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SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

TENSION, COMPRESSION, SHEAR

DESIGN PROBLEMS
1.

The link shown, made of AISI C1045 steel, as rolled, is subjected to a tensile load
of 8000 lb. Let h = 1.5b . If the load is repeated but not reversed, determine the
dimensions of the section with the design based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield
strength. (c) If this link, which is 15 in. long., must not elongate more than 0.005
in., what should be the dimensions of the cross section?

Problems 1 3.
Solution:
For AISI C1045 steel, as rolled (Table AT 7)
su = 96 ksi
s y = 59 ksi
E = 30 106 psi
F
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2
sd =

(a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s
F
sd = u =
N A
96,000 8000
=
6
1.5b 2
5
b = 0.577 in say in .
8

h = 1.5b =

15
in
16

(b) Based on yield strength

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s
F
sd = u =
N A
59,000 8000
=
3
1.5b 2
9
in .
b = 0.521 in say
16
27
h = 1.5b =
in
32

(c) Elongation = =

FL
AE

where,
= 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb
E = 30106 psi
L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,
FL
=
AE
(8000)(15)
0.005 =
(1.5b 2 )(30 106 )
3
b = 0.730 in say in .
4
1
h = 1.5b = 1 in
8
2.

The same as 1 except that the material is malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35
018.

Solution:
For malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35 018(Table AT 6)
su = 55 ksi
s y = 36.5 ksi
E = 2510 6 psi

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2
sd =

(a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s
F
sd = u =
N A
55,000 8000
=
6
1.5b 2
7
b = 0.763 in say in .
8
5
h = 1.5b = 1 in
16

(b) Based on yield strength

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s
F
sd = u =
N A
36,500 8000
=
3
1.5b 2
11
b = 0.622 in say
in .
16
1
h = 1.5b = 1 in
32

(c) Elongation = =

FL
AE

where,
= 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb
E = 2510 6 psi
L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,
4

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

FL
AE

0.005 =

(8000)(15)

(1.5b )(25 10 )
2

b = 0.8 in say
h = 1.5b = 1

3.

7
in .
8

5
in
16

The same as 1 except that the material is gray iron, ASTM 30.

Solution:
For ASTM 30 (Table AT 6)
su = 30 ksi , no s y
E = 14.5 106 psi
Note: since there is no s y for brittle materials. Solve only for (a) and (c)
F
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2
sd =

(a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 7 ~ 8 say 7.5 (Table 1.1)
s
F
sd = u =
N A
30,000 8000
=
7. 5
1.5b 2
3
b = 1.1547 in say 1 in .
16
25
h = 1.5b = 1 in
32
FL
(c) Elongation = =
AE
where,
= 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb

5

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,
FL
=
AE
0.005 =

(8000)(15)

(1.5b )(14.5 10 )
2

b = 1.050 in say 1
h = 1.5b = 1

4.

1
in .
16

19
in
32

A piston rod, made of AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 2), is subjected to a
repeated, reversed load. The rod is for a 20-in. air compressor, where the
maximum pressure is 125 psig. Compute the diameter of the rod using a design
factor based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield strength.

Solution:
From Fig. AF 2 for AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F
su = 152.5 ksi
s y = 132.5 ksi
F = force =

(20)2 (125) = 39,270 lb = 39.27 kips

4
From Table 1.1, page 20
Nu = 8
Ny = 4

(a) Based on ultimate strength

N F
A= u
su
2 (8)(39.27 )
d =
4
152.5
5
d = 1.62 in say 1 in
8
(b) Based on yield strength
NyF
A=
sy

d2 =

(4)(39.27 )
132.5

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

1
d = 1.23 in say 1 in
4

5.

A hollow, short compression member, of normalized cast steel (ASTM A27-58,

65 ksi), is to support a load of 1500 kips with a factor of safety of 8 based on the
ultimate strength. Determine the outside and inside diameters if Do = 2 Di .

Solution:
su = 65 ksi
Nu = 8
F = 1500 kips
A=

(D
4

2
o

Di2 =

(4D
4

2
i

Di2 =

3Di2
4

3Di2 N u F (8)(1500 )
A=
=
=
4
su
65
7
Di = 8.85 in say 8 in
8
3
7
Do = 2 Di = 2 8 = 17 in
4
8
6.

A short compression member with Do = 2 Di is to support a dead load of 25 tons.

The material is to be 4130 steel, WQT 1100 F. Calculate the outside and inside
diameters on the basis of (a) yield strength, (b) ultimate strength.

Solution:
From Table AT 7 for 4130, WQT 1100 F
su = 127 ksi
s y = 114 ksi
From Table 1.1 page 20, for dead load
N u = 3 ~ 4 , say 4
N y = 1.5 ~ 2 , say 2
Area, A =

(D
4

2
o

Di2 =

(4D
4

2
i

Di2 =

3Di2
4

F = 25 tons = 50 kips
(a) Based on yield strength
3Di2 N y F (2 )(50)
A=
=
=
4
sy
114

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

5
in
8
5 1
Do = 2 Di = 2 = 1 in
4
8
(b) Based on ultimate strength
3Di2 N u F (4 )(50)
A=
=
=
4
su
127
7
Di = 0.82 in say in
8
3
7
Do = 2 Di = 2 = 1 in
4
8

Di = 0.61 in say

7.

A round, steel tension member, 55 in. long, is subjected to a maximum load of

7000 lb. (a) What should be its diameter if the total elongation is not to exceed
0.030 in? (b) Choose a steel that would be suitable on the basis of yield strength if
the load is gradually applied and repeated (not reversed).

Solution:
(a) =

FL
FL
or A =
AE
E

where,
F = 7000 lb
L = 55 in
= 0.030 in
E = 30 10 6 psi

A=

d2 =

(7000)(55)
(0.030)(30 106 )

3
in
4
(b) For gradually applied and repeated (not reversed) load
Ny = 3

d = 0.74 in say

sy =

N yF
A

(0.75)2
4

s y 48 ksi

say C1015 normalized condition ( s y = 48 ksi )

8.

A centrifuge has a small bucket, weighing 0.332 lb. with contents, suspended on a
manganese bronze pin (B138-A, hard) at the end of a horizontal arm. If the pin
is in double shear under the action of the centrifugal force, determine the diameter
8

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

needed for 10,000 rpm of the arm. The center of gravity of the bucket is 12 in.
from the axis of rotation.
Solution:
From Table AT 3, for B138-A, hard
sus = 48 ksi
W
F = 2r
g
where
W = 0.332 lb
g = 32.2 fps 2
2 n 2 (10,000 )
=
=
= 1047 rad sec
60
60
r = 12 in
W
0.332
F = 2r =
(1047)2 (1) = 11,300 lb = 11.3 kips
g
32.2
From Table 1.1, page 20
N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4
N F
A= u
su
(4)(11.3)
2 d 2 =
for double shear
48
4
25
d = 0.774 in say
in
32
CHECK PROBLEMS
9.

The link shown is made of AISIC1020 annealed steel, with b =

3
in and
4

1
h = 1 in . (a) What force will cause breakage? (b) For a design factor of 4 based
2
on the ultimate strength, what is the maximum allowable load? (c) If N = 2.5
based on the yield strength, what is the allowable load?

Problem 9.
9

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
For AISI C1020 annealed steel, from Table AT 7
su = 57 ksi
s y = 42 ksi
(a) F = su A
3 1
A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2
4 2
F = (57 )(1.125) = 64 kips
s A
(b) F = u
Nu
Nu = 4
3 1
A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2
4 2
(57 )(1.125) = 16 kips
F=
4
(c) F =

sy A
Ny

N y = 2. 5

3 1
A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2
4 2
(42 )(1.125) = 18.9 kips
F=
2
10.

A -in.bolt, made of cold-finished B1113, has an effective stress area of 0.334 sq.
in. and an effective grip length of 5 in. The bolt is to be loaded by tightening until
the tensile stress is 80 % of the yield strength, as determined by measuring the
total elongation. What should be the total elongation?

Solution:
sL
=
E
from Table AT 7 for cold-finished B1113
s y = 72 ksi
then, s = 0.80 s y = 0.8(72 ) = 57.6 ksi
E = 30 106 psi = 30,000 ksi
sL (57.6)(5)
=
=
= 0.0096 in
E
30,000
10

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

11.

A 4-lb. weight is attached by a 3/8-in. bolt to a rotating arm 14-in. from the center
of rotation. The axis of the bolts is normal to the plane in which the centrifugal
force acts and the bolt is in double shear. At what speed will the bolt shear in two
if it is made of AISI B1113, cold finish?

Solution:
From Table AT 7, sus = 62 ksi = 62,000 psi
2

1 3
A = 2 ( ) = 0.2209 in 2
4 8
W
F = 2 r = sus A
g
4
2 (14) = (62,000)(0.2209)
32.2
= 88.74 rad sec
2 n
=
= 88.74
60
n = 847 rpm

12.

How many -in. holes could be punched in one stroke in annealed steel plate of
AISI C1040, 3/16-in. thick, by a force of 60 tons?

Solution:
For AISI C1040, from Figure AF 1
su = 80 ksi
sus = 0.75su = 0.75(80) ksi = 60 ksi
3 3
A = d t = = 0.4418 in2
4 16

F = 60 tons = 120 kips

n = number of holes
n=

13.

F
120
=
= 5 holes
Asus (0.4415)(60 )

What is the length of a bearing for a 4-in. shaft if the load on the bearing is 6400
lb. and the allowable bearing pressure is 200 psi of the projected area?

Solution:
pDL = W
where
p = 200 psi
D = 4 in
11

W = 6400 lb
(200)(4)L = 6400
L = 8 in
BENDING STRESSES
DESIGN PROBLEMS
14.

A lever keyed to a shaft is L = 15 in long and has a rectangular cross section of

h = 3t . A 2000-lb load is gradually applied and reversed at the end as shown; the
material is AISI C1020, as rolled. Design for both ultimate and yield strengths. (a)
What should be the dimensions of a section at a = 13 in ? (b) at b = 4 in ? (c) What
should be the size where the load is applied?

Problem 14.
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled, Table AT 7
su = 65 ksi
s y = 49 ksi
Design factors for gradually applied and reversed load
Nu = 8
Ny = 4
th 3
, moment of inertial
12
but h = 3t
h4
I=
36
I=

12

Based on ultimate strength

s
s= u
Nu
(a) s =

Mc Fac
=
I
I

h
2
F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips
(2)(13) h
65
2
s=
=
4
8
h

36
h = 3.86 in
h 3.86
t= =
= 1.29 in
3
3
say
1
h = 4.5 in = 4 in
2
1
t = 1.5 in = 1 in
2
c=

(b) s =

Mc Fbc
=
I
I

h
2
F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips
(2)(4) h
65
2
s=
=
4
8
h

36
h = 2.61 in
h 2.61
t= =
= 0.87 in
3
3
say
h = 3 in
t = 1 in
c=

(c)

13

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

3 h 4. 5 3
=
4
13 4
h = 2.33 in
1 t 1.5 1
=
4
13 4
t = 0.78 in
say
5
h = 2.625 in or h = 2 in
8

15.

A simple beam 54 in. long with a load of 4 kips at the center is made of cast steel,
SAE 080. The cross section is rectangular (let h 3b ). (a) Determine the
dimensions for N = 3 based on the yield strength. (b) Compute the maximum
deflection for these dimensions. (c) What size may be used if the maximum
deflection is not to exceed 0.03 in.?

Solution:
For cast steel, SAE 080 (Table AT 6)
s y = 40 ksi
E = 30 106 psi

14

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

From Table AT 2
FL (4)(54 )
Max. M =
=
= 54 kips in
4
4
bh 3
I=
12
but h = 3b
h4
I=
36
(a) s =
c=

sy
Ny

Mc
I

h
2

(54) h

40
2
=
3
h4

36
h = 4.18 in
h 4.18
b= =
= 1.39 in
3
3
h 4. 5
1
1
= 1.5 in = 1 in
say h = 4 in , b = =
2
3
3
2

FL3
(b) =
=
48 EI

(c) =

(4000)(54)3
= 0.0384 in
3

6 (1.5 )(4.5 )
48(30 10 )

12

FL3
h4
48E
36

3
(
4000)(54 ) (36 )
0.03 =

48(30 106 )(h 4 )

h = 4.79 in
h 4.79
b= =
= 1.60 in
3
3

1
h 5.25
3
say h = 5.25 in = 5 in , b = =
= 1.75 in = 1 in
4
3
3
4

15

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

16.

The same as 15, except that the beam is to have a circular cross section.

Solution:
s
Mc
(a) s = y =
Ny
I
I=

d4

64
d
c=
2
d
M
32 M
2
s= 4 =
d d3

64
40 32(54 )
=
3
d3
d = 3.46 in
1
say d = 3 in
2
(b) =
I=

FL3
48 EI

d4

64
3
64 FL3
64(4000 )(54)
=
=
= 0.0594 in
48 E ( d 4 ) 48(30 106 )( )(3.5)4
(c) =

64 FL3
48 E ( d 4 )

64(4000)(54 )
0.03 =
48(30 106 )( )d 4
d = 4.15 in
1
say d = 4 in
4
3

17.

A simple beam, 48 in. long, with a static load of 6000 lb. at the center, is made of
C1020 structural steel. (a) Basing your calculations on the ultimate strength,
determine the dimensions of the rectangular cross section for h = 2b . (b)
Determine the dimensions based on yield strength. (c) Determine the dimensions
using the principle of limit design.
16

Solution:

From Table AT 7 and Table 1.1

su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
N u = 3 ~ 4 , say 4
N y = 1.5 ~ 2 , say 2
FL (6)(48)
=
= 72 in kips
4
4
Mc
s=
I
h
c=
2
bh 3
I=
12
h
but b =
2
4
h
I=
24
h
M
12M
2
s = 4 = 3
h
h
24
M=

s
12 M
s= u = 3
Nu
h
65 12(72)
=
4
h3
h = 3.76 in

17

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

b=

h 3.76
=
= 1.88 in
2
2

3
h 3.75
7
say h = 3.75 in = 3 in , b = =
= 1.875 in = 1 in
4
2
2
8

(b) Based on yield strength

s y 12 M
s=
= 3
Ny
h
48 12(72 )
=
2
h3
h = 3.30 in
h 3.30
b= =
= 1.65 in
2
2
h 3. 5
1
3
say h = 3.5 in = 3 in , b = =
= 1.75 in = 1 in
2
2
2
4

(c) Limit design (Eq. 1.6)

bh 2
4
h 2
h
2
72 = (48)
4
h = 2.29 in
h 2.29
b= =
= 1.145 in
2
2
1
h 2. 5
1
say h = 2.5 in = 2 in , b = =
= 1.25 in = 1 in
2
2
2
4
M = sy

18.

The bar shown is subjected to two vertical loads, F1 and F2 , of 3000 lb. each, that
are L = 10 in apart and 3 in. ( a , d ) from the ends of the bar. The design factor is 4
based on the ultimate strength; h = 3b . Determine the dimensions h and b if the
bar is made of (a) gray cast iron, SAE 111; (b) malleable cast iron, ASTM A4752, grade 35 018; (c) AISI C1040, as rolled (Fig. AF 1). Sketch the shear and
moment diagrams approximately to scale.

18

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problems18, 19.
Solution:
F1 = F2 = R1 = R2 = 3000 lb
Moment Diagram

M = R1a = (3000)(3) = 9000 lbs in = 9 kips in

N = factor of safety = 4 based on su
bh 3
12
h
c=
2
h 3
h
h4
3

I=
=
12
36
I=

(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 111

su = 30 ksi , Table AT 6
h
M
s
Mc
18M
2
s= u =
= 4 = 3
N
I
h
h

36
30 18(9 )
s=
= 3
4
h
h = 2.78 in
h 2.78
b= =
= 0.93 in
3
3
say h = 3.5 in , b = 1 in
(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35 018
19

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su = 55 ksi , Table AT 6
h
M
s
Mc
18M
2
s= u =
= 4 = 3
N
I
h
h

36
55 18(9 )
s=
= 3
4
h
h = 2.28 in
h 2.28
b= =
= 0.76 in
3
3
1
3
say h = 2 in , b = in
4
4
(c) For AISI C1040, as rolled
su = 90 ksi , Fig. AF 1
h
M
s
Mc
18M
2
s= u =
= 4 = 3
N
I
h
h

36
90 18(9 )
s=
= 3
4
h
h = 1.93 in
h 1.93
b= =
= 0.64 in
3
3
7
5
say h = 1 in , b = in
8
8
19.

The same as 18, except that F1 acts up ( F2 acts down).

Solution:

[ M

=0

R1 = R2 = 1875 lb
20

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

(a) For gray cast iron

su 18M
= 3
N
h
30 18(5.625)
=
4
h3
h = 2.38 in
h 2.38
b= =
= 0.79 in
3
3
1
3
say h = 2 in , b = in
4
4
(b) For malleable cast iron
s=

su 18M
= 3
N
h
55 18(5.625)
=
4
h3
h = 1.95 in
h 1.95
b= =
= 0.65 in
3
3
7
5
say h = 1 in , b = in
8
8
s=

21

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(c) For AISI C1040, as rolled
su 18M
= 3
N
h
90 18(5.625)
=
4
h3
h = 1.65 in
h 1.65
b= =
= 0.55 in
3
3
1
1
say h = 1 in , b = in
2
2
s=

20.

The bar shown, supported at A and B , is subjected to a static load F of 2500 lb.
at = 0 . Let d = 3 in , L = 10 in and h = 3b . Determine the dimensions of the
section if the bar is made of (a) gray iron, SAE 110; (b) malleable cast iron,
ASTM A47-52, grade 32 510; (c) AISI C1035 steel, as rolled. (d) For economic
reasons, the pins at A, B, and C are to be the same size. What should be their
diameter if the material is AISI C1035, as rolled, and the mounting is such that
each is in double shear? Use the basic dimensions from (c) as needed. (e) What
sectional dimensions would be used for the C1035 steel if the principle of limit
design governs in (c)?

Solution:

22

[ M
[ M

=0
=0

3RB = 13(2500 )

RB = 10,833 lb
3RA = 10(2500)
RA = 8333 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M = (2500 )(10) = 25,000 lb in = 25 kips in

h = 3b
bh 3
I=
12
h4
I=
36
h
c=
2

h
M
Mc
18M
2
s=
= 4 = 3
I
h
h

36
(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 110
su = 20 ksi , Table AT 6
N = 5 ~ 6 , say 6 for cast iron, dead load
s 18M
s= u = 3
N
h
20 18(25)
=
6
h3
23

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

h = 5.13 in
h
b = = 1.71 in
3
1
3
say h = 5 in , b = 1 in
4
4
(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-32 grade 32510
su = 52 ksi , s y = 34 ksi
N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4 for ductile, dead load
s 18M
s= u = 3
N
h
52 18(25)
=
4
h3
h = 3.26 in
h
b = = 1.09 in
3
3
1
say h = 3 in , b = 1 in
4
4
(c) For AISI C1035, as rolled
su = 85 ksi , s y = 55 ksi
N = 4 , based on ultimate strength
s 18M
s= u = 3
N
h
85 18(25)
=
4
h3
h = 2.77 in
h
b = = 0.92 in
3
say h = 3 in , b = 1 in

(d) For AISI C1035, as rolled

s su = 64 ksi
N = 4 , RB = 10.833 kips
s
R
s s = su = B
N
A

A = 2 D 2 = D 2
4
2
64 10.833
=
ss =
2
4
D
2
D = 0.657 in

24

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

11
in
16
(e) Limit Design
bh 2
M = sy
4
For AISI C1035 steel, s y = 55 ksi

say D =

b=

h
3

h 2
h
3
M = 25 = (55)
4
h = 1.76 in
h
b = = 0.59 in
3
7
5
say h = 1.875 in = 1 in , b = in
8
8
The same as 20, except that = 30o . Pin B takes all the horizontal thrust.

