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INGLS B1-B2

2013-2016
DEAN COLLEGE

CARLOS TOMS MARTNEZ

Lessons index
Going to have.......................................
Conditional..........................................
Modal verbs.........................................
Ask for permision...............................
Future forms........................................
Formal letter/note...............................
Links.....................................................
Stop+ing&Stop+present simple.........
Past continous perfect continous....
Don't you, arent't you.........................
Verbs followed by preposition...........
Comparative........................................
Maybe&Perhaps.................................
Starting a sentence with a verb.........
No and not...........................................
Possessive pronouns...........................
Plural use, other&another.................
Likely and probably...........................
Subjunctive..........................................
When/While+ing.................................
Passive..................................................
Quite and enough................................
Either and neither, both.....................
Copulative Connectors.......................
Future infinitive..................................

02
03
04
06
06
06
06
08
08
08
08
09
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
12
15
15
15
16

Compendium index
Vocabulary..........................................
Phrasal verbs.......................................
Irregular verbs....................................
Verbs and preposition........................
Linking words.....................................
Verbal tenses......................................
Irregular plurals................................

17
23
25
26
28
29
30

Course 2013-2014
11/09/2013 &18/09/2013

Pronunciation
Todas las vocales delante de R de amplan: Car - Caaar
El ingls es lengua de consonantes.
You se pronuncia iuu, And aand.

Real Life Words


La forma habitual de llamar a un cigarro es fag. Can you give me a fag please? (Cuidado con
esta palabra pues tambin significa maricn).
Para pedir una cerveza sin especificar marca se suele decir A pint of lager. Lager es una
marca pero se emplea la palabra para pedir cerveza en general. Tambin se puede pedir una
half pint, que es un vaso ms pequeo.
Caf con leche se dice white coffe. Un cortado sera small white coffe.
Adems de drunk borracho tambin se puede decir pist, es ms comn entre gente joven. Para
decirlo de forma ms educada, como si en espaol dijsemos embriagado, se usa tiddly.
Para decir que algo est ubicado en el centro de un pueblo se usa in town. Is my hotel in town?

Grammar: Could You Mind, Less&Full and Other Tips


La forma de hacer una peticin con formalidad es mediante could you mind + ing.
-could you mind opening the door?
Myself, Yourself, Himself, Herself, Itself, Ourselves, themselves.
Con less y full se forman muchas palabras: Sugarfull, sugarless, moneyfull, moneyless.
I attempt to: asistir. I attempt to english class. (I go to english class sera ir al edificio).
Para cosas de cierta importancia es ms correcto I own que I have, have es para cosas bsicas.
-I own a house, I own a car.
25/09/2013 & 02/10/2013

Grammar: Goint to have, Just, Present Perfect + Again.


La forma de expresar acciones que recibimos hechas es mediante la pasiva, por ejemplo:
Me van a lavar el coche: I'm Going to have my car washed (participio).
She's going to have her car washed. I'm going to have my house painted.
La pasiva tambin se utiliza para resaltar acciones, como en los titulares de presa:
The thief was caught by the kid. -12 years old girl was killed by her mom.
Just se usa para acciones que acaban de hacerse o muy recientes. Pronoun+just+past simple.
Equivale a acabar de.
I just bought a car. Would you like a coffee? No thanks I just drank one.
El present perfect se utiliza para repeticin de una accin. A menudo se usa con Again.
-I have cleaned the house again (he limpiado la casa de nuevo).

Real Life Words


Flat tiene muchos significados adems de piso, uno de los ms comunes es plano (referido a
superficie plana): Flat T.V., Flat Screen, Valencia is a flat city...
Flat rate es tarifa plana. The wheel is flat (deshinchada). Flat battery es batera descargada.
Iron flat es tabla de planchar.

Pronunciation
La L entre otras letras no se pronuncia: Salmon, Talk, Walk, Would, Half...
16/10/2013 & 06/11/2013

Real Life Words


En ingls el sutantivo muchas veces sirve como verbo. Por ejemplo en un examn sali ordear
la vaca: to milk the cow.
Cuidado al user crime, no solo significa crimen, tambin significa delito.
Sensible significa sensato. Sensitive es sensible.

Grammar: Conditional
El condicional tiene tres formas principalmente, son llamadas first, second y third.
El first se utiliza para expresar sucesos que son muy probables: si suspendes te arrepentirs.
El second indica posibilidad (no necesariamente probabilidad) en el futuro pero no en el
momento presente: si fuera rico comprara un yate.
El third sirve para expresar algo que ya no es posible en el presente porque no se ha cumplido
una condicin: Si hubiese jugado mejor hubiera ganado el partido.
Los tres siguen la estructura If clause, Main clause, pero el orden es reversible (main clause, if
clause).
If + present simple + future simple (will + infinitive).
-If I work more, I will earn more money. / I will earn more money if I work more.
(Si trabajo ms ganar ms dinero).
-If I don't work more, I will not/won't earn more money.
(S no trabajo ms, no ganar ms dinero).
-If I work more will I earn more money?
(Si trabajo ms ganar ms dinero?).
If + past simple + conditional simple (would + infinitive).
-If I worked more, I would earn more money.
(Si trabajara ms, ganara ms dinero).
-If I didn't work more, I would not/wouldn't earn more money.
(Si no trabajara ms, no ganara ms dinero).
-If I worked more would I earn more money?.
(Si trabajara ms ganara ms dinero).
If + past perfect (had + participle) + conditional perfect (would have + participle).
-If I had worked more, I would have earned more money.
(Si hubiera trabajado ms, hubiera ganado ms dinero).
-If I had not worked more, I would not have earned more money.
(Si no hubiera trabajado ms, no hubiera ganado ms dinero).
-If I had worked more would I have earned more money?
(Si hubiera trabajado ms hubiera ganado ms dinero?).

Tambin existe el llamado zero conditional, se usa para afirmaciones innegables, como hechos
cientificos. No es realmente un condicional pero en los libros frecuentemente lo refieren as.
If + present simple + present simple.
-If I don't breath, I die.
-If you heat water to 100 C, it boils. / Water boils if you heat it to 100 C.
Nota importante: el verbo to be en condicional se hace con were en todas las formas
personales:
-If I were rich, I would buy a mansion.
Ejemplos varios:
-If she studies a lot, she will pass the exam.
-If it rained, we would not go to the beach.
-If I had been rich, I would have bought a mansion.
-If you had been born* handsome, you would have found a wife.
*Se dices was born, no born a secas, por tanto el past perfect es had been born.
13/11/2013

Cuando hablamos de nosotros mismos se usa my self. My girlfriend and myself.

