ten, . 251); lend
(.-. laenan > .-. l^nen, . 511).
[s] less (.-. laes); lest
(.-. ) laes , .-. leste).
[:] [f] deaf (.-.
deaf > .-. d^f). [ :] []
friend (.-. freond).

,
(: > : > i:]: knead , lead , mead , plead
, read , heath , ,
, sheath , wreath , beneath, under
neath .
[i:] [i]: sick
(.-. seke) breeches ['britfiz] (.-. breches).

[] []

490. [] []
,
. [],
, [w].
, hat, cat, ladder
[].
[] X II . []; , XVI .,
[] [].
, [] [w],
, ( 498) [wa]
[wo].
322

491. [ai] [ei]


[aei]: day, way . .
[aei] [ei]: [dei], [wei].
[ei] [ei] .-. |:].

: ail * ale *; fain * feign
fane ; lain II lie
lane ; maid m a d e *; pail
pale *; plain *, * plane ,
; sail , sale ; tail
tale ; veil * vale *.
( eu, ew)
iu [ju:], d e w > [ d ju :] .
,
iu: pure, na
ture . .

.-. q u .-a. Q. :
grown II grow * groan *;
know * *, ; mown moan
; row , ; rowed * road
"*, rode ; soul sole .

[:] [:]

492. XVI .
: [] [:].
[]
,
, .
: 1) []
[], 2) [] [au].
1)
[] []. , []
[], ,
, : [ > > : > ].
:
[], []. ,
, (. 445)
[] ,
[].
[] . [0]: bath *,
path , lath ; [0]: father *, lather
, rather , baths, paths, laths.
aftermath [].
11*

323

father
[].
[s]:
brass , , class , glass
, , grass , pass .
[s]
[]: lass \, mass , mass *, cuirass
. alas [] [].
ss , []: passenger,
passage, classic.
[st]: cast , caste , fast , last
, mast , past , vast ,
ghastly , aghast , disaster , nasty
, pasture .
[]: mastiff , elastic
, plastic , pilaster .
[sk]: ask , bask ,
cask , flask , mask , basket ,
casket . [] []
masculine masquerade .
[sp]: clasp , gasp , grasp
, hasp , rasp .
2)
[] [].
[] , []
1 + , ( 493),
[],

[:]. , lm: alms ,
balm , calm , palm , ,
psalm .

[] I
493. -, XV . al
. , 1
,
,
. , XVI . all ,
call , tall , talk , walk 1
[aul, kaul, taul, taulk, waulk].

[au] [:]
494. XVI . [ ] ,
, [ :], aw
, : c a u s e [kauz > k o :z ] ,
au tu m n [ 'a u t a m > 'a : t a m ] , p aw [p au > :] , d aw n
324

[daun > do:n] . , [au]


[] [1], , :
all, call, tall, talk, walk.

495. If, lv [a]: calf , half


, (in) behalf , calve , halve
.
[], [1] :
salve , , valve ;
Ralph [raelf, raf, reif].
[]
+ + .
:
[]: cant , decanter , rant , scant,
scanty , p a n t, grand , an
cestor .
[a:]: plant , , enchant , advan
tage , command , branch ,
chance , example , sample .
[:]: gaunt , haunt , taunt .
[nd3] [ei]: change ,
strange , danger , manger .
X V III X I X .
, ,
. -,
,
. .
,
.
496. [:] []

[]: .-a. clpth ( .-. clad,
. . Kleid), .-. cloth [k b:0, k b 0 ].
clothes clothe
.
[:] [] froth , cross ,
*, , loss , toss , cost ,
frost . .-. gpn ( gpn )
[]: []; .-. hpt ( .-.
hat) hot [hot]; .-. spry ( .-. sari3)
sorry. shpn (
shinen ) shone [Jon]. sausage [:]
[].
[:] [] [k]: book , cook
*

. .

325

, , hook , look , ,
brook , crook , shook , took ,
: good ,
stood , hood , foot , , wool , soot
( brood , food , mood ,
, rood ).
blood, flood, mother . . 500.
[:] [u]: broom ,
room , (
[:] , . 489).
[:]

497. XVI .
[:].
[] [].
[:] :
1) i - f r , fir [fa:] , sir
[sa:] , dirt [da:t] , mirth [ma:0] , firm [fa:m]
, first [fa:st] , thirst [0a:st] ;
2) e - f r , her [ha:] , cer
tain [sa:tn] , serve [sa:v] , berth [ba:0|
;
3) u - f r , fur [fa:] ,
curt [ka:t) , curtain [ka:tn[ , burn [ba:n]
, hurt [ha:t] , further ['fa:Sa] ;
4) + w, worm
|wa:m] , word [wa:d] , worse [wa:s] ;
5) + r , learn [1:] ,
heard [ha:d] .
+ r ,
,
[ > ] (. ) , [:]. ,
,
. , certain, perfect
[:];
.
XVII

[] [] [w]

498. []
[w]. XV II . [wa] [wa]:
[].
326

: was [wdz] , wash [wdJ] , wasp [wasp]


oca , swamp [swomp] , watch [wotf] , swan
[swon] , wanton ['wanton] , wand [wand]
, swallow ['swalou] , warrant ['waront]
, wander ['wandoj , Warwick ['warik] ;
[kw] ( qu): squash [skwaj]
, quality ['kwaliti] , qualify ['kwaiifai]
, quarrel ['kwarol] , quarry ['kwari]
, , quandary [kwan'deori, 'kwandori]
; quadrangle ['kwadraeggl] .
[a:]: war [wa:] , warm [wa:m]
, warn [wa:n] , warp [wa:p] , ward
[wa:d] , water ['wa:ta] , swart [swa:t] ,
quarter ['kwa:ta] , dwarf [dwa:f] , wharf [wa:f]
.
[wa > wa] ,
[] [k, , ].
[] [se]: wag ,
whack [waek] , wax [waeks] , , twang [twaeij]
, swagger ['swaega] , quack
[kwaek] , quagmire ['kwaegmaia] .
waft , quaff , qualm
[] [:];
[waft], [kwaf], [kwam].

[] []

499. X V II . [] [].
u: but [but > bAt] , cut [kut > kAtJ
, hunt [hunt > hAnt] , blunt [blunt > blAntj
, stump [stump > stAmp] , luck [luk > 1] ,
sun [sun > SAn] .
: come [ > ] ,
some [sum > sAm] , love [luv > 1v] , dove
[ d u v > dAV] , son [sun > SAn] , won [wun > WAn]
win .
ou: rough
[ru:% > ruf > rAf], enough [e'nu:% > 1'nuf > I'nAf],
tough [ t u : % > tuf > tAf], young , couple ,
double , trouble .

500. [] ,
[:].
: [: > :
> > ] . [}
X V II .
11**

327

[:], [],
.
: month , .-. moneth;
['mo:n0 > mu:n0 > 0 > 0 ]; Monday
, done do ,
other , mother , brother .
: blood , [ b l o : d > b l u : d >
> blud > blAd] flood [f 1:d > flu:d > flud > flAd].
501. [u]
: bull [bul] , bull ,
bully ['bull] , bullet ['bulit] , bulletin ['bulitinj
, bullion ['buljan] , bulrush ['bulrAJ] ,
bulwark ['bulwok] , butcher ['butfa] , bush
[buj] , pull [pul] , , pulley ['puli] ,
pulpit ['pulpit] , push [puj] ,
put [put] , puss [pus] , pudding ['pudirj] ,
full [ful] , wolf [wulf] .
,
, [] []: bulb [1] , ,
pulse [pAls] , pulp [1] , pulmonary ['1]
, fulminate ['Lvlmineit] .
[],
[:] [] ( 496). , -,
bosom ['buzam] cushion ['kujan] .
[ > ]
.
[:] [i:]

502. X V II .
. [:], [:],
[i:].
[:] [:] [i:].
(. 482).
: beat [bi:t] , sea [si:] , meat [mi:t]
, streak [stri:k] , lead [ 1i:d] , read [ri:d]
, seat [si:t] .
great break [:]
( [ei]);
.

503. X V II .
[:] [ei]. XVI . ale ail,
Dane deign : ale Dane, ,
328

[:], ail deign [ei]. X V II .


, [ei].
says, saith, said []: [sez, se0, sed],
, ,
.

[:] []:
stone, oak, most, , slow, snow, low,
, [].

504. ,

,
.
: [i] [].
- .
:
1. :
[i]: wishes ['wijiz] , ended
illness ['llnis] , village ['vilidj]
['mauntin] .

['endid] ,
, mountain

[]: patience ['peijans] , remnant ['remnant]


, purpose ['p9:pas] .

2. :
[i]: begin [bi'gin] , return [ri'ta:n] ().
[]: admire [ad'maia] , announce [a'nauns]
, command [ka'mand] .
505. , ,
.
, ,
, , : doorstep ['do:step] ,
hatband ['haetbaend] .
. .
: dialogue ['daiabg] ,
syntax ['sintaeks] , chaos ['keios] , phenomenon
['] .
, [ou]: window
['windou] , sorrow ['sorou] , yellow ['jelou]
, fellow ['felou] , . [ou] []
; . ,
: winder ['winda], feller ['feb].
32


[]

[%],
: 1) t, 2)

506.

gh,
.

1) [ ] t ;
. : light [li^ t> 1i:t ] , bright
[b rix t> b ri: t]
,
night
[m x t > n i:t ] ; brought
[brouxt>bro:t] , fought [fou%t>fo:t] , caught
[kau% t>ko:t] .
[i:], light,
[i: > ai]
, gh
. gh
, delight
( . del it) light.
, sprightly
sprite (spirit).
brought, caught [ou], []
[:].
[%] t
.
2) [%] [f],
rough , enough , cough
, laugh , tough , slough
, trough , draught , ,
(draughts ); draft
, . dwergh
[> dwarf. ,
[% > , gh
[f].
[%] , :
bough , dough , though , through .
, laughter [f],
[%] t. ,
laugh.
[I] k, m, f, v

507. [1]
, f, v. , talk ,
walk , chalk , yolk , folk , palm
, , calm , calf (
calves), half ( halves)
: [to:k, wo:k, tjS :k , jouk, fouk, pa:m, ka:m,
kaf, ka:vz, ha:f, havz].
330

[1] yolk
[1]
, , .
[1] v ,
, :
dissolve, resolve, valve.
[1] d should would,
.
, [1]

[1], , [1] ,
.
; [1]


X I V XV . , fault (.-. fa u te < cm . -.
fa u te O a m . falta fallo ); falcon ' (.-.
\<.-. faucon < . falco); realm
(.-. reaum< .- . < . regal imen).
, 1
, ,
, .

[w]

508. ,
, [w].
one. ,
.
. XVI .
wone, [w].
-, .
[o :n > w o :n > w u :n > w u n > w A n ]. X V II .
[wAn] ; X V III .
.
once [wAns] (.-. ones); . nothing.
[w] woof (.-. oof<dp.-a.
owef). [w] , ,
weave web.
[w]
answer ['a:nso], conquer, conqueror [', '],
liquor ['], Southwark ['sActek], Berwick ['berik], Chiswick
['tjizik], Greenwich ['grinidj], Norwich ['noridj].
. it'll (it will), itd (it would). I'll, you ll, hell,
shell, well.
331

[w] conquest ['kogkwist], for


ward I'foiwad] -ward,
toward(s), [ 'to:d(z)] [tu'wo:d(z)];
languid ['laeijgwid] language ['laeggwidjj.
[w] + w-j , sword [so:d],
two [tu:]; . who, whom, whose [hu:, hu:m, hu:z].
whole [houl] (.-. hal > c p .-a . hpl) w
who
, [w] .
, :
whole hole (.-. holu> .- . hple).

509.
.

: , ,
.
, -, ,
1.
[s]
[ks], [z] [gz].
[f]
[tj], [v] [d3).
1. [ s > z ] .
: dessert
[di'zo:t] , resemble ( -), possess
[po'zes] , observe
[9b'zo:v] , dissolve
[di'zolv] , ().

[s]: dissect , dissemble , dissent
. discern
[di'zo:n] [di'so:n].
2. [k s>g z].
(
,

): exhibit [ig'zibit] exhibition [.eksi'bijon]


; exhort [ig'zo:t] exhortation hekso^teijon]
;
executor
[ig'zekjuto]
execute
['eksikju:t] , ; luxurious [lAg'juorios]
luxury [ ' lAkJT] ; anxiety [aeg'zaioti]
anxious ['aegkjos] (
(3l . 514, 515).

.
( 19).
332

3. [f] [v]
: of [ov] off [:f].
4.

[tj> d 3 ]

:
.-.
knowleche>tt.-a. knowledge ; .-. partriche>tt.-a.
partridge ; :
Greenwich ['gnnid3], Norwich ['norid3] . .

.
, ,
the, this, that, then, there, though . .,
, , ,
.

510. ,
, .
:
[mb] [ ] .
[] : lamb *, dumb ,
climb , comb , tomb , plumb *,
bomb . [] b
; m b
, [m],
[] , : thumb *
(.-. f>uma), limb (.-. lim), numb
(.-. numen, niman ), crumb
(.-. cruma).
[mn] [ ] ,
damn , condemn ,
hymn *, co lu m n *, solem n , autumn
.
[In] [1]
miln > 1 (.-. myln< . molinum).
kiln * [] :
[kiln ] .

. :
[stl] [si]: castle , whistle
, rustle , bustle ;
[stn] [sn]: glisten , fasten (.
, ,
); [ftn] [fn]: often , soften *;

. , [kil]
, .

333

[stm] [sm]: Christmas * ['krismas],


postman * ['pousmon]; [ktl] [kl]: exactly
[ig'zaekli], directly [di'rekli]; [ktn]
[kn]: exactness [ig'zaeknis]; [ski] [si]
muscle [mAsl].
[nd3], [ld3] [], [I3],
strange
[strein(d)3], danger
['dein(d) 39], divulge [dai'vAl(d)3]; [d]
[dnz], [nds], [ndm], [ndk] . .:
Wednesday ['wenzdi], handsome ['hsensom],
grandmother ['],
grandfather
['grsenfaiOo],
landscape [Taenskeip], handkerchief
['hseijkotjif] (
[ndk > nk > gk]). [d]

( spelling
pronunciation).
[n tj], [ltj] [n j], [1J]: French
[fren(t)J];
branch
[bra:n(t)J];
milch
( ) [mil(t)J].

511. , , ,
,

. , ,
-, -d: soun > sound (. son);
poune > pound; boun ( , ;
. buinn) > bound; astoune opaa>astound; expoune
> expound; hine > hind; lene

> lend.
,
-, -t, : peasant
, pheasant , tyrant (. paysan,
faisan, tyran).
. ,
,
. , -nd , ,
land, hand, band, bond, kind, mend, rend, send, spend,
tend, expand, wind.

-nt,
: crescent, orient, Occident, patient.
[mt], [ms]
[];
,

empty
(.-.
e m t i < .-. semetti 3), glimpse (.-. glimse), consumption
, .
t ,
-s, : amonges > amongst , amiddes > amidst , a g a in es> against , whiles > whilst
.
334

[d] [] []

512. [d] [] [3]:


fader > father; moder * > mother; gadere *
> gather; togedere > together; weder > weather;
hider > hither; thider > thither; whider >
whither. -, [t] [0]
[] autour > author (cm,-.
autour < . auctorem).

[j]

513.
[j] [s], [z], [t], [d ].
,
.
514. [sj > J]: Asia ['eijo] , Russia
[ Jo] , fuchsia ['fju:Jo] , pension ['penjon]
, session ['sejon] , digression [dai'grejon]
( ),
ancient ['einjont] , social
f'soujol] , musician [mju:'ziJon] , politi
cian ^poli'tijon] , vicious ['vijos]
, ocean
['oujon] , conscious ['konjos] , species
['spi: Ji:z] ().
- t i - . ,
,
[sj]
. [sj > J] - t i -
[J]: nation ['neijon] , revolution
^revo'lurjon] , population ^popju'leijon]
- t i o n [-Jon]; ratio ['reijiou]
(), patient ['peijont] , ,
militia [m i'lijo] , partial ['pcujol] ,
, initiative [I'nijiotiv] .
- x i - - -;
[ksj > k j] [ksju > k j u
> k Ja ]: connexion ( connection) [ko'nekjon] ,
, anxious ['serjkjos] , luxury ['lAkJori]
.

[sj] ([si])
: halcyon [ 'haelsian]
, axiom ['aeksiom] , peninsula [ pi'ninsjula]
,
insulate
['insjuleit]

(
).
335

issue , , ,
tissue
['isju:] ['tisju:], ,
[ 'i ju : ] [' 11J : ] .
[sj] ,
: suit [sju:t] ,
, , ; assume [o'sjuim]
(). [sj] [J]
:
sure [Juo] (
) sugar ['Jug 9] .
515. [zj > 3]
: collision ['] , precision [prTsijan]
, osier [' 0U39] .
[zju] [3U > ]: measure ['] ,
, treasure [] , azure [ ' 39] ['ei 39]
, usual ['jm juol] .
[zj]: Parisian
[po'rizion], Caucasian [ko:'keiz] 9n], [:' 13], gymnasium
[d3im'neizi 9m] , .

luxurious [1'ias]; [zj]
: presume [prfzju:m] , resume
[ri'zju:m] .
5 1 6 . [tj > t j] : question ['kwestjan]
, , righteous ['raitjas] .
[tju] [tju > t J a ] : nature ['neitjo]
, culture [ kAltJo]
-ture; fortune ['fo :tJ] , , century ['sentJan]
.

[tju], ,
[ t j u ] : virtue ['vo:tju:]
[ V9:tju:] , actual ['aektju9l] ['aektjuol]
, , statue ['stsetju:] ['staetju:] .
[tj]
: tune [tju:n] , student ['stju :d9nt] *.
517. [dj > d3] [tj > t j] :
soldier ['sould39] , verdure ['V9:d39] .
, , [dj] ,
[d3]: tedious
[ ' ti: djos] , educate ['edjukeit] .
518. [zj > 3]
[ 3].
,
336

[sj > J] , [tj > tf], [dj > d3]


,
- ,
[ J ] , [tj] [d3].
[ 3] ,
(. 466).

519. [j]
,
. [j] ,
. , [j]
[], [ 1].
crew * () (.-. creu)
[kriu > krju > kru:]; grew *, threw ,
fruit [fru:t] , rude [ru:d] , rule [ru: 1] ,
, crude [kru:d] , , bruise [bru:zJ
, peruse [pe'ruiz] .
[1] . [1]
, [ 1j ] [lu]: blue
[:] , flute [flu:t] , sluice [slu:s] , plural
['pluoral] .
, [1] ,
. . [ 1]
, [ji ;
: [lu:] [lju:]. [lu:] , ,
.
[1] : luminous , lute
, lunar . [1] : revolu
tion , salute .
[j] [ t j] , [d3] : chew [tju :]
[tjju :], jubilee ['d 3u:bili] , jejune [d3i'd 3u:n] ,
.
[j]
, [t], [d], [n], [s].
[j] [t], [d], [] :
new [nu:] , dew [du:] , tune [tu:n] (. 449).
520. [j]
,
, ,
. ,
, . ,
X V II ., -,

,
[j], ,
[i] [j]. ,
, , X V II .,
337

,
.
, -,
, [] [] [w],
[ > ] .

,
,
.

521.
. , [] []
[], : knave
[neiv] , knight [nait] , knee fni:) , know
[nou] , knit [nit] , knell [nel] ;
gnat [naet] , gnarled [na:ld] , gnash [naej]
, gnaw [:] ; : gnosis
[nousis] , gnomic ['noumik] .
, [] []
, : acknowledge [ok'nolic^]
, diagnosis [daio'gnousis] .
[w] []: write [rait] , wrong []
, wretch [retf] .
[hw] [],
wh, [w].
which witch
, whether weather .
wh [hw] [].
[h] , : fore
head ['forid] , shepherd [ ' Jepad] ; . perhaps
[praeps] [po'haeps] ;
: Chatham ['tfaetam], Nottingham ['notnjom], Brougham
[bru:m].

522. [] []
; []:
nation ['neijon > 'neijn] , passion ['paejan > 'paej ]
. .

,
1 2, : literature ['litorotfo], ['litritfa] , laboratory, ['laebaratari], ['laebaratri], ['laebratri] , [lo'borotri], interesting ['intorostigl,
['intristiij] .
338

523. ,
, . .
, ,
. X V II . ,
fault vault
faut, vaut,
1 falta,
volta, , , [1].
nephew ( . neveu)
neuew.
nepotem ( nepos),

nephew.
['nevju:] ['nefju:].

,
(eye-words),
,
5 6. phthisis
( ).
['0aisis], ['fOaisis], ['taisis], ['0isis], ['f0isis], ['tisis].
contumely (
), ['kontjuimli],
[ 'kont jtrmi: li ], ['kontju:mili], [ kan't ju:m ill], fkan'tju: mil J.

524. XVI .

. , XVI .
. , .
1
. . 2 ,
, XVI .,
. ,
, ,
,
.
. , .
1 F Kluge. Geschichte der englischen Sprache (Grundrifl der germanischen Philologie, herausgegeben von H. Paul. Band 1 Strafiburg, 1891).
2 R. Hu chon. Histoire de la langue anglaise. Vol. 1. Paris 1923, p. X.
339

, . . XV X V II . .
, . .