21.

Solution:

FV = F cos

[ M
[ M

=0

=0

3RB = 13FV

3RB = 13(2500 ) cos 30

RB = 9382 lb
3RA = 10 FV
3RA = 10(2500) cos 30
RA = 7217 lb

Shear Diagram

25

Moment Diagram

M = (2165)(10 ) = 21,650 lb in = 21.65 kips in

18M
s= 3
h
(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 110
su = 20 ksi , Table AT 6
N = 5 ~ 6 , say 6 for cast iron, dead load
s 18M
s= u = 3
N
h
20 18(21.65)
=
6
h3
h = 4.89 in
h
b = = 1.63 in
3
1
3
say h = 5 in , b = 1 in
4
4
(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-32 grade 32510
su = 52 ksi , s y = 34 ksi
N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4 for ductile, dead load
s 18M
s= u = 3
N
h
(
52 18 21.65)
=
4
h3
h = 3.11 in
h
b = = 1.04 in
3
say h = 3 in , b = 1 in
(c) For AISI C1035, as rolled
su = 85 ksi , s y = 55 ksi
N = 4 , based on ultimate strength

26

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su 18M
= 3
N
h
85 18(21.65)
=
4
h3
h = 2.64 in
h
b = = 0.88 in
3
5
7
say h = 2 in , b = in
8
8
s=

(d) For AISI C1035, as rolled

s su = 64 ksi
N = 4 , RBV = 9382 lb
RBH = FH = F sin = 2500 sin 30 = 1250 lb
2
2
RB2 = RBV
+ RBH
= (9382) + (1250 )
2

RB = 9465 lb
s
R
s s = su = B
N
A

A = 2 D 2 = D 2
4
2
64 9.465
ss =
=
4 D2
2
D = 0.614 in
5
say D = in
8
(e) Limit Design
bh 2
M = sy
4
For AISI C1035 steel, s y = 55 ksi
b=

h
3

h 2
h
3
M = 21.65 = (55)
4
h = 1.68 in
h
b = = 0.56 in
3
7
5
say h = 1.875 in = 1 in , b = in
8
8
27

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

22.

A cast-iron beam, ASTM 50, as shown, is 30 in. long and supports two gradually
applied, repeated loads (in phase), one of 2000 lb. at e = 10 in from the free end,
and one of 1000 lb at the free end. (a) Determine the dimensions of the cross
section if b = c 3a . (b) The same as (a) except that the top of the tee is below.

Problem 22.
Solution:
For cast iron, ASTM 50
su = 50 ksi , suc = 164 ksi
N = 7 ~ 8 , say 8
M = F1d + F2 (d + e )
where:
F1 = 2000 lb
F2 = 1000 lb
d = 30 10 = 20 in
d + e = 30 in
M = (2000 )(20 ) + (1000)(30 ) = 70,000 lb in = 70 kips in
Mc
I
Solving for I , moment of inertia
s=

2

y=

3a
2

28

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

I=

(3a )(a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) + (a )(3a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) = 17a 4
12

12

(a)

3a
2
5a
cc =
2
Based on tension
s
Mct
st = u =
N
I
(70) 3a
50
2
=
8
17a 4

2
a = 1.255 in
Based on compression
s
Mcc
sc = uc =
N
I
(70) 5a
164
2
=
8
17 a 4

2
a = 1.001 in
Therefore a = 1.255 in
1
Or say a = 1 in
4
And b = c = 3a = 3(1.25) = 3.75 in

ct =

29

3
Or b = c = 3 in
4

(b) If the top of the tee is below

5a
2
3a
cc =
2
17a 4
I=
2
M = 70 kips in

ct =

Based on tension
s
Mct
st = u =
N
I
(70) 5a
50
2
=
8
17 a 4

2
a = 1.488 in
Based on compression
s
Mcc
sc = uc =
N
I
(70) 3a
164
2
=
8
17a 4

2
a = 0.845 in
Therefore a = 1.488 in
1
Or say a = 1 in
2
1
And b = c = 3a = 4 in
2
CHECK PROBLEMS
30

23.

An I-beam is made of structural steel, AISI C1020, as rolled. It has a depth of 3

in. and is subjected to two loads; F1 and F2 = 2F1 ; F1 is 5 in. from one end and
F2 is 5 in. from the other ends. The beam is 25 in. long; flange width is
b = 2.509 in ; I x = 2.9 in 4 . Determine (a) the approximate values of the load to
cause elastic failure, (b) the safe loads for a factor of safety of 3 based on the yield
strength, (c) the safe load allowing for flange buckling (i1.24), (f) the maximum
deflection caused by the safe loads.

Problems 23 25.
Solution:

[ M

[ F

=0

=0

5 F1 + 20(2 F1 ) = 25RB
RB = 1.8 F1
F1 + 2 F1 = RA + RB
RA = 3F1 1.8F1 = 1.2 F1

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

31

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

M = 9F1 = maximum moment
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
Mc
I
d 3
where c = = = 1.5 in
2 2
(9 F1 )(1.5)
s y = 48 =
2.9
F1 = 10.31 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 20.62 kips

(a) s y =

sy

Mc
N
I
48 (9 F1 )(1.5)
s=
=
3
2.9
F1 = 3.44 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 6.88 kips

(b) s =

(c)

L
25
=
= 9.96 < 15 (page 34)
b 2.509

sc = 20 ksi ( page 34, i1.24)

Mc
I
(9 F1 )(1.5)
20 =
2.9
F1 = 4.30 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 8.60 kips
sc =

(d) For maximum deflection,

by method of superposition, Table AT 2
3

y max

Fb a( L + b ) 2
=
, a > b
3EIL
3

or
3

y max

Fa b(L + a ) 2
=
, b > a
3EIL
3

32

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

y max caused by F1
3

F a b(L + a1 ) 2
y max1 = 1 1 1
, b1 > a1
3EIL
3
where E = 30,000 ksi
a1 = 5 in
b1 = 20 in
L = 25 in
I = 2.9 in 4
3

y max1

F1 (5)
20(25 + 5) 2
=
= 0.0022 F1
3(30,000 )(2.9 )(25)
3

y max caused by F2
3

F b a (L + b2 ) 2
y max 2 = 2 2 2
, a2 > b2
3EIL
3
where b2 = 5 in
a2 = 20 in
3

y max 2

2 F1 (5)
20(25 + 5) 2
=
= 0.0043F1
3(30,000 )(2.9 )(25)
3

Total deflection =
= ymax1 + ymax 2 = 0.022 F1 + 0.0043F1 = 0.0065 F1
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (a)
a = 0.0065(10.31) = 0.067 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b)
b = 0.0065(3.44) = 0.022 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c)
c = 0.0065(4.30 ) = 0.028 in
24.

The same as 23, except that the material is aluminum alloy, 2024-T4, heat treated.

Solution:
For aluminum alloy, 2024-T4, heat treated
s y = 47 ksi
(a) s y =

Mc
I

33

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

s y = 47 =

(9 F1 )(1.5)

2. 9
F1 = 10.10 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 20.20 kips

sy

Mc
N
I
47 (9 F1 )(1.5)
s=
=
3
2.9
F1 = 3.36 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 6.72 kips

(b) s =

(c)

L
25
=
= 9.96 < 15 (page 34)
b 2.509

sc = 20 ksi ( page 34, i1.24)

Mc
I
(
9 F1 )(1.5)
20 =
2.9
F1 = 4.30 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 8.60 kips
sc =

(d) Total deflection =

= ymax1 + ymax 2 = 0.022 F1 + 0.0043F1 = 0.0065 F1
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (a)
a = 0.0065(10.10 ) = 0.066 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b)
b = 0.0065(3.36) = 0.022 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c)
c = 0.0065(4.30 ) = 0.028 in
25.

A light I-beam is 80 in. long, simply supported, and carries a static load at the
midpoint. The cross section has a depth of d = 4 in , a flange width of b = 2.66 in ,
and I x = 6.0 in 4 (see figure). (a) What load will the beam support if it is made of
C1020, as-rolled steel, and flange buckling (i1.24) is considered? (b) Consider the
stress owing to the weight of the beam, which is 7.7 lb/ft, and decide whether or
not the safe load should be less.

34

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
(a) For C1020, as rolled, su = 65 ksi
Consider flange buckling
L
80
=
= 30
b 2.66
L
since 15 < < 40
b
22.5
22.5
sc =
=
= 15 ksi
2
2
(
30 )
L
1 + 1800 1 +
1800
b
Mc
s=
I
d 4
c = = = 2 in
2 2

From Table AT 2
FL F (80)
M=
=
= 20 F
4
4
Mc
s = sc =
I
(
20 F )(2)
15 =
6
F = 2.25 kips , safe load
(b) Considering stress owing to the weight of the beam
wL2
(Table AT 2)
8
where w = 7.7 lb ft

35

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

wL2 7.7 (80 )
=
= 513 lb in = 0.513 kips in

8
12 8
M = 20 F + 0.513 = total moment
Mc
s = sc =
I
(20 F + 0.513)(2 )
15 =
6
F = 2.224 kips
Therefore, the safe load should be less.
2

26.

What is the stress in a band-saw blade due to being bent around a 13 -in. pulley?
The blade thickness is 0.0265 in. (Additional stresses arise from the initial tension
and forces of sawing.)

Solution:

t
= 0.0265 = 0.01325 in
2
r = 13.75 + 0.01325 = 13.76325 in
Using Eq. (1.4) page 11 (Text)
Ec
s=
r
where E = 30 106 psi
c=

(30 10 )(0.01325) = 28,881 psi

s=
6

13.76325

27.

A cantilever beam of rectangular cross section is tapered so that the depth varies
uniformly from 4 in. at the fixed end to 1 in. at the free end. The width is 2 in. and
the length 30 in. What safe load, acting repeated with minor shock, may be
applied to the free end? The material is AISI C1020, as rolled.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi (Table AT 7)
Designing based on ultimate strength,
N = 6 , for repeated, minor shock load
36

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su 65
=
= 10.8 ksi
N
6
s=

4 1 h 1
=
30
x
h = 0.10 x + 1
wh 3
I=
12
h
c=
2
M = Fx

(Fx ) h

Mc
3Fx
2 = 6 Fx = 3Fx =
=
2
2
3
I
2h
h
wh
(0.10 x + 1)2

12
Differentiating with respect to x then equate to zero to solve for x giving maximum
stress.
(0.10 x + 1)2 (1) 2( x )(0.10 x + 1)(0.10 )
ds
= 3F
=0
dx
(0.10 x + 1)4

0.10 x + 1 2(0.10 x ) = 0
x = 10 in
h = 0.10(10 ) + 1 = 2 in
s
3Fx
s= u = 2
N
h
3F (10 )
10.8 =
(2)2
F = 1.44 kips
s=

TORSIONAL STRESSES
DESIGN PROBLEMS

37

28.

A centrifugal pump is to be driven by a 15-hp electric motor at 1750 rpm. What

should be the diameter of the pump shaft if it is made of AISI C1045 as rolled?

Solution:
For C1045 as rolled,
s y = 59 ksi
sus = 72 ksi
Designing based on ultimate strength
s
s = us , N = 6 (Table 1.1)
N
72
s=
= 12 ksi
6
33,000hp 33,000(15)
Torque, T =
=
= 45 ft lb = 540 in lb = 0.540 in kips
2 n
2 (1750)
For diameter,
16T
s=
d3
16(0.540)
12 =
d3
d = 0.612 in
5
say d = in
8
29.

A shaft in torsion only is to transmit 2500 hp at 570 rpm with medium shocks. Its
material is AISI 1137 steel, annealed. (a) What should be the diameter of a solid
shaft? (b) If the shaft is hollow, Do = 2 Di , what size is required? (c) What is the
weight per foot of length of each of these shafts? Which is the lighter? By what
percentage? (d) Which shaft is the more rigid? Compute the torsional deflection
of each for a length of 10 ft.

Solution:
33,000hp 33,000(2500 )
T=
=
= 23,036 ft lb = 276 in kips
2 n
2 (570 )
For AISI 1137, annealed
s y = 50 ksi (Table AT 8)
s ys = 0.6s y = 30 ksi

Designing based on yield strength

N = 3 for medium shock, one direction

38

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Design stress
s
30
= 10 ksi
s = ys =
N
3
(a) Let D = shaft diameter
Tc
J
D4
J=
32
D
c=
2
16T
s=
D3
16(276)
10 =
D3
D = 5.20 in
1
say D = 5 in
4
s=

(b) J =

(Do4 Di4 ) (2 Di )4 Di4

=

32
Do 2 Di
c=
=
= Di
2
2
TDi
32T
s=
=
4
15 Di 15 Di3

32
32(276 )
10 =
15 Di3
Di = 2.66 in

32

] = 15 D

4
i

32

Do = 2 Di = 5.32 in
say
5
Di = 2 in
8
1
Do = 5 in
4
(c) Density, = 0.284 lb in 3 (Table AT 7)

39

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

For solid shaft
w = weight per foot of length

2
w = 12 D 2 = 3D 2 = 3 (0.284)(5.25) = 73.8 lb ft
4

For hollow shaft

2
2
w = 12 Do2 Di2 = 3 Do2 Di2 = 3 (0.284)(5.25) (2.625) = 55.3 lb ft
4
Therefore hollow shaft is lighter
73.8 55.3
Percentage lightness =
(100% ) = 33.5%
55.3

(d) Torsional Deflection

TL
JG
where
L = 10 ft = 120 in

G = 11.5 103 ksi

For solid shaft, J =

D4
32

(276)(120 )
180
o
= 0.039 rad = (0.039)
= 2.2

4
3

(5.25) (11.5 10 )
32

For hollow shaft, J =

(Do4 Di4 )
32

(276 )(120)
180
o
= 0.041 rad = (0.041)
= 2.4

4
4
3

[(5.25) (2.625) ](11.5 10 )

32
Therefore, solid shaft is more rigid, 2.2o < 2.4o

30.

The same as 29, except that the material is AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F.

Solution:
33,000hp 33,000(2500 )
T=
=
= 23,036 ft lb = 276 in kips
2 n
2 (570 )
For AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F
s y = 130 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(130 ) = 78 ksi

40

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

N = 3 for mild shock

Design stress
s
78
= 26 ksi
s = ys =
N
3
(a) Let D = shaft diameter
Tc
J
D4
J=
32
D
c=
2
16T
s=
D3
16(276)
26 =
D3
D = 3.78 in
3
say D = 3 in
4
s=

(b) J =

(Do4 Di4 ) (2 Di )4 Di4

=

32
Do 2 Di
c=
=
= Di
2
2
TDi
32T
s=
=
4
15 Di 15 Di3

32
32(276)
26 =
15 Di3
Di = 1.93 in

32

] = 15 D

4
i

32

Do = 2 Di = 3.86 in
say
Di = 2 in
Do = 4 in
(c) Density, = 0.284 lb in 3 (Table AT 7)

41

For solid shaft

w = weight per foot of length

2
w = 12 D 2 = 3D 2 = 3 (0.284)(3.75) = 37.6 lb ft
4

For hollow shaft

2
2
w = 12 Do2 Di2 = 3 Do2 Di2 = 3 (0.284)(4) (2) = 32.1 lb ft
4
Therefore hollow shaft is lighter
37.6 32.1
Percentage lightness =
(100% ) = 17.1%
32.1

(d) Torsional Deflection

TL
JG
where
L = 10 ft = 120 in

G = 11.5 103 ksi

For solid shaft, J =

D4
32

(276)(120)
180
o
=
= 0.148 rad = (0.148)
= 8.48

4
3

(3.75) (11.5 10 )
32

For hollow shaft, J =

(Do4 Di4 )
32

(276)(120 )
180
o
= 0.122 rad = (0.122 )
= 6.99

4
4
3

[(4) (2 ) ](11.5 10 )

32
Therefore, hollow shaft is more rigid, 6.99o < 8.48o .

31.

A steel shaft is transmitting 40 hp at 500 rpm with minor shock. (a) What should
be its diameter if the deflection is not to exceed 1o in 20 D ? (b) If deflection is
primary what kind of steel would be satisfactory?

Solution:
33,000hp 33,000(40 )
(a) T =
=
= 420 ft lb = 5.04 in kips
2 n
2 (500 )
G = 11.5 103 ksi
L = 20 D
42

= 1o =
=

180

TL
JG

(5.04)(20 D )

D4

11.5 103
32

D = 1.72 in
3
say D = 1 in
4
180

(b) s =

16T 16(5.04 )
=
= 4.8 ksi
D 3 (1.75)3

Based on yield strength

N =3
s ys = Ns = (3)(4.8) = 14.4 ksi
s ys

14.4
= 24 ksi
0.6 0.6
Use C1117 normalized steel s y = 35 ksi
sy =

32.

A square shaft of cold-finish AISI 1118 transmits a torsional moment of 1200 inlb. For medium shock, what should be its size?

Solution:
For AISI 1118 cold-finish
s y = 75 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 45 ksi
N = 3 for medium shock
s
T
s = ys =
N Z
where, h = b
2b 2 h 2b 3
Z =
=
(Table AT 1)
9
9
T = 1200 in lb = 1.2 in kips
45 1.2(9)
s=
=
3
2b 3
b = h = 0.71 in
3
say b = h = in
4

43

CHECK PROBLEMS
33.

A punch press is designed to exert a force sufficient to shear a 15/16-in. hole in a

-in. steel plate, AISI C1020, as rolled. This force is exerted on the shaft at a
radius of -in. (a) Compute the torsional stress in the 3.5-in. shaft (bending
neglected). (b) What will be the corresponding design factor if the shaft is made
of cold-rolled AISI 1035 steel (Table AT 10)? Considering the shock loading that
is characteristics of this machine, do you thick the design is safe enough?

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
sus = 49 ksi
F = sus ( Dt )
15
where D = in
16
1
t = in
2
15 1
F = 49( ) = 72.2 kips
16 2
T = Fr
3
where r = in
4
3
T = (72.2 ) = 54.2 in kips
4
16T
d3
where d = 3.5 in
16(54.2)
s=
= 6.44 ksi
3
(3.5)
(a) s =

(b) For AISI 1035 steel, s us = 64 ksi

for shock loading, traditional factor of safety, N = 10 ~ 15
Design factor , N =
34.

sus
64
=
= 9.94 , the design is safe ( N 10 )
s 6.44

Solution:
44

d = 2.75 in
16T
d3
16(54.2 )
s=
= 13.3 ksi
3
(2.75)

(a) s =

(b) For AISI 1035 steel, s us = 64 ksi

for shock loading, traditional factor of safety, N = 10 ~ 15
Design factor , N =

sus
64
=
= 4.8 , the design is not safe ( N < 10 )
s 13.3

A hollow annealed Monel propeller shaft has an external diameter of 13 in. and
an internal diameter of 6 in.; it transmits 10,000 hp at 200 rpm. (a) Compute the
torsional stress in the shaft (stress from bending and propeller thrust are not
considered). (b) Compute the factor of safety. Does it look risky?