Grammar: Modal Verbs


Los verbos modales son auxiliares que no pueden funcionar como verbo principal (al contrario
que be, do y have). Se puede decir que son modales porque modifican a otros verbos,
dandoles un significado diferente. Son los siguientes: Can/could, may/might, must,
shall/should, ought to, will y would. Se debe tener en cuenta que el verbo que acompaa a un
auxiliar va en infinitivo, por tanto no cambia con la tercera persona (por ejemplo she can do it,
no does it).
Can expresa habilidad o capacidad, las ideas expresadas con l sugieren presente o futuro pero
nunca pasado.
We can repair the car (Podemos, sugiere presente) Nancy can visit us next weekend (Puede,
sugiere futuro).
Could es el pasado de can y por tanto expresa capacidad o habilidad en pasado. Tambin es su
forma condicional y puede indicar posibilidad en futuro. Ambas formas deben distinguirse por
el contexto de la frase.
When I was young I could run a marathon (Poda correr, en el pasado)
I could write a book (Podra escribir un libro, sugiere posibilidad).
May expresa posibilidad, como can sugiere presente o futuro, nunca pasado. Tambin es una
forma de dar o pedir permiso, es ms formal que can.
It may snow today/tomorrow (Puede que nieve hoy/maana).
May I help you? (Puedo ayudarte?). You may eat chocolate after dinner (Puedes comer).
Might es el pasado de may, pero como verbo modal es independiente de este. Indica la
posibilidad de que ocurra una accin, pero no necesariamente que vaya a suceder, sugiere
menor probabilidad que may. Expresa tiempo presente o futuro.
He might help us. (l podra ayudarnos).
Diferencia entre could y might: Might expresa poca probabilidad, mientras que could sugiere
ms bien una condicin. Retomando ejemplos anteriores:
I could write a book (Podra, si se diesen las circunstancias adecuadas).
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He might help us. (l podra ayudarnos, cabe esa posibilidad pero no hay ninguna certeza).
Must: Indica obligacin, necesidad, deber o condicin que no puede cambiar. Se usa para
referirse al presente o al futuro. Deber de puede aplicarse a deducciones.
I must check the labels (Obligacin. Debo comprobar).
Humans must drink water (Condicin incambiable. Deben beber).
I must study hard to pass the exam (Deber. Debo estudiar duro).
My father must take his medicine (Necesidad. Debe tomar).
The nurse must collect some blood tomorrow morning (Obligacin futura. Debe recoger).
She has run a race, she must be tired. (Deduccin, debe estar cansada).
Shall Se usa igual que will, para indicar futuro, pero solo con la primera personal del singular y
del plural. Se considera ms formal que will, por ejemplo es ms apropiado para documentos
oficiales. Tambin se utiliza para hacer o pedir sugerencias.
I shall take further actions (forma de futuro).
Shall we leave?. Shall I help you? (Nos vamos? Te ayudo? Dar sugerencias)
Where shall we meet?. What shall I cook? (Donde quedamos? Qu cocino? Pedir
sugerencias).
Should funciona como el condicional espaol de deber. Indica recomendacin o sugerencia,
tambin obligacin debil, una de la que podra prescinderse. En interrogativa se utiliza para
pedir consejo o sugerencia.
You should train more. (Deberas entrenar. Recomendacin).
I should call my mom more often. (Debera llamar. Obligacin debil).
What should I do? (Qu debera hacer? Pedir consejo).
Ought to se utiliza igual que should, pero tiene un matiz diferente. Se utiliza para cosas que
deberan pasar por que considera que se merecen o se tiene derecho.
We ought have a salary raise. (Deberamos tener/Mereceriamos tener).
Will se usa para acciones futuras que van a suceder con mucha seguridad. Tambin para
demostrar voluntad o determinacin.
Profits will increase next year.
I will do it. I will help you.
Would se usa para formar oraciones condicionales. Tambin para declarar preferencias o
preguntar por ellas y para preguntar educadamente.
If I had time; I would take a coffe.
She would like to take a coffe.
Would you like to take a coffe?
Would you help me please?
Notas sobre be able: La forma futura de can no se hace con will + can si no con will + be able.
Be able se debe adaptar a la forma verbal usada:
-Past perfect: I had been able. (Haba podido).
-Present pefect: I have been able/He has been able. (He/ha podido).
-Past continuous: I was being able/You were being able. (Estaba/s pudiendo).
-Be able no tiene present continous.

11/04/2014

Grammar: Ask for Permission


Can you/I open the window?(informal, entre amigos).
May you/I open the window please? (correcto, para alguien con poco trato).
Could you/I open window please? (con respeto).
Would you mind opening/if I open/ed the window? (muy respetuoso. Valido past o present).
09/05/2014

Grammar: Ing Reminder, Future Forms Uses


Love, Like, Dislike, Hate + verb + ing. I love dancing.
En condicional en infinitivo: I would like dance.
Present continuous: Para futuro a corto plazo (hasta una semana). Se suele aadir adverbio de
tiempo al final de la frase: I'm buying a house tomorrow.
Going to: Para futuro a medio plazo, se conoce la fecha del suceso. I'm going to buy a new
house.
Will/Shall: Futuro ms a largo plazo, usualmente no se sabe el momento exacto. I will buy it.
Los adverbios tipo always siempre detrs del sujeto y antes del verbo. They always blame me
for all.

Course 2014-2015
12/09/2014

Real Life: Formal Letter


Who it may concern;
After being working for you for 8 months my wages have not been paid yet. I beg you your
goodness, my work was call off due to my pregnancy and I was sacked out due to it.
Furthermore and always promesing me all my payments will be correctly paid. Thus astonish
me a lot you did not it as agreement.
I let you note to mention before before attending legal actions.
Yours faitfhfully.
Who it may concern: Se pone si no se conoce el destinario. Tambin Dear Sir/Madam.
Being working: Impersonal, sin sujeto.
Yours faitfhfully: Forma de despedirse si no se conoce al destinario. Si es conocido se pone
yours sincerily (y en el encabezado Dear y el nombre).
19/09/2014

Grammar: Links
Consequently: En consecuencia.
They were found guilty and consequently sent to prison.
Hence: De ah.
English is not her mother tongue, hence her mistakes.
Therefore: Por lo tanto.
She didn't study, therefore she coudn't pass the exam.
Thus: Por lo tanto, pero ms en el sentido de de esta manera. Se refiere a la forma en que
algo sucede o se produce. Es de uso menos habitual.
He overslept and thus, arrived late for the appointment.
So: Entonces. Es ms informal que therefore y thus.
She was a little fat, so she decided to go on a diet.
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Beside: Adems. Para aadir un argumento o una razn a otros ya dados. Es informal.
The car is very expensive beside don't like me.
Furthermore: Adems. Puede usarse con matiz de enfado o indignacin, en ese contexto se
podra traducir como nuestro incluso. Es formal.
He shouted at me and furthermore insulted me.
However: Adems. Se usa cuando se hace algo pese a un impedimiento.
I wento to school however it was raining.
More over: Adems. Al enunciar adjetivos, razones o cualquier informacin y citar en ultimo
lugar la ms relevante. Es formal.
She is tall beautiful and moreover love me. (Notese que en ingls no se ponen comas).
In adition to: Adems. Es una manera formal.
You did you work badly in adition to you are late.
Because of: Debido a, a causa de.
I missed the bus because of the bad weather.
Due to: Debido a, a cause de. Se puede sustituir por caused by para saber si su uso es
correcto.
The low themperature was due to global warming.
Providing: Siempre que (de condicin).
We will go fishing providing it does not rain.
Whether Se traduce como nuestro si condicional. En muchos casos se puede intercambiar su
uso con if, por ejemplo en preguntas de si o no.
Do you go to the cinema? Yes, I go if/wether you come.
Whether se considera ms formal, por tanto sera ms apropiado para registros formales. Casos
de uso obligado:
-Antes de un verbo con infnitivo.
He doesnt know whether to repair his car or buy other.
-Despues de las preposiciones.
I am uncertain about whether we should go to the party.
-Al usar 'or not'.
I don't know whether go or not go.
-Como clausula de oraciones no condicionales.
Whether you study or lose time is not my concern (Clausula en primer lugar). I don't mind
whether you win or lose (Clausula segundo lugar).
Nunca podra usarse en oraciones condicionales del tipo if you don't come I'll be sad o I'll help
you if you want.

Grammar: About go
Como es sabido despues de go siempre se pone ing. El motivo es por que en realidad la forma
completa es go to, el to se obva por costumbre, pero gramaticalmente se sigue respetando.
I go (to) shopping. I go (to) swimming.
09/01/2015

Grammar: I buy you, I buy from you


I buy you something es te he comprado algo (a t), pero para decir que se lo has comprado en el
sentido de que l te lo ha vendido se dice I buy from you.