, ,
.
,
.
,
, ,
,
.


525. XV XVI .
,
. ,
eyen fon
eyes foes,
.

[f] [0]
. , ,
roof ( roofs)
-oof; belief beliefs, death deaths,
hearth hearths.
,
: wife wives, life lives, half halves, wolf wolves
-If; bath baths, path paths, youth youths.

, : wharf wharves,
wharfs; scarf scarves, scarfs; truth truths [-9z], [-0s].
staff (.-. stsef, stafas,
cp.-a. staf staves) : staff
staffs , , stave staves (
)
.
[ f ] [v]
handkerchief ,
kerchief :

1 . n k a. On the Syntax of the English Verb from Caxton to Dryden (Travaux du cercle linguistique de Prague, 3). Prague, 1930.
340

handkerchiefs handkerchieves.

: oxen, child children,
man men,woman women, foot feet,goose geese, tooth teeth,
mouse mice, louse lice, dormouse dormice;
brethren brother ( brothers)
kine cow ( cows).
sheep sheep,
deer deer, swine swine; fruit, fish
, trout , salmon , cod ,
-s .

526. , -,
.
(ox, goose, mouse, louse, dormouse, sheep, deer, trout).

, ( ,
, . .). ,

.
, (man, woman,
child), , , -
, .

,
: twelvemonth (.-. twelf mona|)); fortnight
(.-. feowertyne niht); sennight (.) (.-
seofon niht).

527. ,
X IV .,
.
: ,
,
of +
: , , every shires ende
the end of every shire.
, - s ,
friends was a happy life, ,
,
.

.
528.
.
341


1680 . ,
, .

.

, 1780 .
, ,
,
,
.


529.
.


thou.
, thou
, , ,
, . thou

.
XVI .
you. (Ascham,
Roger, 1515 1568) (Lyly, John, 1554? 1606)
you XVII
, .
XVI
hit it. XVI . hit
.
530.
his ( )
XVII . its, -, XVII .
. XVII .
its his.

hir (.-. hire) her.
; ,
. XV .
her hir.
342

mine thine
: 1)
, this islands mine, a cloak as long as
thine; 2) ,
, mine eyes, mine enemies, thine
eyes, thine ear.
mine thine
.


531.

(. 319) - .

532.
: 1) :
this (.-. this, pis);
these (.-. these, thise,
this); 2) that (.-. that,
paet), those (.-. thps .-. pas).

533.
:
1) who (.-. who < .-. hwa); whose (.-. whos, .- .
hwaes; whom (.-. whom, .-. hwaem);
2) what (cp.-a. what, .-. hwaet);
3) which (cp.-a. which, dp.-a. hwilc).

534. that ilke
.
either (
, ), each
, such , some - , any ,
. ,
somebody - , anybody -
nobody ,
343

( somebody
somebodys . .),
: something - , anything - nothing
.

-
535.
-,

( 322).
.

(. 590 .).


536. ,
, .
, ( 326),
,
more most.

:
,
more most
.
X V XVI .
. , ,
long, lenger, lengst
long, longer, longest.

elder eldest
old, older oldest.
,
, old
.
,
( 325),
.
537.
+ - most +
-est, : I am more better than
344

Prospero; the Duke of Milan and his more braver daughter could
control thee; a walled town is more worthier than a village; your
wisdom should show itself more richer to signify this to the
doctor; these kind of knaves I know, which in this plainness
harbour more craft and more corrupter ends than twenty sillyducking observants; it hath been the longest night that eer I
watchd and the most heaviest; in the calmest and most stillest
night; the most boldest and best hearts of Rome; this was the
most unkindest cut of all; that I love thee best, most best,
believe it; to take the basest and most poorest shape; you his
mistress, only for the most worthiest fit; your lordship is the
most patient man in loss, the most coldest that ever turned
up ace.
,
more most
.

538. - ,
.


1 .- . on > un > [wAn] ( one); 2 two > twu >
> [tu :] ( two); 3 t h r e > [ 0 r i : ] ( three);
4 four > [fo:] (four); 5 five > [faiv] (five); 6 six; 7 seven;
8 e i g h t e > [ e it ]
(eight);
9 n fn >[n am ]
(nine);
10 ten;
11 elleven > eleven;
12 twelve;
13 thirteen > ['Ooi'tiin]
(thirteen); 14 fourteen; 15 fifteen; 16 sixteen; 17 seventeen;
18 eightetene>eighteen; 19 nineteen; 20 twenty; 30 thirty >
I'0a:ti] (thirty); 4 0 forty; 50 fifty; 60 sixty; 70 seventy; 8 0
eighty; 90 ninety; 100 hundred; 1000 thousand; 1,000,000
million.


1 first > [foist] (first); 2 second > [seknd] (second); 3
third > [0o:d] (third); 4 fourth; 5 fift > fifth (-th
); 6 sixt > sixth ( ); 7 seventh;
8 eighth > [eit0]; 9 ninth; 10 tenth;
11 eleventh; 12
twelfth; 13 19 teenth; 20 9 0 tieth [-tn0]; 100 hundredth;
1000 thousandth; 1,000,000 millionth.
345

539.
, ( 335), .
, ,
.
, , .
,
-: -cold, afeard, afoot, afraid,
alike, alive, amiss, ashamed, asleep, awake.
. , acold
: Toms a-cold.
:
be not afeard; then never trust me, if I be afeard; the matter
being afoot, keep your instruction; before the games afoot thou
still lettst slip; you are afraid, if you see the bear loose, are
you not? I will sing that they shall hear I am not afraid; many
wearing rapiers are afraid of goose-quills his sons alive; I pray
you, tell me, is my boy, God rest his soul! alive or dead?
are you not ashamed? I am much ashamed of my exchange; I was
fast asleep; I ll watch Titania when she is asleep; the master and
the boatswain, being awake, enforce them to this place; I have
been up this hour, awake all night.


540.
.
- 1-
,

.
541.
-eth 3-
-s,
.
. ,
3- 2- ,
-s ( -st).
, 3-
3- is be. XV .
3- -s
.
346

-s
*th, -, -
. , ,
:
m a r c ellu s

fr a n c is c o

! Farewell, honest soldier:


Who hath relieved you?
Bernardo has my place.

B, XVII . -th -s
.
-th . ,
hath doth,
-s. ,
:
Too well 1 see and rue the dire event,
That with sad overthrow and foul defeat
Hath lost us heaven, and all this mighty host.
Our better part remains
To work in close design, by fraud or guile
What force effected not: that he no less
At length from us may find, who overcomes
By force, hath overcome but half his foe.

542. 2- -st,
thou, X V II .
.

:
And chiefly thou spirit, that dost prefer
Before all temples th upright heart and pure,
Instruct me, for thou knowst; thou from the first
Wast present, and with mighty wings outspread
Dove-like satst brooding on the vast abyss
And madst it pregnant.

. , , (Congreve,
William) :
bellm o u r

bellm o u r

bellm o u r

bellm o u r

Dear Frank, thou art the truest friend in the world.


How canst thou be ungrateful to that creature?
Prithee, how dost thou love?
No, faith, Frank, you wrong her: she has been just
to you.

,

you ,
347

thou -st.
,
-
. ,
-st
,
-st,
. -,
-
, , ,
.
, 2-
,
,

2- .


543.
.

:
1) , 2) 1 3-
, 3)
( 2- ) 4)
.
:
1) , 2) , 3)
.

. 350 351.
544.

:
I : (a)bide, shine, strike, V
sit, VI : wake,
stand, VII : hold.
strike (- . strpk)
[:] [: > > ] (struck),
brother, blood . ( 500).
545. bidden, beden ( 340)
bid, bade, bidden;
,
bid bade.
forbid forbid, forbade, forbidden.
to spit, spat, spat, -,
348

: .-. spittan
.-. spaetan.
slen
slay
slain.

546. , ,
VI VII ,

(. 339). ,
,
, shok, tok,
knew, fell. ,
.
,
.

, , ,
, . . .
, II III
bind, bound, bound , ,
,
,
.
,
, , ,
,
, ,
. , bind, bound,
bound bite, bit, bit(ten)
bear, bore, born(e); tear, tore, torn; speak, spoke, spoken.
, ,
,
,
. ,
bind, bound bound sit, sat,
sat; hold, held, held; shine, shone, shone; stand, stood, stood.
547. , ,
X V I I X V III .

; , , wrote
writ; rode rid;
sang sung; began begun.
(sung, begun)
, X IX .,
. ,
,
349

.
. .

.
. .

writen

wrpt

writen

writen

risen
smiten
riden
blten

rps
smpt
rpd
bpt

risen
smiten
riden
biten

risen
smiten
riden
biten

shinen

shpn

shinen

shinen

sheten

sh^t

shpten

shpten

chosen
fresen

ch^s
fr^s

chpsen
frpsen

chpsen
frpsen

blnden
finden
drinken

bpnd
fpnd
drank

bounden
founden
drunken

bounden
founden
drunken

singen
beginnen
winnen

sang
begann
wan

sungen
begunnen
wunnen

sungen
begunnen
wunnen

spinnen

span

spunnen

spunnen


write

wrote

written

rise
smite
ride
bite

rose
smote
rode
bit

risen
smitten
ridden
bitten

shine

shone1

shone 1

shoot2

shot

shot

choose2
freeze

chose
froze

chosen
frozen

bind
find
drink

bound
found
drank

bound
found
drunk

sing
begin
win

sang
began
won

sung
begun
won

spin

spun

spun


. .


. .

. .

I I

. .

I I I


. .


. .

IV
^

bar

b^ren

bpren

bear

bore

born(e)

t^ren
stolen

tar
stal

t^ren
stolen

tpren
stplen

tear
steal

tore
stole

torn
stolen

V
s itten

sat

sften

s|ten

sit

sat

sat3


. ,

IV .

g^ten

gat

g^ten

g^ten

get

got

got
(gotten)

taken

tok

token

taken

take

took

taken

shaken
awaken

shok
awok

shoken
awoken

shaken
awaken

shake
awake

shook
awoke4

shaken
awoke4


.
. ,

fallen
knowen
growen
hplden

fell
knew
grew
held

fellen
knewen
grewen
helden

fallen
knowen
growen
hplden

fell
knew
grew
held

fallen
known
grown
h eld5

VI

V II

1
2
3
4
5

fall
know
grow
hold

. . . . . [:]
[ ] .
s h o o t , ch o ose [:], , c e o s a n , s c e o t a n
c e o sa n , sceo ta n .
. . .
; .- . [:]

[:].
.

G o o d f r e n d f o r It s v s s a k e f o r
T O D i c e T I E D V S T EN CLO ASED
B '. E S E BE. ? M AN Y SPARES THES
AND C V K S T BE HE. Y M O V E S MY

blare

hEARL

S TO N ES
BONES

--

spin spun span.


, ,
,
,
, take
took,
taken.
548.
,
.
.

549.
.
,
.
, -
,
. ,
, fall.
- , ,
. yfalle;

fallen. ,
, .

-
, bite bitten bit,
bid bidden bid; . get got forget forgotten.
-
.
-

352


550.
.
I II
,
- d - - - (. 342),
, --
, :
I deme(n) demde demed
II hope(n) hopede hoped
: deem deemed deemed
[di:m di:md di:md];
hope hoped hoped [houp houpt
houpt].
( - -)
-d - - t - : end ended ended ['endid], want wanted wanted
['wontid]. ,
,
.

, I , . .

thinke(n) though te thought, seke(n) soughte
sought. ,
: . .-. reche(n) raughte raught
, .-a. reach reached reached; .-. reche(n)
(reken) roghte roght .-. reck recked recked;
cp.-a.
strecche(n) straughte straught
.-.
stretch stretched stretched (
straight ); .-. lacche(n)
laughte laught , * .-. latch latched
latched (. 558).


551.
.

, .
I : gripen grip , gliden glide , sliten
si it , w rith en w rith e , spiwan spew .
II : chewen chew , sethen se ethe , reken reek
, eleven c l e a v e , fleten fleet , lien lie
, fleen flee , brewen brew (), rewen rue
, crepen creep , s h o u v e n shove , brouken,
bruken brook , souken suck , bowen bow ,
, lo u k e n lock .
II I : a) clim ben clim b ;
) helpen help , delven delve , swolowen sw allow , melten melt - ,

353

swellen swell , bellen bell , yelden yield ,


, m e l k e n m i l k ; ) werpen w arp , kerv en
c a r v e , st erven sta rv e berken bark ,
s m e r t e n sm a rt , b re i d e n braid , threshen thresh
, rmirnen, mournen mou rn .
V : w eyen weigh , met en m ete , wreken
wreak , kneden knead , freten fret ,
, biquethen bequeath .
VI : f a r e n fare , sh aven sh ave , laden lade
, w aden wade , g n a w e n gnaw , aken ache
, baken bake , washen wash , stepp en step ,
heven heave
,
laughen laugh
, shapen shape
, waken wake , , g ra v e n g ra v e ,
.
VII : l e p e n leap , slepen sleep , fo ld e n fold
, sa lten sa lt , walken walk , spannen span
, wepen weep , fl o w e n flow , l o w e n low
, crowen cr ow ( ), w a xe n w a x .
70.

552.
. ,
, seethe
sodden; ,
( ), ;
sod. cleave
cleft clove,
cleft cloven. II forleosan , .-. forlesen
forlorn,
, . climb
clomb. melt
molten,
, : molten lead.
553. , ,

. , I abide,
abode, abode, a b id ed, abided; I
th riv e , throve, th r iv e n , thriv ed ,
th r iv e d ; IV ( V ) w eave ,
w ove, w oven, w eaved, w eaved.
sh ear (IV )
sh eared,
shorn; , ,
sh are , .
IV nim an (
nim en) numb ( .- . numen)
. V
cwedan, .- . quethcn ,
quoth ( .- . cwaeft, .- . quath).

shave ( VI ),
shaved, shaven,
,
354

a shaven chin. lade


laden. heave,
heaved,
hove. (a)wake , ,
, :
woke, woke, woken.
,
,
,
. :
rive rived riven,
hew hewed hewn,
mow mowed mown,
sow sowed sown,

rived
hewed
mowed
sowed

to crow crowed
crew; crowed.

554. ,
.

-ed ,
, : I knowed I knew; I seed
I saw .
555.

.
.-. hydan hydde hyded ,
, .-. hlden hidde hidd I
. , ,
, ,

( 271),
I bite bit bitten,
;
hide
hidden ( hid).
chide , .-. cidan cfdde elded.

chidden chid.
light, , ,
, lit lit,
I
bite. dig , .-. diggen diggede digged,
,
;
(III .)
dig dug dug sting, win
355

. . (II ) stician
sticode sticod *, , .-. stiken steken,
stick stuck stuck
III sting, win.
(I ) werian werede
wered , .-. weren werede wered,
(wear wore worn)
IV bear tear.

556.

, ,
. , ,
, . .
,
, ,
. , , wear
IV bear
tear, :
wear ,
, bear (.
), tear
.
stick , ,
sting
, (
).

557.
:
,
.
.
, (II ) sceawian sceawode sceawod , .- . shewe(n) shewede shewed
shown
VII know, throw, blow . .
show (shew) showed (shewed) shown (shewn);
showed
(shewed). .-. seowian
seowde seowod , .-. sewen sewede sewed,

sewn. I II
strewian strewede strewode strewed strewod, .- .
356

strewen strewed strewed


strewn VII hew.
strew strewed strewn strewed.


558.
; ,
rechen raughte raught ,
reach reached reached;
raught .
rechen (reken) roghte roght
reck recked recked.
strecchen straughte straught
stretch stretched stretched.

straight . lacchen
laughte laught , latch
latched latched.

559.
.
-d -t;
.
cutten cutte cutt , shutten shutte shut , setten sette sett , hurten hurte hurt , ridden ridde rid *,
putten putte put , slitten slitte slit ,
splatten splatte splat
(cut, shut, set, hurt, rid,
put, slit, split;
). spr^den spredde spred sh$den shedde shed

.
casten caste cast , thrusten thruste thrust
, , hitten hitte hit *
costen coste cost
.
III .-. bresten brast
brosten brosten , .-. burst, V II l^ten let
leten l^ten , ,

lette.
12 . .

357

-
560. 1. wit ( wot)
, : I wot well where he is; wotst thou whom
thou movest? swift-winged with desire to get a grave, as witting
I no other comfort have.
to know
.
2. owe ,
: I am not worthy of the health I owe; say, from whence
you owe this strange intelligence.
, : who now
the price of his dear blood doth owe.
ought

owe , ,
: the watch ought to offend no man.
ought
, : and said
this other day you ought him a thousand pound.
owe
owed, ,
: the noblest grace she owd;
: since you owed no more to time.
, ,
. ,
,
( 148); (
) ahte,
, ,
.
3. deh, dowen
.
4. an,
.
5. ( could)
. -s 3-
(he )
. could
.
6. tharf, thurven
.
7. dar, durren dare
durst,
.
dared .
dare -
358

3-
-s: he dare come he dares to come.
8.
shall

. should
,


;
. ,
ought;

,
sceal . should
shall,
.
9. .
10. may ( might)
. might
(
).

; ,
.
-s 3-
- .
11. mot, moste. mote

, : as fair as fair mote be.
moste
.

: .-. { moste
( ) .
must
;
. ,

.

be, , do, will


561 . be
.
are
().
12*

359

be-
, : there be that can rule Naples as well as
he; if thou beest not an ass, I am a youth of fourteen. 2-

(
)
wert wast.
, art, shalt, wilt, -t
(thou) wer(e);
1 3-
was. . : thou wert born a fool; I think thou never
wast where grace was said.
(I) was, (he) was
(I) were, (he) were
;
(I) was, (he) was
(I) were, (he) were.
be, ,

. (we) was, (you) was,
(they) was,
,

.
5 6 2 . do
;
done :
[ : > > ] .

.

,
, dost, does, doth,
.-. [:]
did

5 6 3 . go
went . yede

5 6 4 . will, would
.
will , would

. would
will,
.

wend,
w e n t, wend o n e s w ay
.
60

5 6 5 . ,
, .
,
: if I have too austerely punished you, your compensation
makes amends; nay, twill be this hour ere I have done weeping;
ears have not yet drunk a hundred words of that tongues utte
ring; ere I could make a prologue to my brains they had begun
the play; in my school-days, when I
had lost one shaft, I shot
his fellow of the self-same flight the self-same way.

be,
: the deep of night is crept upon our talk; whither are
they vanished? this gentleman is happily arrived.
.


5 6 6 . ,
-, .
, ( 153),
-

.
. , XVI .
.

,
( be
); ,
, ,
(, ,
,
, ,
, , ).
,
( X I X .) ,


, .
5 6 7 .
, ,
. , ,
: your mind is
361

tossing on the ocean. , ,


, ,
, :
, , .

: my lord, as I was sewing in my closet, lord Hamlet . ..
he comes before me.
: I wonder
that you will still be talking. :
, .
will ,
, .
.
,
,
,
. :
o liv er

o rlan d o
o l iv e r

o rlan d o

Now, sir, what make you here?


Nothing: I am not taught to make anything.
What mar you then, sir?
Marry, sir, I am helping you to mar that which God
made, a poor unworthy brother of yours, with idleness.

:
Now, sir, what are you doing here?

X V II X V III . ,
:
b l u f f e

This sword, I think, I was telling you of, Mr. Sharp


e r , this sword I ll maintain to be the best divine,
anatomist, lawyer, or casuist in Europe.


always
, :
b r is k

c a r eless

Careless, this is your trick; youre always spoiling


company by leaving it.
And thou art always spoiling company by coming
intot.

568. ,
, ,

:
b e l l m o u r

How now, George, where hast thou been snarling


odious truths, and entertaining company like a phys
ician, with discourse of their diseases and infirmities?
362

What fine lady hast thou been putting out of conceit


with herself, and persuading that the face she had
been making all the morning was none of her own?
for I know thou art as unmannerly and as unwel
come to a woman as a looking-glass after the
small-pox.
h e a r t w e l l

I confess I have not been sneering fulsome lies and


nauseous flattery, fawning upon a little tawdry
whore that will fawn upon me again, and entertain
any puppy that comes, like a tumbler, with the same
tricks over and over.

569. X I X .
.
,
. X IX .

. (Wordsworth, William, 1770 1850)

Written in March (1802),
,
:
The cock is crowing,
The stream is flowing
The cattle are grazing,
Their heads never raising
Small clouds are sailing,
Blue sky prevailing;
The rain is over and gone!


. , ,

.
570. X IX .
. ,
,
.
, ,
:
, .
363


X I X .: We are always being complained
of and guarded against (Dickens). Twelve months ago the effects
of the coal strike were still being felt ( )1.

571.

, ,
.
,
,
should would,
.

,
,
.
, ,
: but if my father had not scanted me . ..
yourself, renowned prince, then stood as fair as any comer; a moiety
competent was gaged by our king, which had returned to the in
heritance of Fortinbras, had he been vanquisher; 4were as easy for
you to laugh and leap, and say you are merry, because you are
not sad.