35.

Solution:
For Monel shaft,
s us = 98 ksi (Table AT 3)
N = 3 ~ 4 , for dead load, based on ultimate strength
Tc
J
Do4 Di4 (13.5)4 (6.5)4
J=
=
= 3086 in 4
32
32
Do 13.5
c=
=
= 6.75 in
2
2
33,000hp 33,000(10,000)
T=
=
= 262,606 ft lb = 3152 in kips
2 n
2 (200)
(3152)(6.75) = 6.9 ksi
s=
3086
(b) Factor of safety,

(a) s =

N=

sus 98
=
= 14.2 , not risky
s 6. 9

45

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

STRESS ANALYSIS
DESIGN PROBLEMS
36.

A hook is attached to a plate as shown and supports a static load of 12,000 lb. The
material is to be AISI C1020, as rolled. (a) Set up strength equations for
dimensions d , D , h , and t . Assume that the bending in the plate is negligible.
(b) Determine the minimum permissible value of these dimensions. In estimating
the strength of the nut, let D1 = 1.2d . (c) Choose standard fractional dimensions
which you think would be satisfactory.

Problems 36 38.
Solution:
s = axial stress
s s = shear stress
(a)
s=

F
4F
=
2
1
d2 d
4

Equation (1) d =

4F
s

46

s=

F
1
D 2 D12
4

Equation (2) D =
ss =

4F
4F
4F
=
=
2
2
2
2
2
D D1
D 1.44d 2
D (1.2d )

] (

4F
+ 1.44d 2
s

F
F
=
D1h 1.2 dh

Equation (3) h =
ss =

F
1.2 ds s

F
Dt

Equation (4) t =

F
Dss

(b) Designing based on ultimate strength,

Table AT 7, AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
sus = 49 ksi
N = 3 ~ 4 say 4, design factor for static load
s
65
= 16 ksi
s= u =
N
4
s
49
s s = us =
= 12 ksi
N
4

F = 12,000 lb = 12 kips
From Equation (1)
4F
4(12 )
d=
=
= 0.98 in
s
(16 )
From Equation (2)
4F
4(12 )
2
D=
+ 1.44d 2 =
+ 1.44(0.98) = 1.53 in
s
(16)
From Equation (3)
F
12
h=
=
= 0.27 in
1.2 ds s 1.2 (0.98)(12 )
From Equation (4)
F
12
t=
=
= 0.21 in
Dss (1.53)(12 )
47

(c) Standard fractional dimensions

d = 1 in
1
D = 1 in
2
1
h = in
4
1
t = in
4
37.

The same as 36, except that a shock load of 4000 lb. is repeatedly applied.

Solution:
(a) Same as 36.
(b) N = 10 ~ 15 for shock load, based on ultimate strength
say N = 15 , others the same.
s
65
s= u =
= 4 ksi
N 15
s
49
s s = us =
= 3 ksi
N 15
F = 4000 lb = 4 kips
From Equation (1)
4F
4(4 )
d=
=
= 1.13 in
s
(4)
From Equation (2)
4F
4(4)
2
D=
+ 1.44d 2 =
+ 1.44(1.13) = 1.76 in
s
(4 )
From Equation (3)
F
4
h=
=
= 0.31 in
1.2 ds s 1.2 (1.13)(3)
From Equation (4)
F
4
t=
=
= 0.24 in
Dss (1.76)(3)

48

(c) Standard fractional dimensions

1
d = 1 in
8
3
D = 1 in
4
3
h = in
8
1
t = in
4

38.

The connection between the plate and hook, as shown, is to support a load F .
Determine the value of dimensions D , h , and t in terms of d if the connection
is to be as strong as the rod of diameter d . Assume that D1 = 1.2d , sus = 0.75su ,
and that bending in the plate is negligible.

Solution:

s=

1
d2
4
1
F = d 2s
4
1
s
(1) F = d 2 u
4
N

49

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

s=

1
1
D 2 D12
D 2 1.44d 2
4
4
1
F = (D 2 1.44d 2 )s
4
1
s
(2) F = D 2 1.44d 2 u
4
N
F
F
ss =
=
D1h 1.2 dh
F = 1.2 dhss

s
0.75su
F = 1.2 dh us = 1.2 dh

N
N
5s
(3) F = 0.9 dh u
N
F
ss =
Dt
F = Dtss
s
0.75su
F = Dt us = Dt

N
N
s
(4) F = 0.75 Dt u
N
Equate (2) and (1)
1
s 1
s
F = D 2 1.44d 2 u = d 2 u
4
N 4
N
D 2 = 2.44d 2
D = 1.562d
Equate (3) and (1)
s 1
s
F = 0.9 dh u = d 2 u
N 4
N
d
h=
= 0.278d
4(0.9)
Equate (4) and (1)
s 1
s
F = 0.75 Dt u = d 2 u
N 4
N
s 1
s
F = 0.75 (1.562d )(t ) u = d 2 u
N 4
N
d
t=
= 0.214d
4(0.75)(1.562 )

50

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

39.

(a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various
methods by which it might fail. Neglect bending effects. (b) Design this
connection for a load of 2500 lb. Both plates and rivets are of AISI C1020, as
rolled. The load is repeated and reversed with mild shock. Make the connection
equally strong on the basis of yield strengths in tension, shear, and compression.

Problems 39, 40
Solution:
(a) s s =

F
1

5 D 2
4

4F
5 s s

Equation (1) D =
s=

F
t (b 2 D )

Equation (2) b =
s=

F
+ 2D
ts

F
5 Dt

Equation (3) t =

F
5Ds

(b) For AISI C1020, as rolled

s y = 48 ksi (Table AT 7)
s ys = 0.6s y = 28 ksi
N = 4 for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength
48
s=
= 12 ksi
4
28
ss =
= 7 ksi
4
From Equation (1)

51

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

D=

4F
5 s s

where
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
D=

4F
4(2.5)
5
in
=
= 0.30 in say
5 s s
5 (7 )
16

From Equation (3)

F
2.5
5
t=
=
= 0.13 in say
in
5Ds
32
5
5 (12 )
16
From Equation (2)
F
2. 5
5
b = + 2D =
+ 2 = 1.96 in say 2 in
ts
5
16
(12)
32
40.

The same as 39, except that the material is 2024-T4, aluminum alloy.

Solution:
(a) Same as 39.
(b) ) For 2024-T4, aluminum alloy
s y = 47 ksi (Table AT 3)
s ys = 0.55s y = 25 ksi
N = 4 for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength
47
= 12 ksi
s=
4
25
ss =
= 6 ksi
4
From Equation (1)
4F
D=
5 s s
where
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
D=

4F
4(2.5)
3
=
= 0.33 in say in
5 s s
5 (6)
8

52

t=

F
2.5
1
=
= 0.11 in say in
8
5Ds
3
5 (12)
8

From Equation (2)

F
2. 5
1
3
b = + 2D =
+ 2 = 2.42 in say 2 in
ts
2
1
8
(12)
8
41.

(a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various
methods by which it might fail. (b) Design this connection for a load of 8000 lb.
Use AISI C1015, as rolled, for the rivets, and AISI C1020, as rolled, for the
plates. Let the load be repeatedly applied with minor shock in one direction and
make the connection equally strong on the basis of ultimate strengths in tension,
shear, and compression.

Problem 41.
Solution:
(a)

F
sP =
t (b D )

3
F
sP = 4
t (b 2 D )

or

s sR =

F
1

4 D 2 (2 )
4

53

Equation (1)

Equation (2)

sR =

F
4 Dt

Equation (3)

(b) For AISI C1015, as rolled

suR = 61 ksi , susR = 0.75suR = 45 ksi
For AISI C1020, as rolled
suP = 65 ksi
N = 6 , based on ultimate strength
s
65
s P = uP =
= 10.8 ksi
N
6
s
61
s R = uR =
= 10.1 ksi
N
6
s
45
= 7.5 ksi
s sR = usR =
N
6
F = 8000 lb = 8 kips
Solving for D
F
s sR =
2 D 2
7
F
8
in
=
= 0.412 in say
16
2 s sR
2 (7.5)
Solving for t
F
sR =
4 Dt
F
8
1
t=
=
= 0.453 in say in
4 Ds R
2
7
4 (10.1)
16
Solving for b
F
Using s P =
t (b D )
F
8
7
b=
+D=
+ = 1.92 in say 2 in
ts P
16
1
(10.8)
2
3
F
4
Using s P =
t (b 2 D )
D=

54

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

3F
3(8)
7
+ 2D =
+ 2 = 1.99 in say 2 in
4ts P
16
1
4 (10.8)
2
Therefore
b = 2 in
7
D = in
16
1
t = in
2
b=

42.

Give the strength equations for the connection shown, including that for the shear
of the plate by the cotter.

Problems 42 44.
Solution:
Axial Stresses

s=

F
1
D12
4

s=

55

4F
D12

F
(L D2 )e

Equation (1)

Equation (2)

s=

s=

s=

F
D2 e

Equation (3)

F
1
a 2 D22
4

F
1
D22 D2e
4

4F
Equation (4)
a 2 D22

4F
Equation (5)
D 4 D2e
2
2

Shear Stresses

ss =

F
2eb

ss =

F
2(L D2 + e )t

56

Equation (6)

Equation (7)

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

43.

ss =

F
at

Equation (8)

ss =

F
D1m

Equation (9)

ss =

F
2 D2 h

Equation (10)

A steel rod, as-rolled AISI C1035, is fastened to a 7/8-in., as-rolled C1020 plate
by means of a cotter that is made of as-rolled C1020, in the manner shown. (a)
Determine all dimensions of this joint if it is to withstand a reversed shock load
F = 10 kips , basing the design on yield strengths. (b) If all fits are free-running
fits, decide upon tolerances and allowances.

Solution: (See figure of Prob. 42)

7
t = in = 0.875 in , s sy = 0.6s y
8
For steel rod, AISI C1035, as rolled
s y1 = 55 ksi
s sy1 = 33 ksi

For plate and cotter, AISI C1020, as rolled

s y2 = 48 ksi
s sy2 = 28 ksi
N = 5 ~ 7 based on yield strength
say N = 7

sy
4F
s= 1 =
N D12
55 4(10)
=
7 D12
D1 = 1.27 in
1
say D1 = 1 in
4
57

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

From Equation (9)
ssy
F
ss = 1 =
N D1m
33
10
=
7
1
1 m
4
m = 0.54 in
9
say m = in
16
From Equation (3)
sy
F
s= 1 =
N D2e
55 10
s=
=
7 D2e
D2 e = 1.273
From Equation (5)
sy
4F
s= 1 =
2
N D2 4 D2e
55
4(10 )
=
2
7 D2 4(1.273)
D2 = 1.80 in
3
say D2 = 1 in
4
and D2 e = 1.273
3
1 e = 1.273
4
e = 0.73 in
3
say e = in
4
5
Say D2 = 2 in , e = in
8
From Equation (8)
s sy
F
ss = 2 =
N at
28
10
=
7 a (0.875)
a = 0.91 in
say a = 1 in
58

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

From Equation (4)
sy
4F
s= 2 =
N a 2 D22
48
4(10 )
=
7 a 2 22
a = 2.42 in
1
say a = 2 in
2
1
use a = 2 in
2
From Equation (7)
ssy
F
ss = 2 =
N
2( L D2 + e )t
28
10
=
5
7

2 L 2 + (0.875)
8

L = 2.80 in
say L = 3 in
From Equation (6)
s sy
F
ss = 2 =
N
2eb
28
10
=
7
5
2 b
8
b = 2 in
From Equation (10)
s sy
F
ss = 2 =
N
2 D2 h
28
10
=
7 2(2 )h
5
h = 0.625 in = in
8
Summary of Dimensions
L = 3 in
5
h = in
8
b = 2 in
7
t = in
8

59

9
in
16
1
a = 2 in
2
1
D1 = 1 in
4
D2 = 2 in
5
e = in
8
m=

(b) Tolerances and allowances, No fit, tolerance = 0.010 in

L = 3 0.010 in
h = 0.625 0.010 in
t = 0.875 0.010 in
m = 0.5625 0.010 in
a = 2.500 0.010 in
D1 = 1.25 0.010 in
For Free Running Fits (RC 7) Table 3.1
Female
Male
+ 0.0030
0.0040
b = 2.0
in
b = 2.0
in
0.0000
0.0058
allowance = 0.0040 in
+ 0.0030
0.0040
D2 = 2.0
in
D2 = 2.0
in
0.0000
0.0058
allowance = 0.0040 in
+ 0.0016
0.0020
e = 0.625
in
e = 0.625
in
0.0000
0.0030
allowance = 0.0020 in
44.

A 1-in. ( D1 ) steel rod (as-rolled AISI C1035) is to be anchored to a 1-in. steel

plate (as-rolled C1020) by means of a cotter (as rolled C1035) as shown. (a)
Determine all the dimensions for this connection so that all parts have the same
ultimate strength as the rod. The load F reverses direction. (b) Decide upon
tolerances and allowances for loose-running fits.

Solution: (Refer to Prob. 42)

(a) For AISI C1035, as rolled
su1 = 85 ksi
sus1 = 64 ksi
For AISI C1020, as rolled

60

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su2 = 65 ksi
sus2 = 48 ksi

Ultimate strength
Use Equation (1)
1

1 2
Fu = su1 D12 = (85) (1) = 66.8 kips
4

4
Equation (9)
Fu = sus1 D1m
66.8 = (64 )( )(1)m
m = 0.33 in
3
say m = in
8
From Equation (3)
Fu = su1 D2e
66.8 = (85)D2e
D2 e = 0.7859
From Equation (5)
1

4

66.8 = (85) D22 0.7859

4

D2 = 1.42 in
3
say D2 = 1 in
8
3

D2 e = 1 e = 0.7859
8
e = 0.57 in
9
say e = in
16
From Equation (4)
1

Fu = su2 a 2 D22
4

2
1
3
66.8 = (65) a 2 1
4
8
a = 1.79 in
3
say a = 1 in
4
From Equation (8)

61

Fu = sus2 at

66.8 = (48)( )(a )(1)

a = 0.44 in
1
say a = in
2
3
use a = 1 in
4
From Equation (2)
Fu = su2 ( L D2 )e
3 9

66.8 = (65) L 1
8 16

L = 3.20 in
1
say L = 3 in
4
From Equation (7)
Fu = 2 sus2 (L D2 e )t
3 9

66.8 = 2(48) L 1 (1)

8 16

L = 1.51 in
1
say L = 1 in
2
1
use L = 3 in
4
From Equation (6)
Fu = 2 sus1 eb

9
66.8 = 2(64 ) b
16
b = 0.93 in
say b = 1 in
From Equation (10)
Fu = 2 sus1 D2 h
3
66.8 = 2(64 ) 1 h
8
h = 0.38 in
3
say h = in
8
Dimensions
1
L = 3 in
4
62

3
in
8
b = 1 in
t = 1 in
3
m = in
8
3
a = 1 in
4
D1 = 1 in
3
D2 = 1 in
8
9
e = in
16
h=

(b) Tolerances and allowances, No fit, tolerance = 0.010 in

L = 3.25 0.010 in
h = 0.375 0.010 in
t = 1.000 0.010 in
m = 0.375 0.010 in
a = 1.75 0.010 in
D1 = 1.000 0.010 in
For Loose Running Fits (RC 8) Table 3.1
Female
Male
+ 0.0035
0.0045
b = 1.0
in
b = 1.0
in
0.0000
0.0065
allowance = 0.0045 in
+ 0.0040
0.0050
D2 = 1.375
in
D2 = 1.375
in
0.0000
0.0075
allowance = 0.0050 in
+ 0.0028
0.0035
e = 0.5625
in
e = 0.5625
in
0.0000
0.0051
allowance = 0.0035 in
45.

Give all the simple strength equations for the connection shown. (b) Determine
the ratio of the dimensions a , b , c , d , m , and n to the dimension D so that the
connection will be equally strong in tension, shear, and compression. Base the
calculations on ultimate strengths and assume sus = 0.75su .

63

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problems 45 47.
Solution:
(a) Neglecting bending

Equation (1): F = s D 2
4

Equation (2): F = ss 2 c 2

4
Equation (3): F = s (2bc )
Equation (4): F = s (ac )
Equation (5): F = s[2(d c )b]
Equation (6): F = ss (4mb )
Equation (7): F = ss (2nb )
Equation (8): F = s (d c )a
su
s
and s s = us
N
N
Therefore
s s = 0.75s
Equate (2) and (1)
1
1

F = ss 2 c 2 = s D 2
4

(b) s =

1 1
0.75s c 2 = s D 2
2 4
c = 0.8165 D
Equate (3) and (1)
1

F = s (2bc ) = s D 2
4

1
2b(0.8165D ) = D 2
4
b = 0.4810 D
64

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Equate (4) and (1)
1

F = sac = s D 2
4

1
a(0.8165 D ) = D 2
4
a = 0.9619 D
Equate (5) and (1)
1

F = s[2(d c )b] = s D 2
4

1
2(d 0.8165 D )(0.4810 ) = D 2
4
d = 1.6329 D
Equate (6) and (1)
1

F = s s (4mb ) = s D 2
4

1
0.75(4m )(0.4810 D ) = D 2
4
m = 0.5443D
Equate (7) and (1)
1

F = ss (2nb ) = s D 2
4

1
0.75(2n )(0.4810 D ) = D 2
4
n = 1.0886 D
Equate (8) and (1)
1

F = s (d c )a = s D 2
4

(1.6329 D 0.8165D )a = 1 D 2
4
a = 0.9620 D
Summary
a = 0.9620 D
b = 0.4810 D
c = 0.8165 D
d = 1.6329 D
m = 0.5443D
n = 1.0886 D

65

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

46.

The same as 45, except that the calculations are to be based on yield strengths. Let
s sy = 0.6s y .

Solution: (Refer to Prob. 45)

(a) Neglecting bending

Equation (1): F = s D 2
4

Equation (2): F = ss 2 c 2

4
Equation (3): F = s (2bc )
Equation (4): F = s (ac )
Equation (5): F = s[2(d c )b]
Equation (6): F = ss (4mb )
Equation (7): F = ss (2nb )
Equation (8): F = s (d c )a
(b) s =

sy

and s s =

s sy

N
N
Therefore
s s = 0.6 s
Equate (2) and (1)
1
1

F = ss 2 c 2 = s D 2
4

4
1 1
0.6 s c 2 = s D 2
2 4
c = 0.9129 D
Equate (3) and (1)
1

F = s (2bc ) = s D 2
4

1
2b(0.9129 D ) = D 2
4
b = 0.4302 D
Equate (4) and (1)
1

F = sac = s D 2
4

1
a(0.9129 D ) = D 2
4
a = 0.8603D
66

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Equate (5) and (1)

F = s[2(d c )b] = s D 2
4

1
2(d 0.9129 D )(0.4302) = D 2
4
d = 1.8257 D
Equate (6) and (1)
1

F = s s (4mb ) = s D 2
4

1
0.6(4m )(0.4302 D ) = D 2
4
m = 0.7607 D
Equate (7) and (1)
1

F = ss (2nb ) = s D 2
4

1
0.6(2n )(0.4302 D ) = D 2
4
n = 1.5214 D
Equate (8) and (1)
1

F = s (d c )a = s D 2
4

(1.8257 D 0.9129 D )a = 1 D 2
4
a = 0.8604 D
Summary
a = 0.8604 D
b = 0.4302 D
c = 0.9129 D
d = 1.8257 D
m = 0.7607 D
n = 1.5214 D

47.