01/07/2015 (Repaso intensivo de verano)

Grammar: Stop + present continuous, Stop + present simple


Stop + present continuous (stop + verb + ing) se utiliza para matizar que la accin se ha
detenido en ese momento, pero no permanentemente. Stop smoking now!
Stop y el present simple matizan haber parado permanentemente. I stop smoke.

Grammar: Prefer and like


Despues de prefer ING, igual que con like.
I like/prefer going to the beach.
Los infinitivos despues de prefer han de llevar to.
I prefer to drive. I prefer not to read in the evening.
En condicional like no llevar ing. I would like to share.
07/07/2015

Grammar: Past Continous-Past Perfect Continuous


I was coking when he came.(Estaba cocinando cuando l lleg).
El past continous suena a accin interrumpida, sugiere que dej de cocinar.
El past perfect casi siempre marca tiempo. Puede usarse para matizar ms las interrpciones o
para acciones que se prolongaron en el tiempo.
I had been coking for three hours when he came (Llevaba/Haba estado cocinado tres horas
cuando l lleg).
I had been driving a taxi for 2 years.
How long had you been married for?
09/07/2015

Real Life Words: From


From se usa cuando se deja algo atrs:
Get up from the chair.
Where do you come from?
13/07/2015

Real Life Words: Don't you, arent't you


Si queremos usar una expresin del tipo Juegas al tenis verdad? una posible forma es:
Do you play tennis? don't you?
Ese verdad ir en el tiempo opuesto, si la pregunta es en afirmativa en negativo, si es negativa
en afirmativo.
Are youspanish? Aren't you?
Don't you like chocolate? Do you?

Pronunciation
Se ha visto que no se pronuncia la L entre palabras (salt, walk, salmon...) pero hay algunas
excepciones como welcome o always. Se debe a que antiguamente eran dos palabras y han ido
evolucionando hasta ser solo una: well-come, all-ways.
14/07/2015

Grammar: Verbs followed by preposition


Algunos verbos obligatoriamente van seguidos de preposicin, estos son algunos ejemplos:
I congratulate you on your birthday (on your grades/marks).
He dies of cancer.
She suffers from cancer.
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It depends on my money.
Shout at me (Gritame. Don't shout at me!).
Shout to me (Gritar a alguien desde lejos para llamarle. I see her and I shout to her).
The car crash into kiosk*.
*Into denota movimiento en la accin. Por ejemplo al entrar en un recinto sin detenerse en la entrada se dira into, en cambio entrar
detenindose en la entrada es in.
Nota: En la seccin de vocabulario hay una lista ms amplia de verbos, esta leccin es solo para introducir el concepto.
15/07/2015

Grammar: Comparative
Para los comparativos de igualdad se usa as. Equivale a tan o a como segn su posicin
en la frase.
I'm as tall as he is.
Maria is as tall as Diana.
Cristina is as tall as I am.
Ireness room is as clean as Cristinas.
Los Angeles is as big as New York.
Para los comparativos de inferioridad se usa less than o not as as.
Aida is not as tall as Irene.
Yolandas room is less clean than Hectors.
Irene is not as tall as me.
Sedavi is not as big as Alfafar.
Para los comparativos de superioridad aadimos usamos than, pero hay que poner el
adjetivo en forma comparativa.
I am taller than Sara.
Alfafar is bigger than Sedav.
She is taller than I'am (es ms correcto que taller than me).
Finalmente para expresar el mayor grado de algo (el mejor, el ms rpido, etc) se utiliza la
forma superlativa. Se pone the delante del adjetivo.
Diana is the tallest.
My room is the cleanest.

Grammar: Comparative and superlative forms


Para adjetivos de una slaba se aade -er en la forma comparativa y -est en la superlativa.
Fast, faster, fastest.
Para adjetivos de una slaba que terminan en e se aade -r y -st respectivamente.
Nice, nicer, nicest.
Para adjetivos de una slaba que terminan en consonante + vocal + consonante se aade
consonante + -er y consonante + -est respectivamente.
Hot, hotter, hottest.
Para adjetivos que terminan en y se sustituye y por: -ier o -iest.
Funny, funnier, funniest.
Para adjetivos de ms de dos silabas se usa more/less si es comparativo o the most/the least en
superlativo.
More beautiful, less beautiful. The most beautiful, the least beautiful.
Existen adjetivos irregulares que se forman de manera diferente.
Irregular
Comparativo Superlativo
good
better
best
bad
worse
worst
far
further
furthest

16/07/2015

Grammar: Maybe or perhaps


Tanto maybe como perhaps significan quizs o tal vez, son sinnimos. La diferencia es que
perhaps es ms formal y que suele situarse a mitad o final de la frase, mientras que maybe de
normal se pone al principio.
Have you seen my glasses? I cant find them anywhere. Maybe you left them at work.
Do you think these shoes are too high? They are perhaps.
She was, perhaps, a little too smartly dressed for a informal meeting.
Maybe Ill finish work early tomorrow and go shopping with you.
24/07/2015

Grammar: Starting a sentence with a verb


Cuando un verbo inicia una frase siempre llevar ing, pasando a ser un sustantivo.
Smoking is dangerous for health. No se pondr NUNCA to smoke.
Reading is good for mind.

Grammar: No and not


Para que la negacin resulte ms rotunda se emplea no en lugar de don't
I don't have money - I have no money. Es una negacin ms firme, implica que no tienes en
absoluto, es igual a nada de.
Es importante recordar que no y not no son igual en ingls:
I do not/don't have money. (Not est modificando al auxiliar do).
I have no money. (Noest modificando al objeto directo, money).

Course 2015-2016
08/09/2015

Grammar: Possessive pronouns


Es importante recordar la diferencia entre possessive adjectives y possesive pronouns, los
primeros acompaan al nombre como adjetivo (my car, your book...) mientras que los
segundos al ser pronombres lo sustituyen (This car is mine, The book is yours).
Subject

Possessive Adjective

Possessive Pronoun

My (Mi)

Mine (Mo/a)

You

Your (Tu)

Yours (Tuyo/a)

He

His (Su-de l)

His (Suyo/a-de l)

She

Her (Su- de ella)

Hers (Suyo/a- de ella)

It

Its (Su- neutro)

Its (Suyo- neutro)

We

Our (Nuestro/a)

Ours (Nuestro/a- de nosotros/as)

You

Your (Vuestro/a)

Yours (Vuestro/a- de vosotros/as)

They

Their (Su-de ellos/as)

Theirs (De ellos/as)

This is my house. / This house is mine. (Mi casa / es mia).


This is your house. / This house is yours. (Tu-vuestra casa/ es tuya-vuestra).
This is his-her house. / This house is his/hers. (Su casa/ de l de ella).
This is our house. / This house is ours. (Nuestra casa/ es nuestra).
This is their house. / This house is theirs. (Su casa/ de ellos-ellas).
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22/09/2015

Grammar: About plural use, other&another


En plural no se usa the, solo se pone en singular. El the en plural sirve para especificar,
distinguir elementos de un conjunto.
Students learn better when teachers are passionate about teaching (Sucede as en general).
The students learn better when the teachers are passionate about teaching (Unos estudiantes y
profesores en concreto, por ejemplo los pertenecientes a una escuela).
Other se usa con el plural, another con el singular.
I would like to take another coffee.
I need other books. I like cats but other people prefer dogs.
Con el artculo the siempre se pone other, sea en singular o plural.
I prefer the other pub. I need the other suit. I want the other documents.
Siempre que aparezca un numero another.
I will finish in another two days.