: Had I such venture forth, the
better part of my affections would be with my hopes abroad;
I should be still plucking the grass to know where sits the wind;
peering in maps for ports, and piers, and roads, and every object
that might make me fear misfortune to my ventures, out of doubt
would make me sad.
572.
( 1 3- ) ,
: sit we down; judge me the world; the worm of con
science still begnaw thy soul.

let: let us once again assail your ears,
that are so fortified against our story, what we two nights have seen.
573. X V II .

. P o u t s m a . A G ra m m a r of L a t e Modern
E n g lis h . P a r t II, S ectio n II. G roningen, Noordhoff, 1914, p. 520.

364

, : 11 tell you, I would have


mirth continued this day at any rate; though patience purchase
folly, and attention be paid with noise.


should would (),
: Hannibal was a very pretty fellow in these days, it must be
granted; but alas, sir, were he alive now, he would be nothing,
nothing in the earth.
5 7 4 . X V II .,


. ,
(Wycherley, William, 1640 1716)
: look upon em, when I cannot help
em, were cruelty, not pity; no, I must not give him that: so I had
been served if I had given him this; come away, sister, we had
been gone, if it had not been for you.

: If I did, nobody would believe me; and if we
should meet with Horner, he would be sure to take acquaintance
with us.

do
5 7 5 .
do . ,
,
,
.
XVI X V II .
do + . ,
,
, :
Sometimes from her eyes I did receive fair speechless messages;
if you do meet Horatio and Marcellus, the rivals of my watch,
bid them make haste.
: Why, do you not
perceive the jest?

do: Now, sir! what make you here? but what said Jaques?
in sooth I know not why I am so sad; call you this gamut? tut,
I like it not.
, do
,
.
365

576. X V II .
. ,
(Milton, John), (, , 1644 .) do
; (Samuel Pepys),
1660 1669 ., do ,
(John Evelyn;
1642 1706 .)
.
(John Dryden, 1631 1700) do
.
do ,
, XVII .
do 30
; (
) 20 , (John
Farquhar, 1678 1707)
do.

. , ,
(David Hume, 1711 1776; Inquiry Concerning Human
Understanding, 1748) do
.

577. , ,
.
-ing.

, : The best ward of my hon
our is rewarding my dependents; the fair reverence of your high
ness curbs me from giving reins and spurs to my free speech.

,
: Leave wringing of your hands: peace!
sit you down, and let me wring your heart; so find we profit by
losing of our prayers; did my father strike this gentleman for
chiding of his fool?

, ,
-ing,
, .
,
.
: I hear of a fellow, too, committed just now for stealing
of his horses; : Addison,
blushing, began reading of his verses. (
366

,
X V III .).
5 7 8 .
.
: Twill weep for having
wearied you; : And, after having whispered a space
certain sad words with hollow voice and face, she to the virgin
said.
, , ;
She begged the favour of being shown to her room1,
5 7 9 . ,
,
.


:
,
;
( of),
.

.

,
.

5 8 0 . ,

, , -1

.
,
.
-,
,
-, .
,
, , :
fast , loud , hard

,
. P o u t s m a A G ra m m a r of L a t e Modern E n g l is h , P a r t II, S e cti o n 2.
Groningen, Noordhoff, 1914, p. 469, 484.

367

to work hard .
, ,
-1.


.

581.

. certainly, certes, per
chance, verily, ,
,
: indeed, surely, perhaps, maybe, likely, haply, happily
( = perhaps), belike.

, . , ,
,

XVI . X IV .
, , : Cer
tainly, sir, I can; but Antonio is certainly undone; for, certes,
these are people of the island; he did believe he was indeed the
duke; verily, I speak it in the freedom of my knowledge; per
chance, you think too much of so much pains? perhaps some mer
chant hath invited him; haply your eye shall light upon some
toy ( = perhaps); happily you something know ( = perhaps); be
like, boy, then, you are in love; and surely it is a sleeping lan
guage.
,
(, belike, haply)
.
: , pre
sumably, allegedly, avowedly,
.
, -,

.

582.
.
.

: may I not go
368

out ere he come? whos there? come in: the wish deserves a wel
come; let us come in, that we may bind him fast; my chief care
is to come fairly off from the great debts I owe; the sword goes
up again; why then do I put up that womanly defence, to say
I have done no harm? nor am I yeti persuaded to put up in peace
what already I have foolishly suffered.
,
put up

. , put up
: , . . .

.

,
, ,
. , , put up
: 1)
, 2) (), 3) ,
4) (, ), 5)
, 6) , 7) (
) .
,

,

,
. ., ,
: go up ascend, go down descend, go on continue, come
in enter.

5 8 3 .
,
, .
, , only , even , even
: tell him my name is Brook, only for a jest; the miserable
have no other medicine but only hope; I do know of these, that
therefore only are reputed wise for saying nothing.

. ,
, , ,
,
,
: even for our
kitchens we kill the fowl of season; he shall render every glory up,
369

yea, even the slightest worship of his time; those lines that I be
fore have writ do lie, even those that said I could not love you
dearer ( even , ); even for that
I thank you; his words are a very fantastical banquet, just so
many strange dishes ( just , );
4was just the difference betwixt the constant red and mingled da
mask; my mother told me just how he would woo as if she sat
ins heart; you have simply misused our sex; I were simply the
most active fellow in Europe.
, just simply,
.
. i
,
.

5 8 4 .
. ,
of
: I am expected of
my friends; it better fits my blood to be disdained of all than
to fashion a carriage to rob love from any; I have been told so
of many; I was taught of your daughter the difference.
by
, : she sent for you by Dromio home to dinner; the commons send you word by me; she
soon shall know of us, by some of ours.

, :
As school-maids change their names by vain, though apt affection
I do it not in evil disposition, but from Lord Angelo by special
charge.

,
:
the time twixt six and nowmust by us be spent most
preciously; this blue-eyd hag . . . here was left by the sailors.
of by
.
of by.

with,

: I ll smother thee with kisses;


...w h o m I left cooling of the air with sighs; to be in love,
where scorn is bought with groans, coy looks with heart-sore sighs.
5 8 5 .
+ +
, ,
370

. :
in spite of pope or dignities of church, here by the cheeks I ll
drag thee up and down ( ,
); And
now, instead of bullets wrappd in fire, to make a shaking fever
in your walls, they shoot but calm words folded up in smoke.

, in accordance with, in
addition to, with reference to.

5 8 6 .
.
. that
when, since, after . ,
+ + ,
, , : as long as, as soon as.

5 8 7 .
.
: ah! ! , ah
ha! ! , alas! ! , avaunt!! , ay! ! , fie! ! , ha!
! , ho! ! , la! , lo! , !, oh!, pooh! ,
well-a-day! .
, ,
: ah! do not tear yourself away from me! ah ha! my
mistresses, which of you all will now deny to dance? alas! this
parting strikes poor lovers dumb; avaunt! and quit my sight! ay
me! how weak a thing the heart of woman is; fie, what a spend
thrift he is of his tongue! ha! let me see! ho, open the door; la
you, an you speak ill of the devil, how he takes it at heart; lo,
where he comes! affection! pooh! you speak like a green girl,
unsifted in such perilous circumstance; ah, well-a-day, hes dead.
,

.
.

5 8 8 .

.
371

. ,
, ,
,
.

.

.


5 8 9 .

, .

5 9 0 .
.
.

.
,
.
-
.


this that
.

.

.

5 9 1 .
.
,
who who
( ).
. ,
it you ;
who
372

who
. , ,
( 529),
:
between you and I.

5 9 2 .
.
,
.

, , : with mirth and laughter
let old wrinkles come; silence is only commendable in a neats
tongue dried and a maid not vendible; it shows a will most
incorrect to heaven, a heart unfortified, a mind impatient, an
understanding simple and unschooled.
,
this that:
(. 590).

.
I, he, she, we, they (
who):
,
.

,
, .

5 9 3 .

.
,
, ,

, ,
: the always-wind-obeying deep; the neer-yet-beaten
horse of Parthia; a jewel in a ten-times-barred-up chest; a worldwithout-end bargain.

, ,

.
373

,
, , : I should be
still plucking the grass to know where sits the wind; you have
often begun to tell me what I am; the merit of service is seldom
attributed to the true and exact performer.
,

,
: Therefore our sometime sister, now
our queen, the imperial jointress of this warlike state, have we,
as twere with a defeated joy, with one suspicious and one drop
ping eye, with mirth in funeral and with dirge in marriage, in
equal scale weighing delight and dole, taken to wife.

594.

,
. :
that cannot be so neither; love no man in good earnest; nor no
further in sport neither; yet 4was not a crown neither.
X V II .,

. ,

: I have found nothing but what has been to my loss,
as I may say, and as you were saying, sir.
:
Lord Froth wont dance at your wedding to-morrow, nor, the
deuce take me, I wont write your epithalamium and see what
a condition youre like to be brought to; I m his friend, I wont
wrong him neither.

. ,

-: Wot I like in
that ere style of writin , said the elder Mr. Weller, is, that
there aint no callin names in it, no Wenuses, nor nothin o
that kind; That aint no part of the present consideration,
Sammy/' replied Mr. Weller.

595.
for to
.
374

, : which for to prevent, I have thus set


it down; that these pirates .. . had not oerboard thrown me for
to seek my mother.
, : forbid the
sea for to obey the moon; here lacks but your mother for to
say amen.
for to
.
5 9 6 . X V XVI .
. ,
, (Pecock, Reginald) The Repression
of Over Much Blaming of the Clergy (1457)
,
, : allowith ech of thilke weies to be
take and doon . . . ,
; this opinioun thei wenen to begroundid
, ; but for that he
knowith me admytte and allowe the writingis of Doctoures,
therefore he makith agens me this assaut
, ,
; he presupposiththe gouernauncis . . . to be before knowen of the same men
, .. .
; and trustist thi self to be a leder of blynd men
, .
X V II X V I I I .
,
.
,
. , (Swift, Jonathan): and the Emperour was so much delighted that he ordered this entertainment to
be repeated several days; . . . of destroying the Big-Endian exiles,
and compelling that people to break the smaller end of their
eggs; : was she so persecuted in favour of a very
disagreeable man, one Solmes, as to induce her to throw herself
into my protection?
X IX X X .
.
.


5 9 7 .
. happen,
seem, think, like, lack, need, remember, ought ., XIV .
,
375

XV . ; XVI .
,
.


, , : it likes me well
; here, if it like your honour ,
.
, : for several virtues have I likd sev
eral women; I do not like this tune; I do not like this fooling.

like ,
. need.

: so much as it needs
, it shall not need .
: you need my help; we need it not.
.

, it is informed me, it was
sent for me I am informed, I was sent for.

5 9 8 .
, ( 428),
.

.
.
,
, ( ) .
.
,
.
.

I.

. [:] , . .
( 479 .). , house, out, down,
m o u th , crow d , now [hu:s], [u:t],
[ du :n], [ m u : ], [ k r u : d], [nu:].
2. [ :]
[ e i ] ;
s to n e, bone, w hole, road
st a n e , b an e , h a il , ra id.

376

3. dance, g la n ce , ch a n ce . .
[:]: [dae:ns], [glae:ns], [ tjae :n s ] . .
4. [] .
5.
[%], gh, n a u g h t,
sought, bro ug h t.

II.
1. [:]
, . . ;
[ou] [].
2. [ :]
[eij (
).
3. [ : ] ,
[:] , [i:].
speak, heal, deal [spi:k], [hi: ], [ di: ]
[ s p e : k ] , [he: ], [ d e : l j .
4. [:] [ ] [f],
calm , palm, calf, half;
[:], dance, ch a n ce , ask, past.
5. , , []
[] (. 499 .).
[] [] [].
. [] []. ,
h a t , c a t , hand . . [ h a t ] , [ k a t ] , [hand].
7 . (
) [ ] .
. [h] .
9. [1]
.

III.
1.

2.
3.

[:] ,
[ : ] , [i:j.
[] [].
[h] .

IV.

.

2.
3.
4.

[:] ,
[:] , [i:].
[] [].
[] [].
[h] .

V.

. [] [].
2. [h] ; ,
,
.

377

VI.
1. [:] ,
[ :] , [i:J.
2. [h] ; ,
,
.
3. s-, f-, t h -
, . . [z], [v ] , [ 0 ];
th r - [ 0 -] [dr].
[)] [].

. , , ,
: ingle , keek
, synd , lownd , elding , fuddle ,
gam e , yuckel .
X V I I X X .
.
,
(1 759 1796).

( . Fie ld in g , 1707 1754).

( W . . T h a c k e ra y , 1811 1863).
599. (Tennyson, Alfred, 1809 1892)
,
(Northern F a r m e r , T he N o r th
ern Cobbler , Owd R o a ).

(Th. H a rd y , 1840 1928).

Th e N orthern Cobb
le r ( ).

I
W a a i t till our S a ll y cooms in, fur thou mun a s i g h t s 1 to tell .
E h , but I be maain glad to seea tha sa e a rt y an w ell.
Cast a w a ay on a disolut land w i a v a r t i c a l s o o n 2!
S tra n g e fur to goa fur to think w h at sa ailo rs a seean a n -a doon;
S u m m a t to drink s a ot? I a now t but A d a m s wine:
W h a t s the eat o this lit tl e ill-side to the eat o the line?
II
W h a t s i tha b o t t le a-stan d in g theer? I ll tell t h a . Gin.
B u t if thou w a n ts thy grog, th a mun goa fur it down to the inn.
N aa y fur I be m a ain g lad , but thaw tho w as iver sa dry,
Thou g it s naw gin f r o the b o t t le theer, a n I ll tell tha w hy.

1 The vowels ai , pronounced s e p a ra t e ly though in the cl osest co n ju n ctio n ,


best render the sound of the long i and in this d ia l e c t . B u t since such
words as c r a i i n , d a i i n , w h ai, ai ( 1), e t c ., look aw kward e x ce p t in a page
of exp ress phonetics, I h ave thought it b e tte r to leave the sim p le i and y,
and to tru st t h a t my re aders will g iv e them the bro ader p ro n u n c ia tio n .
2 The oo short, as in w o o d . ( ).
378

I
W a i t till our S ally comes in, for you must have sights to tell.
E h , but I am very glad to see you so h earty and well.
Cast aw ay on a d eso late land with a v e rt i c a l sun!
Stra ng e to think w h a t sailors have seen and have done;
Som eth ing to drink so hot? I h ave nothing but A d a m s wine:
W h a t s the heat on this l ittle hill-side to the h eat on the line?

II
W h a t s in the b o ttle standing there? I ll tell you. Gin.
B u t if you w an t your grog, you must go for it down to the inn.
Nay for I am very g lad , but though you were ever so dry,
Y o u get no gin from the b o ttle there, and I ll tell you why.
600. , ,
:
1. [ei] [a i],
a a i: w a a it (I, 1), maain (I, 2; II, 3), a w a ay (I, 3),
saailo rs (I, 4).
2. [i:] [ e : ] ,
, , seea (I, 2), seean (I, 4), eat ( = heat) (I, 5).
3. [ou] [:],
(goa, I, 4; II, 2), [ei] (sa = so, I, 5; II, 3).
4. [] [],
(cooms, I, 1), soon ( = sun) (1, 3); doon (1, 4).
5. h ( e arty I, 2; ot I, 5; eat I, 6 ;
a ( = have) (I, 1; I, 4; I, 5).
:
1. .
must (I, 1).
maain ( = main)
very (I, 2; II, 3).
goa ( = go) fur to go fur to think
( I, 4); st range fur to goa fur to think
. nowt ( 1 , 5).
2. .
thou (I, 1; I I , 2: I I , 3, II, 4) tha ( I I , 2;
II, 3), tha ( I, 2; I I , 1). 2 -
mun ( I , 1), w an ts (II, 2), was (II , 3), gits (II, 4).
fur to ( = for to).

, .

601.
.
- IX .,
, -
, ,
,
.
,
. ,
IX . X X .
,
,
.

, .
602.

, , ,
.
380

, , ,
.

, ,
, ,

, , , ,
. , ,
,

, .

,
, , ,
.
, ,
.

603. ,
, .

. -,
,

. , , ,
,
: ,
v f.
604. ,
, .
,

, ,
.
:
. ,

,
11, d, ve . .

:
, ,
,
.
605.
,
.
381


,
,
.
,

, . .
. , ,
have ,
be
shall will

.
,
. ,
, - ,
,
. , elder eldest

old (.-. eald). ,

,
old
.
,
,

. , ,

see (saw, seen), come (came, come), run (ran, run), sit
(sat, sat).
, . .
( )
,

. ., , -
enough (.-. ), aware (.-. sewaer),
-1- sparkle, fumble, nestle.

606.
.
.
,
se
;

.
;
382

,
, .

.
m icle
mare ( ) maest

, , ,
.

, . . ,
,
,
.
, , in addition to, in
accordance with, by way of, in view of, on behalf of,
as soon as, in case (that), as long as.

, ,
behind back of
.
607. ,
,

, , .

,
,
, : blueish, loathsome, agreeable,
responsible, careless.
,
, ,
, : .-. ceald, hat, 3od;
long, sceort, brad, wld; .-. cold, hot, good, long, short, broad,
wide, .-. large, tense, pure, queer, nice.

, ,
, .

, .
, ,
, .

.
, : The sepulchre hath oped his ponderous and
marble jaws; you secret, black and midnight hags; the smug and
silver Trent.
383

: its hoarse and iron tongue; in arbi


trary and chance arrangements; past the massive stone outer walls;
City young men returned home1.

.

608. ,
.
, :
,
, .

: .

.
( )


.
609. ,

,
. ,

, ,
,
, (
) ,
.

,
-
.
, ,

. ,
,
,
.
1 . J e s p e r s e n A Modern English
G r a m m a r . P a r t II, p. 314.

1
25, 26, 31, 32, 50, 129, 130,
148
195, 405
15, 20
13, 14
14
14, 46
14, 46

15 9 -- 1 6 1 , 312, 313, 326, 331, 332,
334, 359, 360, 361, 3 6 3 , 369, 53 7,
560, 566, 567, 571, 5 7 3 - -575, 578,
604--6 0 6
26, 6 2 , 98,, 100 , 133, 146,
147, 289, 304,, 310, 312, 315, 3 17 ,
340, 3 41, 342, 349, 370, 506, 508,
525, 544, 545, 556, 557, 559

454
4 4 4 452, 478
453
-
234, 235,
2 65, 266, 309

122, 289 (
1), 329 , 606
172, 188, 310, 317,
322, 606
22, 24, 52, 54, 60, 62,
65, 136, 520
198,

597

184, 388
.