Design a connection similar to the one shown for a gradually applied and reversed
load of 12 kips. Base design stresses on yield strengths and let the material be
AISI C1040 steel, annealed. Examine the computed dimensions for proportion,
making changes that you deem advisable.

67

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

N = 4 based on yield strength for gradually applied and reversed load.
For AISI C1040, annealed
s y = 47 ksi (Fig. AF 7)
s sy = 0.6s y = 28 ksi

sy

47
= 11.75 ksi
N
4
1

F = s D 2
4

12 = 11.75 D 2
4

D = 1.14 in
1
say D = 1 in
8
1
a = 0.8604 D = 0.86041 = 0.97 in
8
but a > D
1
say a = 1 in
4
1
b = 0.43021 = 0.48 in
8
1
say b = in
2
1
c = 0.91291 = 1.030 in
8
say c = 1 in
1
d = 1.82571 = 2.05 in
8
say d = 2 in
1
m = 0.76071 = 0.86 in
8
7
say m = in
8
1
n = 1.52141 = 1.71 in
8
3
say n = 1 in
4
s=

Dimension:
1
a = 1 in
4
68

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

1
in
2
c = 1 in
d = 2 in
7
m = in
8
3
n = 1 in
4
1
D = 1 in
8

b=

48.

Give all the strength equations for the union of rods shown.

Problems 48 68.
Solution:

F = s d 2
4

Equation (1)

F = s s ( ad )

Equation (2)

F = ss (2tc )

Equation (3)
69

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F = ss [2(D e )b]

Equation (4)

Equation (5)

F = set

F = s (D e )t

Equation (6)

F = s k 2 e2
4

Equation (7)

F = s m 2 e 2 (m e )t
4

F = s s (2ef )

Equation (9)

70

Equation (8)

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F = s e 2 et
4

Equation (10)

49-68. Design a union-of-rods joint similar to that shown for a reversing load and
material given in the accompanying table. The taper of cotter is to be in. in 12
in. (see 172). (a) Using design stresses based on yield strengths determine all
dimensions to satisfy the necessary strength equations. (b) Modify dimensions as
necessary for good proportions, being careful not to weaken the joint. (c) Decide
upon tolerances and allowances for loose fits. (d) Sketch to scale each part of the
joint showing all dimensions needed for manufacture, with tolerances and
allowances.

Prob. No.

49
50
51
52

3000
3500
4000
4500

1020
1030
1117
1020

52
54
55
56

5000
5500
6000
6500

1015
1035
1040
1020

57
58
59
60

7000
7500
8000
8500

1015
1118
1022
1035

61
62
63
64

9000
9500
10,000
10,500

1040
1117
1035
1022

65
66
67
68

11,000
11,500
12,000
12,500

1137
1035
1045
1030

71

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution: (For Prob. 49 only)
(a) For AISI 1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(48) = 28.8 ksi

For reversing load, N = 4 based on yield strength

s
48
= 12 ksi
s= y =
N
4
s
28.8
= 7.2 ksi
s s = ys =
N
4
F = 3000 lb = 3 kips
Equation (1)
1

F = s d 2
4

3 = 12 d 2
4

d = 0.5642 in
9
say d = in
16
Equation (2)
F = s s ( ad )

9
3 = 7.2( a )
16
a = 0.236 in
1
say a = in
4
Equation (5)
F = set
3 = 12et
et = 0.25
Equation (10)
1

F = s e 2 et
4

3 = 12 e 2 0.25
4

e = 0.798 in
13
say e = in
16
et = 0.25
72

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

13
t = 0.25
16
t = 0..308 in
5
say t = in
16
Equation (6)
F = s (D e )t
13 5

3 = 12 D
16 16

D = 1.6125 in
5
say D = 1 in
8
Equation (4)
F = ss [2(D e )b]
5 13
3 = 7.2 21 b
8 16
b = 0.256 in
1
say b = in
4
Equation (7)
1

F = s k 2 e2
4

2
1
13
3 = 12 k 2
4
16
k = 0.989 in
say k = 1 in
Equation (9)
F = s s (2ef )

13
3 = 7.2(2) f
16
f = 0.256 in
1
say f = in
4
Equation (8)
1

F = s m 2 e 2 (m e )t
4

2
1
13 5
13
3 = 12 m 2 m
16 16
16
4

73

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

0.25 = 0.7854m 2 0.5185 0.3125m + 0.2539
0.7854m 2 0.3125m 0.5146 = 0
m 2 0.3979m 0.6552 = 0
m = 1.032 in
say m = 1 in
Equation (3)
F = ss (2tc )

5
3 = 7.2(2) c
16
c = 0.667 in
11
say c = in
16
DIMENSIONS:
9
d = in
16
1
a = in
4
1
b = in
4
11
c = in
16
1
f = in
4
13
e = in
16
5
t = in
16
k = 1 in
5
D = 1 in
8
m = 1 in
(b)

Modified dimensions

9
in
16
1
a = in
4
3
b = in
4
11
c = in
16
d=

74

1
in
2
13
e = in
16
5
t = in
16
k = 1 in
5
D = 1 in
8
1
m = 1 in
4
f =

(c) Tolerances and allowances

No fit, 0.010 in
d = 0.5625 0.010 in
a = 0.250 0.010 in
f = 0.500 0.010 in
D = 1.625 0.010 in
k = 1.000 0.010 in
m = 1.250 0.010 in
Fits, Table 3.1, loose-running fits, say RC 8
Female
+ 0.0035
in
0.0000
allowance = 0.0045 in
+ 0.0028
c = 0.6875
in
0.0000
allowance = 0.0035 in
+ 0.0035
e = 0.8125
in
0.0000
allowance = 0.0045
+ 0.0022
t = 0.3125
in
0.0000
allowance = 0.0030 in

b = 0.750

Male
b = 0.750

0.0045
in
0.0065

c = 0.6875

0.0035
in
0.0051

e = 0.8125

0.0045
in
0.0065

t = 0.3125

75

0.0030
in
0.0040

(d)
ROD

COTTER

76

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

SOCKET

CHECK PROBLEMS
69.

1
1
The connection shown has the following dimensions: d = 1 in , D = 2 in ,
4
2
1
5
1
D1 = 1 in , h = in , t = in ; it supports a load of 15 kips. Compute the tensile,
2
8
2
compressive, and shear stresses induced in the connection. What is the
corresponding design factor based on the yield strength if the rod and nut are
made of AISI C1045, as rolled, and the plate is structural steel (1020)?

77

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problem 69.
Solution:
Tensile Stresses
F
15
=
= 12.22 ksi
(1) s1 =
2
1
2
1
1

d
1
4
4 4
F
15
(2) s 2 =
=
= 8.4 ksi
2
1
2
1
1

D1
1
4
4 2
Compressive Stress
F
15
(3) s3 =
=
= 4.78 ksi
2
2
1
2
2

1
1
1

(D D1 )
2 1
4
4 2 2
Shear Stresses
F
15
(4) s s4 =
=
= 3.82 ksi
Dt
1 1
2
2 2
F
15
(5) s s5 =
=
= 5.09 ksi
D1h
1 5
1
2 8
For AISI C1045, as rolled (rod and nut)
s y1 = 59 ksi
s ys1 = 0.6 s y = 0.6(59 ) = 35.4 ksi
For structural steel plate (1020)
s y2 = 48 ksi
s ys1 = 0.6 s y = 0.6(48) = 28.8 ksi
Solving for design factor

78

(1) N1 =
(2) N 2 =
(3) N 3 =
(4) N 4 =
(5) N 5 =

s y1
s1
s y1
s2
s y2
s3
s ys2
s s4
s ys1
s s5

59
= 4.83
12.22

59
= 6.95
8.49

48
= 10.04
4.78

28.8
= 7.54
3.82

35.4
= 6.96
5.09

The corresponding design factor is N = 4.83

70.

3
7
3
in , t = in , b = 3 in , and let the load, which is applied
4
16
4
centrally so that it tends to pull the plates apart, be 15 kips. (a) Compute the
stresses in the various parts of the connection. (b) If the material is AISI C1020,
as rolled, what is the design factor of the connection based on yield strengths?

In the figure, let D =

Problem 70.
Solution:
(a) Tensile stresses
F
15
s1 =
=
= 11.43 ksi
t (b D ) 7 3 3
3
16 4 4
3
3
(15)
F
4
4
s2 =
=
= 11.43 ksi
t (b 2 D ) 7 3 3
3 2
16 4 4
Compressive bearing stress
F
15
s3 =
=
= 11.43 ksi
4 Dt
3 7
4
4 16
79

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Shearing stress
F
15
ss 4 =
=
= 4.24 ksi
2
1
2
3

4 D (2) (2 )
4

4
(b) For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 28.8 ksi

N=

sy
s

or N =

Using N =

s ys
ss

sy

s
s
48
= 4.2
N= y =
s 11.43
s
Using N = ys
ss
s ys 28.8
N=
=
= 6.8
s s 4.24
Therefore the design factor is N = 4.2
71.

For the connection shown, let a =

15
9
3
1
in , b = in , c = in , d = 1 in ,
16
16
4
2

3
15
in , m = n = in . The material is AISI C1040, annealed (see Fig. AF 1).
4
16
(a) For a load of 7500 lb., compute the various tensile, compressive, and shear
stresses. Determine the factor of safety based on (b) ultimate strength, (c) yield
strengths.
D=

Problem 71.
Solution:
(a) Tensile stresses

80

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

s1 =

F
1
D2
4

7.5
1 3

4 4

= 16.98 ksi

F
7. 5
=
= 8.89 ksi
2b(d c )
9 1 3
2 1
16 2 4
F
7. 5
s3 =
=
= 10.67 ksi
a(d c ) 15 1 3
1
16 2 4
Compressive Stresses (Bearing)
F
7.5
s4 =
=
= 8.89 ksi
2bc
9 3
2
16 4
F
7. 5
s5 =
=
= 10.67 ksi
ac 15 3

16 4
Shearing Stresses
F
7.5
s s6 =
=
= 3.56 ksi
4mb
15 9
4
16 16
F
7.5
s s7 =
=
= 7.11 ksi
2nb
15 9
2
16 16
For AISI C1040, annealed,Fig. AF 1
s y = 47 ksi
s2 =

su = 79 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 28 ksi
sus = 0.6su = 47.4 ksi

(b) Based on ultimate strength

s
79
N= u =
= 4.65
s1 16.98
(c) Based on yield strength
sy
47
N= =
= 2.77
s1 16.98

72.

The upper head of a 60,000-lb. tensile-testing machine is supported by two steel

rods, one of which A is shown. These rods A are attached to the head B by split
rings C. The test specimen is attached to the upper head B so that the tensile force
81

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

in the specimen pulls down on the head and exerts a compressive force on the
rods A. When the machine is exerting the full load, compute (a) the compressive
stress in the rods, (b) the bearing stress between the rods and the rings, (c) the
shearing stress in the rings,

Problem 72.
Solution:
F = 60,000 lbs
(a) sc =

(b) sb =

(c) sc =

(60,000 2)
2

1 1
3 (3)2
4 2

(60,000 2 )
2
1 2 1
(4) 3
4
2

(60,000 2) = 3,183 psi = 3.18 ksi

(3)(1)

DEFORMATIONS
73.

A load of 22,000 lb. is gradually applied to a 2-in. round rod, 10 ft. long. The total
elongation is observed to be 0.03 in. If the stretching is entirely elastic, (a) what is
the modulus of elasticity, and (b) what material would you judge it to be, wrought
iron or stainless steel (from information available in the tables)? (c) How much
energy is absorbed by the rod? (d) Suppose that the material is aluminum alloy
3003-H14; compute its elongation for the same load. Is this within elastic action?

Solution:
F = 22,000 lbs
D = 2 in
L = 10 ft = 120 in
= 0.03 in
82

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(a) =
E=

FL
EA

FL
4 FL
4(22,000 )(120)
=
=
= 28 10 6 psi
2
2
A D
(0.03)( )(2)

(b) Use both stainless steel, Table AT 4, E = 28 10 6 psi and wrought iron , Table AT 7,
E = 28 10 6 psi .
1
1
(c) Energy absorbed = F = (22,000 )(0.03) = 330 lb in
2
2
(d) For Aluminum alloy, 3003-H14
E = 10 106 psi
s y = 21 ksi
FL
4 FL
4(22,000 )(120)
=
=
= 0.084 in
2
2
EA E D
10 10 6 ( )(2 )
4F
4(22,000 )
s=
=
= 7003 psi = 7.0 ksi < s y , within the elastic limit.
2
D
( )(2)2

74.

The same as 73, except that F = 88 kips and total = 0.112 in . Is the
computation for part (d) valid? Explain.

Solution:
(a) F = 88 kips
= 0.112 in
FL
4 FL
4(88,000 )(120)
E=
=
=
= 30 10 6 psi
2
2
A D
(0.112)( )(2)
(b) Use wrought steel, Table AT 4, E = 30 106 psi
1
1
(c) Energy absorbed = F = (88,000 )(0.112) = 4928 lb in
2
2
(d) For Aluminum alloy, 3003-H14
E = 10 106 psi
s y = 21 ksi

FL
4 FL
4(88,000)(120 )
=
=
= 0.336 in
2
2
EA E D
10 10 6 ( )(2 )

83

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

4F
4(88,000 )
=
= 28,011 psi = 28.0 ksi > s y , not within the elastic limit, therefore
2
D
( )(2)2
not valid.
s=

75.

(a) A square bar of SAE 1020, as rolled, is to carry a tensile load of 40 kips. The
bar is to be 4 ft. long. A design factor of 5 based on the ultimate stress is desired.
Moreover, the total deformation should not exceed 0.024 in. What should be the
dimensions of the section? (b) Using SAE 1045, as rolled, but with the other data
the same, find the dimensions. (c) Using SAE 4640, OQT 1000 F, but with other
data the same as in (a), find the dimensions. Is there a change in dimensions as
compared with part (b)? Explain the difference or the lack of difference in the

Solution:
L = 4 ft = 48 in
(a) For SAE 1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi , E = 30,000 ksi
s
F
s= u =
N A
65 40
=
5 x2
x = 1.754 in
FL
=
EA
(40)(48)
0.024 =
(30,000)x 2
x = 1.633 in
3
Therefore say x = 1 in
4
(b) For SAE 1045, as rolled
su = 96 ksi , E = 30,000 ksi
s
F
s= u =
N A
96 40
=
5 x2
x = 1.443 in
FL
=
EA
(40)(48)
0.024 =
(30,000)x 2
x = 1.633 in

84

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

5
Therefore say x = 1 in
8
(c) For SAE 4640, as rolled
su = 152 ksi , E = 30,000 ksi
s
F
s= u =
N A
152 40
= 2
5
x
x = 1.15 in
FL
=
EA
(40)(48)
0.024 =
(30,000)x 2
x = 1.633 in
5
Therefore say x = 1 in
8

There is lack of difference in the answers due to same dimensions required to satisfy the
required elongation.
76.

The steel rails on a railroad track are laid when the temperature is 40 F. The rails
are welded together and held in place by the ties so that no expansion is possible
due to temperature changes. What will be the stress in the rails when heated by
the sun to 120 F (i1.29)?

Solution:
s Lt
= =
E L
L
For steel = 0.000007 in in F

E = 30 106 psi
s = tE = (0.000007 )(120 40 ) 30 10 6
s = 16,800 psi

77.

Two steel rivets are inserted in a riveted connection. One rivet connects plates that
have a total thickness of 2 in., while the other connects plates with a total
thickness of 3 in. If it is assumed that, after heading, the rivets cool from 600 F
and that the coefficient of expansion as given in the Text applies, compute the
stresses in each rivet after it has cooled to a temperature of 70 F, (no external
load). See i1.29. Also assume that the plates are not deformed under load. Is such
a stress likely? Why is the actual stress smaller?

85

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
s = tE
For steel = 0.000007 in in F
E = 30 106 psi
s = (0.000007 )( 600 70 )(30,000 ) = 111.30 ksi
The stress is unlikely because it is near the ultimate strength of steel.
Actual stress must be smaller to allow for safety.
78.

Three flat plates are assembled as shown; the center one B of chromium steel,
AISI 5140 OQT 1000 F, and the outer two A and C of aluminum alloy 3003-H14,
are fastened together so that they will stretch equal amounts. The steel plate is 2 x
in., the aluminum plates are each 2 x 1/8 in., L = 30 in ., and the load is 24,000
lb. Determine (a) the stress in each plate, (b) the total elongation, (c) the energy
absorbed by the steel plate if the load is gradually applied, (d) the energy
absorbed by the aluminum plate. (e) What will be the stress in each plate if in
addition to the load of 24,000 lb. the temperature of the assembly is increased by
100 F?

Problem 78, 79.

Solution:
For chromium steel, AISI 5140 OQT 1000F (Table AT 7)
1 = 0.000007 in in F
E1 = 30 10 6 psi = 30,000 ksi
For aluminum alloy, 3003-H14 (Table AT 3)
2 = 0.0000129 in in F
E2 = 10 106 psi = 10,000 ksi
(a) PA = PC
PA + PB + PC = F
(1) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips
1
A2 = (2) = 0.25 in 2
8
1
A1 = (2 ) = 1 in 2
2
86

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

A = B
PA L
PL
= B
A2 E2 A1 E1
PA
PB
=
(0.25)(10,000) (1)(30,000)
(2) PB = 12 PA
(1) 2 PA + 12 PA = 24 kips
PA = 1.714 kips
PB = 12(1.714) = 20.568 kips
Stresses:
Aluminum plate
P 1.714
s A = sC = A =
= 6.856 ksi
A2 0.25
Chromium steel plate
P
20.568
sB = B =
= 20.568 ksi
A1
1

(1.714)(30) = 0.021 in
PA L
=
A2 E2 (0.25)(10,000 )
1
1
(c) Energy absorbed by steel plate = PB = (20.568)(0.021) = 0.216 kips in
2
2
1
1
(d) Energy absorbed by aluminum plate = PA = (1.714 )(0.021) = 0.018 kips in
2
2
(e) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips
TA + A = TB + B
(b) =

T
T
T
T

= 2 L t

= 1 Lt

= (0.000007 )(30)(100 ) = 0.021 in

PA L
PA (30)
=
= 0.012 PA
A2 E2 (0.25)(10,000)
PL
PB (30)
B = B =
= 0.001PB
A1E1 (1)(30,000 )
Then
0.0387 + 0.012 PA = 0.021 + 0.001PB
0.0177 + 0.012 PA = 0.001(24 2 PA )
0.0177 + 0.012 PA = 0.024 0.002 PA

A =

87

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

PA = 0.45 kips
PB = 24 2(0.45) = 23.1 kips
Stresses:
Aluminum plate
P
0.45
sA = A =
= 1.8 ksi
A2 0.25
Chromium steel plate
P
23.1
sB = B =
= 23.1 ksi
A1
1
79.

The same as 78, except that the outer plates are aluminum bronze, B150-1,
annealed.