Grammar: Likely and probably


Likely es un adjetivo, significa probable o probablmente, no debe confundierse con un adverbio.
Su estructura es To be + likely + to infinitive.
Its likely to rain (Es probable que llueva).
I'm likely to go to London (Es probable que vaya a Londres).
Youre likely to pass your English exam because youre stuying hard (Es probable que apruebes
tu examen de ingls porque ests estudiando mucho).
Probably es un adverbio, tambin significa probablemente pero tiene una estructura diferente, se
usa en tiempo futuro: Will + probably + infinitive. Nunca se usar en presente.
It will probably rain tomorrow.
I will probably go to London.
Youll probably pass your English exam because youre studying hard.
24/09/2015

Grammar: Subjunctive
Como en espaol, uno de los usos del subjuntivo es expresar deseo o esperanza, por ejemplo
Quiero que vengas a la fiesta o Ojala ella traiga hielo. Tambin sugerencia u orden.
Vayamos al parque. En ingls seguir la siguiente estructura:
Subject + verb + object pronoun + to infinitive.
I + advise + you + to leave. I advise you to leave (Te aconsejo que te vayas).
My mom wants me to go to the cinema. My mom doesn't want me to go the cinema.
My mom wanted me to go to the cinema. My mom didn't want me to go to the cinema.
My mom will want me to go to the cinema. My mon will not want me to go to the cinema.
My mom would want me to go to the cinema. My mom woul not want me to go to the cinema.
I want you to go to london. I want her to go to London.
She wants us to go to the cinema. Weather we go or not go is our problem.
He didn't want her to come.
29/09/2015

Grammar: When/While + ing


Frases en espaol como al beber agua se sintio mejor pueden traducirse utilizando when+ing
el objeto y el past simple. When drinking water he felt better.

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Con while se puede hacer una estructura similar. While+ing+ object +past simple.
While driving she was nervous.
El orden puede revertirse: Object+past simple+while/when+ing.
We sang old english songs while going to London.
06/11/2015

Grammar: Passive
La pasiva se forma con esta estructura: Object + to be + past participed of the main verb.
Es usada para dar ms importancia a la accin en s que al que la realiza (el sujeto).
The car was bought. The car is sold by the seller.
Sirve para destacar algo inusual, como en los titulares de prensa.
The thief was traped by the dog.
Se emplea cuando se quieren hacer frases impersonales.
Is thought that Sthephen King writes well (Se piensa/Se considera/Se cree que...).
When was America discovered?
Present simple
This singer writes many songs. Many songs are written by this singer.
(Escribe muchas caciones muchas canciones son escritas).
The car is washed (El coche es lavado).
Present continuous
This singer is writing many songs. Many songs are being written by this singer.
(Est escribiendo muchas canciones muchas canciones estn siendo escritas).
The car is being washed (El coche est siendo lavado).
Past simple
This singer wrote many songs. Many songs were written by this singer.
(Escribi muchas canciones muchas canciones fueron escritas).
The car was washed (El coche fue lavado).
Past continuous
This singer was writing many songs. Many songs were being written by this singer.
(Estaba escribiendo muchas canciones muchas canciones estaban siendo escritas).
The car was being washed (El coche estaba siendo lavado).
Future simple
This singer will write many songs. Many songs will be written by this singer.
(Escribir muchas canciones muchas canciones sern escritas).
The car will be washed (El coche ser lavado).
Future continuous
This singer will be writing many songs. Many songs will be being written by this singer.
(Estar escribiendo muchas canciones muchas canciones estarn siendo escritas).
The car will be being washed (El coche estar siendo lavado).
Conditional simple
This singer would write many songs. Many songs would be written by this singer.
(Escribira muchas canciones muchas canciones seran escritas).
12

The car would be washed (El coche sera lavado).


Conditional continuous
This singer would be writing many songs. Many songs would be being written by this singer.
(Estara escribiendo muchas canciones muchas canciones estaran siendo escritas).
The car would be being washed (El coche estara siendo lavado).
Future simple (be going to)
This singer is going to write many songs. Many songs are going to be written by this singer.
(Va a escribir muchas canciones muchas canciones van a ser escritas).
The car is going to be washed (El coche va a ser lavado).
Future simple continuous (be going to)
This singer is going to be writing many songs. Many songs are going to be being written by
this singer.
(Va a estar escribiendo muchas canciones muchas canciones van a estar siendo escritas).
The car is going to be being washed (El coche va a estar siendo lavado).
Present perfect
This singer has written many songs. Many songs have been written by this singer.
(Ha escrito muchas canciones muchas canciones han sido escritas).
The car has been washed (El coche ha sido lavado).
Present perfect continuous
This singer has been writing many songs. Many songs have been being written by this singer.
(Ha estado escribiendo muchas canciones muchas canciones han estado siendo escritas).
The car has been being washed (El coche ha estado siendo lavado).
Past perfect
This singer had written many songs. Many songs had been written by this singer.
(Haba escrito muchas canciones muchas canciones haban sido escritas).
The car had been washed (El coche haba sido lavado).
Past perfect continuous
This singer had been writing many songs. Many songs had been being written by this singer.
(Haba estado escribiendo muchas canciones muchas canciones haban estado siendo escritas).
The car had been being washed (El coche haba estado siendo lavado).
Future perfect
This singer will have written many songs. Many songs will have been written by this singer.
(Habr escrito muchas canciones muchas canciones habrn sido escritas).
The car will have been washed (El coche habr sido lavado).
Future perfect continuous
This singer will have been writing many songs. Many songs will have been being written by
this singer.
(Habr estado escribiendo muchas canciones muchas canciones habrn estado siendo
escritas).
The car will have been being washed (El coche habr estado siendo lavado).
Condicional perfect
This singer would have written many songs. Many songs would have been written by this
singer.
13

(Habra escrito muchas canciones muchas canciones habran sido escritas).


The car would have been washed (El coche habra sido lavado).
Condicional perfect continuous
This singer would have been writing may songs. Many songs would have been being written
by this singer.
(Habra estado escribiendo muchas canciones muchas canciones habran estado siendo
escritas).
The car would have been being washed (El coche habra estado siendo lavado).
Future perfect (be going to)
This singer is going to have written many songs. Many songs are going to have been written
by this singer.
(Va a haber escrito muchas canciones muchas canciones van a haber sido escritas).
The car is going to have been washed (El coche va a haber sido lavado).
Future perfect continuous (be going to)
This singer is going to have been writing may songs. Many songs are going to have been being
written by this singer.
(Va a haber estado escribiendo muchas canciones muchas canciones van a haber estado siendo
escritas).
The car is going to have been being washed (El coche va haber estado siendo lavado).
Example with modal verbs
This singer should/must write many songs. Many songs should/must be written by this singer.
(Debera/Debe escribir muchas canciones muchas canciones deberan/deben ser escritas).
The car should/must be washed.
This singer must have written many songs. Many songs must have been written by this singer.
(Debe haber escrito muchas canciones muchas canciones deben haber sido escritas).
Used to
Jerry used to pay the bills. The bills used to be paid by Jerry.
Would Always
My mother would always make the pies. The pies would always be made by my mother.
(Siempre hara los pasteles los pasteles siempre seran hechos).
Would
I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM. I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.
Was Going to
I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. I thought a beautiful dinner was
going to be made by Sally tonight.
20/11/2015

Grammar: Need not


No se usa el auxiliar do not/don't para hacer la negacin de need, se hace directamente con need
not o needn't. A parte de como no necesitar, se puede traducir tambin como no ser necesario.
You needn't have bought a gift (No es necesario haber comprado un regalo, menos literal sera
no hacia falta que compraras un regalo).

14

04/02/2016

Grammar: Quite and enough


Enough indica el grado de suficiencia necesario, mientras que quite hace referencia al grado de
intensidad, no implica cubrir ninguna necesidad. Por ejemplo, se puede decir tanto Shes tall
enough como Shes quite tall pero no significan lo mismo. En el primer ejemplo, Shes tall
enough (Es lo bastante / suficientemente alta), indica suficiencia para cubrir una necesidad,
Shes tall enough to be a model (Es lo bastante / suficientemente alta para ser modelo). Mientras
que Shes quite tall (Es bastante alta) simplemente expresa la intensidad. Sabemos que es alta y
queremos expresar cmo de alta es, , si mucho (very tall), bastante (quite tall) o no mucho (not
very tall).
Quite y enough juntos tienen el significado de plenitud y enfatizacin.
Thats quite enough! (Ya es suficiente!).