1
385

32, 34, 153, 355, 566, 604


32, 359, 360, 5 6 6 570
32
566, 567
32, 33, 148
65, 292, 293,
497
32, 148, 154, 604
154, 361, 560 , 564
560 , 564
32, 143, 144, 146, 147,
154, 172, 348, 350
356, 357 ,
360, 568
32, 34, 129, 132, 135,
143, 144, 146, 154, 155, 172, 291,
338, 350, 362, 5 4 3 - 5 4 8
(
) 155, 159, 3 5 6 358, 362

1), 34 ( 1)

52 2

91,

16 (

94, 98, 477,

58, 62, 65, 9 1 ,


291, 5 0 6 - 5 0 8 , 510
406, 5 7 7 579
2 6 2 264, 464
455
3 1 35, 7 7 79, 1 2 9 - 1 6 1 , 2 0 4 ,
3 3 7 - 3 6 5 , 5 4 0 - 5 7 9 , 604, 605, 608

358, 36 1, 363,
560, 564, 57 1, 57 3, 575, 576
138


231
177
47, 48, 69, 172,
246
559
358, 565
237, 241, 242, 246, 247,
149, 150, 337, 353,
25 1,
272,
2 74 278, 280, 284, 285,
354, 5 6 1 - 5 6 4
293,
294,
305, 306, 310, 322, 342,
471
349,
350,
353 ( 1), 376, 433
194, 198
474,
506,
541
-
31,
148,
(-)
337, 349, 352, 560
47, 48, 52, 56, 69, 233, 246, 278,
26, 3 1 33, 129 134, 172,
2-80
337-341, 543-549, 551-556
237, 238, 240, 242,

24 6,
247,
2 74, 275, 2 7 8 , 285, 294,
346 559
305,
306 ,
310, 311, 342, 349, 350 ,
376, 541
31, 34, 35, 135 142, 172,
337, 3 4 2 - 3 5 0 , 5 5 0 - 5 5 9
2 4 7 , 428
79
- () 238,
557
242, 247, 27 5 , 276, 2 7 8 2 8 0 , 288,

293, 303, 376


347, 559
- 238, 275, 278, 280,
2 3 , 49, 5 2 59, 63, 67, 69,
283, 293, 295, 376
2 7 0 - 2 8 4 , 2 9 3 - 2 9 7 , 303, 4 7 4 - 5 0 5 ,
237, 238, 242, 246, 247,
522
274,
275,
278, 288, 294, 303, 307,
4 9 , 2 7 0 277, 293, 298,
310,
338,
342, 3 4 9, 350
475, 4 8 6 - 4 8 8 , 49 2 , 4 9 4 - 4 9 8
243, 244, 502, 506, 521
49, 51, 293
49, 52, 53, 5 5 , 6 7 , 2 4 3 , 2 4 4 ,
275
270, 2 7 8 2 8 3 , 2 9 2 , 2 93, 294, 296,
49, 270, 2 7 2 277, 298,
298, 299, 479, 486, 491, 493, 494
4 8 7 ,4 9 0 , 4 9 8 - 5 0 1
52, 53, 479, 483, 487,
293, 508
502
269, 284, 304, 305, 307,

313, 348, 504, 505


383
49
127, 179, 331, 3 3 4 , 3 8 3
2 72 , 2 7 5 , 279
331, 334, 383
49, 51, 293
128, 179, 331, 334, 365, 383
272
267, 460, 461, 478
49
2 9 6 , 297
8 , 19, 24, 2 6 28 , 33,
80, 248 , 261 , 457, 469,
35 , 44
602
311, 605
463, 467, 470

447, 458
, .
458
83
61 , 243 245, 27 6, 277, 284,
29 4 , 296 ,
2 9 7, 301 , 30 3 , 426, 427, 8 1 , 82, 2 61, 45 9 462,
46 1, 47 8,
479 , 482, 499, 5 0 0, 50 6, 470
46 7, 468
514, 523,
527
2 50, 25 1 , 254
25 2 2 6 1 , 267, 327,
47, 233, 234 , 246, 2 47 , 25 1,
3 28 , 375, 46 1 , 466, 4 89, 491, 518,
42 5 , 42 8, 437, 59 4, 59 8 600
- 2 3 8 , 246,
523
4 4 7, 465, 467
247, 27 4, 276, 278 , 2 93 , 303, 376
19, 2 0 , 34 , 102, 129, 338
-
246, 247,

2 74 , 275, 2 78, 28 0, 28 4, 29 3, 295


147
47, 48, 69, 24 6, 275,
147, 160, 3 6 3 365,
276
5 70 , 58 4, 5 97
23 5 , 2 3 6 , 2 38, 239 ,
2 06 , 593
242, 246, 247, 27 8 , 42 5 429
8 , 12
47, 48, 52, 69, 246,

278

386

604

22, 136, 142, 146, 520


292 297
270 284, 376, 474 505,
522 523
2 8 5 291, 376, 506 521

129, 143, 144, 146,


147, 149, 156, 350, 35 2 354
143, 144, 146, 157,
350, 352 354
129, 143, 1 4 4 , 1 4 6 ,
147, 158, 161, 214, 222, 3 5 0 , 3 5 2
354, 362, 548, 571 574
560, 564
78, 162 168, 205, 220, 318,
3 6 6 - 3 7 0 , 373, 38 5, 580
304,
313

470
33 , 129, 133, 135, 140,
144 ( 1),- 193, 194, 338, 339,
350, 351, 362, 398 404, 471, 472,
476, 540, 543, 567, 595, 596
194, 4 0 2 404,
59 6
467, 470

there is 192
183, 387
126, 127, 181, 33 1,
385, 400, 593
198
60 , 9 1 , 288,
311, 509
491
126, 180, 188, 203, 206,
315, 3 3 2, 384, 392
2 43 245, 4 2 6 , 427, 4 40,
445, 461, 4 7 5 , 47 8, 506, 510, 514, 523
2 84,
30 4 , 305, 307, 313, 348, 504
3 0 4 , 305, 313

27 29,
9 0 98,
100 102, 115 118, 304, 310

27, 28, 9 0 , 100
35, 142
360,
4 0 6 , 577
4 7 4
476
535, 540, 546
2 9 0 , 5 0 6 , 5 1 0 , 521
146, 148 151, 196, 350,
353, 407, 594


356
335, 336, 539

33, 129, 131
134, 339, 543 546

35,
135 142,
342 345, 550
26, 33
571, 573, 574

270, 408, 520


408, 473
571 574

32, 142
27, 28, 305
' 158, 193, 213, 21 4, 560
605
425 431, 434
441
143 146, 204, 350,
3 5 2 354, 540 542
461
171, 375, 587
78, 104, 197 199, 204
319, 531
108, 318, 384,
533 592
105, 250, 314, 319, 381,
529, 542, 592
110, 122, 321, 534
109, 203, 3 21,5 34
112, 215, 216, 320
111, 321, 4 0 7 , 5 3 4
106, 250, 3 1 4
316, 384, 530
107, 172, 203, 317,
381, 384, 532, 590, 592
63, 327, 328, 344, 346
371, 388, 581
278, 283

144 ( 1),
193, 351 398
105, 107, 108,
124, 314, 315, 317, 529, 534
128, 198, 317
127, 198, 200, 317
125, 314, 317, 318,
330, 333, 529
314, 318, 3 3 0 , 3 3 4 , 5 2 9
106, 198, 199, 317,
318
127
113, 124, 127,
322, 330
27 , 89, 124,
127, 308, 312, 330, 5 2 7 , 528

387


128, 198, 202, 306,
310
127, 198, 2 0 0 , 2 0 2 , 3 1 2
125, 306, 310
330, 331

126, 198 2 0 1 , 306,


310, 315, 330, 332, 370, 373, 527,
528
127
49, 65
53, 133
61
126, 199, 31 6, 332
16 19, 21
5 4 , 65, 100, 117
56, 2 8 0 , 2 8 2

i55,
121, 133,
136, 137, 140, 142, 144,
165, 270,
2 80, 285 , 306, 310, 311,
324, 348,
367, 520, 536
h 57
31, 34
28 9 ( 1 )
15, 48, 247,
42 5, 431, 436, 437
125, 175, 193, 204, 331,
333, 365, 381, 390, 399, 404
1 1 2 , 2 1 0 22 7, 41 2 423
185 189, 331, 389 393,
60 4
187
186, 390
186
187, 391
168, 372, 582
194
125, 178, 315,
331
333
126 128, 1 6 9 , 2 0 2 , 3 1 2 , 3 1 6 ,
33 1 333, 373, 584, 585

190
22 8, 424
575
158, 21 9, 3 6 2 , 416
158, 213, 214, 414
220, 417
191
227
423
190
215, 2 1 6 , 415
5 75, 5 76
211, 412
217
221, 418
212, 413
223, 420
226, 423

158, 224, 36 2 , 421


158, 225, 362, 422
576
222, 419
585, 606

24, 130, 133, 144, 348


49, 52, 65, 270,
278
78, 262, 2 6 4, 335, 3 3 8 , 3 5 5 ,
372, 472
30, 7 6 79, 121,
195, 200, 203, 3 2 2 326, 366, 384,
395, 5 3 5 - 5 3 7 , 605, 607
195, 203
182, 189, 386
205, 397, 590, 592

31, 33, 120,


129, 130,
135 137, 140, 144, 195, 2 9 1 , 3 3 8 ,
339, 343, 349, 350, 543, 549
120, 143 146. 148 150,
195, 349, 350, 405

269,
284, 504
75, 87, 203,
306, 307, 310, 322
113, 203
105, 107, 317 , 320
, .

303, 479 488, 500,


5 0 2 , 506

27
447, 582
176 178, 2 04 , 20 5, 382, 391
230, 250, 251,
304, 305, 314, 349
310, 317
105 108, 314,
317, 318, 529
30, 230,
395, 535
30, 114 118, 322
30, 119, 121, 322
120
230, 304,
305, 527, 528
29, 100, 310, 311
-es 29, 102, 310
- 29, 101
29, 9 0 9 8 , 172, 3 0 6 , 3 1 0 ,
311
29, 99, 172, 306, 307, 310,
311

388

122 , 123
70, 71, 80 84,
2 4 8 - 2 6 4 , 267, 4 5 5 470, 602
579
579
471
7 2 79, 162, 163,
248, 262, 263, 366, 370, 459, 472,
580
248
7 2
79, 84, 374, 602

158,
187,
2 1 0 227, 362, 4 1 2 423
209, 411
605
51, 6 0 63, 68 , 2 85 293,
506-521
203, 204, 207, 322, 395,
535, 588, 590
270, 271, 327,
489, 496, 503
1 1 2 , 209, 411
586, 606
210, 213, 220
170, 25 0, 374, 586, 608
170, 210, 213,
214, 218, 219, 2 21 226, 416, 417,
420, 422, 423
170, 209, 411
147, 152, 305,
344, 348 351, 5 4 0 542, 5 5 1 559
149, 150, 353 , 354,
561-564
- 148, 352,
560

144,
145,
3 38 341,
5 4 3 549
146, 3 42 343, 3 4 5 347,
550

164, 165, 36 7 369 , 580,
606
121, 3 2 3 326,
5 36 , 537, 6 0 5, 605
2 7 , 28,
305
58, 65, 133, 145
29 6
194
121, 149, 166, 172,
325, 353, 368, 536

77, 459
162, 163, 3 6 6 , 580

13 . .

76, 163,
248,
2 63 , 459
74, 75, 248,
2 6 2 , 263
2 7 29, 74, 75 , 78 ,
79, 8 6 - 1 0 3 ,
197, 198, 2 0 1 - 2 0 4 ,
3 0 4 - 3 1 3 , 5 2 5 - 5 2 8 , 60 5, 607
488
20 , 2 1 , 64, 2 60 , 466
33, 132
59, 62, 91,
2 72, 2 7 3 , 506
, .
197 199, 201, 202,
396, 591
362, 5 71 , 573,
408,
473

270,

207,
574
409,

4 9 69, 2 6 9 303,
4 7 4 - 5 2 3 , 603

66 68 ,
2 9 8 303, 48 6, 487
231, 234, 2 3 5, 243,
218, 252, 2 6 5 - 2 6 8 , 3 09

232,
243,
2 5 2 264, 296, 297, 299, 302 , 308,
309, 379 , 514
85, 335, 37 1 , 3 7 2 , 5 83 , 608
8 5 , 583
20 3, 215
1 48 151, 196, 35 0,
353, 407
398
, .
60, 91, 3 11,
5 25

122, 327, 538


123, 328, 538

129,
143 146, 204,
350, 3 5 2 - 3 5 4 , 540, 54 2 , 546
105, 107, 108, 314,
315, 317, 320, 5 3 2, 590
113, 322, 535
88 , 289 (
1), 308 , 525 , 5 2 6 , 528
174 184, 381
388
21, 22


1 . .
2 .
3. :
1 ,
2 b

15
16
17
18
19

3
4 d
5
6 f
7 3> g
8 h
9 i
10 j
11 k

0
P

s
20 t
21 i>, 3
22 u
23 V
24 w
25 X
26
27 z

12 1
13 m
14 n

4. , , .
,
.
(m a n (n ), mon(n ), 1, 1).
5. ,
, []
[ ]; -,
, : know(en), begin(nen),
g iv e(n).
6 . - (, , )
, : (), cr ow (e),
e i g h t ( e ) , fast(e) , , :
h o m (e ), hous(e), nin (e).
7. ,
: rnan(n), dear(r), 1( ), 3 i(e)fu.

390

ahwaefjer 78, . . or
ail 49 1, 503
I air 253, 440
II air 471
alas 375, 492, 587
S i c 109, . . Qch, e a c h
a l c o v e 458
aid, cm. eald
ale 491, 503, . . ealu
algebra 470
a l i k e 539
a liv e 5 3 9 , . . a ly v e
all 69, 376, 455, 493, 494
alle ged ly 581
a l l e v i a te 459
a l l o c a t e 461
allow 461, 596
allu de 459
alms 28 9 ( 1), 492
a lw ay s 37 0, 567
a l y v e 335, . . aliv e
a m azem ent 263
am erian 139
amidde(s) 373, . . amidst
amid st 511, . . amidde(s)
am iss 539
a m i t y 253
amonge(s) 373, . . am ongst
am on gst 511, . . amonge(s)
an 352, 560, . . unnan
an 122, 370, 606, . . n, one, a I
a n a r c h y 463
an cesto r 495
a n c i e n t 514
and 170, 209, 411
andswarian 365, . . answer II
anes 370, . . once
S n i 3 110, . any
S n l i c 76, . . only
announce 504
I answer 476, 508, . . ondswaru
II a n s w e r 430, 47 1, 473, 476, 508, cm.

I a 316, 329, . an
II a 375
a 78
97
abandon 297
a b ate 480
a b b reviate 459, 461
aberan 78
(a)bide 544, 553, . . bldan
abridge 461
ab solve 461
ab ys^ia n 78
ac 170, 209, 374
ac 100, . . oak
accident 459
acco rd 471
accoutre 489
ache 551
acknowledge 521
a-co ld 539
acquit 253
a ct 471
a ct ual 516
a d m ira b le 263
ad m ire 504
ad mit 459
ado 250
adobe 447
advance 461
I ad van ta g e 461, 495
II a d v a n tag e 471
ad ventu re 461
afeard 539, . . afered
S f e n tl d 79
a f e r e d 335, . . a f e a r d
affect 459
afierran 55, 57
aflote 335
afoot 539
afraid 539
a fter 586, . . aefter
aefter 169, . . after
a fterm a th 492
aefterra 123, . . aefter
148, . . ?w e(n) I, ought
102, 103, 249, . . ei
a g g r a v a te 459, 461
a g g rie v e 461
aghast 492
S 3 h w S r 78
3 hwae^er 78, . . either
ae3hwilc 78
a greeab le 607
agre em ent 263
109, . . ae3hwaef)er, eith er
. . . 170
ah 587
a ha 375
ah ha 587
ah w S r 78

13*

. andsw arian

a n x i e t y 509
an xio u s 509, 514
any 273, 316, 321, 427, 534, .

Sni3

a n y b o d y 534
a n y t h in g 534
apos tle 82
appel 275
ap praise 461
a p p r e c ia t e 461
apron 289 ( 1)
ap ro pos 466
ar 310
s r 121, 170, 219, . . $r, ere
ardour 445
arlsan 78, 131
a r i s t o c r a c y 463, 470

3Si

a ri t h m e ti c 4 70
arleas 76
arm 376, . . earm I
arm ad a 458
a rm y 253
arr ogance 263
a rro g an t 459
art 253
r f ) m f ) e 219
as 423 , 424
asce 49
ascend 582
ascian 63, . . ask(en)
ash am ed 539
A sia 514
ask(en) 284, 445, 44 9, 450, 4 9 2 , 598,
. . ascian
asleep 539, . aslepe
aslepe 33 5, . . asleep
as long as 58 6, 606
ass 474
assent 297
assert 459
assoil 461
as soon as 58 6 , 606
assume 514
a-sweb ban 138
a -sw owne 335
at 250, 376, . . set
set 169, 202, . . at
A tte r b u ry 310
a t t r i b u t e 459
af> 249
75
^ e lw u lf in 75
a u th o r 512
au tu m n 255, 447, 494 , 510
av engen 243
a v au n t 409, 587
Avon 83
a v o w e d ly 581
a w a ca n 78, . . awake I
I awake 5 4 3, 553, . . aw acan
II aw ake 539
aware 605
a w ay 600
a- wepe 335
aex 95
a x i o m 514
a y 587
azure 515

ball 466
B a l l a n t r a e 83
b a llet 466
Bally sh a n n o n 83
b a lm 461, 492
b als am 461
ban 91, 91 ( 2), . . bon(e)
band 511
bandit 458
banjo 44 7
bank 286
banner 253
b r 50
bark 5 5 1 , . . beorcan
barn 478
baron 253, 261
baroness 26 3
bask 492
basket 492
basta rd 263, 492
b ath 492, 5 25
b a tt le 253
I be 440, 446, 454, 4 81, 4 98, 54 1, 561,
56 5, 566, 600, 605, . . beon
wesan. ben
II be 78, 169, 37 4, . . by
beado-m ece 84
beado-rinc 84
beads 255
beadu 96
beald 163
b eald lice 163
bealu 93
beam 49, . . bm
I bear 488, 502
II bear 16, 502, 543, 54 6, 55 5, 556,
. . beran, brjren
b e am 91, 91 ( 2)
bearu 93
beat 481, 488, 502, . . beatan
b ea ta n 131, . . beat
beau 466
because 374 , 418, 464
beck 250
bed 92
beden 340, . . beodan
beef 25 4, 296
befool 472
beforan 169
beg 474
78

122
ba, .
b a can 131, . . bake
baecere 103
baecestre 75
b a cillu s 244
back of 447, 606
b a k e 5 5 1 , . bacan
b a lco n y 458

b e eotan 69
begin(nen) 243, 254, 398, 504,
54 7, . . o n innan
behalf 495 (in behalf)
behead 47 2, . . beheafdian
beheafdian 78, . . behead
behind 2 73, 4 47, 606
behon 78

392

543,

belief 525
bellfan 50, 131
belike 581
b elittle 472
bell 551, . . bellan
bellan 131, . . bell
belong 455
b$m 279, . . beam
ben 27 5, 353, 358, 359, 3 62 , 363, 364,
376, . . beon, wesan, be
bench 286
bendan 49, 139, . . benden
benden 343, . . bendan
beneath 489
beniman 78
benorfjan 169
beodan 49, 50, 129, 130, . . beden
beon 149, 154, 159, 160, 172, 178, 360,
. . ben, w esan, be
beor 75
b e o r c a n 131, . b a r k
255
131
bequea th 551, . . cwefjan
beran 24, 49, 50, 69, 129, 249, . .
b^ren, bear II
b ereave 75, . . ber^ven
bereav em ent 263
b^ren 339, 376, . . beran , bear II
b e r^ v en 343, . . be re a v e
berian 139
berien 303
B e r k e le y 478
B e rkshire 478
berstan 133, . . burst, bersten
bersten 341, . . burst, berstan
berth 497
Ber w ick 5 08
b esettan 78
beside 373
b esm lta n 131
best 325, . .
od, betst
besu^an 169

b e t, cm. b ettre

121
121

bete ra
betst
better 537, . .
good, betera
bettre 277,
325, . . god, better
bejjencan 78
bewepan 78
bewilder 273
bewilderment 263
bl 78, . . by
bid 545, 549, . . b id dan , bidden
bldan 49, 131, 249, . . abide
biddan 49,
133, . . bidden, bid
bidden 340, . . biddan, bid
biernan 133, . . burn(en)
biggen, cm. byen
bilden 343, . . byldan

b ille t-do u x 466


bin 83
bindan 49, 59, 62, 131, 144. 153, 172,
249, . . bind(en)
blnd(en), 271, 284, 339, 350, 376, 543,
546, . . bindan
biology 470
birk 285
b iscep u n 82
biscop 261, . . bishop
biscophad 82
bisechen 285, 286
bishop 82, . . biscop
bisie 429, . . b y s i
bitan 131, 249, . . bite II
I bite 97
II bite 480, 54 3, 546 , 549, 55 5, . .
bitan
biza rre 466
blaec 115, 121
blam e 461
blaspheme 461
blast 271
blawan 131, . . blow
blessed 474, . bletsian
bletsi an 77, . . blessed
bllcan 131
b li c c e t ta n 77
blld-heort 79
blod 77, . . blood
bloma 23, . bloom
blondan 131
blood 500, 605, . . blod
bloom 605, . . bloma
blow 557, . . blawan
blowan 131
blue 519
blueish 607
blunt 499
blushen 295
boar 488
boat 481, 488
boc
, . . bok, book
bocere 92
bok 277 , 310, . . boc, book
bolshevik 468
bolshevism 468
bomb 510
bond 511
bpn(e) 274, 598, . . ban
book 474, 496, . . boc, bok
boomerang 454
boot 454
borwen 293
borzoi 467
bosom 501
botany 470
bough 294, 506
bound 511

100

b o u q u et 466

393

bowe

87, 100, 310


b u r h , .
b u r i a l 2 63, 289 (
)
b u r n (e n) 344, 346, 497, . . bi*

486

bow(en) 293, 551, . .


boy 299
brad 75, . . broad
brsedu 75, 99
b r a i d 5 5 1 , . . b r e j d a n ,
b r a n c h 495, 5 1 0
b r a s s 492
b r e a d 489, . . b r^d

133,

ernan
b u r s t 559, cm. b e r s t a n ,
b u s h 501
b u s i n e s s 477
b u s t l e 510

breden

break 502, . . brecan


b r e a t h 489, . . b r ^ t h
brecan 131, . . break
br$d 279, . . bread
breden 341, . . b re sd a n ,
b r e e c h e s 489, . . b r o c
b re 3dan
breow an

breden,

braid
braid

131, . . b r e w
brest 271, 376
br^th 376, . . breath
b r e w 5 5 1 , . .

breow an

b r i d g e 61, 243, 2 8 7, 376, .