Solution:
For aluminum bronze, B150-1, annealed (Table AT 3)
E2 = 15,000 ksi
2 = 0.0000092 in in F
(a)
(1) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips
A = B
PA L
PL
= B
A2 E2 A1 E1
PA
PB
=
(0.25)(15,000) (1)(30,000)
(2) PB = 8 PA
2 PA + 8PA = 24 kips
PA = 2.4 kips
PB = 8(2.4) = 19.2 kips
Stresses:
Aluminum plate
P
2.4
s A = sC = A =
= 9.6 ksi
A2 0.25
Chromium steel plate
P 19.2
sB = B =
= 19.2 ksi
A1
1

88

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

PA L
(2.4)(30) = 0.019 in
=
A2 E2 (0.25)(15,000 )
1
1
(c) Energy absorbed by steel plate = PB = (19.2 )(0.019 ) = 0.182 kips in
2
2
1
1
(d) Energy absorbed by aluminum plate = PA = (2.4)(0.019 ) = 0.023 kips in
2
2
(e) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips
TA + A = TB + B
(b) =

T = 2 L t
T = 1 Lt
T = (0.0000092 )(30)(100 ) = 0.0276 in
A

T = (0.000007 )(30)(100 ) = 0.021 in

B

PA L
PA (30 )
=
= 0.008 PA
A2 E2 (0.25)(15,000)
PL
PB (30)
B = B =
= 0.001PB
A1E1 (1)(30,000 )
Then
0.0276 + 0.008PA = 0.021 + 0.001PB
0.0066 + 0.008PA = 0.001(24 2 PA )
0.0066 + 0.008PA = 0.024 0.002 PA
PA = 1.74 kips
PB = 24 2(1.74 ) = 20.52 kips
Stresses:
Aluminum plate
P 1.74
sA = A =
= 6.96 ksi
A2 0.25
Chromium steel plate
P
20.52
sB = B =
= 20.52 ksi
A1
1

A =

80.

A machine part shown is made of AISI C1040, annealed steel; L1 = 15 in .,

3
1
L2 = 6 in ., D1 = in ., and D2 = in . Determine (a) the elongation due to a force
4
2
F = 6000 lb ., (b) the energy absorbed by each section of the part if the load is

89

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problems 80, 81
Solution:
For AISI C1040, annealed steel
E = 30 106 psi
(a) = 1 + 2
FL
(6000)(15) = 0.0068 in
1 = 1 =
A1 E 3 2
6
30 10
4 4
FL
(6000)(6)
= 0.0061 in
2 = 2 =
A2 E 1 2
6
30 10
4 2
= 1 + 2 = 0.0068 + 0.0061 = 0.0129 in

(b) Energy absorbed

1
1
U1 = F1 = (6000 )(0.0068) = 20.4 lb = in
2
2
1
1
U 2 = F 2 = (6000 )(0.0061) = 18.3 lb = in
2
2
81.

A rod as shown is made of AISI 2340 steel, OQT 1000 F, and has the following
7
3
dimensions: L1 = 20 in ., L2 = 12 in ., D1 = in ., and D2 = in . The unit strain at
8
4
point A is measured with a strain gage and found to be 0.0025 in./in. Determine
(a) the total elongation, and (b) the force on the rod.

Solution:

F
(a) 2 = =
L2
A2 E
90

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F = A2 E
2

A
D
1 =
= 2 L1 = 2 L1
A1E
A1
D1
D 2

3
T = 1 + 2 = 2 L1 + L2 = 0.0025
D1

A2 EL1

4
(20) + 12 = 0.067 in
8

3
(b) F = A2 E = 0.0025 (30,000) = 33.13 kips
4 4

82.

A rigid bar H is supported as shown in a horizontal position by the two rods

(aluminum 2024 T4, and steel AISI 1045, as rolled), whose ends were both in
contact with H before loading was applied. The ground and block B are also to be
considered rigid. What must be the cross-sectional area of the steel rod if, for the
assembly, N = 2 based on the yield strengths?

Problem 82.
Solution:
For aluminum 2024-T4 (Table AT 3)
s y1 = 47 ksi , E1 = 10,600 ksi
For steel AISI 1045, as rolled (Table AT 7)
s y2 = 59 ksi , E2 = 30,000 ksi

[ M

=0

R1 (24 ) + R2 (12) = 24(20 )

2 R1 + R2 = 40 Equation (1)

91

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

24 12
1 = 2 2
RL
1 = 1 1
E1 A1
RL
2 = 2 2
E2 A2
L1 = 8 ft = 96 in
L2 = 12 ft = 144 in

A1 = 0.5 in 2
1 = 2 2
R1 L1 2 R2 L2
=
E1 A1 E2 A2
R1 (96)
2R2 (144)
=
(10,600)(0.5) (30,000)A2
0.53R2
R1 =
A2

But s 2 =

R2 s y2
=
A2 N

R2 59
=
= 29.5
A2
2
R1 = 0.53(29.5) = 15.64 kips

R1 s y1
=
A1 N
R1 47
=
0. 5 2
R1 = 11.75 kips
use R1 = 11.75 kips
R2 = 40 2(11.75) = 16.5 kips
R
16.5
A2 = 2 =
= 0.56 in 2
29.5 29.5
s1 =

92

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

The bar shown supports a static load F = 2.5 kips with = 0 ; d = 3 in .,
3
L = 10 in ., h = 2 in . b = 1 in . It is made of AISI 1035, as rolled. (a) How far
4
does point C move upon gradual application of the load if the movement of A and
B is negligible? (b) How much energy is absorbed?

83.

Problem 83.
Solution:

[ M
[ M

=0

=0

dRB = (d + L )F

3RB = (3 + 10 )(2.5)
RB = 10.83 kips
dRA = LF
3RA = 10(2.5)
RA = 8.33 kips

93

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

M = RA x RB x 3

d2y
M = EI 2 = 8.33 x 10.83 x 3
dy
dy
2
EI
= 4.165 x 2 5.415 x 3 + C1
dy
3

EIy = 1.388 x 3 1.805 x 3 + C1 x + C2

When x = 0 , y = 0
3

EI (0 ) = 1.388(0) 1.805 0 + C1 (0 ) + C2
3

C2 = 0
When x = 3 , y = 0
3

3

C1 = 12.492
3

EIy = 1.388 x 3 1.805 x 3 12.492 x

When x = d + L = 13 in
3

EIy = 1.388(13) 1.805 10 12.492(13) = 1082

For AISI 1035, as rolled , E = 30,000 ksi
3

bh 3 (1)(2.75)
=
= 1.7331 in 4
12
12
EIy = 1082
(30,000)(1.7331)y = 1082
y = 0.021 in , upward.
3

I=

94

PRESSURE VESSELS
84.

A storage tank for air, 36 in. in diameter, is to withstand an internal pressure of

200 psi with a design factor of 4 based on su . The steel has the strength
equivalent of C1020 annealed and the welded joints should have a relative
strength (efficiency) of 90 %. Determine a suitable plate thickness. Compute the
stress on a diametral section and compare it with the longitudinal stress.

Solution:
For C1020 annealed
su = 57 ksi
su 57
=
= 14.25 ksi
N
4
Solving for plate thickness
pD
s=
2 t
p = 200 psi = 0.2 ksi
D = 36 in
(5.2)(36)
s = 14.25 =
2 t (0.9)
t = 0.281 in
5
say t = in
16
Stress on diametral section
(0.2 )(36) = 6.40 ksi
pD
s=
=
4 t
5
4 (0.9)
16
Stress on longitudinal section
(0.2 )(36) = 12.80 ksi
pD
s=
=
2 t
5
2 (0.9)
16
Stress on diametral section < stress on longitudinal section
s=

85.

A spherical air tank stores air at 3000 psig. The tank is to have an inside diameter
of 7 in. (a) What should be the wall thickness and weight of the tank if it is made
of 301, -hard, stainless steel, with a design factor of 1.5 based on the yield
strength and a joint efficiency of 90 %. (b) Compute the wall thickness and
weight if annealed titanium (B265, gr. 5) is used? (c) What is the additional
saving in weight if the titanium is hardened? Can you think of circumstances for
which the higher cost of titanium would be justified?

95

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
(a) For 301, hard, stainless steel
s y = 75 ksi (Table AT 4)
sy

75
= 50 ksi
N 1.5
p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi
pD
s=
4 t
(3)(7)
50 =
4t (0.90)
t = 0.117 in
s=

= 0.286 lb in 3
2
W = 4 r 2t = D 2t = (7 ) (0.117 )(0.286 ) = 5.2 lb
(b) For annealed titanium B265, gr. 5
s y = 130 ksi (Table AT 3)
sy

130
= 86.67 ksi
N 1.5
p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi
pD
s=
4 t
(3)(7)
86.67 =
4t (0.90)
t = 0.061 in
s=

= 0.160 lb in 3
2
W = 4 r 2t = D 2t = (7 ) (0.061)(0.160) = 1.5 lb
(c) For hardened titanium
s y = 158 ksi (Table AT 3)
sy

158
= 105 ksi
N 1.5
p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi
pD
s=
4 t
(3)(7 )
105 =
4t (0.90 )
s=

96

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

t = 0.056 in

= 0.160 lb in 3
2
W = 4 r 2t = D 2t = (7 ) (0.056)(0.160 ) = 1.38 lb
1.50 1.38
(100%) = 8%
1.50
Circumstances: less in weight and small thickness.

Savings in weight =

86.

Decide upon a material and estimate a safe wall thickness of a cylindrical vessel
to contain helium at 300 F and 2750 psi. The welded joint should have a relative
strength 87 %, and the initial computations are to be for a 12-in.-diameter, 30ft.-long tank. (Note: Mechanical properties of metals at this low temperature are
not available in the Text. Refer to INCO Nickel Topics, vol. 16, no. 7, 1963, or
elsewhere.)

Solution:
From Kents Handbook, Table 8
Material Hot Rolled Nickel
At 300 F, su = 100 ksi , N = 4 (Table 1.1)
s 100
s= u =
= 25 ksi
N
4
pD
s=
2 t
p = 2750 psi = 2.75 ksi
D = 12 in
= 87%
(2.75)(12)
s = 25 =
2 t (0.87 )
t = 0.759 in
3
say t = in
4
CONTACT STRESSES
87.

(a) A 0.75-in. diameter roller is in contact with a plate-cam surface whose width is
0.5-in. The maximum load is 2.5 kips where the radius of curvature of the cam
surface is 3.333 in. Compute the Hertz compressive stress. (b) The same as (a)
except that the follower has a plane flat face. (c) The same as (a) except that the
roller runs in a grooved face and contacts the concave surface. (d) What is the
maximum shear stress for part (a) and how far below the surface does it exist?

Solution:

97

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(a) 2r1 = 0.75 in , r1 = 0.375 in
r2 = 3.333 in
F = 2.5 kips
b = 0.5 in
1

1 1 2
+
0
.
35
F

r1 r2
sc max =
1
1
b +
E1 E2
E = 30,000 ksi
1

sc max

1 2
1
+

0.35(2.5)
0.375 3.333

=
= 279 ksi

0.5

30,000

(b) sc max

1 2
1
(
)
0
.
35
2
.
5
+

3
.
333
3
.
333

= 126 ksi
=

0.5

30,000

(c) sc max

1 2
1
(
)
0
.
35
2
.
5

0.375 3.333

=
= 249 ksi

0.5

30,000

(d) Maximum shear stress

s s max = 0.3sc max = 0.3(279 ) = 84 ksi
Location:
1
1
2
4 sc max 1 2 + 4(279 ) 1 0.32

E1 E2
30,000

w=
=
= 0.023 in
1
1 1
1
+
+

0.375 3.333
r1 r2

88.

Two 20o involute teeth are in contact along a line where the radii of curvature
of the profiles are respectively 1.03 and 3.42 in. The face width of the gears is 3
in. If the maximum permissible contact stress for carburized teeth is 200 ksi, what
normal load may these teeth support?

98

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
r1 = 1.03 in
r2 = 3.42 in
b = 3 in
sc max = 200 ksi
1

1 1 2
+
0
.
35
F

r1 r2
sc max =
1
1
b +
E1 E2
E = 30,000 ksi
1

1 2
1
+

0.35 F
1.03 3.42
sc max = 200 =

30,000

F = 18 kips
TOLERANCES AND ALLOWANCES
89.

The pin for a yoke connection has a diameter of D of in., a total length of 2
in., with a head that is 1 in. in diameter and 3/8 in. thick. The tolerance on D
(both pin and hole) is 0.003 in., with an allowance of 0.001 in., basic-hole system.
Sketch the pin showing all dimensions with appropriate tolerances.

Solution:
D = 0.75 in
For pin
+ 0.000
D = 0.749
in
0.003
For hole
+ 0.003
D = 0.750
in
0.000
Sketch

99

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

90.

A shaft with a nominal diameter of 8 in. is to fit in a hole. Specify the allowance,
tolerances, and the limit diameters of the shaft and hole on a sketch for: (a) a close
sliding fit, (b) a precision-running fit, (c) medium-running fit, (d) a loose-running
fit.

Solution: D = 8 in
(a) For close-sliding fit, RC 1
Hole, in
+0.0008
-0.0000

Shaft, in
- 0.0006
-0.0012

Allowance = 0.0006 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0008
Hole D = 8.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9994
in
0.0006
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0008 in
Shaft D = 7.9994 to 7.9988 in
Sketch

100

(b) For a precision-running fit, RC 3

Hole, in
Shaft, in
+0.0012
-0.0020
-0.0000
-0.0032
Allowance = 0.0020 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0012
Hole D = 8.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9980
in
0.0012
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0012 in
Shaft D = 7.9980 to 7.9968 in
Sketch

(c) For medium-running fit, RC5, RC 6. Say RC 5

Hole, in
+0.0018
-0.0000

Shaft, in
-0.0040
-0.0058

Allowance = 0.0040 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0018
Hole D = 8.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9960
in
0.0018
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0018 in
Shaft D = 7.9960 to 7.9942 in
Sketch

101

(d) For loose-running fit, RC 8, RC 9. Say RC 8

Hole, in
+0.0070
-0.0000

Shaft, in
-0.0100
-0.0145

Allowance = 0.010 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0070
Hole D = 8.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9900
in
0.0045
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0070 in
Shaft D = 7.9900 to 7.9855 in
Sketch

91.

The same as 90, except that the nominal diameter is 4 in.

Solution:
D = 4 in
(a) For close-sliding fit, RC 1
102

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Hole, in
+0.0006
-0.0000

Shaft, in
-0.0005
-0.0009

Allowance = 0.0005 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0006
Hole D = 4.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9995
in
0.0004
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0006 in
Shaft D = 3.9995 to 3.9991 in
Sketch

(b) For a precision-running fit, RC 3

Hole, in
Shaft, in
+0.0009
-0.0014
-0.0000
-0.0023
Allowance = 0.0014 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0009
Hole D = 4.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9986
in
0.0009
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0009 in
Shaft D = 3.9986 to 3.9977 in
Sketch

103

(c) For medium-running fit, RC5, RC 6. Say RC 6

Hole, in
+0.0022
-0.0000

Shaft, in
-0.0030
-0.0052

Allowance = 0.0030 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0022
Hole D = 4.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9970
in
0.0022
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0022 in
Shaft D = 3.9970 to 7.9948 in
Sketch

(d) For loose-running fit, RC 8, RC 9. Say RC 9

Hole, in
+0.0090
-0.0000

Shaft, in
-0.0100
-0.0150

Allowance = 0.0100 in
104

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

With tolerances,
+ 0.0090
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9900
in
0.0050
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0090 in
Shaft D = 3.9900 to 3.9850 in
Sketch
Hole D = 4.0000

92.

A cast-iron gear is to be shrunk onto a 3-in, steel shaft. (a) Determine the
tolerance and the maximum, minimum, and average interferences of metal for
class FN 1 fit. (b) Sketch and dimension the shaft and hole with proper tolerances.
(c) Compute the stresses by the method given in the Text (i3.8) for the maximum
and minimum interferences of metal.

Solution: D = 3 in
(a) For class FN 1 fit, Table 3.2
Tolerances
Hole, in
Shaft, in
+0.0007
+0.0019
-0.0000
+0.0014
Max. interference = 0.0019 in
Min. interference = 0.0014 0.0007 = 0.0007 in
Ave. interference = 0.5(0.0019 + 0.0007) = 0.0013 in
(b)

105

(c) For maximum interference

Ei
D
E = 23,000 ksi
(23,000 )(0.0019 ) = 14.6 ksi
s=
3
s=

s=

93.

(23,000 )(0.0007 ) = 5.4 ksi

3

The same as 92, except that the gear hub is C1035 steel and class of fit is FN 3.

Solution: D = 3 in
(a) For class FN 3fit, Table 3.2
Tolerances
Hole, in
Shaft, in
+0.0012
+0.0037
-0.0000
+0.0030
Max. interference = 0.0037 in
Min. interference = 0.0030 0.0012 = 0.0018 in
Ave. interference = 0.5(0.0037 + 0.0018) = 0.0028 in
(b)

106

(c)

Ei
D
(
30,000)(0.0037 )
s=
= 37 ksi
3
s=

For minimum interference

s=

94.

(30,000)(0.0018) = 18 ksi
3

For a No. 7 ball bearing, the New Departure Handbook states that the maximum
bore should be 1.3780 in. and the minimum, 1.3775 in.; for average conditions,
the shaft should have a maximum diameter of 1.3784 in. and a minimum of
1.3779 in. (a) Determine the corresponding tolerances and allowances. (b) What
class of fit is this? (c) New Departure states: . . . bearing bores are held
uniformly close, . . . averaging within 1.3778 in. to 1.3776 in. What will be the
maximum and minimum interference of metal with these diameters (if maximum
and minimum sizes are deliberately chosen for assembly)?

Solution:
(a) Tolerances:
For No. 7 ball bearing
Bore, 1.3780 1.3775 in = 0.0005 in
+ 0.0005
Therefore, D = 1.3775
in
0.0000
107

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Shaft, 1.3784 1.3775 = 0.0009 in
1.3779 1.3775 = 0.0004 in
+ 0.0000
D = 1.37845
in
0.0005
Tolerances
Hole, in
+0.0005
-0.0000

Shaft, in
+0.0009
+0.0004

Allowance = 0 0.0009 in = - 0.0009 in

(b) Since allowance is < 0.
It is a force and shrink fil class.
(c)
1.3778 1.3775 = 0.0003 in
1.3776 1.3775 = 0.0001 in
New tolerances
Hole, in
+0.0005
-0.0000

Shaft, in
+0.0003
+0.0001

Maximum interference = 0.0003 in

Minimum interference = 0.0000 in (since 0.0001 0.0005 = - 0.0004 < 0)
95.

For a roller bearing having a bore of 65 mm. an SKF catalog states that the largest
diameter should be 2.5591 in. and the smallest, 2.5585 in. If this bearing is to be
used in a gear transmission, it is recommended for the shaft (where the bearing
fits) to have a maximum diameter of 2.5600 in. and a minimum of 2.5595 in. (a)
Determine the tolerances and allowances (or interferences of metal) for this
installation. (b) What class of fit would this be?

Solution:
(a) 65 mm = 2.5591 in
2.5591 2.5585 = 0.0006 in
2.5600 2.5585 = 0.0015 in
2.5595 2.5585 = 0.0010 in

108

Tolerances
Hole, in
+0.0006
-0.0000

Shaft, in
+0.0015
+0.0010

Maximum interference = 0.0015 in

Minimum interference = 0.0010 0.0006 = 0.0004 in
(b) Class of fit, Force and shrink fit
TOLERANCES, STATISTICAL CONSIDERATION
96.

