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COMPRESSIBILITY OF SOIL

ST = Sc + Ss + Se
A. Primary Settlement

Normally Consolidated Clay:


Sc =

; Sc =

()
+

Sc = primary consolidation settlement


Cc = compression index
H = thickness of clay layer
P = ave. increase of effective stress in clay or
overburden pressure
Po = ave. stress in the mid-height of clay layer ,
overburden pressure
eo = in-situ void ratio
Nagaraj and Murthy

= . .

Sc =

Nagaraj and Murthy

log Pc =

. .

eL = (LL/100) Gs

Pc = pre-consolidation pressure
Pc = pre-consolidation pressure in kPa
Po = in situ average overburden pressure

S = HmvP
B.

Secondary Settlement

Ss =

Where:

C.

Ss = secondary consolidation
settlement
C = secondary compression index
T2 = time after completion of primary
settlement
T1 = time for completion of primary
settlement
ep = void ratio at the end of primary
consolidation
Immediate Settlement

Se = (

Se = (

Coefficient of Compressibility

av =

Coefficient of Volume Compressibility



mv =
eave =

(+ ) ( )
+

mv=

Modulus of Volume Compressibility


S = HmvP ; S = total primary consolidation
P = Load/B2
Coefficient of Consolidation

Cv =

) Ip

Cs = shape of foundation rigidity factor


B= width of foundation or diameter of circular
foundation
q = P/B2 (net vertical pressure applied)
= Poissons ratio of soil
ES = modulus of elasticity of soil
Ip = influence factor

Cv = coeff. of consolidation
mv = coeff. of volume compressibility
w = unit weight of water
Time factor

Tv =

U1 = degree of consolidation at time 1


U2 = degree of consolidation at time 2
Over consolidation Ratio (OCR)

OCR =

P = HIc ;
IC = influence coefficient , H = h of tanks,
= unit weight of fluid
SETTLEMENT OF LOADS IN SAND (SPT)
Bazaraa Equation

Smax =

U= degree of consolidation
Sct= settlement of the layer at time t
Sc = ultimate settlement of the layer from primary
consolidation
Degree of consolidation at distance z at
anytime t

U =

Uz = excess pore pressure at time t


Uo = initial excess pore water pressure
Relation of time and degree of consolidation

q = applied pressure in tons/ft2

when dw < B/2 :


XB = PD/PW
Smax =

Pd = effective overburden pressure at depth B/2


below the footings base assuming that the water
tables is not present
Pw = effective overburden pressure at the same
depth with the ground water table present
Burland & Burbridge Equation
1.
When q > Pc

Ny(

q=
2.

..

+ .

. (.)
( ).

For L/B between 1 and >1

S1 = S [

Nq = tan2 (45 + /2) etan


2.

Prandtl Formula

Nc = (Nq-1) cot
3.

Vesic Formula

Ny = 2(Nq+1) tan
Meyerhof Formula

Ny = (Nq-1) tan(1.4)
Allowable Bearing Capacity= qult/ F.S.
Allowable Load , qall =( qult/ F.S.) (A)
B.
Load Shear Failure
(For loose sand and soft clay)

c =2/3c
tan = 2/3 tan

( )+.

4.

When q < Pc with a value of S=16mm

q = 16Q + 0.67PC
5.

When q Pc

6.

Strip footing

qult =cNc + qNq + 1/2 B Ny


Ultimate Bearing Capacity

q = 3(16) Q ; q=bearing pressure

Square footing

corresponding to a max. settlement of approx.


1 inch or 25mm at the end of contruction

Rectangular footing

Q=

qult =1.3cNc + qNq + 0.4 B Ny


qult =cNc ( +

( ).
..