.
B r i d p o r t 82
bright 3 66 , 506
brighte 366
b r i n an 62, 137, . . bring(en)
b ring(en) 243, 2 9 4 , 3 4 5 , 355 ( )
506, 598, . . b r i n j a n
broad 607, . . brad
broc
, . . breeches
99
brood 496
I brook 496
II brook 551, . . brucan
broom 496
b ro th er 16, 311, 500, 525, . .
brojjor
brotherhood 248
brofjor 23, 90, 101, . . b ro th er
Bro u g h a m 521
bru can 133, . . brook
bruise 519
bryce 118
51, 95, . . bridge
bu .
b uccan eer 465
I buffet 466
II buffet 466
bug 447
49, 133, . . bow(en)
bulb 501
I bull 501
II bull 501
bullet 501
bulletin 501
bullion 501
bully 501
bulrush 501
bulwark 501
bungalow 467
buoy 299

100

b ersten

but 374, 411, 433, 499, . . butan


butan 169, . . but
b u tch e r 2 53, 501
by 584, . . be II, bi
b y and by 455
, , ()
() 137, . . byen
byen 287, 293, 345, . . ()
b y l d a n 139, . . bilden
byria n 139
byrne 103
b y s i 76, . . bisie
by w ay of 606

cabin et 263
Caith ness 250
cajole 466
c a l f 254, 495, 507, 598, . . c e a l f
c a l l ( e n ) 250, 346, 493, 494
c a l m 492, 507, 598
c a l v e 495
can 560, . . cunnan, cunnen
candy 447
c a n n i b a l 465
canoe 465
cant 495
Can te rbu ry 310
caou tc h ouc 465
ca p rice 466
ca r a v a n 467
ca r e 272, 310, 311, . . caru
careful 6 0 7, . . carful
ca ress 466
carful 76, . . careful
c a r it e , cm. ch a ri te
Ca rnarvo n 83
c a r r i a g e 263
caru 49, 94, . . ca re
ca r v e 478, 551 , . . c e o rfan , kerven
cask 492
cask et 492
ca ste 492
cast(en) 25 0, 492, 559
c a s t i g a t e 461
ca stle 253, 5 1 0
c a t 427, 490, 5 98
ca t a lo g u e 445
ca tch (e n ) 267, 347, 5 06
C a u ca sia n 515
caucus 447

394

cause 374 , 494


causen 403
ca y m a n 465
c e a h h e t ta n 77
cealf

1 77, . . c l ^ n e , c l e a n
cljensian 77
clasp 492
class 445, 492
cl a ssic 492
cl ean 4 8 1 , . . claBne, cl ^ ne
cl e av e 551, 552, .
cleo fan ,
eleven
clqne 3 7 6 , . . claene, clean
cl eofa n 131, . . eleven , clea v e
clerk 82, 478.
eleven 341, . . cleofa n , cle a v e
clew 296
cllfan 131
c l i m b 510, 551, 552, . . c l l m b a n
c llm b an 59, 131, . . cl im b
131
clip ian 56, 70
c l o is t e r 253
clo th 496
c l the(n) 346, 3 55 ( ), 496
cl uch en 295
clue 29 6
clynn an 139
c n a w a n 49, 129, 132, 243 , 274, cm.

10 2 , . . c a l f

ceaster 53
ce la n 139
ce n tre 445
ce n tu ry 516
ceorf an 131, . . kerven, carve
ceorl 87
c e o s a n 49, 129, 144, . . c h e s e n ,
choose
c e o w a n 131, . . c h e w
c e p a n 49, 62, 136,
keep
c e r r a n 69
c e r t a i n 478, 497

c e r t a i n l y 371, 38 8, 5 8 1 , .
tain
ce r te s 371, 581

kepen,

. cer

ch aff 449, 450


ch a grin 466
c h a ir 243, 256
ch alk 507
ch a m b re 243, 2 56
ch a n ce 495, 598, . . ch aunce
ch ange 253, 2 97 , 495
ch a o s 505
ch a pe l 253
c h a p t e r 477
ch a ra d e 489
chargen 403
c h a r i te 267
chase 267
ch a ste n 461
Ch a tau q u a 447
ch ate au 466
C h a th a m 521
ch a u n ce 297, . . ch ance
ch emise 466
chere 409
ch e rry 28 9 ( I)
c h e s e n 28 1, 339 , . . c e o s a n , c h o o s e
Chester 82
c h e w 519, 5 51 , . . c e o w a n
c h i d e 555
chief 2 4 3 , 481, 482
child 2 4 3 , 27 3, 285, 310, 525, 526,
605, . . cild
ch ir ch e 285
Chisw ick 508
choose 5 43, 60 5, . . ceosan , chesen
C h ristm as 510
cild 59, 61, 102, . . child

. k n 9W (e n)

cn edan 131, . . knead


cneow 93, . . knee
cn y ssan 22, 136
cod 525
cofre 301
c o h h e tta n 77
C o lchester 82
cold 607
c o lib ry 465
co lla p se 459
co l le c t 459, 461
co llision 51 5
c o l lo c a t e 461
colonel 477
co lou r 253
colum n 253, 510
com aunden 297 , . . comm and
co mb 510
co me( n) 243, 341, 355 ( 1) 499,
58 2, 600, 605, . . cuman
com m and 495, 50 4 , . . c o m a u n
den
co m m encen 254
co m m un ism 470
co mpel (len ) 403, 459, 596
con clu d e 459
condemn(en) 2 53 , 510
co ndor 465
co n nectio n 514
co n n e x i o n 5 1 4
conquer 508
conqueror 508
con quest 508
co n scien ce 253

c ild cm. c ild

cild h a d 75
ci nch 447
c i r c l e t 2 63

395

conscious 51 4
co nseillen 403
co n s ti t u t e 459
co n str ey nen 403
co n sum ptio n 511
co n tin u e 582
c o n t r a d i c t 4 59
co n tr ib u te 459
co n tu m ely 523
co o bo o 454
cook 496
co o lie 467
copse 477
co q uette 466
corn 16, 447
co rn ice 458
coro n et 263
corp s 466
co rr e ct 459
cost(e n ) 347, 4 9 6 , 559
I couch 243
II couch 461
cough 506
counsel 297
cou nt 297
co u n te rf e te 301
co u ntess 263
coup 489
couple 499
coura ge 243, 260, 263
course 449
co u rt 2 5 3, 449
co u rt m a r t ia l 392
co u rte sy 477
cousin g e rm a n 392
co v ere n 2 5 3
cow 24 3, 244, 310, 525, . .
co w ard 26 3
c r a w a n 131, . . crow
creep 5 5 1 , . . cre o p a n , cre p en
creop an 131, . . cr epen , creep
c re p en 341, . . c re o p a n , creep
cr e s c e n t 459, 511
crew 2 9 6 , 5 1 9
crim so n 4 77
croo k 496
cr ooked 474
cr oss 496
cr ow 55 1, 553 , . . cr a w a n
cr o w (e ) 244
crow d 5 98
cr ude 519
cr um b 510
c r u t c h 295
cO 100, . . cow
cu ggel 295
c u irass 492
cull 461
c u ltu re 516
c u m a n 133, 144, 153, . . co m e(n)

cu nn an 148, 177, . . cu nnen, can


cunnen 274, 352, . . cu nn an, can
c u rt 497
c u r t a in 497
cu rt s y 477
cushion 501
cu t 499, 559
cufj 55, 249
cwelan 131, 138
cw ellan 137, 138, . . quellen
cw en 87, 97, . . queen
cwene 99
cwefjan 129, 249, 376, . . be
queath, quoth
cw ic -s eolfo r 79
cwucu 56, 118
c y n in g 75, 87, 103, 249, . . king
cyn(n) 92, 2 4 9, 376, . . kin
cyfjan 55
c z a r 467
d d 49, 103, . . deed
dae 49 , 51, 60, 90, 91, 249, . .
day
d a in ty 253, 461
daisy 79
d l 97, . . dl
d l a n 69, . . dlen, deal
damb 510
damsel 477
dance 449, 450, 598, . . dauncen
Dane 50 3, . . Dene
danger 495, 510
dar, c m . durren
dare 560, . . durren, dear(r)
dark 429
darn 478
dauncen 2 97 , . . dance
dawn 494
day 2 93 , 491, . . dae
dead 6 9, 279, 489, . . dd
d eadlic 76
deaf 489
deal 598, . . d ^ l a n , d^len
dear 450
dear(r) 148, . . durren, dare
death 489, 525, . . deaf), d$th
deaf) 49, . . dth, death
debris 466
debt 461
d e c a n t e r 495
deceive 482
dqd 27 9 , . . dead
deduce 459
deed 605, . . d d
deem 550, . . deman
deep 281
deer 281, 450, 525, 526, 6 0 5 , . .
deor, der
defeat 461

396

defect 461
defence 445
deign 5 03
d$l 275, 3 7 6, . . d s l
d ^ l e n 343, 350, . . d s l a n , deal
d e l f a n 131, . . d e l v e
d e l i g h t 5 06
d e l v e 5 51, . . d e l f a n
dema 99
deman 49, 55, 136, . . deem
demend 75
d e m o crac y 463 , 470
Dene 9 7 , . . Dane
dennan 139
deop 279
deope 162
deor 9 1 , . . der, deer
d e o r li n 75
der 311, . . deor, deer
Der by 250, 478
derian 139
derne 69
descend 58 2
deserve 478
desiren 256
d esperado 458
dessert 509
d$th 279, . . d e a f , death
devil 82
dew 49 1, 519
djad, . . dead
dia gnosi s 521
d ialogue 505
die 254
dig 555
d i g n i t e e 2 56, . . d i g n i t y
d ig nity 4 61 , . . dig nitee
digression 514
din gh y 467
dingo 454
dinner 253
d ir e ctly 510
dirge 477
d irt 497
d is ap point 264
disaster 492
disbelief 464
disburden 264
discern 509
disdain 264
dismiss 459
disown 264
dissect 509
dissemble 509
dissent 509
disso lve 507, 509
distrust 2 64
divulge 510
do 481, 5 0 0 , 5 4 1 , 562, 575, 576, 600,
. . don

do s o r r o w 473
do w r o n g 473
d o g g e d 474
d o g h t e r 3 11, . . d o h t o r

d ohtor 87, 101, . . doghter


dom 55, 249, . . doom
don 150, 354, . . do
doom 75, . . dom
d oorste p 505
dor 91, 306, 310, 311
dore 272, . . duru
d ormouse 525, 526
dorn 7 6
double 499
doubt 461
dough 294, 506
dove 499
dowen 352, 5 60, . . dusan
down 83, 24 3, 2 44 , 450, 481, 598
d r s f a n 49, 139
draft 506
d r a an 131, . . draw(en)
d rau gh t 506
d ra u g h ts 506
draw(en) 293, 339, 486, . . d r a an
dread 4 89
dr^den 3 4 1, . . o n d r ^ d a n
dre nc(e)an 138
dreosan 131

d reye cm. drle

drle 293, 303


drlfan 131
drincan 120, 129, 138, 172, . .
drink(e n)
d r i n an 172
drink(en) 243, 339, 543, . . drincan
droop 489
druh
d ru nkard 263
dry (e)an 139
d ry n c 97
due 296
dufan 133
d u an 148, . . dowen
dukedom 46 4
dulla rd 263
dumb 510
D u m b a rto n 83
Du m fries 83
dun 83
dunch 453
D u ned in 83

100

dun3 100

durren 352, . dear(r), dare


duru 98, . . d5re
dust 62 , 271
d uty 4 4 9 451
dwarf 478, 498, 506
dwellen 346

397

d y n n a n 139
d y r n i h t e 76
d y s i 3 76
$ 2 5 5 , . .
5 8 , 100, 2 5 5 , 2 6 1 , . . q
e a c h 5 3 4 , . . s i c , qcIi
eadi 3 6 4 , 116
6 9 , 8 7, 9 9 , 103, 172, . . e y e
e a h t a 5 2 , 12 2, . . e i g h t ( e )
e a h t a t e o d a 123
eah tatlen e
12 2 , . . e i g h t e t e n e ,
eighteen
e a h t o f ) a 123, . . e i g h t e , e i g h t h
e a l d 5 2 , 5 7 , 6 9 , 7 5, 121, 2 7 8 , . .
9 ld
e a l u 10 0 , . . a l e
e a r d i a n 141
ear(e) 99, 450
I e a r m 5 2 , 7 0, 9 1 , . . a r m
II e a r m 5 5 , 7 0 , 121
e a r m i n 3 75
earne st 478
e a r th 430, . . , er th e
ease 253
e a s t r o n 82
eat 489, . . etan
e a t a b le 464
e a j i e 165
9 5 , . . e d g e
$ c h 2 8 5 , 3 2 1 , . . S i c , e a c h
ed ge 2 8 7 , . .
ed u cate 517
e f e n j b r o w i a n 79
e f f e c t 471
efn 6 2 , . . e v e n
e f s t a n 5 5 , 139
e f t 162
, . .
eg g 2 5 0
ei 3 1 0 , . .
e ig h t(e ) 278, 32 7 , 53 8 , . . e a h ta
e i g h t e 3 2 8 , . . e a h t o f j a , e i g h t h
eig h teen 538,
. .
eah tatlen e,
eigh te ten e
e i g h t e t e n e 3 2 7 , . . e a h t a t l e n e ,
eig h teen
e i g h t h 5 3 8 , . . e a h t o j i a , e i g h t e
eig h ty
327,
538,
.
.
hundeah tat i3
e i t h e r 3 2 1 , 5 3 4 , . . S 3 hw a e f je r ,

elles 370
elleven 327, . . endlefan, eleven
em a n cip a te 459
embed 264
em p ty 511
encage 264
encase 472
en ch an t 472, 495
e n cir cle 264, 472
e nco urag e 472
end 504, 550, . . endian
ende 87, 92
en dear 2 64, 464
endian 141, . . end
en dlefan
,
. . elleven, eleven
endlefta 123,
. .eleventh(e)
engendren 347
E n laland 79
1 97
E n lisc 76
enough 499, 506, 605, . . inough
ensure 472
e n tr a n ce 263
entren 297
envenom 472
eofor 56
E o fo r w icce a ste r 64
70, 99, . . erthe, earth
eorl 87, 91
76
eower 105, 106, . . , your
epoch 463
qr 416, . S r , ere
ere 69
ere 440, . . S r , $r
erian 139
e rm th e 376, . . iermjiu
erth e 376, . . , earth

122

Esk 83
? st 271, 279
qsten 271
etan 24, 131, .

eat

E v a n 83
evel c m . evil
even 583, . . efn
Qver 289
every 316
ev id ent 459
vil 272, 325, . . yfel
eville 368, .
e x a c t l y 510
e xa ctness 510

S3{jer

e l a s t i c 49 2
e l d e r 2 7 8 , 3 2 4 , 5 3 6 , 6 0 5 , . . 9I d ,
ield ra
eld est 324, 5 3 6 , 605, . . ld, ield ?st
e le v a to r 447
ele v e n 538, . . e n d le f a n , e lle v e n
e l e v e n t h ( e ) 3 2 8 , 5 3 8 , . . e n d l e f t a

e xa g g e rate 459
e xa m p le 495
excl ude 459
exclusion 459
E xe 83
execu te 459, 509
e x e c u to r 509

398

. yfele

e x h ib it 509
e x h ib it i o n 509
e x h o r t 509
e x h o r t a t i o n 509
ex iste n ce 254
expand 511
exp edient 459
expel 459
ex p erience 263
expou nd 511
e xte rio r 459
ex tra n eou s 461
e x t r i c a t e 459
e y e 303, 307, 310, 311, 525,

122

fact 461
faeder 19, 70, 87, 90, 101, 219, 288,
. . fa der, father
fader 284, 376, . . faeder, father
fain 491
fair 293, 323, 366
faire 366
faithful 326
falcon 5 07
I fall 447
II fall(en) 339, 355 ( 1) 543,
5 46 , 549, 605, . . feallan
fallen in felawshipe 409
falsehood 464
fancy 477
fane 491
fangen 341, . fon
fa n tasy 477
far
, . . feor, ler(re)
faran 50, 129, 249, . fare
fare 488, 551, . . faran
farm 451, 478
fa rthing 478
faeste 162, . . fast(e)
fast(e) 366, 445, 449, 450, 492, 580,
. . faeste
fasten 510, . . faestnian
faestnian 141, . . fasten
faet 91, 2 88
fate 488
f a t h e r 16, 429, 445, 492, 512, . .
faeder, fader
fatigue 466
fault 50 7, 523
fealdan 76, 131, . . fold
fe a lla n 129, 132, 144, 249, . .
fall(en)
fear 488
feast 253
feat 460, 461
feden 271
feign 491, . . feyne(n)
fela 288
feld 98, . . field

478

felen 343, 346


fellen 278
fellow 250, 505
fe o (e)an 142
feoh 52
feohtan 129, 130, . . fight(en)
feond 75, . . fiend
I feor 121, . . fer(re), far
II feor 165
feorh 103
feorjla 123, . . fourth(e)
feower
, . . four
feowerteoda 123
feowertlene
, . . fou rtene,
fourteen
fe o w e rti
, . . fo urty, forty
f e o w e rt i oda 123
feran 139
ferian 139
fer(re) 280, . . feor, far
f^we 279
feyne(n) 403, . . feign
fie 587
field 243, 481, 482, . . feld
fiend 482, . . feond
fierra
, . feor
flf 62,
, . . five
flfta 123, . . fifte, fifth
fifte 328, . . flfta, fifth
fifteen 538, . . flftlene, fiftene
fiftene 327, . . flftlene, fifteen
fifteoOa 123
fifth 538, . . flfta, fifte
flftlene
, . . fiftene, fifteen
flftis
, . fifty
123
fifty 327, 538, . fIftig
fig ht(en) 280, 339, 506, . . feohtan
I figure 253
II figure 471
fill 471, . . fyllan
film 453
finale 458
find 543, . . findan
findan 70, 131, . . find
I finger 288
II finger 471
fir 449, 497
fir 243, 276 , 303, 376, . . fyr
firm 445, 497
first 2 76 , 328, 449, 450, 451, 497, 538,
. . fyr(e)st (a)
fisc 2 49, . . fish
fiscere 75, 92
fiscoj) 75
fish 525, . . fisc
fist 271, 303
five 327, 538, . . f l f
flaesc 97, 288
flask 492

122

3 122
3

121
122

122
122

399

f lean 133
fleet 551, . . fleotan
flee 551, . . fleon, flen
flen 341, . . fleon, flee
60, 69, 340
fleon 133, 3 40 , . . flen, flee
fleotan 131, 249 , . . fleet
f lexible 263
flingen 346
flood 500
fior 98
flow 551, . . flowan
fIowan 131, . . flow
flute 519
f(e) 2 7 4 , 31 1, 525
folc 78, . . folk
folcisc 76
fold 5 5 1 , . . fealdan
fol ian 51, . . folwen
folk 2 7 7 , 507, . . folc
folwen 29 3 , . . f o l ian
fon 5 8 , 62, 133, 145, . . fangen
fon to rice 409
food 481, 4 96, 605
foot 496, 525, 605, . . fot
for 169, 288, 351, 374, 376, 418, 419
for 50, 78, 94
foran 169
forbi_d 545
fordon 78
fore
forehead 521
forget 549
forleosan 50, 131, . . forlorn
forlorn 552, . . forleosan
form 449
forma 123
forsoth e 371
fo rtn igh t 526
for to 351, 40 1, 59 5, 600
fortune 516
fo rty 538, . . feow erti , fourty
forbaem
forpaBmpe 170, 2 2 1, 374
forward (50 8
forweorpan 78
Fosb ro oke 82
F o ssw a y 82
fot 70, 87, 100, 103, 249, 2 77 , 306,
3 10, 3 11 , . . foot
foul 2 93 , 480
fount 29 7
four 3 27, 538 , . . feower
f ourte en 5 38, . . fe o w e rt le n e ,
f o u r ten e
f ourte n e 327, . .
f e o w e rtle n e ,
fourteen
fourth(e) 3 28, 37 6, 538, . . feorpa
fo urty 3 2 7 , . . fe o w e rti , forty
fox 75, 288

121

221

fragile 461
frail 461
fram 16 9, 202
F r a n c n a la n d 79
frazil 453
freca 84
freeze 54 3, . . freosan
fre nan 172
fremman
, 55, 136
F re n ch 51 0, . . F r e n ci sc
F r e n c i s c 76, . . French
freodom 75
fr e o (e)an 142
freond 75, 288, . . friend
fr eondlic 7 6, 163
freo ndlice 162
fr eond rS den 75
freo ndscipe 7 5, . . friendship
freosan 131, . . freeze
frere 2 5 6 , . . fr i a r
fresco 458
fret 4 8 9 , 551
friar 253, . . frere
friend 4 89 , . . freond
friendship 253, . . freondscipe
F r i edae 79
fr U n a n 62 , 133
fr i p 255
frofor 94
frost 496
froth 496
fruit 276, 5 1 9 , 525
fru s tra te 459
fuchsia 514
f u elere 75
fu lfilment 263
full 16, 55, 76, 277, 501
fu lm inate 501
fumble 605
funeral 26 3 ( 1)
fur 497
furh
fu rth er 497, . . furpra
furpra
, . . fore, further
fy 3 75
fy lcian 250
fyllan 55, . . fill
fyr 49, 91 ( 2), . . fir
fyr(e)st
, 2 88, . . fore
fy rest(a ) 123, . . forma
fy rhtu 99
fysan 139
fyxen 75

22

100

121

121

alan 131
galwe 2 93
game 272
amen-wudu 84
gam m on 272
an 149, . . g n , go, wendan