(a) A machine tool is capable if machining parts so that the standard deviation of
one critical dimension is 0.0006 in. What minimum tolerance may be specified for
this dimension if it is expected that practically all of the production be acceptable?
Assume that it is possible to center the process. (b) The same as (a), except that
it has been decided to tolerate approximately 4.56 % scrap.

Solution:
(a)

T = NS = 6 = 6(0.0006 ) = 0.0036 in
(b)

A=

0.0456
= 0.0228 in
2

109

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

From Table 3.3
z
= 2. 0

z = 2
T = 2 z = 4
T = 4(0.0006 ) = 0.0024 in

97.

A pin and the hole into which it fits have a nominal diameter of 1 in. The pin
tolerance has been set to 0.002 in., the bore tolerance at 0.003 in., and the
allowance at 0.001 in., basic hole system. The parts are to be a natural spread of
0.0015 in. for the pin and 0.002 in. for the hole. Assuming that the processes are
centered, determine the expected minimum clearance and the maximum
clearance. What is the most frequent clearance?

Solution:

1.5015 1.4980 = 0.0035 in

NS
0.0015
1 ( pin ) = 1 =
= 0.00025 in
6
6
NS
0.0020
2 (hole ) = 2 =
= 0.00033 in
6
6
D2 = 12 + 22 = (0.00025)2 + (0.00033)2
D = 0.00041 in
Natural Spread of Difference = 6 D = 6(0.00041) = 0.00246 in

110

Expected minimum clearance = 0.00227 in

Expected maximum clearance = 0.00473 in
Most frequent clearance = 0.0035 in
98.

A rod and the hole into which it fits has a nominal diameter of 2 in. The
tolerances are 0.003 in. for both rod and hole, and the allowance as 0..001 in.,
basic hole system. The natural spread of the process of manufacturing the hole is
0.002 in., and for the rod, 0.0015 in. What are the probable maximum and
minimum clearances, provided that the tolerances are met, but assuming that the
processes might simultaneously operate at their extreme permissible position?

Solution:

NS1 0.0015
=
= 0.00025 in
6
6
NS
0.0020
2 ( pin ) = 2 =
= 0.00033 in
6
6
D2 = 12 + 22 = (0.00025)2 + (0.00033)2
D = 0.00041 in

1 (rod ) =

111

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

NS = 6 D = 6(0.00041) = 0.00246 in
2.0020 1.99675 = 0.00525 in

Probable maximum clearance = 0.00648 in

Probable minimum clearance = 0.00402 in
99.

It is desired that the clearance in a 4-in. bearing neither exceed 0.004 in. nor be
less than 0.002 in. Assume that the natural spread of the processes by which the
journal and the bearing surfaces are finished is the same. (a) What should be the
natural spread of these processes? (b) Assuming this natural spread to be equal to
the tolerance, determine the corresponding allowance. (c) If the foregoing
conditions are not practical decide upon practical tolerances and allowances for
the computed natural spread.

Solution:

(a) NS = 6 D
NS 0.002
D =
=
= 0.00033 in
6
6
(b) D = 2

0.00033
= D =
= 0.000233 in
2
2
112

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

NS = 6 = 6(0.000233) = 0.0014 in
Tolerance = 0.0014 in

Corresponing allowance = 0.0016 in

(c) From Fig. 3.4, T > NS
Tolerance = T = 1.3NS = 1.3(0.0014 ) = 0.0018 in
Allowance = 0.003 0.0018 = 0.0012 in

100.

A 4-in, journal-bearing assembly is made for class RC 6 fit. Assume that the
natural spread of the manufacturing process will be about 75 % of the tolerance.
Compute the probable maximum and minimum clearances (which occur when the
processes are not centered) and compare with the allowance. Make a sketch of the
journal and hole properly dimensioned.

113

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
From Table RC 6, D = 4 in
Hole
Shaft
+0.0022
-0.0030
-0.0000
-0.0052
or
+ 0.0022
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
D (shaft ) = 3.997
in
0.0022
D(hole ) = 4.000

NS = 6
0.00165
=
= 0.00028 in
6
D = 2 = 2 (0.00028) = 0.0004 in
NS D = 6 D = 6(0.0004 ) = 0.0024 in

114

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Maximum clearance = 0.00912 in
Minimum clearance = 0.00336 in

Sketch

101.

The same as 100, except that class RC 3 fit is used.

Solution:
From Table RC 3, Table 3.1, D = 4 in
Hole
Shaft
+0.0009
-0.0014
-0.0000
-0.0023
or
+ 0.0009
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
D (shaft ) = 3.9986
in
0.0009
D(hole ) = 4.000

115

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

NS = 6
0.000675
=
= 0.0001125 in
6
D = 2 = 2 (0.0001125) = 0.00016 in
NS D = 6 D = 6(0.00016 ) = 0.00096 in

Maximum clearance = 0.001595 in

Minimum clearance = 0.002555 in
Sketch

102.

It is desired that the running clearance for a 3-in. bearing be between

approximately 0.003 in. and 0.007 in. The natural spread of the processes of
finishing the journal and bearing are expected to be virtually the same ( 1 = 2 ).
Decide upon a suitable tolerance and allowance with a sketch properly
dimensioned (to a ten thousandth). (Suggestion: compute first a theoretical natural
spread for bearing and journal from the given spread of the clearances. Let the
tolerances be approximately equal to this computed NS, and assume that
manufacturing processes are available that produce an actual NS of about 70 % of
this computed NS.) Check for processes being off center but within 3 limits
so that virtually no scrap is manufactured.

Solution:
116

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

D = 0.00067 in
12 + 22 = D2
2
2 12 = (0.00067 )
2 = 0.00047 in
NS = 0.70 NS1
NS = 0.70(6)(0.00047 ) = 0.00197 in
T = NS1 = (6)(0.00047 ) = 0.00282 in

117

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

For processes off-center

running clearance = 0.00215 in to 0.00615 in

since allowance = 0.00218 in 0.00215 in, it is checked.

103.

If the tolerances shown are maintained during manufacture, say with the processes
centered, what would be the approximate overall tolerances and limit dimensions?

118

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problem 103.
Solution:
T1 = 4.004 4.000 = 0.004 in
T2 = 5.008 5.000 = 0.008 in
T3 = 6.707 6.700 = 0.007 in
T 2 = T12 + T22 + T32 = (0.004) + (0.008) + (0.007 )
T = 0.0114 in
2

Limit dimensions
4.000 to 4.0114 in
5.000 to 5.0114 in
6.700 to 6.7114 in
104.

If a cylindrical part needs to have the following tolerances, what process would
you recommend for finishing the surface in each instance? (a) 0.05 in., (b) 0.01
in., (c) 0.005 in., (d) 0.001 in., (e) 0.0001 in., (f) 0.00005 in.?

Solution:
Use fi. 3.9, page 95., Text.
(a) 0.05 in
Surface finishes = 500 or greater
Processes:
1. Flame cutting-machine
2. Rough turning
3. Contour sawing
4. Rough grinding
5. Shaping and planning
6. Drilling
7. Milling high speed steel
8. Boring
(b) 0.01 in
Surface finishes = 63 to 250
119

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Processes:
1. Contour sawing
2. Rough grinding
3. Shaping and planning
4. Drilling
5. Milling high speed steel
6. Finish turning
7. Broaching
8. Boring
9. Reaming
10. Commercial grinding
11. Barrel finishing
(c) 0.005 in
Surface finishes = 32 to 125
Processes:
1. Shaping and planning
2. Drilling
3. Milling high speed steel
4. Finish turning
5. Broaching
6. Boring
7. Reaming
8. Commercial grinding
9. Milling carbides
10. Gear shaping
11. Barrel finishing
12. Honing
(d) 0.001 in
Surface finishes = 8 to 32
Processes:
1. Finish turning
2. Broaching
3. Boring
4. Reaming
5. Commercial griniding
6. Milling carbides
7. Gear shaping
8. Barrel finishing
9. Roller burnishing
10. Diamond turning
120

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

11. Diamond and precision boring
12. Precision finish grinding
13. Honing
14. Production lapping
15. Superfinishing
(e) 0.0001 in
Surface finishes = 1 to 8 in, rms
Processes:
1. Barrel finishing
2. Roller burnishing
3. Diamond turning
4. Diamong and precision boring
5. Precision finish grinding
6. Honing
7. Production lapping
8. Superfinishing
(f) 0.00005 in
Surface finishes = 0 to 2 in.
Processes:
1. Honing
2. Production lapping
3. Superfinishing
105.

If it cost \$100 to finish a certain surface to 500 microinches rms, what would be
the approximate cost to finish it to the following roughness: (a) 125, (b) 32, (c) 8,
(d) 2 in. rms?

Solution:
From Fig. 3.9
Relative cost of 500 in rms = 1.75
(a) Relative cost of 125 in rms = 3
3
Cost = \$100
= \$171
1.75

121

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(b) Relative cost of 32 in rms = 5
5
Cost = \$100
= \$286
1.75
(c) Relative cost of 8 in rms = 7.75
7.75
Cost = \$100
= \$443
1.75
(d) Relative cost of 2 in rms = 11.5
11.5
Cost = \$100
= \$657
1.75
DATA LACKING DESIGNERS DECISIONS*
*
Properties of rolled structural sections are found in various handbooks.
106-125. Design a bell crank, similar to the one shown, to carry a mild shock load. The
mechanical advantage ( L1 L2 = F2 F1 ), the force F1 , the length L1 , and the
material are given in the accompanying table. (a) Make all significant dimensions,
including tolerances and allowances. One approach could be to compute
dimensions of the yoke connections first; t should be a little less than a . An
assumption for the shaft may be that, on occasion, the torque for F1 is transmitted
through the shaft (ignoring bending for local convenience). (b) Check all
dimensions for good proportion; modify as desirable. (c) Sketch to scale each
part, showing all dimensions with tolerances necessary to manufacture.
Prob. No.

L1

Rolled

106
107
108
109

700
650
600
550

12
14
15
18

C1020
C1020
C1022
C1035

1.5
2
2.5
3

110
111
112
113

500
800
750
750

20
12
14
14

C1040
C1020
C1020
C1020

4
1.5
2
2.5

114
115
116
117

650
600
900
850

18
20
12
14

C1035
C1040
C1020
C1020

3
4
1.5
2

122

118
119
120
121

800
750
700
1000

15
18
20
12

C1022
C1035
C1040
C1020

2.5
3
4
1.5

122
123
124
125

950
900
850
800

14
15
18
20

C1020
C1022
C1035
C1040

2
2.5
3
4

Problems 106 to 125.

Solution:
F1 = 700 lb = 0.7 kip
L1 = 12 in
MA = 1.5
For AISI C1020 as rolled (Table AT 7)
su = 65 ksi
sus = 49 ksi
Designing based on ultimate strength
N = 6 (Table 1.1) mild shock, one direction
su 65
=
= 10 ksi
N
6
s
49
s s = us =
= 8 ksi
N
6
s=

123

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

ss =

F1

2 d12
4

0.7
8=
1
d12
2
d1 = 0.24 in
1
say d1 = in
4

F1
1
d12
2

F1
a1d1
0. 7
10 =
1
a1
4
a1 = 0.28 in
5
say a1 = in
16
since t1 < a1
1
say t1 = in
4
F1
s=
D1t1
0. 7
10 =
1
D1
4
D1 = 0.28 in
5
say D1 = in
16
Consider yoke connection B.
L1
= 1.5
L2
12
L2 =
= 8 in
1.5
F2
= 1.5
F1
F2 = 1.5(0.7 ) = 1.05 kip
F2
F2
ss =
=
1
1

d 22
2 d 22
2
4

s=

124

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

1.05
1
d 22
2
d 2 = 0.29 in
5
say d 2 = in
16
8=

F2
a2 d 2
1.05
10 =
5
a2
16
a2 = 0.34 in
3
say a2 = in
8
since t 2 < a2
5
say t 2 = in
16
F1
s=
D1t1
1.05
10 =
5
D2
16
D2 = 0.34 in
3
say D2 = in
8
For shaft diameter
Assume torque, T1 = F1L1 = (0.70 )(12) = 8.4 in kips
16T1
ss =
d s3
16(8.4)
8=
d s3
3
d s = 1.75 in = 1 in
4
Tolerances and allowances, consider RC 4 (Table 3.1)
Hole
Shaft
+ 0.0006
+ 0.0000
d1 = 0.2500
in
d1 = 0.2495
in
0.0000
0.0006
allowance = 0.0005 in
s=

125

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

+ 0.0006
+ 0.0000
in
d 2 = 0.3120
in
0.0000
0.0006
allowance = 0.0005 in
+ 0.0010
+ 0.0000
d s = 1.7490
in
d s = 1.7500
in
0.0010
0.0000
allowance = 0.0010 in

d 2 = 0.3125

Female
Male
+ 0.0006
+ 0.0000
a1 = 0.3125
in
a1 = 0.3120
in
0.0000
0.0006
allowance = 0.0005 in
+ 0.0006
+ 0.0000
a2 = 0.3750
in
a2 = 0.3745
in
0.0000
0.0006
allowance = 0.0005 in
(b) For good proporion use the following dimension
D1 = D2 = 1 in
3
d1 = d 2 = in
4
3
t1 = t 2 = in
4
a1 = a2 = 1 in
d s = 2 in
Tolerances and allowances, consider RC 4 (Table 3.1)
Hole
Shaft
+ 0.0008
+ 0.0000
d1 = 0.7500
in
d1 = 0.7492
in
0.0000
0.0008
allowance = 0.0008 in
+ 0.0008
+ 0.0000
d 2 = 0.7500
in
d 2 = 0.7492
in
0.0000
0.0008
allowance = 0.0008 in
+ 0.0012
+ 0.0000
d s = 2.0000
in
d s = 1.9988
in
0.0000
0.0012
allowance = 0.0012 in
Female
Male
+ 0.0008
+ 0.0000
a1 = 1.0000
in
a1 = 0.9992
in
0.0008
0.0000
allowance = 0.0008 in
+ 0.0008
+ 0.0000
a2 = 1.0000
in
a2 = 0.9992
in
0.0000
0.0008
126

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

allowance = 0.0008 in
(c) Sketch

126.

A simple beam 12 ft. long is to support a concentrated load of 10 kips at the

midpoint with a design factor of at least 2.5 based on yield strength. (a) What is
the size and weight of the lightest steel (C1020, as rolled) I-beam that can be
used? (b) Compute its maximum deflection. (c) What size beam should be used if
the deflection is not to exceed in.?

Solution:

N = 2. 5

s y = 48 ksi

s=

Mc s y
=
I
N

127

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

48
= 19 ksi
2.5
FL (10 )(144)
M=
=
= 360 lb in
4
4
M
s=
Z
Z = section modulus
M 360
Z=
=
= 18.95 in 3
s
19
From Table B-3, Strength of Material by F. Singer, 2nd Edition
Select 10I35 Section Index
Unsupported length = 12 ft
Weight per foot = 35 lb
Section Modulus = Z = 29.2 in 3
s=

I = 145.8 in 4 , moment of inertia

Size (Depth) = 10.0 in
Weight of beam = (35)(12) = 420 lb
FL3
48 EI
E = 30,000 ksi

(b) =

(10 )(144 )3 = 0.142 in

48(30,000 )(145.8)

FL3
48 EI
(10)(144 )3
0.25 =
48(30,000)I
I = 82.9 in 4
From Table B-3, Strength of Material by F. Singer, 2nd Edition
Select 10I35 Section Index
Unsupported length = 12 ft
Weight per foot = 35 lb
I = 145.8 in 4 , moment of inertia
Size (Depth) = 10.0 in

(c) =

127.

A 10-in., 35-lb. I-beam is used as a simple beam, supported on 18-ft. centers, and
carrying a total uniformly distributed load of 6000 lb. Determine the maximum
stress and the maximum deflection.

Solution:
128

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

6000 + 630
= 30.7 lb in
(18)(12)
Table B.3, From Strength of Materials, F.L. Singer, 2nd Edition
For 10-in., 35-lb. I-beam
I = 145.8 in 4
Z = 29.2 in 3
w=

M max
Z
2
wL2 (30.7 )(216 )
M max =
=
= 179,042 lb in = 179 kips in
8
8
179
s max =
= 6.13 ksi
29.2
5FL3
max =
384 EI
E = 30,000 ksi
F = wL = (30.7 )(216) = 6631 lbs = 6.631 kips
s max =

5(6.631)(216 )
= 0.20 in
384(30,000)(145.8)
3

max =
128.

Solution:

wL2 (30.7 )(216)

=
= 716,170 lb in = 716.17 kips in
8
2
M
716.17
= max =
= 24.53 ksi
Z
29.2
2

M max =
s max

129

w=

6000 + 630
= 30.7 lb in
(18)(12)

(30.7 )(216) = 1.91 in

wL4
=
8EI 8(30,000 )(145.8)
4

max =
129.

Two equal angles, placed back to back as shown, act as a simple beam and are to
support a load of F = 2,000 lb .; L = 40 in .; a = 15 in . What size angles should
be used if the maximum stress is not to exceed 20 ksi? The stress due to the
weight of the angles is negligible.

Problems 129, 130.

Solution:
Table AT 2
M
s=
Z
Fab
M=
L
a = 15 in
L = 40 in
b = L a = 40 15 = 25 in
(2 )(15)(25) = 18.75 kips in
M=
40
M 18.75
Z=
=
= 0.9375 in 3
s
20
1
For each angles, Z = (0.9375) = 0.46875 in 3
2
From Strength of Materials, F.L. Singer, 2nd Edition
Table B-5
Say size 3 x 3, thickness = in
I
Z = = 0.58 in3
c
130.

The same as 129, except that a rolled T-section is to be used.

Solution:
From Table AT 1, No. 6

130

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

aH 2 + bt 2
2(aH + bt )
c2 = H c1
c1 =

Bt 3
ah 3
+ (Bt )d 2 +
+ (ah )e 2
12
12
say a = t
h=B
B = 4t
H = h+t = B+t
b = Ba
2
t (B + t ) + (B t )t 2
c1 =
2[t (B + t ) + (B t )t ]
Ix =

t (B + t ) + (B t )t 2 t (5t ) + (3t )t 2
=
= 1.75t
2(2 Bt )
4 4t 2
c2 = H c1
H = B + t = 5t
c2 = 5t 1.75t = 3.25t
2

c1 =

Ix =

( )

Bt 3
ah 3
+ (Bt )d 2 +
+ (ah )e 2
12
12

d = c1

t
= 1.75t 0.5t = 1.25t
2

a=t
h = B = 4t
h
e = c2 = 3.25t 0.5(4t ) = 1.25t
2
(4t )t 3 + (4t )t (1.25t )2 + t (4t )3 + t (4t )(1.25t )2 = 18.17t 4
Ix =
12
12
Mc2
s=
I
M = 18.75 kips in
131

SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

s = 20 =

(18.75)(3.25t )
18.17t 4

t = 0.55 in
9
say t = in
16
1
9
B = 4t = 4 = 2 in
4
16
1 9
H = B + t = 2 + = 2.8125 in
4 16
say H = 3 in

1
9
Size: 2 3
T section
4
16
- end -

132

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

VARYING STRESSES NO CONCENTRATION
DESIGN PROBLEMS
141.