Settlement of Footings (Sand) using Subgrade


Reaction Method

Ny(

S = settlement in meters
q = pressure imposed by the foundation
q = P/B2
P = load supported by the foundation
Kv =modulus of vertical subgrade reaction for
0.3 square meter plate bearing on ground surface
TERZAGHIS BEARING CAPACITY
A.
General Shear Failure
Strip footing

qult =cNc + qNq + 1/2 B Ny


Ultimate Bearing Capacity

Circular footing

.
(+.).

qult =1.3cNc + qNq + 0.3 B Ny

. /

) + qNq + B

Where:
qult = ultimate bearing capacity
c = cohesion of soil
c = q/2
qu = unconfined compressive strength
= unit weight of soil
q = Df
Nc, Nq, Ny = bearing capacity factors that are non
dimensional and are only functions of soil friction
angle
B = dimension of each side of foundation
= angle of internal friction
Bearing Capacity Factor
1.
Ressner Formula

4.

When q < Pc

q=
3.

().

Circular footing

q = P/B2

S=

U=

qult =cNc ( +

()

Hdr= half the thickness of sample if drained both


sides
Hdr= thickness of sample if drained one side only
t= unit weight of water
Degree of consolidation for the entire depth of
clay layer at anytime t

qult =1.3cNc + qNq + 0.4 B Ny


Rectangular footing

Pc = preconsolidation pressure
Po = present effective vertical pressure
Differential Settlement

(+ )

ep = eo - e
e = (

..()

NO = in situ porosity of soil


Swell Index:
1.
Nagaraj and Murthy
.
Cs =

when Po + P > Pc

4.

Nagaraj and Murthy


Cc = 0.2343 (LL/100) GS
Park and Koumoto

Cc =

2.
Cs = 1/5 to 1/10 Cc
Time Rate of Consolidation
Compression Index:

Cc =

Over-consolidated Clay:
when Po + P < Pc

3.

eL = (LL/100) Gs

Sc =

Compression Index:
1.
Skemptous Equation
Cc = 0.009 (LL-10)
LL = liquid limit
2.
Rendon-Herrero
+
Cc = 0.141 GS 1.2 ( ).

) + qNq + B

qult =1.3cNc+ qNq + 0.3 B Ny


Allowable Loads Carried by the Foundation
1.
Gross Allowable Load

=
2.

..

() ; A = B2

Net Allowable Load

..

() ; A = B2

Foundation Pressure

Gross: =
Net: =

Df

Net Soil Pressure: =

Square footing

CEIT-02/ FOUNDATION 2016

Ave. increase in pressure/Ave. Vertical stress


increase

P =

+ +

; Pt,m,b = P/A

P = Ip (net surcharge)
F.S. = W/ Uplift Force
UF = At
Change in stress:

MEYERHOFS BEARING CAPACITY


A.
Vertical Load

qu = cNcScdc + qNqSqdq +
0.5BNSd
B.

Inclined Load

qu = cNcScdc ic+ qNqSqdqiq +


0.5BNSdi
Shape and Depth Factors:
For = 0
Sc = 1 + 0.2 B/L
Sq = S = 1.0
dc = 1 + 0.2 Df/B
dq = d = 1.0
For 10
Sc = 1 + 0.2 Kp (B/L)
Sq = S = 1.0 + 0.1 Kp (B/L)
dc = 1 + 0.2 Df/B
dq = d = 1.0 + 0.1 Df/B
Load Inclination Factors:
ic = iq = (1-/90)2
i = (1- /) 2
where:
k = tan2 (45 + /2)
= angle of resultant measured from vertical axis
HANSENS BEARING CAPACITY

qu = cNcScdc icbcgc+ qNqSqdqiqbqgq+


0.5BNSdibg
Shape Factors:
For failure along base width B:
Sc = 0.2 icb (B/L)
Sq = 1+sin B (iql/L)
S = 1 0.4 (B(ib) / L (il)
For failure along base length L:
Sc = 0.2 icb (L/B)
Sq = 1+sin (L(iql)/B)
S = 1 0.4 (L(il) / B (ib))
Base and Ground Inclination Factors:
bc =