3
3

400

gild en 343
3 i n 3 ra 121, . .
g ird en 343
3 it 105
g i v e ( n ) 2 5 1 , 2 8 3 , 3 4 1 , 4 2 9 , . .
3iefa n , yiven
g i v e an e a r 4 7 3
g i v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g 4 73
g iv e a ton gu e 473
g i v e b e n e f i t 47 3
g i v e c o u n t e n a n c e 473
g i v e d e ed 4 7 3
g iv e m ourning d u ties 473
g iv e voice 473
glad 275, 323
3 l a e d - m 6 d 79
g lan ce 598
g l a s s 4 92
3 l e o 51
3le o -b e a m 84
3 l l d a n 13 1 , . . g l i d e
g l i d e 5 5 1 , . . 3 l l d a n
g l i m p s e 511
glisten 510
3 1 f 103
131, . . g n a w ( e n )
g n a r l e d 521
g n a s h 521
g n a t 521
g n a w ( e n ) 2 9 3 , 5 2 1 , 5 5 1 , . .
g n o m i c 521
g n o s i s 521
g o 4 8 1 , 4 8 6 , 4 9 6 , 5 6 3 , 6 0 0 , . .
, w e n d a n , gpn
go down 5 8 2
g o on 5 8 2
go up 5 8 2
3 od 75
3 od 4 9 , 5 1 , 1 1 5 , 1 1 9 , 121, 2 4 9 , . .
god, good
g 5 d 2 7 7 , 3 2 2 , 3 2 5 , . . 3 od, g o o d
goddess 262, 263
3o d l i c 76
3 o d n i s 75
3 o d s p e l l 82
3o l d 7 6
3o l d s m i 9 79
gpn 2 7 4 , 3 5 3 , 4 9 6 , . . , g o ,
w end (en )
g o n d o la 458
g o o d 4 9 6 , 6 0 7 , . . 3 od, god
g o o s e 5 2 5 , 5 2 6 , 6 0 5 , . . 30 s, go s
30 s 6 2 , 100, 103, . . g o s , g o o s e
g o s 3 1 0 , . . 30 s, g o o s e
30 s l i n 3 75
governen 253
governm ent 253, 263
3 r a f a n 131, . . g r a v e 11
g r a ft 447

gard en 257
g a rter 256
gasp 492
3 a t 100
g a t h e r 512
gaunt 495
g a z e tte 466
105, . . e o w e r , y e , y o u , y o u r
5 1, 91, . .
76
2 4 9
t 53
3 e b e o r s c i p e 75
3 e f e o n 5 8 , 133
3 e f e r a 78
3 e f r i 3 n a n 194
3 e f y l c 78
5 e h w a 1 0 9 , 321
S e h w i l c 1 0 9 , 321
3e l e a f a 5 5
3 e l e a f l e a s 76
3e l l e f a n 5 5 , 6 9
3 e l i m p a n 131
3e m y n d 7 8 , . . m i n d
3 e n e a h 14 8 , 3 5 2
genius 244
2 4, 9 1 , . . y o k e
] 7 5 , . . y o u t h
g e o m e try 470
3 e o n d 202
6 9 , 7 0 , 12 1, , . y o u n g

3eo tan

131
ihtlaecan 77
esael i 163

3 e s S l i 3 e 163
3 e s a e l i 3 l i c 163
3 e s S l i 3 l i c e 163
3e s c e a f t 62

3eseon

78

g e s s e n 3 4 6 , . . g u e s s
get(en) 2 5 1 , 2 83, 339, 3 4 1 , 446, 489,
543, 5 4 9 , 600, . . 3ietan
get c le a r 473
3etrlew e 55
3 e f )e o d e 5 5 , 6 4
3 e w e r i a n 13 9
3 e w l t a n 131
g h a s tly 492
giao u r 467
3 i e f a n 5 1 , 5 3 , 6 9 , 133, . . y i v e n ,
giv e(n)
3i(e)fu 69, 8 7 , 249
3 i e l d a n 5 3 , 1 3 3 , 2 5 1 , 2 8 3 , . .
y e ld e n , yield
3 i e l p a n 133
3 i e r n a n 1 3 9 , 2 5 1 , . . y e r n e n ,
yearn
3 iest 9 7
3 ie t a n 1 3 3 , . . g e t(e n )
3 if 1 7 0 , 2 1 4 , 2 2 4 , . . if

401

grand 495
g r a n d f a th e r 510
g ra n d m o th e r 510
grasp 449, 450 , 492
grass 492
grau nte n 297, 403
I g ra v e 481
II g ra v e 551, . .
rafan
great 502, . . g r^ t
Greenwich 508, 509
139
re o ta n 131
grt 323, . . g reat
re t a n 62, 136
g r^ tly 367, . . g r t
grey 293
g ri m a c e 466
rim sian 77
rindan 131
49, 131, 172, 249, .

3
3

grip ()
grip(en) 34 1, 551, . .
g ro an 491
g ro tesque 466
g r o t t o 458
group 489
grow 491, 519, 543, . .
rowan
rowan 131, . . grow
ru t
guano 465
guess 447, . . gessen
uma 84, 99, 103
- 84
'-b il 84
tif)-freca 84
u ]}-r in c 84
ajj-wi a 84
^ -w ine 84
yden 75
ylden 49, 76
g y m n a siu m 515

3
3

100

3
3
3

3
3

ha 587
habban 49, 142, 146, 151, 155, 159,
160, . . have(n)
had 75
ha! ha! 375
hal 55, 75, 76, 249, . . whole
haelan 49, 55, 139, . . heal II
halcyon 514
hSlend 75
haele 100, 103
half 253, 430, 495, 525, 598
h aliday 271
h a l i 76
haelu 75
halve 495
ham m ock 465
ham w eard 76
han cm. have(n)

402

I hand 49, 98, 103, 242, 310, 511, 598


II hand 471
handkerchief 510, 525
handsome 510
hangen 3 4 1 , . . hon
hap ly 581
happen 597
h app il y 581
hard 376, 430, 580, . . hearde
hark 478
harm 376
harness 253
h a rt 440, . . heort
harv est 255, 478
hasp 492
h at 474, 490, 598
h at 75t . . ht
h ata n 49, 129, 132, 147, 194, 249, cm.
. h^ten
hatband 505
hate 471
haetu 75, . . heat
hauk 289
haunt 495
have (n) 301, 342, 350, 446, 541, 565,
600, 605, . . habban
hav e aqueyntau nce 409
have in mind 473
hav e offyce 409
have respect 473
h a ve suffisaunce 409
h a ve the hyer hond 409
h ave the thought 473
he 105, 204, 31 4, 592
head 472, 489, . . heafod, h|d
heafod 91 , 249, . . hd, head
heal 481, 598, . . haelan
heald an 131, . . h ld(en)
healede 76
heal 1 70
hear 4 5 0 , 497, . . h ie ran, heren
hearde 162, . . hard
h earp e 84
heart 440, 478, . . h e orte, herte
h earth 478, 525
h e a rty 600, . . herty
h eat 600, . haetu
heath 489
h e ado -li^end 84
heado-rinc 84
h eave 551, 553, . . hebban, hqven II
heaven 272, . . heofon, h^ven I
heawan 131, . . hew
hebban 133, 142, 172, 2 4 9 , . .
h^ven II, heave
hd 289, 430, . . heafod, head
heel 481
hei 293
height 453

heir 440
heir m a le 392
helan 131
h e ll 508
helm 91
h e lm -b eren d 84
helpan 49, 129, 130, 144, . .
help(en)
he lp (en ) 339, 365, 551, . . he lp a n
hence 370, . . heonan
heo 105, 376
heofon 56, . . h^ven I, heaven
heonan 162, . . hence
heort 56, . . h art
h e o rt e 52, 70, 99, 172, 249, . .
herte, heart
her 315, 497, 530, . . heo, hire
her 162
here 92
heren 271, 3 0 3 , 376 , 402, 403, . .
h le ran, hear
here-rinc 84
h erian 139
herself 319
h erte 280, . . heorte, heart
H ertfo r d 478
he rty 248, . . h e a r t y
I h^ven 280, . . heofon , he a ven
II h^ven 341, . . hebban, heave
hew 553, 557 . . heawan
hi 31 4, . . hie
hiden 555, . . hydan
hider 162, . , hither
hie 49, 56, 105, 250, . . hi
hTepan 139
hieran 19, 55, 69, 76, 136, 194, c m .
. heren, hear
hle rsum 76
high 293, 303, 366
hild 95
h il d e - 84
hil de- rinc 84
hill 276, 376, . . hyll
h ilt 97
himself 319, 409
I hind 511
II hind 273
h in der 263, 273
h i n d r a n c e 263, 273, 464
hin g e 287
hire 105, . . her, heo
his 105, 315, 530 . he
hit 105, 192, 314, 529, it
hither 512, . . hider
hitten 55 9
h la d a n 131, . . lade
hlaford 249, . lprd
h lea p a n 131, . . lqpen, leap
hlie h h a n 22, 49, 55, 133, . .
laugh(en)

403

hlowan 131, . . low II


hly hhan, c m . hliehhan
hlynnan 139
hnutu
, . . nute
ho 587
hocede 76
hof 60, 91
h ld(en) 278, 303, 339, 376, 54 3, 544,
54 6, . . healdan
hold opinioun 409
hold tongue 473
hole 508
() 274, 449
hon 58, 133, . . hangen
honour 260, 445
hood 496
hook 496
hppe(n) 272, 550, . . hopian
hopian 140, . . hpe(n)
hors 277, 311
hpt 274, 449^ 450, 451, 496, 600, 607,
. . hat
hpten 402, . . h ata n
hous(e) 243, 429, 474, 475, 481, 486,
488, 598, . . hus
how 243, 244, 277, 433, 481
h rlnan 172
h ri n 91, . . ring
hrissan 139
92, . . ridge
hue 296
hundaellefti
hundaellefti oda 123
h u n d e a h ta t i
, . . eigh ty
h u n d e a h t a t i oda 123
h un dn i o n t i
, . . n in ty ,
nin ety
h u n d n i3 o n ti 3 o 9 a 123

100

3 122
3
3 122
3
3 122

122,

hundred
hundredth

ti3o5a

327, 538
538, .

3 122
3

h u n d sio fo n ti
, .
h u n d s i o fo n ti oda 123

hundteon. sev en ty

3
3 122
35

h u n d t e o n t i oda 123, . . hundredth


h u n d tw e lfti
h u n d tw e lfti o a 123
hunt 499
hunto|j 75
hurt 445, 497, 559
hus 49, . . hous(e)
husband 250
h usb andry 262
hwa 108, 109, 438, . . who
hwaer 78, 162, . . where
hwaet 108, 171, . . what
hwaeper 78, 213, 214, . . whether
hweorfan 131
hwider 162, . . whith er
hwil 162

hw ilc 108, 28 5, 438, . . w hich


hw ilum 162
hw onan 162, . . w hen ce
h w o n n e 162, 170, 219, 374, . .
w han, when
h y c (e)an 142
hyd 97
hydan 3 7 6 , . . hiden
hydrogen 467
hydropsy 477
hye 366, . . high
hyll 97, . . hill
hym n 510
h y r l i 75

I 314, 591, 592, . . ic


ic 105, 249, 285, . . I
idea 449
ides 87, 94
ieldest
, . . eald, eldest
ieldra 57, 121, 278, . . eald, elder
ieldu 75
ierm|)u 55, . . e rm the
iernan 63, 133, . . ru nnen, run
if 421, . .
if
i g n o ra n ce 263
II 293
ilea 109
I ll 508
ill 447
illness 504
im age 253
impel 459
in 202, 372
in acco rd an ce w ith 585, 606
in ad dition to 585, 606
in case ( th a t) 606
incer 105, 106
incident 459
i nclude 459
inclusion 459
incog 438
incur 459
indeed 581, . . in, deed
induce 459
inferior 459
inform 597
i n i t i a t i v e 514
inneweard 76
I nnisf ai 83
inn ocence 2 6 3
inough 2 94 , . . enough
in spite of 585
insta nce 297
instead of 585
i nsu la te 514
i n tere stin g 522
i n te rio r 459
intrig ue 466

121

introduce 459
Inverness 83, 250
Inveru rie 83
in view of 60 6
irre 280
i rr it a te 459
Is 76
isi 76
islet 263
issue 514
it 192, 314, 529, 591 , . . hit
i t d 508
i t ll 508
its 530
jaguar 465
jejune 519
joint 299
joy 243
jubilee 519
I judge 253
II judge 474
jun io r 459
just 583
ju stice 253
keen 481
keep 473, . . ce p an, kepen
keep co m p a n y 473
Kenad re 83
kepen 271, 277, . . , keep
kerch ief 478
kerven 339, . . ceorf an, carv e
kessen 303
kichen 285, 295, . . kitchen
K ilbride 83
Kilbrook 83
K illie m o re 83
K ilm a c o l m 83
kiln 510
kin 303, 376, . . cyn(n )
king 511
kin de rgarten 467
king 2 43 , 253, . .
K in gussie 83
K ir k b y 250
kitch en 82, . . kichen
knave 521
knead 489, 551, . . cnedan
knee 521, . . cneow
knell 521
knight 248, 28 0, 3 92, 521
knit 521
knout 467
knw (en) 243, 274, 339, 376, 453,
491, 5 21 , 543, 546, 554, 557, 560,
596, . . cnawan
kno wledge 509
kolkhoz 468
kow tow 467

404

la 171, 5 8 7, . . lo
l a b o r a t o r y 522
labour 2 5 4 , 445
lac 75
lacan 131, 132
l a s c c ( e ) a n 137, . . l a c c h e n , la tc h
l a c c h e n 2 85 , 345, 3 4 7 , . .
(), latc h
lack 597
laedan 138, . . lead
ladder 490
lade 5 5 1 , 553, . . h ladan
lady 289
laf 50
laefan 49, 139, . . lven
lak(e) 485
lamb 102, 510

1 npp

land 49, 70, 103, 242, 450, 511


la nd scape 510
lane 491
l a n sum 76
L a n g t o ft 250
lan guag e 508
languid 50 8
lar 55 , 94
laera n 19, 55, 139, . . l^ren
large 2 5 3 , 607
lark e 271, 289
laes 96
lass 492
laessa
, . . l y t e l , lasse, less
lasse 326, 368, . . l l t e l , laessa, less
last 492
laSst(a) 121, 2 71 , . . lyte l, l$st
laetan 131, 132, 194, . . l^t(en)
la tch 5 50 , 558, . . laecc(e)an,
lacchen
la th 492
la th e r 492
l a u g h ( e n ) 341, 445, 5 0 6 , 551, . .
hliehhan
l a u g h ter 506
law 250
layen 287, . . 1
I lead 489
II lead 481, 48 9, 502, . . laedan
leaflet 263
leakage 263
lean 133
leap 551, . . h le a p an, l^pen
learn 44 5, 478, 497, . . lernen
learned 474 , . . learn
leas 5 0 , 76
1 5 5 , . . layen
I f 279
legible 263
L e ic e ste r 82
leisure 253
lend 489, 511

121

l^nen 343
lenger 324 , 367 . . lon g. 1

, . .
1 75
lenient 459
1 131, . . lle(n) II
l e orn in 75
1 27 9, . . h le a p a n , leap
lqren 376, . . laeran
lernen 343, . . learn
lesan 131
lessee 263
lest 489 , . . laes(sa), f a
l^st 32 5, 36 8, . . 1i t e l , laSst
l^t(en) 275, 402, 489 , 559, 572 , . .
laetan
l e t t e r - c a r r i e r 447
l^ven 343, . . laefan
libban 56, 142, 146, . . live(n)
lie 76, 91 ( 2)
l i c (e)an 70, 133, . . lle(n) I
lief 243
I lle(n) 2 93, 341, 491, . . ()
II lle(n) 293, 551, . . 1$
llf(e) 91, 2 5 4 , 31 1, 525
lift 447
I light 2 4 3 , 506
II light 555
like 474, 481, 597
lik ely 581
lim 56, . . limb
lim b 510, . . lim
lln 76
L in co ln 82
linen 76
liquor 508
less 489, . . laessa, lasse
lltel 3 0 3 , 325, 367, . . lytel
l i t e r a t u r e 522
llf> 250
1 131, 138
live(n) 244, 342, 4 3 3 , 4 7 4 , . . libban
L la n d a f f 83
L lan d o v ery 83
L la n du d no 83
10 375, 587, . . la
I load 481
11 load 474
l oath so m e 607
lo c a te 459
loc ian 376, . . look
lock 551, . . lucan, luken
lofian 141
I 1 70, 75, 7 6, 121, . . long
II 1 162, . . longe
long 324, 53 6 , 607, . . 1 I
longe 367, . . long
longen 398
I look 496
.

121

II lo ok 4 7 1 , 4 9 6 , . . lo c i a n

405

lrd 289, 290, 376, . . hlaford


losen 343
loss 496
lot 445
loud 243, 58 0
louse 525, 526, 605, . . lus
love 243, 476, 499, . . lufu
love(n) 244, 342, 471, 476, . .
lufian
I low 244, 503
II low 551, . . hlowan
l u b rica te 459
lucan 49 , 133, . . luken, lock
luck 499
lufian 140, 146, 172, . . love(n)
luflic 76, 163
lufu 94, . . love
lug gage 263
luken 341, . . lucan, lock
luminous 519
iunar 519
lund 453
lus
, . . louse
lutan 133
lute 519
l u x u r i o u s 50 9, 515
l u x u r y 509, 514
l y t e l 121, 24 9, . , l l t e l
l y t l e 166, . . l y t e l
l y t l i n 3 75

lee 454

I man, . . man(n)
II man 352, 560, . . munan
M anch est er 82
manger 495
m an i feald 76
man(n) 4 9 , 87, 100, 2 7 4 , 306 , 310 ,
3 11 , 5 2 5 , 5 2 6 , 605
mannraeden 75
mansion 297
many 273
mar 4 78

121, 27 4 , 6 0 6 , . . m i c e l ,
mqre
m arine 466
m arria g e 263
m S rs ia n 7 7 , 141
m arvel 478
m ascu line 492
mask 492
masquerad e 492
I mass 8 2 , 492
II mass 492
mast 492
maest(a)
, 606 ,
micel,

100

m9st

121

m aste r 82
mastiff 492
mawan 131, . . mow
may 293, 56 0, . . , mo
wen
maybe 581
mayor 461
mead 272, 489, . . maed
meadow 2 7 2 , . . maed
measure 515
meat 481, 502, . mete
84
medicine 470, 477
medu 16, 98
meet 481, 482, . m eta n
melodye 409
melt 55 1 , 552, . . m eltan
me lta n 131, . . melt
mem ber 297
mend 5 U
mqnen 343
mennisc 76
I mention 297
II men tion 471
me (o )lca n 52, 131, . . milk
m erch ant 478
merciful 464
mercy 478
mere 97
merie 303, 376
m e t a n 49, 131, . , mete II
m eta n 79, 139, . . meet
I mete 97, . . meat
II mete 551, . . metan

m achine 489
m acia n 49, 140, . . make(n)
maed 9 6 , . . mead , meadow
57, 148, 177, . . mowen,
may
magazine 466
m a d d en 62, 87, . . maid
]) 100
mae ]jhad 75
mahogany 465
m a i d 491, . . m ae 3 den
mail 253 (c o a t of mail)
main 600
maize 465
major 461
make(n) 272, 291, 342, 402, 403, 427,
486, 491, . . macia n
make answer 473
make a v aun t 409
make ch ere 409
make forward 409
make him selven wood 409
maken mel odye 409
make moan 473
make p ro bation 473
make questions 473
make songes 409
make tenders 473
make w aste 473

406

mew 296
m e y n te n e n 403
m l 3 1 5 , . .

ic,

m in

micel 121, 249, 295, 606, .


mu ch el, much
m ice le 166
m ice lh ea fd ed e 76
m icr oscope 467
midde 24
middeweard 76
midge 287
Mierce 97
might 2 7 8, 3 10
m ilch 510
m il it i a 514
milk 551, . . m e(o )lc an
mill 82, 510
m iller 253
m i l l i o n 538, . . m i l l i o u n
m i l l i o n t h 538
millioun 327, . . million

m i n 105, 10 6 , 3 1 5 , . . ic , m i , m i n e
m i n d 3 7 6 , . . 3e m y n d

mine 530, .