Grammar: Present perfect + yet


Se usa para acciones u ordenes pasadas que aun no se han llevado a cabo.
The exam will be tomorrow and I have not studied yet. (An no he estudiado)
I traveled to London last year and i haven't seen the pictures yet. (Todava no he visto las fotos)
22/02/2016

Grammar: Either and neither, both


Either se utiliza para eleccin entre dos opciones, siempre se usa con or.
I have to decide to go either to Paris or to London. (Entre ir a Pars o a Londres).
I have to decide to cock either spaghetti or rice. (Entre espaguetis o arroz).
We can go to either the beach or the swimming pool. (O la playa o a la piscina)
Neither expresa acuerdo entre dos opciones negativas. Se usa con nor.
I like neither this travel nor the other.(Ni este viaje ni el otro).
I like neither this tie nor that one. (Ni esta corbata ni esa otra).
Neither Marta nor Iris want to go to the beach. (Ni Mara ni Iris quieren ir)
Neither the school nor the parents want to take responsibility for the problem. (Ni la escuela ni
los padres).
Para expresar acuerdo entre dos opciones positivas utilizamos both.
Both my parents work at the hospital. (Mis padres trabajan los dos en el hospital.)
Both teams are preparing for the championship. (Ambos equipos se estn preparando para el
campeonato.)

Grammar: Copulative Connectors


Los conectores copulativos son aquellos que unen algo a lo ya mencionado. Por ejemplo:
My friend not only speaks spanish but also French.
And (y)
He played the guitar and sang wonderful songs.
It is hard for a student to work and study at the same time.
Not only...but also... (no solo...sino tambin...)
Mary plays not only the guitar but also the violin.
Not only...but...as well (no solo...sino...tambin)
She is not only beautiful but very intelligent as well.
Mary and Bill not only argued, but shouted at each other as well.
15

Both...and... (tanto (una cosa) como (otra))


Many politicians desire both money and power.
Bill wants both to earn more money and to work less.
No sooner...than... (apenas...cuando)
The baker had no sooner turned off the oven than the last customers arrived.
(El panadero apenas haba apagado el horno cuando llegaron los ltimos clientes).
I had no sooner gotten into the bathtub than the telephone rang.
(Apenas me haba metido en la baera cuando son el telfono).
24/02/2016

Grammar: Future infinitive


To be+about+infinitive: Indica que una situacin tendr lugar en un futuro muy prximo.
The plane is about to take off.
To be+infinitive: Para hablar de planes, programas, actividades planeadas (es una versin ms
formal del Present Simple con valor de futuro).
The King is to visit Palma in August.

16

VOCABULARY
General words
Alike: Igual.
Board: Tablero, pero se usa para refeirse a muchas superficies planas, como una barra de bar o una mesa de
reuniones (por ejemplo I'm in the borad puede referirse a estr reunido).
Apply for: Solicitar. Apply for a job.
Appointment: Cita.
Afford: Permitirse. I can't afford for it.
Ash: Ceniza.
Awful: Horrible, terrible.
Bachelor/ette party: Despedida de soltero/a.
Bank holiday: Da festivo, puente.
Barely: Apenas, escasamente.
Bargain: Regatear.
Beg: Pedir, suplicar, rogar. I beg you pardon.
Blow: Soplar, absorber, hacer sonar un instrumento.
Bow: Inclinarse.
Broadcasting: Radiodifusin.
Carve: Todo lo que se hace o crea con las manos utilizando herramientas (labrar, tallar, esculpir, trinchar...)
Cheat: Engaar. Trampa.
Climb: Trepar.
Clue: Pista.
Coffin: Atad.
Comb: Peinar. Peine.
Complain: Queja, quejarse, reclamacin.
Cozy: Acogedor.
Dart: Jugar a los dardos. Precipitarse (en el sentido de arrojarse hacia algo).
Dare: Atrevimiento. Atreverse. Who dares? How do you dare?
Elevator: En BE se refiere a escaleras mecnicas. No confundir con lift (ascensor).
Essential: Esencial.
Facilities: Instalaciones.
Fasten: Abrochar, sujetar.
Fit: Ajustar, encajar. It fits me well (Me queda bien).
Fine: Multa.
Fix: Fijar, reparar.
Flatter: Alagar, adular, hacer la pelota.
Flea: Pulga.
Foal: Potro.
Folding: Plegable. Folder adems de carpeta significa tambin pliego.
Former: Ex, antiguo. Former wife.
Fortunately/unfortunately: Afortunadamente/desafortunadamente.
Gasp: Jadear.
Grant: Conceder, otorgar. Beca.
Greenhouse: Invernadero.
Hint: Insinuacin, indirecta.
Human flesh: Carne humana.
Indispensable: Indispensable.
Lay: Poner, colocar.
Keen: Aficionado, entusiasta, afilado, perspicaz.
Loan: Prstamo.
Make it up: Hacer las paces. Inventar.
Make up: Maquillaje.
Mess: Desastre.
Mock: Burlarse de, mofarse de. Simulado, fingido. Mock exam (examen de prueba).

17

Mortgage: hipoteca.
Motto: Lema.
Night owl: Sonambulo.
Queue: Cola. Hacer cola.
Quite: Bastante.
Reach: Alcanzar.
Realized: Darse cuenta.
Sap: Savia (de arboles).
Shape: Forma refirindose a la forma de objetos.
Share: Accin de una empresa (tipo acciones de bolsa).
Shuffle: Barajar.
Sip: Sorbo.
Slight: Leve.
Smuggle: Traficar, hacer contrabando.
Snore: Roncar.
Spare: de repuesto. Do you have a spare pen?
Split: Separar, dividir.
Spoiler: Estropeado. Malcriado, mimado, consentido.
Spring: Muelle, resorte, somier. Brotar.
Stocktaking: Inventario (de hacer balance).
Stray: Extraviar. Extraviado.
Stripe: Raya.
Timing: Sincronizar, cronometraje.
Toast: Brindis.
Wage: Sueldo. Wage slip: Nmina.
Water: Como verbo es enjugar, mojar, regar, humedecer, aguar, diluir...
Wide: Amplio, ancho, grande.
Wipe: Limpiar, secar, enjugar... Wipe the dust, wipe the glasses.
Whorth: Valor (de coste, no de valenta). Valer (de costar y de servir).
Whorty: Digno, merecedor.
Wrap: Envolver.
Wreck: Desastre.

Body, health&illness
Ache: Dolor continuado, normalmente referido a las partes del cuerpo de las que solo tenemos una (cabeza,
estomago...).
Allergy: Alerga.
Constipation: Estreimiento
Cough: Tos.
Could: Resfriado.
Deaf: Sordo.
Diarrhea: Diarrea.
Eyelid/lid: parpado.
Flu: Gripe.
Gums: Encas.
Jaw: Mandbula.
Kree: Rodilla. Arrodillarse.
Pain: Dolor fsico, normalmente en las partes del cuerpo que tenemos ms de una (brazos, piernas...).
Painkiller: Calmante, analgesico.
Running nose: Nariz congestionada.
Sneeze: Estornudo.
Sick: Adems de enfermedad significa nauseas o lo que aqu llamamos mareo al subir a un medio de
tranporte: Car sick, Plane sick.
Sore: Dolor o dolorido. Cualquier parte del cuerpo.
Tummy: Barriga (informal), persona con tripa abultada.

18

Clothing
Blanket: Manta.
Furs: Pieles. Furs coat.
Tight: Ajustado.