bq = e-2vtan
b = e-2.7vtan
gc =

gq = g = (1-0.5tan)5
where:
v = base of footing inclination
= ground inclination
Depth Factors:
For Df B
dc = 0.4 (Df/B)
dq = 1 + 2tan (1-sin)2(Df/B)
For Df > B
dc = 0.4 arctan (Df/B)

dq = 1 + 2tan (1-sin)2 arctan (Df/B)


d = 1.0
Load Inclination Factors:
For v=0
ic = 0.50 0.50 1 /
iq =[ 1-0.5 H/ V + Ac cot ]5
For v > 0
i = [1-(0.7 - V / 450) H/ ( V + Ac cot )]5
STANDARD PENETRATION TEST

when B 1.22 m.
qall (net) = 19.16 Ncor Fd (Se/25)
when B > 1.22 m.
qall (net) = 11.98 Ncor (

) Fd (Se/25)

where:
qall (net) = net allowable pressure
Ncor = corrected standard penetration test
Fd = depth factor
B = width of footing
Se = tolerable elastic settlement in mm.
Depth Factor:

Fd = 1 +
Correction Factor:

= shearing stress; = normal stress; = angle of


inter. friction

For over consolidated clay


h=
=c + ; c = cohesion of clay
Consolidated-drained test
sin =

= +

= ; OA = + r

=2ctan(45+/2)+ tan2(45+/2)
= tan2(45-/2) - 2ctan(45-/2)

SOIL COMPOSITION:

(Peck)

where:
Cn = correction factor to be applied to number
of blows per ft.
= overburden pressure at the depth observed
when < 24 kPa, equation is not valid
when > 24 kPa, use the correction factor
when = 96 kPa, no correction should be
made
SPT N-value
0-4
4-10
10-30
30-50
Over 50

Relative Density
Very Loose
Loose
Medium
Dense
Very Dense

SPT N-value
<2
2-4
4-8
8-15
15-30
>30

Consistency
Very Soft
Soft
Medium
Stiff
Very Stiff
Hard

CONE PENETRATION TEST METHOD

( ).

Void Ratio: e =
Porosity: n =

Degree of Saturation: S =

Unit Weight: =

=effective soil overburden pressure


qc = resisting force divide by the projected area of
the cone
Pa = one atmosphere ; 100 kPa or 2 ksf
= angle of internal friction
STANDARD PENETRATION TEST METHOD
( ).

[.+. ( )].

Dry Unit Weight: =

or

(+)

Sat. Unit Weight: =

Moist Unit Weight: =

+
(+)
+

(1+)
Effective Unit Weight: =

Liquidity Index: LI =

or = DRY

Consistency Index: CI =
Flow Index: If =

()

ATTERBERG LIMIT:
Plasticity Index: PI = LL PL

Shrinkage Limit: SL =

Moisture Content: =

Toughness Index: CI =

tan = tan-1 (

= 1000 kg/ m3
= 1.94 slugs/ ft3

= 17.6 + (

1 kPa = 0.0104 tons/ft2


1 kg = 2.20462 lbs

D = deviator stress (diam. of semi-circle)


= major principal stress at failure
= chamber confining stress, cell stress, lateral
stress, minor stress
For over consolidated clay (cohesive soil)

Cn = 0.77 log

1 kN = 0.102 tonne
1 psi = 6.89476 kPa
1 kPa = 20.885 psf
water = 9.81kN/m3
water = 62.43 lb/ft3

For normally consolidated clay (non-cohesive soil)

. +
.

N60 = blow count for Standard Penetration Test


resulting from standard 60 blows
SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOIL
For normally consolidated clay, c=0

()

()

Shrinkage Ratio: SR =
Specific gravity: Gs =

CONSTANTS & CONVERSION:


1 in = 2.54 cm
1 m = 1000 mm

1 ft = 12 in = 0.3048 m
1 m = 100 cm

CEIT-02/ FOUNDATION 2016

CASES

CEIT-02/ FOUNDATION 2016