. min

m in iatu re 466

minor 459

mot 148. 177, 352, 560, . . must


mother 429, 500, 512, . . modor
motion 471
m o tto 458
m o u nta in 504
mourn 551, . . murnan
mouse 525, 526, 605, .
mus
mouth 598, . .
mow 491, 5 5 3, . . mawan
mowen 352, . . , may
much 295, 36 8, . . m i c e l , mu
chel
muchel 285, 325, . . micel,
much
mugwump 447
munan 148, . . man II
munuc 261, . . monk
murderess 263
murnan 133, . . mourn
mus 49, 100, 310, . . mouse
m u scle 510
m usi ci an 514
must 560, 600, . mot
m u tto n 254
mujj 62, 91, . . mouth
myself 319

m in ster 460

mirth 497
misdaed 78
m isllc ia n 78
mist 76
m i s t i 76
I moan 473
II moan 481 , 491
mob 438
mod 76, . . mood
m o d i 76
modor 70, 87, 9 0 , 101, 249. .
m other
moiety 253
mona 99, . . moon
Monandae 79, . . Monday
m o n a rch y 470
m o n astery 460
mona
,
. . moneth, month
Monday 500,
. . Monandae
moneth 3 1 1,
. . monaJ>,
month
monk 82, . . munuc
month 500, . . monaf*, moneth
75
mood 496, . . mod
moon
481, 486 , 488, .
. mona
moor 488
mpre
274, 325, 367, 369,
536, 537,
. m ara, m u ch cl, much
mo rro w 475,
. . morwen
morwen 293,
. . morrow
mosquito 458
m st
325, 368, 369, 503,
536, 537,
.
maest(a), much el, much

100

nabban 146, 151


nadde 350, . . naefde
naefde 146, 151 . . nadde
naefne 224
naht 196, . n a w iht, naught,
not
naiv e 466
nam 353
nama 55, 70, 87, 99, . . name
name 272, 3 06 , 307, 310, 481, . .
nama
nan 111, 196, . . noon, none
naeni
naeron 151, . nqre
n a rra t e 459
narrow 475
naes 151, . . nas
nas 353, . . naes
nasty 492
nat 151
nath 350, . . have(n)
n ation 514, 522
natu re 26 0, 29 6 , 516
nauger 289, 289 ( 1)
naught 294, 598,

nawiht,
naht
nawiht
196, 407, . .
naht,
noht, not, n aug ht, nought
ne 196, 350, 353, 407
neah
, . nigh
nealaecan 77
nearra
nearu 96, 118

3 111

121
121

407

need 474, 597


needs 370
Negro 458
n em n a n 55
n eota n 131
neowe 70, . . new(e)
nephew 5 23
n^re 3 5 3, . . nSron
nerian 136
nestle 605
net 92
new(e) 322, 366, 449, 45 0 , 451, 51 9,
. . neowe
newel 296
newt 289 ( 1)
nice 607
nicknam e 2 8 9 ( 1)
nieten 91
niggard 263
nigh 2 9 3 , cm neah
night 243, 31 1, 433, 506, . .
niht
n i on
, . . nln(e)
n i onteoda 123
n i o n t!e n e
, . .
n lntene,
nin eteen
ni o|)a 123, . . ninth(e)
niht 49, 57, 70,
100, . . night
niman 49, 133,
153, . . nimen,
numb
si e nim an 409
fri|) niman 409
nimen 341, . . n im a n , numb
nln(e) 327, 53 8 , . . n i on
nineteen 53 8, . . n i o nt!ene,
nfntene
nin ety 538, . . h un dn i o n t i ,
nin ty
nln tene 327, . .
n i o n t!e n e ,
nineteen
nlnth (e) 3 28, 53 8, . . n i o|)a
n in ty 327, . . hundni o n t i ,
nin ety
nis 151, 353
no 316, 491
noble 253
nobody 534
noht 196, . . n a w i h t , n a h t, not
nolde 150
none 508, 534, . . nan , noon
noon 321, . . nan, none
N orm an 231
n o r ^ e w e a r d u m 64
N o r ^ h y m b r e 97
N orwich 508, 509
nosu 98
not 407, . . n a w ih t, n a h t, noht
note 471
nothing 5 08 , 534
notion 440

3
3
3

122

122

3
3

3
3

N o t t in g h a m 521
nought 407, . . n aw ih t, noht
noun 297, 481
now 244, 598, . . nu
nu 49, 162, 186, . . now
numb 510, 553, . . n im an , nimen
nute 290, . . hnutu
nylle 150
n yste 151
0 587
oak 503, . . 2c
obedient 459
o bserv e 509
Occident 4 59, 511
ocean 44 0, 5 1 4
ofdune 64
of 169, 312, 316, 332, 509, 579, 584
ofer 169, 20 2, . . pver
off 509, 582, . . of
offence 297
ofost 55
ofslean 78
oft 16 2, . . often
often 51 0 , . . oft
ofteon 78
oh 37 5, 585
pld 278, 303, 324, 376,
536, 605,
. . eald
on 20 2 , 335, 360, 372
pn 327, 329, 484, . . an, one
on behalf of 606
onbindan 78
once 508, . . anes
ondraedan 78,
131,
172,
. .
dr^den
ondswaru 94, . . answer I
one_508, 538, . . an, pn
onfon 78, 261
on innan 6 4 , 131, 24 3, . . begin(nen)
onlucan 78
only 583, . . aenlic
ontynan 55
or 411, . . ah w ae^er, ojjjje
order 596
o rient 459, 511
o rn a m e n t 25 3
osi er 51 5
oth er 500, . . 60er
60 er 62, 123, . . other
olptiaet 21 9
o p p e 209, . . or
ought 560, 597, . . , pwen
our 315, . . ure, we
ourself 319
out 243, 277, 372, 453, 582, 598
over 243, 289, 372, . . ofer
1 pwe(n) 352, 560, . . ,
ought

408

II

wen 293, 352, . . ;


owe(n) I
owh 375
oxa 249, . . ox(e)
o x(e ) 254, 311, 525, 526, 60 5, . .
ox a
O xenaford 79
ox ygen 467
pail 491
p a in te r 253
pale 491
palm 492, 5 0 7 ,5 9 8
palsy 477
p am p as 465
pant 495
parfit 301, . . p erfe c t
P a r i s ia n 515
parson 478
p a r t ia l 514
p a rtrid g e 509
pas 466
pass 449, 450, 492
passage 492
passenger 492
passion 522
past 492, 598
pastu re 492
path 14, 311, 445, 449, 492, 525, cm.
. pae{)
p a tien ce 504
p a ti e n t 459, 5 11 , 514
paejj 91, . . path
pauper 461
pavan 4 58
p a v e m en t 447
paw 494
peasa nt 511
peninsula 514
pension 514
people 296
pepper 82
percen 347
perch ance 581
perfect 461, 478, 497, . . p a r f i t
p e rfe c tly 478
perhaps 521, 581
p erm it 459
pers ecu te 45 9, 596
person 478
peruse 519
p e ti ti o n 471
pew 296
p heasan t 511
phenomenon 505
philoso phy 470
phthisi s 523
physics 470
pick a n in n y 447
pick en 286

409

piece 256
pig 254
pigeon 455
p ila ste r 492
pitch en 286
p la ce 253
pla in 491
p la n e 491
plant 495
p la s t i c 492
plead 489
ple asu re 253
plough 294
plumb 510
p lu ral 519
point 299, 471
poise 299
poison 461
p olice 4 6 6, 489
p o l i t i c a n 514
p ollu te 459
pooh 587
pool 16
poor 461
p op ulatio n 514
pork 254
p ort 449
P o r ts m o u t h 82
position 256
possess 509
postm an 447, 510
pot 445
p o t a t o 465
potion 461
pound 511
power 48 8
pray 253
p ra y e r 255
preci si on 515
pre clud e 459
present 260
presenten 260
p re su m a b ly 581
presu me 515
presu ppose 596
p rin ce 253
princess 263
p ro b a tio n 4 73
produce 4 59
p ro fita b le 326
p ro g ram m e 445
progress 470
pro lo gue 445
p ro m enade 489
proposal 263
pro secu te 459, 461
proven 403
psalm 492
psy ch ology 445
pudding 501

p u ll 501
p u l l e y 501
p u l m o n a r y 501
pu lp 501
p u l p i t 501
p u ls e 501
puma 465
p u n i s h e n 347
pure 607
purpose 504
p u r s u e 461
pu sh 501
pu ss 501
p u t 50 1, 5 5 9
pu t up 5 8 2
quack 498
quad ran gle 498
quaff 498
q uagm ire 498
q u a lify 498
q u a lity 498
qualm 498
q u an d ary 498
q u a r a n tin e 466
quarrel 498
q u a r re lso m e 464
q u arry 498
q u a rte r 498
q u e e n 25 3 , . . c w e n
q u e e r 6 07
q u e l l e n 2 43, . . c w e l l a n
qu estion 473, 516
q u itte n 347
q u o t h 55 3 , . . c w e j j a n
rabbi 244
rS c(e)an
137,
.
.
reach
rad 5 0 , . . rqd, r o a d
raedan 131, . . rq d e n ,
raeden 75
r a e d i n 3 75
r a d i u s 461
ragged 474
ranch 447
r a i l l e r y 4 65
R a l p h 4 95
ra n d o m 461
rant 495
ra era n 138
rasp 492
r a th e r 492
ra tio 461, 514
r a t t l e 605
r a v i n e 466
r a w a n 131
ra y 461
reach
550,
558, .
rq(c)chen

rq(c)chen,

re a d

ra e c( e )a n ,

re a ctio n 470
r e a d 4 8 9 , 5 0 2 , . . ra e d an , rq d e n
r e a d a b l e 2 6 3 , 464
ready 273
r e a f ia n 75
r e a l m 5 07
r e a s o n 461
r e c c ( e ) a n 2 2 , . . r e c c h e n , r e c k
r e c c e le a s 76
r e c c h e n 2 8 5 , 3 4 5 , . . r e c c ( e ) a n ,
reck
rq(c)chen
285,
294,
345,
.
.
raec(e)an, re a ch
r e c e d 91
r e c e i v e 4 8 1 , 4 8 2 , . . r e c e v e ( n )
r e c e v e ( n ) 261, . . r e c e iv e
reck 550, 558,
.
.
recc(e)an,
recchen
re d 4 8 9
re dden 35
r e d e m p t i o n 461
r q d e n 3 4 1 , . . raedan, r e a d
redynesse 248
re ek 551, . . r e o c a n
refu sal 263
re g im e n t 253
re in 293
relief 243
re lig io n 253
re lu c ta n t 459
rem em ber 597
r e m n a n t 504
r e n d ( e n ) 3 4 3 , 511
renegad e 458
rennen c m . runnen
renow n 297
r e o c a n 172, . . r e e k
r e o f l a c 75
r e p e n ta n c e 263
reprim and 466
re p ro d u c e 459
re p u b lic 470
re sem b le(n ) 297, 509
re so lv e 507
re sp le n d e n t 459
r e s p o n s ib le 607
r e s t 4 7 1 , . . r e s t a n
r e s t a n 136, . . r e s t
re s ta u r a n t 466
resu m e 515
return 504
r e v o lu t io n 514, 519
r i c e 92, 409
r i c h e s 2 8 9 ( 1)
rid 559, . . rid d en _
r l d a n 5 0 , 131, . . rTde (n)
r i d d e n 3 4 6 , . . rid
r l d e ( n ) 2 4 4 , 3 3 9 , 4 9 1 , 5 4 3 , 5 4 7 , . .
r'ldan
r i d e n d 103

4 10

sawol 94, 172


say(en) 2 8 7, 3 4 2 ,

ridge 287, . .
ridicule 466
rle 293
right 243, . . riht
rig hteo us 516
riht 70, . . right
rinc 84
ring 290, . . h r i n
ringen 344
rin glet 263
rlsan 50, 138, 148, , . rise
rise 481, 543, . . rlsan
rive 553
river 253, 261
riv u le t 458
road 491, 598, . . rad , rd
ro ast 253
r o c k 449, 450, 451 _
rpd 274, . . rad, road
roe 491
rood 496
roof 525
room 489, 496
rough 499, 506
round 297
route 489
row 491, . . rowan
rowan, 131, . . row
royal 25 3
rude 519
rue(n) 296, 551
rugged 474
rule 519
run 605, . . iernan, runnen
r u n n e n 341, 346, . . i e r n a n , r u n
rush 295
Rus sia 514
ru stle 510
ru th 296

4 8 6 , 503, .

sec3an
scan t 495
scan ty 495
scarf 525
scate re n 286
sc (e)acan 4 9 , 5 3 , 1 3 1 , . . shake(n)
sc( e)ad an 131, 172, . shed(en)
sceadu 96 , . . shadow, shade
sceam u 94
sceaw ian 141, . . show
sceld 6 9 , . . sheld
sceort 5 3 , . . sh ort
sce o tan 131, . . shoot
sceOOan 133, 139
s c i e p p a n 6 2 , 7 5 , 133, . . shape(n)
sclnan 131, . . shlne(n)
s cln la c 75
scip 6 1 , 8 7 , 9 1 , 103, . . ship
sc reche n 286
scr lfan 131, . . shrive
scrift 82
scrud
scufan 133 , . . sh ouven, shove
sculan 5 3 , 148, 154, 161, 2 1 4 , c m .
. sha ( ), should
s$ 2 7 5 , . . s , sea
se 107, 109, 112, 172, 2 1 5 , 2 1 6 , 606,
. . Jje, the, th a t , she
sea 4 8 2 , 4 8 6 , 502, . . s $ , s
se a ltan 131, . . salt
searu 56, 93
seat 502
S e a x e 97
sec(e)an 6 2 , 137,
. . s^ken,
seek II
se c 8 4 , 8 7 , 95
sec an 2 2 , 5 1 , 6 2 , 142, 146, 153,
288, . . say(en)
second 328, 538
se cu re 461
sed 376
see 446, 481, 482, 486, 554, 600, 605,
. . seon, sen
I seek, cm. sek
II seek 598, . . sec( e)an , ^ k e n
seem 4 7 4 , 597
seethe 551, 552, . . seodan
seggen c m . say(en)
seize 4 8 1 , 482
seil 2 9 3 , . . sail
se ilea 109
sek 2 81, . . seoc, sick
s^ken 2 4 3 , 2 8 5 , 2 8 6 , 3 4 5 , 5 5 0 , c m .
. s e c(e )a n , seek H
selest
, . . od
self 105, 319
sellan 2 2 , 5 5 , 137, . sellen
sellen 2 4 8 , 3 4 5 , . . sellan

100

11

3
3

sae 5 8 , 7 0 , 9 7 , . . s$, sea

sail 4 9 1 , . . seil
sailo r 600
sa in t 253
sale 491
salmon 525
salt 5 5 1 , . . se a lta n
s a l u t e 519
sa lv e 495
same 321
sa m o v a r 467
sam ple 495
sa n ction 471
sand 70
sane 481
saraban d 458
Saternesdae 79
sau sage 496
sawan 131, . . so w
sawe 2 93

121

4 11

121

selra
, . . od
selver 28 2, . . seolfor
sen 2 7 8 , 3 4 1 , 4 0 2 , 4 0 3 , . .
seon, see
senc(e)an 138
sendan 55, 136, . . send(en)
send(en) 3 4 3 , 5 9 7 , . . sendan
sen ean 49, . . singe(n)
senior 459, 461
sennight 526
sense 297
sentence 253
seo 107, . . se, she
seoc 2 49, . . sek, sick
seofon 56, 122, 2 8 8 , . . seven
seofonfeald 76
seolfor 56, 2 8 8 , . . selver
seolh 5 2 , 91
seon 5 2 , 5 8 , 6 9 , 133, 145, 153, 194,
. . sen, see
se odan 131, 249, . . se e th e
s e p a ra t e 4 5 9 , 461
serenad e 466
se rgeant 478
sermon 253
se r v a n t 478
serve(n ) 2 6 1 , 497
se r v ice 429
session 514
set 5 5 9 , . . s e t t a n
se tt an 2 2 , 5 5 , 139, . . set
sef>e 11 2 , 2 1 5 , 216
seven 2 8 0 , 3 2 7 , 5 38, . . seofon
seventeen 5 3 8 , . . sio fo n t le n e ,
seventen e
seventene 3 2 7 , . . siofont ene,
seventeen
se venth (e ) 3 2 8 , 538, . . siofofja
se v e nty 3 2 7 , 5 3 8 , . . hundsiofo nti
sever 461
sew(en) 557
shade 2 7 2 , . . sceadu
shadow 2 7 2 , . . sceadu
shake(n) 2 8 3 , 339, 4 9 6 , 5 4 3 , 5 4 6 ,
. . sc(e)acan
sh al(l) 2 43 , 2 8 3 , 2 8 6 , 3 5 2, 3 6 1 , 445,
5 6 0 , 6 0 5 , . . sc u la n , should
shape(n) 3 4 1 , 5 5 1 , . . scieppan
shater en 286
sh ave 5 5 1 , 553
she 3 1 4 , 3 7 6 , 4 9 7 , 5 9 2 , . . seo
shear 553
sheath 489
shed(en) 559, . . scead an
sheep 2 5 4 , 5 2 5 , 5 2 6 , 6 0 5 , . .
shep
sheld 3 0 3 , 3 7 6 , . . sceld
sh e ld e n 303
s h e ll 508

shenden 343
shep 3 1 1 , . . sheep
sh epherd 2 5 3 , 521
shepherdess 263
sherry 458
shlne(n) 2 8 6 , 4 7 4 , 4 9 6 , 5 4 3 , 544,
5 4 6 , . . sclnan
ship 24 3, 2 8 6 , . . scip
shirt 286
sho(e) 3 1 1 , 429
shoem aker 253
shoot 543, . . sc e o tan
shop 447
short 60 7 , . . sceort
should 5 0 7 , 5 6 0 , 5 7 1 , 5 7 3 , . .
scu la n , sh al(l)
shouven 3 4 1 , . . scufan, shove
shove 551, . . scufan,
shouven
show 5 5 7 , . . sceaw ian
shreken 286
shriv e 82, . . scrlfan
shut 559
sibb 7 6 , 95
s i b b rS d e n 75
sibbsum 76
slcan 131
sick 4 4 7 , 4 8 9 , . . seoc, sek
side 481
sidewalk 447
siege 253
siex 6 9 , 122, . . six
sie x ta 123, . s i x t e , sixth
siexteoda 123
si e x tl e n e
, . . s ixte n e, six
teen
siexti
, . . six ty
s i e x t i o a 123
sife 97
si e 97, 409
si kerly 3 7 1 , 388
sim p le 297
simply 583
sin 106
sincan 131, 138
since 3 7 0 , 5 8 6 , . . s i ^ a n
sincan 42 , 5 1 , 7 0 , 131, 172, .
sing(en)
sing(en) 4 2 ,
277,
339, 5 43,
547,
. . sin an
singe(n) 61, 2 8 7 , . . se n (e)an
sinnan 131
sinne 288, 3 7 6 , . . synn
siofonteoda 123
siofontlene
, . . seventene,
sev enteen
si ofo ^a 123, . . seventh(e)
sir 4 6 1 , 497
sister 2 5 0 , 2 5 1 , 3 1 1 , . . sweostor
slthe 293

122

3 122
35

122

412

si ttan 70, 133, 2 4 9 , . . sit(ten )


sit(ten ) 3 4 1 ,
376, 430,
4 7 4,
543,
5 4 4 , 5 4 6 , 6 0 5 , . . s i tt a n
sijjjjan 2 1 9 , . . since
six 3 2 7 , 5 3 8 , . . siex
si xte 3 2 8 , . . s i e x t a , si x th
si x te n e 3 2 7, . . s i e x tlen e , s i x
teen
si xte en 5 3 8 , . . s i e x tl e n e , s i x
tene
six th 5 3 8 , . . s i e x t a , six te
s i x ty 327, 5 3 8 , . . s i e x t i 3
sk irt 286
sky 25 0
slaepan 6 9 , 131 , 17 2, . . slqp en,
sleep
slaepleas
sla y 545,
slean 5 8 ,
sleep 16,
sl^pen
slqn 3 3 9 ,

76
. . sl<jn, slean
133, . . slqn, slay
4 8 1 , 5 5 1 , . . slaepan,
341,

. sl ean,

slay

sl^pen 2 7 5 , 3 4 1 , . . slaepan,
sleep
slidan 131
slingen 34 6
slit 551, 5 5 9 , . . slita n
sl lta n 131, . . slit
slough 506
slow 244, 503
sluice 519
slup an 133
sm a rt 551
sm ea (e)an 142
smear 502
smell 471
sm ite 543
sm ith 25 3
smpken 272
snaw 93, . . snpw
sn l^ a n 129
S n o tin aham 79
snw 2 4 4 , 2 7 4 , 503, . . snaw
sg 42 3, 600 , . . swa
social 5 14
so cialism 470
soft 450
softe 6 2 , 165
soften 510
soldier 517
sole 491
solemn 510

som(e) 2 4 3 , 32 1, 4 9 9 , 5 3 4 , . .
sum
so mebody 534
something 534
sona 162, . . soon
son(e) 4 2 , 2 4 3 , 2 7 7 , 2 8 4 , 3 0 5 , 4 9 9 ,
. sunu

song 409
soon 6 0 0 , . . sona
soot 496
soi
5 1 , 9 4 , . . sorrow
sor full 76

*3
3

sorrow 4 7 5 , 5 0 5 , . . so r
sorr y 496
so3 249
sofjlice 167
soul 491
sound 2 9 7 , 511
soup 489