Cook&Food&Table
Almond: Almendra.
Bake: Hornear. (Baking horneando).
Boil: Herbir.
Bottle: Tambin es bibiern. A veces lo llaman baby's bottle, feeding bottle o nursing bottle.
Brussel sprout: Col de bruselas.
Celery: Apio.
Clear the table: Quitar la mesa.
China: Porcelana.
Container: Cualquier envase o recipiente (incluyendo un tupper).
Cutlery: Cubertera.
Cucumber: Pepino.
Dish: Plato con comida (no confundir con plate). Dish of the day.
Grocery: Tienda de comestibles.
Lay the table: Poner la mesa.
Lettuce: Lechuga. Se pronuncia Letice.
Lobster: Langosta.
Marrow: Calabacn, cogollo, mdula, tuetano.
Nugat: Turrn.
Nut: Nuez. Todos los frutos secos acaban en nut.
Nutcracker: Cascanueces.
Pang: Sarten, todo recipiente para cocinar acaba en pan: friying pan, stewpan/saucepan (cacerola).
Plate: Plato vaco (no confundir con dish).
Pour: Vertir.
Pour up: Llenar (un recipiente).
Prawn: Gambas.
Rottern: Podrido.
Saucer: Plato pequeo (como de caf). Platillo volante (OVNI).
Sink: Fregadero.
Spark water: Agua con gas.
Sprout: Tallo.
Tap: Grifo.
Squid: Calamar.
Sugar almond: Peladilla.
Water (the fruit, the salad...): Enjuagar la fruta, la ensalada, etc.
Watermelon: Sanda.
Wheel of garlic: Cabeza de ajo.

House and furniture


Aisle: Pasillo
Basement/Cellar: Sotano. Cellar tambin es bodega.
Detached: Dicho de una casa es casa independiente. Literalmente significa separado.
Landlord: Casero, dueo, propietario.
Loo: Lavabo, servicio. (Es una palabra ms actual que toilet).
Luggage/Baggage: Equipaje.
Spare room: Habitacin de invitados.

19

Personality adjectives
Bossy: Mandn.
Demanding: Exigente.
Easy going: Trato facil.
Greedy: Codicioso.
Kind: Amable, bueno.
Inocent: Inocente (sin maldad, no de no culpable).
Moody: Temperamental, de humor cambiante.
Pampered: Mimado o consentido (en el sentido de nio mimado).
Pushy: Molesto, puetero.
Shy: Tmido.
Sly: Astuto.
Stringy: Tacao.
Outlandish: Extravagante.
Well meaning: Bien intencionado.
Wise: Sabio (viene de wisdom). Three wise men es como llaman a los tres reyes magos.
Yawn: Bostezo.

Physical adjectives
Bald: Calvo.
One-eyed: Tuerto.
One-handed/armed: Manco.
One-legged: Cojo.

Vehicles, road, traffic, travels


Aerial: Antena.
Board: Salpicadero.
Bonnet: Cap.
Boot: Maletero. (Trunk en AE).
Break: Freno, frenar.
Bumper: Parachoques.
Clutch: Embrague.
Coach: Autocar (no sirve para autobs de linea).
Curb: Frenar. Bordillo.
Exhaust: Tubo de escape.
Fuel/Gas/Petrol station: Gasolinera.
Full borad: Pensin completa.
Half board: Media pensin.
In time: A tiempo.
Inbound: Dentro del pais. Outbound: Por el extranjero.
Miles counter: Cuentakilometros.
One way: Ida. Return: vuelta.
Parking break: Freno de mano.
Petrol: Gasolina.
Pump: Surtidor. Petrol pump.
Rear door: Puerta de atrs.
Rear mirror: Retrovisor interior. Side mirror: Retrovisor lateral.
Round About: Rotonda.
Safety bell: Cinturn de seguridad.
Shipwreck: Naufragio.
Steering wheel: Volante.

20

Expressions, slang
At all: Para nada, en absoluto.
Be keen: Ser entusiasta. Be keen on...: Estr interesado en....
Blunder: Torpeza (adverbio). Meter la pata, cometer una torpeza (verbo).
By my own: Por mi propio./ By myself : Por m mismo. I dress myself.
Can you give me one of this?: Puede darme uno de esto? Lo importante es no olvidar of this ya que
give me one a secas es similar a nuestro echame un polvo.
Chap: To (de manera informal, no de pariente).
Chat up (a girl, a woman, a boy...): Ligar.
Cheers: Gracias de manera informal, lo usa la gente joven.
Cut the price/Cut the price down: Abaratar un precio.
Did you ever...?: Alguna vez. Did you ever went to London?
Don't drag on your feet: No lo dudes danto, no lo alargues ms.
Fancy: Gustar mucho algo o gustarte mucho fsicamente alguien, que te atraiga. Apetecerte algo. Do you
fancy? (te gusta/apetece?). Do you fancy Kate Upton?/Do you fancy a cup of tea?. Tom fancies this actress.
I fancy go to the cinema (segn contexto, me apetece ir al cine o me gusta ir al cine).
Feel like (something): Tener ganas de algo, apetcer algo. Despues de ese like seguir la norma de ing.
I feel like a cup of tea. I feel like going out for dinner tonight.
Fond (be fond of something/someone): Ser aficionado a algo. Apreciar o querer mucho a alguien. I'm fond
of football. I'm very fond of her.
Get along: Llevarse bien.
Give a break: Dar un descanso. Give me a break.
Give a lift: Llevar a alguien en coche, acercarle hasta un lugar. Can you give me a lift to the city?.
Has it out for me: Me tiene mana.
Have a fling: Tener una aventura amorosa, cana al aire.
Have a right: Tener derecho. We have right to a fair salary.
How do I get to...? Como llego a...?. How do I get to the cinema?.
How do you live on? Como te ganas la vida.
How much are you willing to...?: Cuanto ests dispuesto a...? To spend, to run, etc.
How nice it is!
In fresh: ver algo en persona.
In short: En breve. In short time. Resumiendo.
Keep mum: Callarse, tener la boca cerrada.
Know by heart: Saber de memora. I know it by heart.
Later on: Se refiere a luego, pero en el mismo da. Later a secas a un perido de tiempo indenfindo. What do
you do later on?.
Like the best: Lo que ms te gusta. What do you like th best?. I like pizza the best.
Mind the...: Cuidado con... Mind the step, Mind the gap (cuidado con escaln, cuidado con el hueco).
Never mind: No importa.
(is) Not your business: No es tu problema.
(is) Not your matter: No es asunto tuyo.
On board: A bordo, se suele usar en el sentido de estar de acuerdo con algo o unirse a algo. I'm on board.
Rolling around: Dar vueltas, significa pasear sin rumbo.
Run well: Ir bien.
Pass away: Fallacer.
Play truant: Hacer novillos, saltarse la clase.
Pretend to: Pretender que referido a hacer ver que o hacer parecer que. I pretend to I don't understand
spanish.
Seat at the rear: Sentarse detrs. Smokers seat at the rear.
Seems: parece, pero refirindose a algo abstracto o poco seguras, por ejemplo si hay un pronostico del
tiempo para el da siguiente se dira It seems is going to rain, pero si yo estuviera viendo que est nublado se
usara it looks.
Takes: Tiempo que toma o cuesta. How long does the plane take to London? It takes 30 minutes. It takes 3
hours drive. How long will I take to your house?.
To get used: Acostumbrarse a. I have to get used to my new car.

21

What a drag!: Que rollo, que lata.


What a nice...!: What a nice car!