The maximum pressure of air in a 20-in. cylinder (double-acting air compressor)

is 125 psig. What should be the diameter of the piston rod if it is made of AISI
3140, OQT at 1000 F, and if there are no stress raisers and no column action? Let
N = 1.75 ; indefinite life desired. How does your answer compare with that
obtained for 4?

Solution:
For AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F
su = 153 ksi
s y = 134 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(153) = 76.5 ksi
sn = 0.5su = (0.8)(0.85)(76.5) = 52 ksi
Soderberg line
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
For double-acting

2
Fmax = F = pA = (125) (20 ) = 39,270 lb = 39.27 kips
4
Fmin = F = 39.27 kips
sm = 0
4 F 4(39.27 ) 50
sa =
=
= 2
d2
d2
d
50
2
1
1
d
=
= 0+
N 1.75
52
d = 1.2972 in
5
say d = 1 in
16
comparative to Problem 4.

142.

A link as shown is to be made of AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F. The load F = 5 kips
is repeated and reversed. For the time being, ignore stress concentrations. (a) If
its surface is machined, what should be its diameter for N = 1.40 . (b) The same
as (a), except that the surface is mirror polished. What would be the percentage
saving in weight? (c) The same as (a), except that the surface is as forged.

Page 1 of 62

Prob. 142 144

Solution:
For AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F
su = 105 ksi
s y = 85 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(105) = 52.5 ksi
sm = 0
4F
4(5)
20
sa =
=
=
2
2
d
d
d2
Soderberg line
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
1
s
= 0+ a
N
sn
s
sa = n
N
Size factor = 0.85

(a) Machined surface

Surface factor = 0.85 (Fig. AF 5)
sn = 0.5su = (0.80)(0.85)(0.85)(52.5) ksi = 30.345 ksi
20
30.345
sa =
=
2
D
1 .4
D = 0.542 in
9
say D = in
16
(b) Mirror polished surface
Surface factor = 1.00 (Fig. AF 5)
sn = 0.5su = (0.80)(0.85)(1.00)(52.5) ksi = 35.7 ksi
20
35.7
sa =
=
2
D
1 .4

Page 2 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

D = 0.5 in
2

9 1

16
2
Savings in weight = 2 (100% ) = 21%
9

16
(c) As forged surface
Surface factor = 0.40 (Fig. AF 5)
sn = 0.5su = (0.80)(0.85)(0.40 )(52.5) ksi = 14.28 ksi
20 14.28
sa =
=
D2
1 .4
D = 0.79 in
3
say D = in
4

143.

The same as 142, except that, because of a corrosive environment, the link is
made from cold-drawn silicon bronze B and the number of reversals of the load
is expected to be less than 3 x 107.

Solution:
For cold-drawn silicon bronze, Type B.
sn = 30 ksi at 3 x 108
s y = 69 ksi
su = 93.75 ksi
0.085

3 108

sn at 3 x 10 = (30 )
= 36.5 ksi
7
3

10

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(36.5) = 24.82 ksi

20
24.82
sa =
=
2
D
1 .4
D = 0.60 in
5
say D = in
8
7

144.

The same as 142, except that the link is made of aluminum alloy 2024-T4 with a
minimum life of 107 cycles.

Solution:
For AA 2024-T4
s y = 47 ksi
su = 68 ksi
sn = 20 ksi at 5 x108

Page 3 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

0.085

5 108

sn at 10 (20 )
= 27.9 ksi
7
10
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(27.9) = 19 ksi
20
19
sa =
=
2
D 1 .4
D = 0.685 in
11
say D = in
16
7

145.

A shaft supported as a simple beam, 18 in. long, is made of carburized AISI 3120
steel (Table AT 10). With the shaft rotating, a steady load of 2000 lb. is appliled
midway between the bearings. The surfaces are ground. Indefinite life is desired
with N = 1.6 based on endurance strength. What should be its diameter if there
are no surface discontinuities?

Solution:

For AISI 3120 steel, carburized

sn = 90 ksi
s y = 100 ksi
su = 141 ksi
Size Factor = 0.85
Surface factor (ground) = 0.88
sn = (0.85)(0.88)(90) = 67.32 ksi
sm = 0
32 M
sa =
D3
FL (2000 )(18)
M=
=
= 9000 in lb = 9.0 in kips
4
4
Soderberg line
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn

Page 4 of 62

1
s
= 0+ a
N
sn
s
sa = n
N
32(9 ) 67.32
=
D3
1 .6
D = 1.2964 in
1
say D = 1 in
4

146.

(a) A lever as shown with a rectangular section is to be designed for indefinite

life and a reversed load of F = 900 lb . Find the dimensions of a section without
discontinuity where b = 2.8t and L = 14 in . for a design factor of N = 2 . The
material is AISI C1020, as rolled, with an as-forged surface. (b) compute the
dimensions at a section where e = 4 in .

Problems 146, 147

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
s n = 0.5su = 32.5 ksi
Surface factor (as forged) = 0.55
(a) sm = 0
Mc
sa =
I
3
tb3 t (2.8t )
I=
=
= 1.8293t 4
12
12
b 2.8t
c= =
= 1.4t
2
2
M = FL = (900)(14) = 12,600 in lb = 12.6 in kips
(12.6)(1.4t ) = 9.643
sa =
1.8293t 4
t3
sn = (0.85)(0.55)(32.5) = 15.20 ksi
Page 5 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Soderberg line
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
1
s
= 0+ a
N
sn
s
sa = n
N
9.643 15.20
=
t3
2
t = 1.08 in
b = 2.8t = 2.8(1.08) = 3.0 in
1
say t = 1 in , b = 3.0 in
16

(b) M = Fe = (900)(4 ) = 3,600 in lb = 3.6 in kips

(3.6)(1.4t ) = 2.755
sa =
18293t 4
t3
2.755 15.20
=
t3
2
t = 0.713 in
b = 2.8t = 2.8(0.713) = 1.996 in
23
say t =
in , b = 2 in
32

147.

The same as 146, except that the reversal of the load are not expected to exceed
105 (Table AT 10).

Solution:
sn = 32.5 ksi
0.085

106
sn at 10 = (32.5) 5
= 39.5 ksi
10
sn = (0.85)(0.55)(39.5) = 18.5 ksi
5

sn
N
9.643 18.5
=
t3
2

(a) sa =

Page 6 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

t = 1.014 in
b = 2.8t = 2.8(1.014) = 2.839 in
13
say t = 1 in , b = 2 in
16
sn
N
2.755 18.5
=
t3
2

(b) sa =

t = 0.6678 in
b = 2.8t = 2.8(0.6678) = 1.870 in
11
7
say t = in , b = 1 in
16
8

148.

A shaft is to be subjected to a maximum reversed torque of 15,000 in-lb. It is

machined from AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 2). What should be its
diameter for N = 1.75 ?

Solution:
For AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F
su = 152 ksi
s y = 134 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 76 ksi
For machined surface,
Surface factor = 0.78
Size factor = 0.85
sns = (0.6)(0.85)(0.78)(134) = 53.3 ksi
s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(134 ) = 80.4 ksi
1 sms sas
=
+
N s ys sns
sms = 0
16T
sas =
D3
T = 15 in kips
16(15) 240
sas =
=
D3 D3
1
s
= 0 + as
N
sns
s
sas = ns
N
Page 7 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

240 53.3
=
D 3 1.75
D = 1.3587 in
3
say D = 1 in
8

149.

The same as 148, except that the shaft is hollow with the outside diameter twice
the inside diameter.

Solution:
Do = 2 Di
16TDo
16(15)(2 Di )
32
sas =
=
=
4
4
4
4
(Do Di ) (2 Di ) Di
Di3
s
sas = ns
N
32 53.3
=
Di3 1.75

Di = 0.694 in
11
3
say Di = in , Do = 1 in
16
8
150.

The link shown is machined from AISI 1035 steel, as rolled, and subjected to a
repeated tensile load that varies from zero to 10 kips; h = 2b . (a) Determine these
dimensions for N = 1.40 (Soderberg) at a section without stress concentration.
(b) How much would these dimensions be decreased if the surfaces of the link
were mirror polished?

Problems 150, 151, 158.

Solution:
For AISI 1035, steel as rolled
su = 85 ksi
s y = 55 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 42.5 ksi

Page 8 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1
(10 + 0 ) = 5 kips
2
1
Fa = (10 0 ) = 5 kips
2
F
5
10
sm = m =
= 2
2
bh 1.5b
3b
F
5
10
sa = a =
= 2
2
bh 1.5b
3b
(a) Soderberg line
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
For machined surface,
Factor = 0.88
Fm =

Size factor = 0.85

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.88)(42.5) = 25.4 ksi
1
10
10
= 2
+ 2
1.40 3b (55) 3b (25.4 )
b = 0.5182 in
9
say b = in
16
27
h = 1.5b =
in
32

(b) Mirror polished,

Factor = 1.00
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(1.00)(42.5) = 28.9 ksi
1
10
10
= 2
+ 2
1.40 3b (55) 3b (28.9 )
b = 0.4963 in
1
say b = in
2
3
h = 1.5b = in
4

151.

The same as 150, except that the link operates in brine solution. (Note: The
corroding effect of the solution takes precedence over surface finish.)

Page 9 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Solution:
Table AT 10, in brine, AISI 1035,
sn = 24.6 ksi
s y = 58 ksi
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(24.6) = 16.73 ksi
1
10
10
= 2
+ 2
1.40 3b (55) 3b (16.73)
b = 0.60 in
5
say b = in
8
15
h = 1.5b = in
16

152.

The simple beam shown, 30-in. long ( = a + L + d ), is made of AISI C1022 steel,
as rolled, left a forged. At a = 10 in , F1 = 3000 lb. is a dead load. At
d = 10 in , F2 = 2400 lb. is repeated, reversed load. For N = 1.5 , indefinite life,
and h = 3b , determine b and h . (Ignore stress concentration).

Problem 152, 153

Solution:
For AISI C1022, as rolled
su = 72 ksi
s y = 52 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 36 ksi
For as forged surface
Figure AF 5, factor = 0.52
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(0.52)(36) = 16 ksi

Page 10 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

=0

10(3000) + 20(2400 ) = 30 R2
R2 = 2600 lb

=0

R1 + R2 = F1 + F2
R1 + 2600 = 3000 + 2400
R1 = 2800 lb
Shear Diagram

M C1 = (2800 )(10 ) = 28,000 in lb = 28 in kips

M D1 = (2600 )(10 ) = 26,000 in lb = 26 in kips

Then

=0

10(3000) + 30 R2 = 20(2400 )
R2 = 600 lb

=0

R1 + F2 = F1 + R2
R1 + 2400 = 3000 + 600
R1 = 1200 lb

Page 11 of 62

Shear Diagram

M C2 = (1200 )(10 ) = 12,000 in lb = 12 in kips

M D2 = (600 )(10 ) = 6,000 in lb = 6 in kips

Then using
M max = M C1 = 28 in kips
M min = M C2 = 12 in kips
1
(M max + M min ) = 1 (28 + 12) = 20 in kips
2
2
1
1
M a = (M max M min ) = (28 12 ) = 8 in kips
2
2
M c
M c
sm = m , sa = a
I
I
3
3
bh
b(3b )
I=
=
= 2.25b 4
12
12
h
c = = 1.5b
2
Mm
Ma
sm =
, sa =
3
1.5b
1.5b3
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
Mm =

20 8

1 1.5b3 1.5b3
=
+
1.5
52
16
b = 0.96 in
say b = 1 in
h = 3b = 3 in

153.

The same as 152, except that the cycles of F2 will not exceed 100,000 and all
surfaces are machined.

Solution:

Page 12 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

0.085

106
(
)
sn at 10 cycles = 36 5
= 43.8 ksi
10
su = 72 ksi
Machined surface, factor = 0.90
sn = (0.85)(0.90)(43.8) = 33.5 ksi
5

20 8

1 1.5b3 1.5b3
=
+
1.5
52
33.5
b = 0.8543 in
7
say b = in
8
5
h = 3b = 2 in
8

154.

A round shaft, made of cold-finished AISI 1020 steel, is subjected to a variable

torque whose maximum value is 6283 in-lb. For N = 1.5 on the Soderberg
criterion, determine the diameter if (a) the torque is reversed, (b) the torque varies
from zero to a maximum, (c) the torque varies from 3141 in-lb to maximum.

Solution:
For AISI 1020, cold-finished
su = 78 ksi
s y = 66 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 39 ksi
size factor = 0.85
sns = (0.6)(0.85)(39) = 20 ksi
s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(66 ) = 40 ksi
1 sms sas
=
+
N s ys sns
(a) Reversed torque
sms = 0
16T
sas =
D3
T = 6283 in lb
16(6283) 32,000
32
sas =
=
psi = 3 ksi
3
3
D
D
D
1
sas
= 0+
N
sns

Page 13 of 62

32
3
1
D
= 0+
1.5
20
D = 1.34 in
3
say D = 1 in
8

(b) Tmin = 0 , Tmax = 6283 in lb

1
Tm = (6283) = 3141 in lb
2
1
Ta = (6283) = 3141 in lb
2
16(3141) 16,000
16
=
psi = 3 ksi
3
3
D
D
D
16(3141) 16,000
16
=
sas =
psi = 3 ksi
3
3
D
D
D
16 16

1 D3 D 3
=
+
1.5
40
20
D = 1.22 in
1
say D = 1 in
4
sms =

(c) Tmin = 3141 in lb , Tmax = 6283 in lb

1
Tm = (6283 + 3141) = 4712 in lb
2
1
Ta = (6283 3141) = 1571 in lb
2
16(4712 ) 24,000
24
=
psi = 3 ksi
3
3
D
D
D
16(1571) 8,000
8
sas =
psi = 3 ksi
=
3
3
D
D
D
24 8

1 D3 D 3
+
=
1.5
40
20
D = 1.145 in
5
say D = 1 in
32
sms =

Page 14 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

CHECK PROBLEMS
155.

A simple beam 2 ft. long is made of AISI C1045 steel, as rolled. The dimensions
of the beam, which is set on edge, are 1 in. x 3 in. At the midpoint is a repeated,
reversed load of 4000 lb. What is the factor of safety?

Solution:
For AISI C1045, as rolled
su = 96 ksi
s y = 59 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(96) = 48 ksi
size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(48) = 40.8 ksi
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
sm = 0
6M
sa = 2
bh
h = 3 in
b = 1 in
FL (4000 )(24 )
M=
=
= 24,000 in lb = 24 in kips
4
4
6(24 )
sa =
= 16 ksi
(1)(3)2
1
16
= 0+
N
40.8
N = 2.55
156.

The same as 155, except that the material is normalized and tempered cast steel,
SAE 080.

Solution:
Table AT 6
sn = 35 ksi
s y = 40 ksi
sn = (0.85)(35) = 29.75 ksi
1
16
= 0+
N
29.75
N = 1.86
157.

A 1 -in. shaft is made of AISI 1045 steel, as rolled. For N = 2 , what repeated
and reversed torque can the shaft sustain indefinitely?

Page 15 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Solution:
For AISI 1045, as rolled
su = 96 ksi
s y = 59 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(96) = 48 ksi
sns = (0.6)(0.85)(48) = 24.48 ksi
s ys = 0.6 s y = (0.6 )(59 ) = 35.4 ksi
1 sms sas
=
+
N s ys sns
sms = 0
1
s
= 0 + as
2
24.48
sas = 12.24 ksi
16T
sas =
= 12.24
D 3
T = 8 in kips
VARIABLE STRESSES WITH STRESS CONCENTRATIONS
DESIGN PROBLEMS
158.

The load on the link shown (150) is a maximum of 10 kips, repeated and
reversed. The link is forged from AISI C020, as rolled, and it has a in-hole
drilled on the center line of the wide side. Let h = 2b and N = 1.5 . Determine b
and h at the hole (no column action) (a) for indefinite life, (b) for 50,000
repetitions (no reversal) of the maximum load, (c) for indefinite life but with a
ground and polished surface. In this case, compute the maximum stress.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
For as forged surface
Surface factor = 0.55
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.55)(32.5) = 12.2 ksi
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn

Page 16 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Fig. AF 8, b h > 1
Assume K t = 3.5
d 1
Figure AF 7, r = = in = 0.125 in
2 8
a = 0.01 in
1
1
q=
=
= 0.926
a
0.01
1+
1+
r
0.125
(
)
K f = q K t 1 + 1 = 0.926(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.3
sm = 0
F
10
=
b(h d ) b(2b 0.25)
K s
1
(a)
= 0+ f a
N
sn
1
(3.3)(10)
= 0+
1.5
b(2b 0.25)(12.2)
2
2b 0.25b = 4.06
b 2 0.125b 2.03 = 0
b = 1.489 in
1
say b = 1 in , h = 2b = 3 in
2
sa =

(b) For 50,000 repetitions or 50,000 cycles

106

sn = (12.2 )
4
5 10
(log K ) 3

0.085

= 15.74 ksi
(log 3.3 ) 3

f
n
(5 104 )
=
= 2.0
log K
10log 3.3
10 f
1 K fl sa
=
N
sn
1
(2.0)(10)
=
1.5 b(2b 0.25)(15.74)
2b 2 0.25b = 1.906
b 2 0.125b 0.953 = 0
b = 1.04 in
1
1
say b = 1 in , h = 2b = 2 in
16
8

K fl =

(c) For indefinite life, ground and polished surface

Surface factor = 0.90

Page 17 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.90)(32.5) = 20 ksi
1 K f sa
=
N
sn
1
(3.3)(10)
=
1.5 b(2b 0.25)(20)
b 2 0.125b 1.2375 = 0
b = 1.18 in
3
3
say b = 1 in , h = 2b = 2 in
16
8
Kf F
Maximum stress =
b(h d )
b h > 1 , d h = 0.25 2.375 = 0.105
Figure AF 8
K t = 3.5
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.315
smax =
159.

(3.315)(10)
= 13.14 ksi
1.1875(2.375 0.25)
A connecting link as shown, except that there is a 1/8-in. radial hole drilled
through it at the center section. It is machined from AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F, and
it is subjected to a repeated, reversed axial load whose maximum value is 5 kips.
For N = 1.5 , determine the diameter of the link at the hole (a) for indefinite life;
(b) for a life of 105 repetitions (no column action). (c) In the link found in (a)
what is the maximum tensile stress?

Problem 159
Solution:
For AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F
su = 135 ksi
s y = 126 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(135) = 67.5 ksi
For machined surface, Fig. AF 7, surface factor = 0.80
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.80)(67.5) = 36.72 ksi

Page 18 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
Fig. AF 8, b h > 1
Assume K t = 2.5
d 1
Figure AF 7, r = = in = 0.0625 in
2 16
a = 0.0025 in
1
1
q=
=
= 0.96
a
0.0025
1+
1+
r
0.0625
K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.96(2.5 1) + 1 = 2.44
(a) Indefinite life, K f = 2.44
sn = 36.72 ksi
sm = 0
F
4F
4(5)
20
sa =
=
=
=
2
2
2
D
D 4 Dd
1 D 0.5 D
D 2 4 D
Dd
4
8
K s
1
= 0+ f a
N
sn
1
(2.44)(20)
=
1.5 36.72(D 2 0.5D )
D 2 0.5D = 2.00
D = 0.88 in
7
say D = in
8
(b) For a life of 105 repetitions or cycles
106
sn = (36.72 ) 5
10
(log K ) 3

0.085

= 44.66 ksi
(log 2.4 ) 3

f
n
(105 )
K fl = log K f =
10log 2.44
10
1 K fl sa
=
N
sn
1
(1.81)(20)
=
1.5 44.66(D 2 0.5 D )
D 2 0.5D = 1.216
D = 0.71 in

Page 19 of 62

= 1.81

say D =

3
in
4

4K f F
D 2 0.5D
7
d 0.125
D = in ,
=
= 0.14
8
D 0.875
Figure AF 8
K t = 2.6

(c) smax =

smax =

160.