S outhw ark 50 8
so vie t 468
sow 5 5 3 , . . saw an
span 551, . . sponnan
sp ark le 605
speak 134, 4 8 1 , 5 4 6 , 598, . .
sp recan, spoken
spear 502, . . spere
speche 376
special 366
sp e c ia l l y 3 66
species 514
spoken 2 7 2 , 3 3 9 , 3 4 0 , . . sp r e
ca n , speak
sp ellen 343
spend(en) 3 4 3 , 511
spere 9 7 , . . spear
spew 551
sp illen 347
spin 5 4 3 , 5 4 7 , . . sp in nan
spinnan 13 1 , . . spin
sp in nestre 75
sp it 545
sp lit 559
spoilen 347
sponnan 131, . . span
s p o r e t ta n 77
spowan 131
spread 4 8 9 , . . sp re den
sp recan 4 9 , 131, . . spoken,
sp eak
spreden 5 5 9 , . . sp read
spre n (e)an 138
sp rig h tly 506
s p rin an 131, 138
s p ri te 5 06
sp urnan 133
sputnik 4 68
sp y rian 139
squash 49 8
squaw 447
staff 525
st a n 4 9 , 7 6 , 9 1 , 2 4 9 , 3 7 6 , . .
stn(e)
stand an 6 2 ,
133,
249,
.
.
stan d (e n )

413

stand(en) 18, 3 4 1 , 430, 4 9 6, 5 4 4 ,


5 4 6 , 6 0 5 , . . standan
stonden in g r a c e 409
st S n e n 76
s t S n i h t e 76
staeppan, c m . steppan
s t a r 478, . . ste o rr a , st e rr e
s ta rv e 4 7 8 , 551, . . steorf an ,
sterv en
s t a tio n 454
s t a tu e 516
s t a v e 525
steal 5 4 3 , . . st elan, stolen
stede 103
steep 488
steer 488
stefn 62
s t e l a n 49, 129, 2 4 9 , . . s t o l e n ,
steal

stolen 2 7 2 , 3 3 9 , . . s t e la n , steal
stem n c m . stefn
steorf an 7 0, 129, 130, . . s t e r
ven, s t a rv e
steo rra 99, . . s terre, star
step(en) 3 4 1 , 5 51 , . . steppan
st epp an 2 2 , 133, . . step(en)
stern 478
st e rr e 2 8 0, . . steo rra , sta r
sterv en 2 8 0 , . . st e o rfa n, starv e
s t ic ia n 141, . . stic k
st ic k 55 5 , 5 5 6 , . . s t ic ia n
stlen 2 93 , . . s t ^ a n
stiffen 35
s t l an 131, 172, . . stlen
stin g 5 5 5 , 5 5 6 , . . st in an
stin sa n 131, . . sting
stir en 3 42 , . . sty ria n
st ock 454
st o ck-ho lder 454
st o ck-ho u se 454
stpn(e) 2 7 4 , 28 4 , 3 0 6 , 3 07 , 3 1 0 , 311,
4 49 , 4 7 5 , 5 0 3 , 5 9 8 , . . st a n
stop 449, 4 5 0, 4 5 1 , 474
store 447
strae dan 172
s t r a i g h t 550 , 5 88
s t r a i t 461
stran g e
, 4 9 5, 510
straet 6 9 , . . street
S tr a tf o r d 82
s t re a k 502
stre a m le t 263
stre cc h en 2 8 5 , 34 5 , . . stre tch
stre et 8 2 , . . street
s t r e dan 133
strq m 279
strenger 3 24 , . . s t re n ra
s t r e n ra
, . s t r o n
st r e n u 75
s t r e t c h 550, 558,
. . s t r e c c h e n

461

3
3

121

3
3

strew 557
s t r i c t 461
strld an 131
st rike 4 8 4 , 544
striv e n 347
st ro n g 3 2 4 , . . stro n s
s t r o n 7 5 , 121
student 516
stum p 499
s t y ri a n 136, 146, . . stiren
su bw ay 447
su cco tas h 447
such 2 8 5 , 2 95 , 3 2 1 , 5 3 4 , . .
sw ilc
suck 551
suffre 403
sugar 514
I suit 2 7 6 , 514
II suit 514
su ite 466
sulh
sum
,
, . som(e)
sum or 98
sun 4 9 9 , . . sunne
Sunnandae 79
sunne 99 , . . sun
sunu 2 4 , 42, 8 7 , 9 8 , 103, 2 4 9 , 305 ,
. . son(e)
supan 133, 172
s uperio r 459
supper 253
sure 4 6 1 , 514
su rely 581
sustain 473
su sta in a loss 473
s u th ern e 271
swa 162, 2 1 6 , 2 2 3 , 2 2 6 , . . sp
sw agger 498
I swallow 498
II sw allow 5 5 1 , . . sw el an
swamp 498
swan 498
sw art 498
swa jlaet 170
swajiu 94
sw ear 5 0 2 , . . s w erian, sworen
sweat 489
swebban
sw eets 44 7 , 454
swefan 131, 138
swelsan 131, . . swallow
swell 5 5 1 , . . swellan
swellan 131, . . swell
sw eltan 131
sw eostor 9 0 , 101, . . sister
sworen 3 4 1 , . . sw erian, swear
sw erian 133, 2 8 8 , . . sworen,
swear
sw ete 117
sweQOan 139

100
110 122
3

22

4 14

swice 118
swilc 109, . . such
sw im m an 131
swindan 131
swln(e) 3 1 1 , 52 5 , 605
swindan 131, 172
sword 508
sy n ch ro p h a so tro n 468
synn 3 1 0, . . sinne
synnfull 76
s y n t a x 505
table 4 7 4 , 485
taec(e)an 137, . . tqchen
t acen 91
tail 491
ta ilo r 253
take(n) 25 0 , 2 9 1, 3 4 6 , 4 4 6, 4 8 1 , 496,
5 4 3 , 5 4 6 , 547
take ca re and hede 409
take ensaum ple 409
take no keep 409
take leave 473
take note 473
take to heart 473
take w ay 409
tale 2 7 2 , 4 9 1 , . . talu
talk 4 9 3 , 4 9 4, 507
t a lk a tiv e 464
tall 49 3, 494
talu 103, . . tale
ta p ir 465
tar 478
taun t 495
ta xi 2 4 4
I tear 502
II tear 5 0 2 , 5 4 3 , 5 4 6 , 5 5 5 , 5 56 , c m .
. teran
t ^ c h e n 2 4 3 , 2 8 5, 3 4 5 , 3 7 6 , . .
taec(e)an
tedious 517
te le graph 467
telephone 467
tellan 2 2 , 5 5 , 1 2 0 , 137, 146, . .
tellen
tellen 2 7 7 , 27 8 , 2 8 4 , 3 4 5 , 3 76 , 414 ,
. . te llan
temrnan 139
tempest 297
ten 16, 3 2 7, 5 3 8 , . . tlen
tend 511
tender 473
tense 607
tenth(e) 3 2 8 , 5 3 8 , . . t e o f a
I teon 133
II teon 5 8, 6 2, 133
t e o ^ a 123, . ten th (e), tith e
t eran 7 0, 131, . . tear
than 42 3 , . . o n n e
tharf 3 5 2 , 5 60 . . Ourfan

th at 317, 320,
415, 420, 422, 509,
5 3 2 , 5 8 6 , 5 9 0 , 5 9 2 , . . s e , fj e
t h a t i l k e 3 2 1 , 53 4 , . . se il ea
t h e 5 0 9 , . . s e , |
t h e a t r e 445
th e ir 25 0 , 31 5 , 376
t h e m s e l v e s 3 19
t h e n 4 2 9 , 5 0 9 , . . J j o n n e
t h e n c e 3 7 0 , . . Jlon an
t h e n k e n 2 8 5 , 3 4 5 , . . O e n c (e ) a n
t h e r e 1 9 2 , 4 1 7 , 5 0 9 , . . ]jaer
t h e r e a s 4 1 7 , . . jlaer
th ey 250, 314, 376, 592
t h i e f 2 4 3 , . . t l e o f
th igh 293
t h l n ( e ) 3 1 5 , 5 3 0 , . .
t h i n g 311
th in k (e n ) 285, 345,
414, 433,
5 9 7 , . . 0 y n c ( e ) a n
th ird (e) 328, 538,
th irst 497
t h i r t e e n 5 3 8 , .
tene

550,

. "brid da

. Jln otlen e,

thir-

th irten e
32 7 ,
.
.
jjr io tle n e ,
th irteen
t h i r t y 3 2 7 , 5 3 8 , . . f a l t i x
th is 243, 317, 5 0 9 , 532,
590, 592,
. . J) es
t h i t h e r 5 1 2 , . . Jjid er
t h o g h 3 7 4 , . . t h o u g h
th ou 2 4 4 ,

3 1 4 , 5 2 9 , 5 4 2 , 6 0 0 , .

fa
th o ug h 25 0 , 422, 445, 5 0 6 , 50 9 , cm .
. thogh
t h o u s a n d 3 2 7 , 5 3 8 , . . jj u s e n d
th o u san d th 538
thread 489
th r e a t 489
th re a te n 489
t h r e ( e ) 16, 2 4 3 , 3 2 7 , 5 3 8 , . .
fa ie
t h r e s h ( e n ) 3 4 1 , 5 5 1 , . . O ersc a n
th ric e 370
th r if tily 366
th rifty 366
t h r l v e ( n ) 3 4 6 , 5 53
t h r o u g h 4 4 5 , 5 0 6 , . . j j u r h
th ro w 5 1 9 , 557
th ru sh 295
th ru s t(e n ) 559
th u m b 510
th y se lf 319
t l e n 1 2 2 , . . te n
t i 3 ol 9 4 , . . t i l e
t i l e 2 9 3 , . . t i j o l
t l m a 2 4 9 , . . t i m e
tim e 277,
481, 486, 488,
. .
tim a
tire 488

4 15

tissue 514
t i t h e 328 ( 1) . . teoa
Tiw esd
79
to 169, 193, 202, 312, 331, 351, 398,
3 99, 400, 401
t 311
t o b a cco 465
tobre can 78
toft 250
to g e th e r 512
tolerab le 2 63
tomb 510
tool 481
tooth 525, 60 5, . . to]), toth
torn ad o 458
toss 496
toteran 78
toth 277, 310 , . . to]), tooth
to]) 100, . . toth, tooth
tough 499, 506
towar d(s) 508
town 277, 450, . . ta n
toy 299
t r a d it io n 461
t r a i t 466
tra n sp a ren t 459
tread 489, . . t re d a n , tr^den
tre aso n 461
tre asu re 515
tr e a t m e n t 263
tred a n 129, . . tr^ d e n , tread
tr^den 340, . . tred a n, tread
tre o sa n 131
treo (w) 93, 249
t re o w 55, 75, cm. tru e
t re o w ]) 75, . . truth
trewe cm. true
tro ub le 2 4 3 , 499
tro ugh 2 9 4 , 506
tro u s sea u 466
t ro u t 5 2 5 , 526
T r o u t b e c k 250
tru e 296, 322 , . . tre o w
t ru s t 596
t ru ste e 263
t r u t h 29 6, 525 , . . treow ])
t ry m m a n 139
tfln 55 , . . town
tune 449 , 450, 451, 516, 519

$3

t u n 3 e 7 0 , 8 7 , . . t u n g e

tunge 3 0 6 , 307, 310, . . t u n e


tu n 3 o l 91
t u r f 100
t u r n 449, 451
tw a n g 498
t w e en 122, . . tweien, two
tw e ie n 327, . . tw e en, two
twelf 122, . . twelve
tw elfta 123, . . twelfth
twelfth 3 28 , 538, . . twelfta

tw elve 327, 538, . . twelf


tw elvem on th 526
t w e n t i 122, . . twenty
twenti3o9a 123
tw en ty 327, 538, . . t w en ti
tw ice 370
two 16, 327, 508, 538, . . twe3en
t y r a n t 511

])a 162, 170, 186, 219, 374


] ) r 162, 186, 192, 216, 220, . .
there
])<et, cm. se
fcaet(te) 170, 213, 214, 222, 223, 438,
. . that
I ])e 317, . . se, the, that
II ])e 112, 203, 215, 216, 438
)ea h(])e) 170, 225, 250, 374
)aw 93
) 84
)e3nian 261
denc(e)an 62, 137, . . thenken
)enden 219
)eo, cm. ])e
)eod 55
)eof 75, . . thief
deon 58, 133
deow 93
derscan 133, . . thresh(en)
])es 107, . . this
d ic (e)an 139
])ider 162, . . thith er
])ief]) 75
] 105, 106, . . thin(e)
])onan 162, . . thence
] ) onne 162, 170, 186, 219, 226, 374, cm.
. th a n , then
]) 94
]) () 142
I r e n e s 75, 82
d reoteoda 123
])rid da 63, 123, cm. third(e)
] ) n e 122, . . thre(e)
drlefeald 76
] )r!otIe n e 122, . . th irte n e , t h i r
teen
Drlti 122, . . th irty
' i tt i 123
irowere 75
)0 105, . . thou
)unresd ae 79
durfan 148, . . tharf
])urh 169, . through

])us 186

416

a s e n d 122, . . thousand
dwean 58, 133
] l s s ( e ) 222
9 y n c( e ) a n 137, . . th in k (en )
udarnik 468
u m b re lla 458
unb e arab le 263
uncer 105, 106
uncu)j 78
undaed 78
under 169
underfon 64
underground 447
u n d ern ea th 489, . . u n dernethe
u n d er n eth e 373, . . un derneath
u n d e rstand able 263
u nd ervalu e 464
universal 478
u n ive rsity 478
unnan 148, . . an
unnen c m . an
up 168, 372, 582
are 105, 106, . . our
useful 464, 607
useless 464
usen 244
Usk 83
usual 515
Qtan 169

v a c a t e 459
vain 301
v ale 491
v alue 301, 430
v a lv e 495, 507
vase 489
v ast 492
v au lt 523
veal 254
veil 491
v e lv e t 430
v engeaunce 301
v erd ure 517
v e rily 581
v erm in 478
v e rr a y 301
verst 467
v ery 243
vey ne 301
via ge 267
v ic e 301
v ic io u s 514
v ic to r y 253
v ic tu a ls 461
v il l a g e 504
v io lin 458
v ir tu e 301, 516

vocal 461
v o lca n o 458
vowel 461
v o yage 267
w a 171, . . wo
waecnan 133, . . wake
w adan 131, . . wade
w add y 454
w ade 551, . . wadan
w aft 498
w ag 498
w ait(e n ) 257, 600
wake 544, 551, 55 3, . . waecnan
W a l a s 76
w alk 493, 494, 507
w alk (e n ) 341, 47 1, 47 4, 551, . .
w ealc an
wall 82
w altz 467
wand 498
wander 498
wanhal 78
w ant(e n) 346, 474, 550, 60 0
w an to n 498
w ar 253, 25 7, 478, 498
w ard 498
w arm 498
w a rn 498
w arp 498, 551, . . weorpan
w a rr a n t 498
W a r w i c k 498
w ascan 49, 63, 131, . . wash
wash 474 , 498, 551, . . w ascan
wasp 498
w aste 473
w atch 427 , 451, 474, 498
waeter 49, . . w ate r
w a t e r 427, 451, 49 8, . . waeter
I w ax 498
II w a x 49 8, 551
w a y 491, . . wey
w e 62, 105, 314, 592
weaken 35
w e a lc a n 131, . . w alk (en)
w eald 98
w eald an 131, . . W ld(en)
wealdend 75
w ealh 103
w ear 502, 555, 556, . . werian,
w<jren
w eath er 5 12 , 521
w eav e
50 8,
55 3, . .
wefan,
w^ven
web 5 0 8
w e c 92 , . . wedge
w ec (e)an 139
wedge 61, . . w ec
w e d la c 75
W ednesd ae
79, . . W ednesd ay

3
3

417

W ednesd ay 510, . . Wednesdae


weep 551, . . wepan, wepen
wefan 131, 340, . . w^ven, weave
weigh 551
weke 272
wel(l) 166, 368
welawey 375
W e lisc 76
w e ll 508
w e ll-a -d a y 587
wendan 139, . . wend(en)
wend(en) 343, 353, 563 ( 1), .
w endan, gpn
wennan 139
w eorpan 131, . . warp
weordan 49, 60, 129, 130, 160, 178,
249, 363
weordian 141
w eorjiscipe 75
wepan 55, 131, . . wepen , weep
wepen 339, 341, . . w epan, weep
w^ren 272, . . w erian, wear
w erian 139, . . w ^re n , wear
werken 285, 345, . . w yrc(e )an ,
work
werse 325, 368, . . evil, ev ile,
w ie rs(a ), worse
werst 325, 368, . . evil, ev ile,
wier(e)st
wesan 131, 149, 151, 159, 160, 178, c m .
. beon, ben, be
W e stm in s te r 430
WQven 340, . . wefan, weave
wey 293, 409, 486, . . way
whack 498
w hale 272
w han 374, 416, . . hw onne, when
w h ar f 498, 525
w hat 318, 433, 533, . . hwaet
when 429, 586, . . hwonne, whan
whence 370, . . hwonan
where 417, . . h w r
whereas 417, . . h w S r
whether 521, . . hwaejjer
which 285, 320, 4 3 8 , 5 2 1 , 5 3 3 , . .
hwilc
whils t 511
w histle 510
W h i t b y 250
w h ith e r 512, . . hwider
who 318, 320, 4 3 8 , 4 8 4 , 508, 533, 591,
592, . . hwa
whole 449, 508, 598, . . hal
whom 533, . . who
whos(e) 318, 508, 533
why 318, . . hwaet
whyl 416
wicked 474
wid-cud 79
w id e 162, 164

wide 607
wier(e)st 121, 165, . . yfel, yfele,
werst
wiers(a) 121, 165, . . yfel, yfele,
werse, worse
w lf(e) 60, 87, 525
wifman 62, 87, 100, . . w om an
wiht 97, 196
wild 59, 273,
wilderness 273
w illa n 150, 151, 154, 161, . .
will(en )
wille 277
will(en) 354, 361, 362, 446, 564, 567,
605, . . w illa n
W in ch ester 82
wind 24, 219, 273, 511
w in dan 131
window 474, 505
wine 82
w in nan 131, . . win (nen)
win(nen) 3 3 9 , 499, 543, 55 5, . .
winnan
win-saed 79
winter 98, 311
wis 249, 263, 271
wisdom 75, 271
wish 504
wish(en) 398, . . wysc(e)an
wit 105
w ita 79, 99
witan 62, 148, 151, . . wit(en)
witch 521
w ite 92, 103
w i t e estre 75
wit(en) 352, 414, 560,
w it e n a j e m o t 79

. witan

w ith 334, 584, . . w i|)


w ith reference to 585
w i]} 169, 312* . . with
wizard 263
wlacu 118
wloh 100
wo 375, . . wa
wplden 376, . . weald an
wolf 501, 525
wom an 430, 525, 526, . . wifman
wondrous 464
wood 409
woof 508
wool 496, . . wulle
wop 55
W o rce s te r 82, 430
word 87, 91, 91 ( 2), 497
work 254, 471, . . w yrc(e)a n ,
werken
work in thought 473
worm 497
worpan 172

418

w o r s e 4 9 7 , . . b a d , w i e r s ( a ) ,
w erse
would
507, 5 6 4 , 571, 573, . .
w illa n , w ill(en )
I w ound 489
II w o u n d 4 8 9
wrae]) 75
w r a e u 75
w r e a th 489
w r e c a n 131, . . w r ^ k e n
w re c ch e 285, . . w r e tc h
w r q k e n 3 t 0 , . . w r e c a n
w r e o n 13 3
w r e t c h 5 2 1 , . . w r e c c h e
w r e d d a n 139
w r l t a n 4 9 , 120, 129 , 144, 2 4 3 , . .
w rlte(n )
w r lte ( n ) 2 4 4 , 277, 339, 475, 521, 543,
547, . . w n t a n
w r i t e r e 75
w r i t h e 551
w r o n g 2 5 0 , 521
w udu 56, 98
w u lle 76, . . wool
w u n d r i a n 141
w y l l e n 4 9 , 76
w y r c ( e ) a n 137, . . w e r k e n , w o r k
w y s c ( e ) a n 6 2 , 139, . . w i s h ( e n )
yard 376

y e 24 3 , 314, 5 2 9 , . . , e o w e r,
y o u , your
yearn 251, . . 3 iernan
y e l d e n 2 8 3 , 3 0 3 , 3 4 1 , . . 3 i e l d a n ,
yield
y e l l o w 5 05
ye lp e n 341, . . 3ielp an
yer 24 3 , 311, . . '
yet 243
yeten, cm . get(en)
yfel 12 1 , . * evil
yfele 166, . . evile
yield 2 5 1 , 5 5 1 , . . 3ieldan, yel

den

y i t e n , cm. g e t ( e n )
y iv e n 251, 301, . . 3ie fa n , g iv e (n )
ym b 202
y o k e 16, . .
yolk 507
yo u 2 4 4 , 5 2 9 , 5 4 2 , 5 9 1 , . . ,
y o u ll 5 0 8
y o u n g 4 9 9 , . .
your 315, . . , ow er,
y o u ie n 315
yours 315, . . ow er
you rself 319
yo u th 5 2 5 , . . ^
yd 95
zoology 470



. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
2 1 / X I 6 6 . . 11 / I V 6 7 .
6 0 x 9 0 7 i e - 2 6 , 2 5 . . .
.- . . 2 6 , 6 8 . . 16 3 . 2 0 0 0 0 .
8 8 . . 1 0 8 3 .
, - 5 1 , . , . 2 9 / 1 4 .

- 5 0 / 1 9 6 / V I 1 6 7 .

. .


, - 5 4 , , 2 8 .