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Typical cross sections of Urban and Rural roads

Cross sectional elements


Sight distances
Horizontal curves, Super elevation, transition
curves, widening at curves
Vertical curves - Gradients,
Special consideration for hill roads - Hairpin
bends
Lateral and vertical clearance at underpasses.

GEOMETRIC DESIGN
Excellent- If it allows the safe, smooth & economic
movements of pedestrians & vehicles.
If defective causes serious problems(Irreparable)
For good geometric design we should concentrate on
Vehicle Parameters (Dimensions)
Terrain categories & design speed
Cross sectional elements of road
Curves (Vertical & horizontal)
Super elevation & Widening at curves
Sight distances
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VEHICLE DIMENSIONS

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VEHICLE PARAMETERS
IRC: 86-1983 & 3-1983

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TERRAIN CLASSIFICATION
IRC: 73-1980

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DESIGN SPEED
IRC: SP: 48-1998
The maximum average safe operating speed of
vehicle

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CROSS SECTIONAL ELEMENTS


IRC: 73-1980

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BOUNDARY LINE
IRC: SP:15-1974
1. Road land boundary
2. Building Line- no construction with in BL
3. Control line control over construction by Govt.
Useful in land acquisition & control
Set Back Distance-IRC: 73-1980
In Plain & rolling terrain 3m to 6m for NH & SH
Other terrains 3m to 5m
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RIGHT OF WAY (OR) ROAD LAND


WIDTH IRC: 73-1980
In build up or rural areas road development or
widening is very difficult and leads to legal
problems and heavy compensation.
Right of way is provided to avoid this problem.

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ROAD WAY IRC: 73-1980


The total width formed by carriage way and
shoulder on both side

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SHOULDER
The paved surface along the sides of CW.
It facilitate overtaking, temporary parking,
waking and emergency halting.
It provides lateral edge support to CW along
the length.

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CARRIAGE WAY IRC:73-1980


It provides a strong, stable & smooth riding
surface.
It is based on traffic volume, design life, lane
capacity, vehicle dimension & clearance
between vehicle and road edge

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CAMBER IRC: 73-1980


The cross slope or slope in traverse direction
from the crown to facilitate quick drain-off of
rain water.

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LONGITUDINAL GRADIENT
The rate of rise or fall of road along its length

It is expressed
In % (Grade %=
1 in N (1 vertical to N horizontal)
Vertical : Horizontal
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TYPES OF GRADIENT
Ruling or design Gradient the maximum
allowable longitudinal slope
Limiting gradient Slightly steeper than Ruling
gradient. Adopted in hilly areas.
Exception Gradient Steeper than LG. adopted
Exceptionally where ground profile frequently
changes its slope (Sudden raise & fall)
Minimum Gradient To drain off rain water in
side drains. 0.5% - lined road. 1.0% - unlined road
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ROAD GRADIENT IRC: 66-1976

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SIGHT DISTANCES
The maximum distance visible to the driver
along the center line of the highway.
It depends upon Characteristics of driver &
vehicle, Super elevation, Horizontal and vertical
curves.
TYPES
Safe- stopping (non passing) sight distance SSD
Overtaking (passing) sight distance OSD
Intersection sight distance ISD
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SAFE- STOPPING SIGHT


DISTANCE SSD

The minimum distance travelled by the vehicle


between the driver perception of an obstruction
and the vehicle stops.

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According to PIEV theory


SSD = Lag Distance LG + Breaking Distance BD
LG Distance travelled by vehicle from perception to
application of brake.
Perception time The time taken by the driver from
perception to application of brake
BD - Distance travelled by vehicle from application of
brake to vehicle stops.
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On plain road

On sloped road

Where
V = Speed of vehicle m/s
F = Coefficient of friction (0.35 0.40 for 100
200kmph)
G = Acceleration due to gravity 9.81m/s2
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OVERTAKING SIGHT DISTANCE


OSD

The minimum distance to overtake a slow moving


vehicle (in same direction) against approaching
traffic in opposite direction.
Speed of overtaking vehicle = Design speed
Speed of overtaken vehicle = DS-16km/h

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INTERSECTION SIGHT
DISTANCE ISD

Sight distance (xz) = v x tg


V = design speed of major road
tg = time (s) required for the vehicle on minor
road to proceed.
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SUPER ELEVATION

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SUPER ELEVATION
If a vehicle is travelling along a horizontal
curve, there is a chance that it may fall either by
overturning or skidding due to centrifugal force.
The centrifugal force depends on radius of
curve, weight and speed of the vehicle.
To counter-act the CF, the outer edge of the of
the carriage way surface is elevated with respect
to inner side. This called SE or cant or banking.
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WIDENING AT CURVES

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PUMP & HUMP

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