Idioms
By a hair: Por un pelo. I lost the elections by a hair.
Big shot: Mandams, pez gordo.
Cheer up: Animar, alegrar. Take a chocolate. That will cheer you up.
Experience under (my/your/his...) belt: Tener experiencia en algo, tener experiencia a las espaldas.
Fair and square: Honestamente, justamente. She won the pools fair and square.
Fooling around: Perder el tiempo, hacer tonteras, bromear, divertirse.
Full of yourself (myself, herself...): Confianza en uno mismo.
Get the show in the road: Empezar a trabajar.
Give (youme/him...) a run for your money: Dar una paliza. She'll give you a run for your money.
Give the best shot: El mejor esfuerzo, lo ms de que se es capaz. I gave it my best shot.
Giving up: Rendirse. I'm not giving up.
Get on my nerves: Me sacas de quicio.
Lighten up: Calmate.
Live with it: Vive con ello, aceptalo.
Make a fool your self: Hacer el rdiculo.
Messed up: Hacer un desastre, estropear. I have messed up my speech.
Nothing Doing: De ninguna manera.
Set the record straight: Dejar las cosas claras.
Went wrong: Salir mal. When I went wrong (donde me equivoqu).

22

PHRASAL VERBS
Ask after: Preguntar por alguien en el sentido de interarse por como est de salud. Jenny asked after you, so
I told her you were fine.
Ask around: Preguntar a varias personas a cerca de algo.
Ask (someone) around: Invitar a alguien a casa. I asked Mary around to watch a movie, but she was busy.
Ask (someone) in: Invitar a alguien a entrar a un lugar, normalmente se refiere a invitar a casa. We asked
our friends in.
Ask (someone) out: Invitar alguien a hacer algo o a ir algn sitio. He asked her out to dinner, but she had
other plans.
Ask (someone) up: Invitar a subir, invitar a casa, pero se dice con intencin de tener sexo.
Break in: Acustumbrar, forzar, dormar. I don't break in my new shoes. (acostumbrar o domar el zapato).
Break into: forzar (para entrar a robar). Break into the window. Romper a (en el sentido de empezar a).
Break into sweat (empezar a sudar), Break into tears.
Break up: Interrumpir una accin, pero de forma temporal, no de manera permanente. I break up smoking
significara dejar de fumar por un rato. Para siempre sera Give Up.
Call around: Visitar una ciudad. Llamar a varias personas por telefono para obtener informacin.
Call for: Devolver una llamada. Ir a recoger a alguien. Pedir/exigir.
Call forth: Causar, provocar, suscitar.
Call in: Llamar o hacer pasar a alguien. Llamar a alguien, pero sobreentendiose que es para que te ayude en
algo: We had to call in a plumber because the sink was leaking.
Call off: Cancelar, suspender: The flight was called off. Meterse con alguien, hostigarle.
Call on: Hablar en pblico. Convocar.
Call out: Gritar. Pedir algo por telefono.
Call up: Llamar por telefono. Alistarse, enrolarse al servicio militar. Recordar, traer a la memora.
Carve up: Repartir en porciones pequeas.
Come in: Pasa, entra, invitacin a entrar a un lugar.
Come over: Venir, pasarse. Dejarse caer. Come over to my house.
Come up: Surgir, aparecer de repente. Ocurrirse. I came up a solution.
Crack up: Reirse a carcajadas, partirse de rise.
Give Up: Abandonar, dejar de, renunciar. I give up smoking. Para pausa temporal se usa Break up.
Look after: Cuidar de alguien.
Look ahead: Mirar hacia el futuro.
Look at: Mirar. Look at me (Mirame).
Look away: Apartar la vista.
Look back: Mirar al pasado.
Look for: Buscar.
Look forward to: Esperar impaciente, tener mucha ilusin. We're looking forward to the journey.
Look into: Investigar. Encontrar alguien o algo por casualidad.
Look like: Parecerse.
Look out: Tener cuidado con algo o alguien.
Look over: Revisar, inspeccionar.
Look through: Leer rpido, hojear. Look (Someone) through: Ignorar. She look me trough.
Look through (Something or someone): Ver a travs de algo a alguien literalmente.
Look to: Esperar (de expectativa o esperanza).
Look up : Alzar la vista o mirar arriba. Buscar en un diccionario u material de consulta, buscar una pgina
en un libro. Look up page 53.
Look up (Someone or something): puede usarse como respetar o admirar: I look up you. Tambin como
visitar a alguien: Too look up her. Se puede usar como mejorar: Things are looking up for me now that I
have a job.
Look (Someone or something) up:Buscar con desespero: Too look her up.

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Make your mind up: Decdete.


Pop in: Dejarse caer, pasar por casa de alguien y estar un rato. Entrar a un lugar brevemente, con idea de
salir enseguida.
Put off: Procastinar, retrasar algo (no solo tareas u obligaciones, tambin eventos) . Don't put off your
homework to the last minute. The storm put off the game by a week.
Desagradar, disgustar, poner malo. The guest was quite put off by an odor.
Put (some one) off: Desanimar, desalentar. I don't want to put you off, but that make of car you're thinking
of buying is very hard to maintain. Almost drowning put him off swimming.
Distraer, desconcentrar. Please be quiet. I'm trying to concentrate and you're putting me off.
Run away: Huir.
Run down: Baja corriendo (imperativo). Agotarse una batera o carga. The batteries have run down. If you
don't switch off the car lights, you will run the battery down. Menospreciar. My boss is always running down
my work.
Run for: Presentarse o pustularse a un cargo. Obama is running for president. Pude usarse para expresar
duracin de peliculas, obras de teatro, documentales.... The film runs for two hour (dura, tiene una duracin
de). How long does the film run? How many hours does the film run?
Run into: Entrar corriendo. The kids ran into the house when they heard the cake was ready.
Chocar, estrellarse. The car ran into a tree.
Igual que run with, encontrarse con alguien por casualidad. I ran into your mumin the drugstore.
Run over: Atropellar.
Run out of: Quedarse sin algo. Run out of milk.
Run up: Sube corriendo (Imperativo). Izar. The soliders run up the flag every morning.
Run with someone: Encontrarse con alguien casualmente. I run with Raul in the supermaket.
Take apart: Desmontar en piezas o componentes, desmantelar.
Take arround the city: Ensear la ciudad.
Take away: Para llevar. Chinese take away food.
Take away (number) from (number): Restar. Take away 80-50.
Take (someone): Vencer a alguien en una lucha, deporte o juego. The sunday I take her playing tennis.
Take after someone: Parecerse a alguien, pero ms en el sentido de haber salido a su padre. He had a
child take after her mother.
Take it back: Retirar lo dicho.
Take it/something back: Poner algo donde estaba, dejarlo en su sitio.
Take off: Despegar. The plane took off twenty minutes late. Elevarse, dispararse. Our actions take off. Salir.
Take a day off: Tomar un da libre.
Take (body part) off: Amputar. To take his leg off.
Take down: Quitar algo de una pared o superficie similar. I will take down the christmas decoration.
Takes me back: Me hace volver/regresar. This music takes me back to my twenties.
Take off x time later: Llegar tarde.
Taking off someone: Imitar a alguien.
Take someone off: Sacar a alguien de algo. You can't take me off this case. Imitar a alguien. Stop take me
off.
Take something off: Quitar algo. Take your jacket off.
Tell someone up: Se emplea para llamar o recoger a alguien. Tell me up.
Tune up: Poner a punto (de mantenimiento), afinar.

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IRREGULAR VERBS
(Infinive/Past simple/Participle)
Be, was/were, been.
Become, became, become.
Break, broke, broken.
Build, built, built.
Buy, bought, bought.

Beat, beat, beaten.


Begin, began, begun.
Bring, brought, brought. (Traer)
Burn, burnt*, burnt*.

Catch, caught, caught.


Come, came, come.
Cut, cut, cut.

Choose, chose, chosen.


Cost, cost, cost.

Do, did, done.


Dream, dreamt*, dreamt*.
Drive, drove, driven.

Draw, drew, drawn.


