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# Unit- fuels & gases

## Various heat terms & their definitions:

Heat: it is a form of energy and can be converted to other forms of energy.
Combustion: it is a phenomenon where a substance (elements such as carbon,
hydrogen, or mixture of elements such as petrol, kerosene, LPG, etc.) combines with
oxygen and reacts producing heat and light.
C (carbon) + O2 (OXYGEN) = CO2 (carbon dioxide) +heat released
Sensible heat: heat which causes a change in temperature in a substance is called
sensible heat.
Calorific value of a fuel: It is defined as the total quantity of heat liberated when
a unit mass of fuel is burnt completely.
For a solid fuel, it is expressed as cal/gm. or Kcal/kg. For a liquid fuel, it is cal/lt or
Kcal/lt. for gaseous fuel; it is cal/cm3 or Kcal/ m3.
Calorie: It is centimeter-gram-second (CGS) unit of heat. It is defined as the heat
required to raise the temperature of 1 gm. of water through 1*c.
[1 CAL = 4.186 JOULES]
Kilocalorie: it is a larger unit of heat. It is defined as the heat required to raise
the temperature of 1kg of water through 1*c.
B.T.U & C.H.U: (refer class notes)
[1 B.T.U. = 252 CAL]
TYPES OF FUELS USED IN CATERING INDUSTRY:
1. SOLID FUEL :
COAL: it is used in boiler to produce steam.
Coal/coke: it is charcoal used in tandoor to make chapattis and kebabs
2. LIQUID FUEL
Kerosene: not widely used but may be used as a supplementary fuel.
High speed diesel: it is used in oil-fired boilers & water-heaters.
3. GASEOUS FUEL
LPG: it is used in most of the cooking ovens.
4. ELECTRICITY
Electric oven, rice cooker, electric toaster for cooking, geyser for heating
water, etc.

LPG & its properties: physical & chemical properties (refer class notes)
Different modes of heat transfer:
Conduction

## convection radiation (theory from class notes)

conduction
It requires a medium to
transmit heat, through
direct contact.

Convection
It requires a medium
to transmit heat
with movement of
medium.

## Relatively slow process

Conduction heat may
travel in curved paths
It warms up the
medium through which
it travels.

It can transmit heat
without help of any
material medium.
Very rapid process

Slower process
Convection heat
also travels in
curved paths.
It also warms up the
intermediate
medium

straight line.
It does not warm up any
medium.

Gas burners: Bunsen burner, parts of burner, high pressure burner, low pressure
burner
(refer class notes)
Safety precautions when using gas equipment:
1. The equipment should be cleaned regularly, as gas contains sulphur , which
corrodes metals
2. Gas cylinders should be placed in upright vertical position and never in
horizontal position.
3. Cylinders & ovens should be placed in well-ventilated spaces.
4. Inflammable material should not be kept near the gas bank.

5. After the work is over, the gas regulating valve and the burner switch are
kept in OFF position.
6. Everyday burner heads should be removed and cleansed with steel wire.

Unit maintenance
Role & importance of maintenance department:
Hotel industry invests a huge sum of money on engineering equipment.
Maintenance department aims at keeping all the engineering facilities in the best
operation conditions. This department has two distinct areas of responsibility:
1. To provide utility services required for proper operation of electricity, hot
water, steam, AC and other services.
2. Responsible for repairing and maintenance of equipment, furniture & fixtures
in the hotel.
Duties & responsibilities of maintenance department:
1. Maintenance of the building.
2. Minimize the maintenance cost.
3. Maintenance of the guest room, furnishing and fixture for overall guest
satisfaction
4. Contribute for the efficient operation of the other departments.
5. Maintenance of equipment & repair.
6. Budgeting & cost control.
7. Minimize the energy cost of the facility.
9. Building & safety operations
10.Training of employees & undertaking special projects.
Organization chart of maintenance department: (refer class notes)
Roles & duties of chief engineer:
The chief engineer is the head of maintenance department. It has following
functions to be performed:
1. Under a Civil engineer: repair & construction of buildings & roads,
maintenance of plumbing &sanitation work, sewage treatment plant, etc.
2. Under a Mechanical engineer: repair, maintenance, & operations of boilers,
diesel generator sets, refrigeration & ACs, swimming pool, pumps, tec.
3. Under an electrical engineer: repair, maintenance & installation of electric
transformers, all electric motors, electric wiring, audio-visual equipment, etc.
4. Maintenance & control of spare parts through stores officer.
5. Purchase of new equipment through tendering, etc.
6. Look after the recruitment, training and proper placement of human power.

## 7. Coordination with other departments of hotel;.

Other managerial functions of chief engineer: (refer class notes)