Drink, drank, drunk.

Eat, ate, eaten.


Fall, fell, fallen.
Fight, fought, fought.
Forget, forgot, forgotten.

Feel, felt, felt.


Find, found, found.
Fly, flew, flown.

Get, got, got.


Go, went, gone.

Give, gave, given.


Grow, grew, grown.

Have, had, had.


Hit, hit, hit.

Heard, heard, heard.


Hurt, hurt, hurt.

Keep, kept, kept.

Know, knew, know.

Learn, learnt*, learnt*.


Let, let, let.

Leave, left, left.


Lose, lost, lost.

Make, made, made.


Meet, met, met.

Mean, meant, meant.

Pay, paid, paid.

Put, put, put.

Read, read, read.


Run, ran, run.

Ride, rode, ridden.

Sayd, said, said.


Sell, sold, sold.
Show, showed, shown.
Sit, sat, sat.
Speak, spoke, spoken.
Stand, stood, stood.
Swim, swam, swum.

See, saw, seen.


Send, sent, sent.
Sing, sang, sung.
Sleep, slept, slpet.
Spend, spent, spent.
Steal, stole, stolen.

Take, took, taken.


Tell, told, told.
Throw, threw, threw.

Teach, taught, taught.


Think, thought, thought.

Understand, understood, understood.


Wake, woke, woken.
Win, won, won.
*En AE se acepta la forma regulard +ed

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Wear, wore, worn.


Write, wrote, written.

VERBS AND PREPOSITION

26

Accuse (someone) of ([doing] something)

Add (something) to (something else)


Admire (someone) for ([doing] something)
Agree on (topic)
Agree with (someone)
Apologize to (someone) for ([doing] something)
Apply to (a place) for (something)
Approve of (something)
Argue with (someone) about (topic)
Arrive at (a building, room, site, event)
Arrive in (a city, country)
Ask (someone) about (someone/topic)
Ask (someone) for (something)

Believe in (something)

Belong to (someone)
Blame (someone) for ([doing] something)
Borrow (something) from (someone)

Care about (someone/something/topic)

Comment on (topic)
Compare (something) to/with (something else)
Complain to (someone) about (something)
Concentrate on ([doing] something)
Congratulate (someone) for/on ([doing] something)
Consist of (some things)
Consent to ([doing] something)
Contribute to (something)
Count on (someone) to (do something)
Cover (something) with (something else)

Decide on (topic)

Depend on (someone) for (something)


Discuss (something) with (someone)
Distinguish (something) from (something else)
Dream about/of (someone/something)

Escape from (somewhere)

Explain (topic) to (someone)


Excuse (someone) for ([doing] something)

Forgive (someone for ([doing] something)

Get rid of (something)

Graduate from (a place)

Happen to (someone)

Help (someone) with (something)


Hide (something) from (someone)

Insist (up)on (something)

Introduce (someone) to (someone else)


Invite (someone) to (an event)

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Keep (something) for (someone)

Matter to (someone)

Object to (something)

Participate in (something)

Pay (price) for (something)


Plan on ([doing] something)
Pray for (someone/something)
Prefer (something) to (something else)
Prevent (someone) from ([doing] something)
Prohibit (someone) from ([doing] something)
Protect (someone) from (something)
Provide (someone) with (something)

Recover from (something)


Rely (up)on (someone/something)
Remind (someone) of (something)
Rescue (someone) from (something)
Respond to (someone/something)

Save (someone) from (something)

Search for (something)


Separate (something) from (something else)
Scold (someone) for ([doing] something)
Smile at (someone) for ([doing] something)
Speak to/with (someone) about (topic)
Stare at (something/someone)
Stop (someone) from ([doing] something)
Subscribe to (something)
Substitute (something) for (something else/someone)
Subtract (something) from (something else)
Succeed in ([doing] something)
Suffer from (something)

Take advantage of (someone/something/ situation)

Take care of (something/someone)


Talk to/with (someone) about (topic)
Thank (someone) for ([doing] something)
Travel to (somewhere)

Vote for (someone)

Vouch for (someone)

Wait for (someone/something)

Wish for (something)


Work for (company/something/someone)

LINKING WORDS
Sequence
First/firstly, second /
secondly, third / thirdly etc
Next, last, finally
In addition, moreover
Further / furthermore
Another
Also
In conclusion
To summarise

Result

Addition
And
In addition / additionally /
an additional
Furthermore
Also
Too
As well as

28

However
Nevertheless
Nonetheless
Still
Although / even though
Though
But
Yet
Despite / in spite of
In contrast (to) / in
comparison
While
Whereas
On the other hand
On the contrary

Undoubtedly
Indeed
Obviously
Generally
Admittedly
In fact
Particularly / in
particular
Especially
Clearly
Importantly

Reason

Contrast

So
As a result
As a consequence (of)
Therefore
Thus
Consequently
Hence
Due to

Emphasis

For
Because
Since
As
Because of

Comparison

Similarly
Likewise
Also
Like
Just as
Just like
Similar to
Same as
Compare
compare(d) to / with
Not only...but also

Example

For example
For instance
That is (ie)
Such as
Including
Namely

VERBAL TENSES
Tiempo Verbal

Ejemplo

Significado

Present Simple

I dance

Bailo

Present Continuous

I am dancing

Estoy bailando

Conditional simple

I would dance

Bailara

Conditional Continuous I would be dancing Estara bailando

Tiempo Verbal

Ejemplo

Present Perfect

I have danced

Present Perfect Continuous

I have been dancing

Past Simple
Past Continuous
Past Perfect

I danced
I was dancing
I had danced

Past Perfect Continuous

I had been dancing

Significado
He bailado
He estado bailando
(O llevo bailando)

Bail
Estaba bailando
Haba bailado
Haba estado bailando
(O llevaba bailando)

Conditional Perfect
I would have danced
Habra bailado
Conditional Continuous Perfect I would have been dancing Habra estado bailando

Tiempo Verbal
Future Simple
Future Continuous
Future going to
Future Perfect

Ejemplo

Bailar
Estar bailando
Voy a bailar
Habr bailado
estado bailando
Future Perfect Continuous I will have been dancing Habr
(O llevar bailando)

29

I will dance
I will be dancing
I am going to dance
I will have danced

Significado

IRREGULAR PLURAL
Latinate plurals
singular

plural

addendum

addenda

alga

algae

alumnus

alumni

amoeba

amoebae

antenna

antennae

bacterium

bacteria

cactus

cacti

curriculum

curricula

datum

data

fungus

fungi

genus

genera

larva

larvae

memorandum

memoranda

stimulus

stimuli

syllabus

syllabi

vertebra

vertebrae

-o becoming oes
singular

plural

echo

echoes

embargo

embargoes

hero

heroes

potato

potatoes

tomato

tomatoes

torpedo

torpedoes

veto

vetoes

Changing vowel sounds


singular

plural

foot

feet

goose

geese

louse

lice

man

men

mouse

mice

tooth

teeth

woman

women

-f becoming ves
singular

plural

calf

calves

elf

elves

half

halves

hoof

hooves

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knife

knives

leaf

leaves

life

lives

loaf

loaves

self

selves

shelf

shelves

thief

thieves

wife

wives

wolf

wolves

-is becoming es
singular

plural

axis

axes

analysis

analyses

basis

bases

crisis

crises

diagnosis

diagnoses

ellipsis

ellipses

emphasis

emphases

hypothesis

hypotheses

neurosis

neuroses

oasis

oases

paralysis

paralyses

parenthesis

parentheses

thesis

theses

-ix becoming ices


singular

plural

appendix

appendices

index

indices

matrix

matrices

Unchanged plurals
singular

plural

barracks

barracks

deer

deer

fish

fish

gallows

gallows

means

means

offspring

offspring

series

series

sheep

sheep

species

species

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