4(2.54)(5)
2

7
7
0.5
8
8

= 25.82 ksi

A machine part of uniform thickness t = b 2.5 is shaped as shown and machined

all over from AISI C1020, as rolled. The design is for indefinite life for a load
repeated from 1750 lb to 3500 lb. Let d = b . (a) For a design factor of 1.8
(Soderberg), what should be the dimensions of the part? (b) What is the
maximum tensile stress in the part designed?

Problems 160, 161

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.90
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.90)(32.5) = 20 ksi
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
(a) For flat plate with fillets
Figure AF 9
b d
r= =
3 3

Page 20 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

r 1
= = 0.333
d 3
h 2b
=
=2
d
b
K t = 1.65
a = 0.01 in
1
q=
1.0
a
1+
r
K f K t = 1.65
Fm
bt
Fa
sa =
bt
b
t=
2 .5
1
Fm = (3500 + 1750 ) = 2625 lb
2
1
Fa = (3500 1750 ) = 875 lb
2
2625
6562.5
sm =
=
b2
b
b

2 .5
875
2187.5
sa =
=
b
b2
b

2 .5
1
6562.5 (1.65)(2187.5)
=
+
1.8 48,000b 2
20,000b 2
b = 0.7556 in
or b = 0.75 in
b
0.75
t=
=
= 0.3 in
2 .5 2 .5
sm =

For flat plate with central hole

Fig. AF 8, b h > 1 , d h = b 2b = 1 2
Assume K f K t = 2.9
Fm
Fm
F
=
= m
(h d )t (2b b )t bt
Fa
Fa
F
sa =
=
= a
(h d )t (2b b )t bt
sm =

Page 21 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

2625
6562.5
=
b
b2
b

2 .5
875
2187.5
sa =
=
b
b2
b

2 .5
1
6562.5 (2.9)(2187.5)
=
+
1.8 48,000b 2
20,000b 2
b = 0.904 in
15
or b = 0.9375 in = in
16
b
3
t=
= in
2 .5 8
15
d = b = in
16
15
3
15
use b = in , t = in , d = in
16
8
16
sm =

(b) smax = sm + K f sa
d 15
=
in
2 32
1
q=
= 0.98
0.01
1+
15

32
K t = 2.9
r=

K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.98(2.9 1) + 1 = 2.86

Fm 6562.5 6562.5
=
=
= 7467 psi
2
bt
b2
15

16
F 2187.5 2187.5
sa = a =
=
= 2489 psi
2
bt
b2
15

16
smax = sm + K f sa = 7467 + (2.86 )(2489 ) = 14,586 psi

sm =

162.

The beam shown has a circular cross section and supports a load F that
varies from 1000 lb to 3000 lb; it is machined from AISI C1020 steel, as
rolled. Determine the diameter D if r = 0.2 D and N = 2 ; indefinite life.

Page 22 of 62

Problems 162 164.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.90
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(0.90 )(32.5) = 24.86 ksi

=0

12 F = 24 B
F = 2B
F
B=
2
F
A= B=
2
At discontinuity
6F
M=
= 3F
2
M max = 3(3000) in lb = 9000 in lb = 9 in kips

M min = 3(1000) in lb = 3000 in lb = 3 in kips

1
M m = (9 + 3) = 6 in kips
2
1
M a = (9 3) = 3 in kips
2
32 M
s=
D3
Figure AF 12
D d =1.5d d =1.5
r d = 0.2d d = 0.2
K t = 1.42
assume K f K t = 1.42

Page 23 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
1 (32 )(6 ) (1.42 )(32 )(3)
=
+
2 48D 3
24.86D 3
D = 1.821 in
13
say D = 1 in
16
At maximum moment
12 F
M=
= 6F
2
M max = 6(3000) in lb = 18000 in lb = 18 in kips

M min = 6(1000) in lb = 6000 in lb = 6 in kips

1
M m = (18 + 6 ) = 12 in kips
2
1
M a = (18 6 ) = 6 in kips
2
32 M
s=
D3
K f = 1.00
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
1 (32 )(12 ) (1.0 )(32 )(6 )
=
+
2 48D 3
24.86D 3
D = 1.4368 in
13
Therefore use D = 1 in
16
164. The shaft shown is machined from C1040, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 1). It is
subjected to a torque that varies from zero to 10,000 in-lb. ( F = 0 ). Let r = 0.2 D
and N = 2 . Compute D . What is the maximum torsional stress in the shaft?

Solution:

su = 104 ksi
s y = 72 ksi

Page 24 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(104) = 52 ksi
For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.85
Size factor = 0.85
sns = (0.60)(0.85)(0.85)(52) = 22.5 ksi
1
Ta = Tm = (10,000 ) = 5000 in lb = 5 in kips
2
s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(72 ) = 43.2 ksi
sms = sas =

16T
D3
K fs sas

1 sms
=
+
N s ys
sns
Figure AF 12
D d =1.5d d =1.5
r d = 0.2d d = 0.2
K ts = 1.2
assume K fs K ts = 1.2

(16)(5) + (1.2)(16)(5)
1
=
2 43.2D 3
22.5D 3
D = 1.5734 in
9
say D = 1 in
16
smax = sm + K f sa
smax =

165.

(16)(5)
9
1
16

9
1
16

An axle (nonrotating) is to be machined from AISI 1144, OQT 1000 F, to the

proportions shown, with a fillet radius r 0.25 D ; F varies from 400 lb to 1200
lb.; the supports are to the left of BB not shown. Let N = 2 (Soderberg line). (a)
At the fillet, compute D and the maximum tensile stress. (b) Compute D at
section BB. (c) Specify suitable dimensions keeping the given proportions, would
a smaller diameter be permissible if the fillet were shot-peened?

Page 25 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Solution:
For AISI 1144, OQT 1000 F
su = 118 ksi
s y = 83 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 59 ksi
For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.83
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(0.83)(59) = 41.62 ksi
(a) At the fillet
D d =1.5d d =1.5
r d = 0.25d d = 0.25
K t = 1.35
assume K f K t = 1.35
M = 6F
M max = 6(1200) in lb = 7200 in lb = 7.2 in kips
M min = 6(400) in lb = 2400 in lb = 2.4 in kips
1
M m = (7.2 + 2.4 ) = 4.8 in kips
2
1
M a = (7.2 2.4 ) = 2.4 in kips
2
32 M
s=
D3
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
1 (32 )(4.8) (1.35)(32 )(2.4 )
=
+
2
83D 3
41.62D 3
D = 1.4034 in
7
say D = 1 in
16

(b) At section BB,

M = 30 F
M max = 30(1200) in lb = 36000 in lb = 36 in kips
M min = 30(400) in lb = 12000 in lb = 12 in kips
1
M m = (7.2 + 2.4 ) = 4.8 in kips
2
1
M a = (7.2 2.4 ) = 2.4 in kips
2

Page 26 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

32 M
D3
K f = 1 .0

s=

1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn

(32)(36) + (1.0)(32)(12)
1
=
2 83 (1.5 D )3 41.62 (1.5 D )3
D = 1.6335 in
11
say D = 1 in
16
(c) Specified dimension:
D = 2 in , 1.5 D = 3 in
A smaller diameter is permissible if the fillet were shot-peened because of increased
fatigue strength.
166.

A pure torque varying from 5 in-kips to 15 in-kips is applied at section C.

( F = 0 ) of the machined shaft shown. The fillet radius r = D 8 and the torque
passes through the profile keyway at C. The material is AISI 1050, OQT 1100 F,
and N = 1.6 . (a) What should be the diameter? (b) If the fillet radius were
increased to D 4 would it be reasonable to use a smaller D ?

Solution:

Tmax = 15 in kips
Tmin = 5 in kips
1
Tm = (15 + 5) = 10 in kips
2
1
Ta = (15 5) = 5 in kips
2
For AISI 1050, OQT 1100 F
su = 101 ksi
s y = 58.5 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(101) = 50.5 ksi
Page 27 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

For machined surface
Surface factor = 0.85
Size factor = 0.85
sns = (0.60)(0.85)(0.85)(50.5) = 21.9 ksi
(a) At the fillet
r d =r D = =1 8
D d =1.5
K ts = 1.3
assume K fs K ts = 1.3
At the key profile
K fs = 1.6
use K fs = 1.6
s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(58.5) = 35.1 ksi

1 sms K fs sas
=
+
N s ys
sns

(16)(10) + (1.6)(16)(5)
1
=
1.6 35.1D 3
21.9D 3
D = 1.7433 in
3
say D = 1 in
4
(b) r = D 4
r D = 0.25
D d =1.5
Figure AF 12
K ts = 1.18
K fs K ts = 1.18 < 1.6
Therefore, smaller D is not reasonable.
170.

The beam shown is made of AISI C1020 steel, as rolled; e = 8 in . The load F is
repeated from zero to a maximum of 1400 lb. Assume that the stress
concentration at the point of application of F is not decisive. Determine the
depth h and width t if h 4t ; N = 1.5 0.1 for Soderberg line. Iteration is
necessary because K f depends on the dimensions. Start by assuming a logical
K f for a logical h (Fig. AF 11), with a final check of K f . Considerable
estimation inevitable.

Page 28 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Problem 170
Solution:

1
F
2
At the hole
A= B=

F
M = eB = (8) = 4 F
2
M max = 4 F

M min = 0
1
M m = (4 F ) = 2 F = 2(1.4 ) = 2.8 in kips
2
1
M a = (4 F ) = 2 F = 2(1.4 ) = 2.8 in kips
2
Mc
s=
I
(h 2d )3 t
I=
12
1
d = in = 0.5 in
2
1 11
c = 1 + = 1.75 in
2 22
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(32.5) = 27.62 ksi
Fig. AF 7, c d = 1.75 0.5 = 3.5 > 0.5

Page 29 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Assume K t = 3.5
1 1
r = = 0.25 in
2 2
a = 0.010 in
1
1
q=
=
= 0.962
a
0.010
1+
1+
r
0.25
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.962(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.4

1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
1 12(2.8)(1.75) (3.4 )(12 )(2.8)(1.75)
=
+
3
1.5 48(h 2d )3 t
27.62(h 2d ) t

(h 2d )3 t = 12.70
[h 2(0.50)]3 t = 12.70
(4t 1)3 t = 12.70
t = 0.8627 in
7
say t = in
8
h = 4t = 3.5 in
1 1 1
h > 1 + 1 + in
2 2 2
h > 3.5 in
Figure AF 11, h d > 10
h = 10d = 10(0.50) = 5 in
1
d
= 2 = 0 .5
b 5 1 1
2 2
Therefore K t = 3.5 , K f = 3.4

1
Use h = 5 in , t = 1 in
4

171.

Design a crank similar to that shown with a design factor of 1.6 0.16 based on
the modified Goodman line. The crank is to be forged with certain surfaces
milled as shown and two -in. holes. It is estimated that the material must be of
the order of AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F. The length L = 17 in. , a = 5 in. , and the
load varies form + 15 kips to 9 kips. (a) Compute the dimensions at section AB
with h = 3b . Check the safety of the edges (forged surfaces). (Iteration involves;
one could first make calculations for forged surfaces and then check safety at
holes.) (b) Without redesigning but otherwise considering relevant factors ,

Page 30 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

quantitatively discuss actions that might be taken to reduce the size; holes must
remain as located.

Problems 171-174.
Solution:
(a) AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F
su = 96 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(96) = 48 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
As-forged surface (Fig. AF I)
Surface factor = 0.4
sn = (0.85)(0.42)(48) = 17 ksi
Milled surface (Machined)
Surface factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(0.85)(48) = 34.68 ksi
At AB, machined
1 sm K f sa
= +
N su
sn
Figure AF 11
1
b = in = 0.5 in
2
1
d = in = 0.25 in
4
d 0.25
=
in = 0.5
b 0 .5
Assume K f = 3.50
q = 0.998
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.998(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.495
Mc
I
3
(
h 2d ) b
I=
12

s=

Page 31 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 1
1
h 1 1 1 1
+ = h 1 + = (4h 4 + 1) = (4h 3)
2 2 2 4 2
4 8
8
h = 3b
1
M (4h 3)
8
s=
3

1
h 2 4 b

12
3
M (12b 3)
2
s=
(3b 0.5)3 b
4.5M (4b 1)
s=
(3b 0.5)3 b
M = F (L a )
M max = (15)(17 5) = 180 in kips

c=

M min = ( 9)(17 5) = 108 in kips

1
M m = (180 108) = 36 in kips
2
1
M a = (180 + 108) = 144 in kips
2
1 sm K f sa
= +
N su
sn
1
4.5(36 )(4b 1) (3.495)(4.5)(144 )(4b 1)
=
+
3
1.6 96(3b 0.5)3 b
34.68(3b 0.5) b
(4b 1) = 1
(3b 0.5)3 b 107.2

(3b 0.5)3 b = 107.2

(4b 1)
b = 2.6 in
5
say b = 2 in
8
7
h = 3b = 7 in
8
Checking at the edges (as forged)
M max = (15)(17 ) = 255 in kips
M min = ( 9)(17 ) = 153 in kips
1
M m = (255 153) = 51 in kips
2

Page 32 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1
M a = (255 + 153) = 204 in kips
2
6M 6M 2 M
s= 2 = 3 = 3
bh
9b
3b
K f 1 .0

1 sm K f sa
= +
N su
sn
1
2(51) (1.0)(2)(204)
= 3
+
1.6 3b (96)
3b3 (17 )
b = 2.373 in
3
say b = 2 in
8
5
3
since b = 2 in > 2 in , safe.
8
8
(c) Action: reduce number of repetitions of load.
CHECK PROBLEMS
173.

For the crank shown, L = 15 in , a = 3 in , d = 4.5 in , b = 1.5 in . It is as forged

from AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F, except for machined areas indicated. The load F
varies from +5 kips to 3 kips. The crank has been designed without detailed
attention to factors that affect its endurance strength. In section AB only,
compute the factor of safety by the Soderberg criterion. Suppose it were desired
to improve the margin of safety, with significant changes of dimensions
prohibited, what various steps could be taken? What are your particular
recommendations?

Solution:

For as forged surface

sn = 17 ksi
For machined surface
sn = 34.68 ksi
s n = 72 ksi
In section AB, machined
Page 33 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

M = F (L a )
M max = (+ 5)(15 3) = 60 in kips
M min = ( 3)(15 3) = 36 in kips
1
M m = (60 36 ) = 12 in kips
2
1
M a = (60 + 36 ) = 48 in kips
2
d = h = 4.5 in , b = 1.5 in
h
=3
b
4.5M (4b 1)
s=
(3b 0.5)3 b
4.5(12 )[4(1.5) 1]
sm =
= 2.8125 ksi
[3(1.5) 0.5]3 (1.5)
4.5(48)[4(1.5) 1]
sa =
= 11.25 ksi
[3(1.5) 0.5]3 (1.5)
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
K f = 3.495 from Problem 171.
1 2.8125 (3.495)(11.25)
=
+
N
72
34.68
N = 0.85 < 1 , unsafe
To increase the margin of safety
1. reduce the number of repetitions of loads
2. shot-peening
3. good surface roughness

Recommendation:
No. 1, reducing the number of repetitions of loads.
175.

The link shown is made of AISI C1020, as rolled, machined all over. It is loaded
3
9
5
in tension by pins in the D = in holes in the ends; a = in , t = in ,
8
16
16
1
h = 1 in . Considering sections at A, B, and C, determine the maximum safe
8
axial load for N = 2 and indefinite life (a) if it is repeated and reversed; (b) if it
is repeated varying from zero to maximum; (c) if it is repeatedly varies or
F = W to F = 3W . (d) Using the results from (a) and (b), determine the ratio of
the endurance strength for a repeated load to that for a reversed load (Soderberg
line).

Page 34 of 62

Problems 175 - 178

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
For machined all over
Surface factor = 0.90
sn = (0.85)(0.90)(0.80)(32.5) = 20 ksi
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
at A, Figure AF 8
9
b = in
16
1
h = 1 in
8
3
d = D = in
8
5
t = in
16
3
d
= 8 = 0.33
h 11
8
9
b 16
=
= 0.5
1
h
1
8
K tA = 3.6
d 3
r = = in
2 16
a = 0.01 in

Page 35 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1
= 0.95
a
0.01
1+
1+
3
r
16
(
)
k fA = q ktA 1 + 1 = 0.95(3.6 1) + 1 = 3.47
q=

F
F
64 F
=
=
(h d )t 1 1 3 5 15
8 8 16
1 64 Fm 3.47(64)Fa
=
+
2 15(48)
15(20)
8
Fm + 1.48 Fa at A
1=
45
s=

At B Figure AF 9
9
d = a = in
16
1
h = 1 in
8
3
r = in
16
5
t = in
16
3
r 16
=
= 0.33
9
d
16
1
1
h
= 8 =2
9
d
16
K tB = 1.63
a = 0.01 in
1
1
q=
=
= 0.95
a
0.01
1+
1+
3
r
16
k fB = q (ktB 1) + 1 = 0.95(1.63 1) + 1 = 1.6
s=

F
F
256 F
=
=
9
5
dt
45

16 16

Page 36 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1 256 Fm 1.6(256)Fa
=
+
2 45(48)
45(20)
32
1=
Fm + 0.455 Fa at B
135
at C, Figure AF 8,

b
>1
h

1
in
8
9
h = a = in
16
1
d
= 8 = 0.22
h 9
16
K tC = 3.5
d 1
r = = in
2 16
a = 0.01 in
1
1
q=
=
= 0.862
a
0.01
1+
1+
1
r
16
k fC = q (ktC 1) + 1 = 0.862(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.2
D=

F
F
256 F
=
=
(h d )t 9 1 5 35
16 8 16
1 256 Fm 3.2(256)Fa
=
+
2 35(48)
35(20)
32
1=
Fm + 1.17 Fa at C
105
s=

Equations
8
Fm + 1.48 Fa
45
32
At B, 1 =
Fm + 0.455 Fa
135
32
At C, 1 =
Fm + 1.17 Fa
105

At A, 1 =

Page 37 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

(a) Repeated and reversed load
Fm = 0
Fa = F
use at A
8
1=
Fm + 1.48 Fa
45
8
1 = (0 ) + 1.48 Fa
45
F = 0.676 kip
(b) Fm = Fa = F
8
at A, 1 =
F + 1.48 F
45
F = 0.603 kip
32
F + 0.455 F
at B, 1 =
135
F = 1.480 kips
32
at C, 1 =
F + 1.17 F
105
F = 0.678 kip
use F = 0.603 kip
(c) Fmin = W , Fmax = 3W
1
Fm = (3W W ) = W
2
1
Fa = (3W + W ) = 2W
2
8
at A, 1 = W + 1.48(2W )
45
W = 0.319 kip
32
at B, 1 =
W + 0.455(2W )
135
W = 0.884 kip
32
at C, 1 =
W + 1.17(2W )
105
W = 0.378 kip
use W = 0.319 kip
Fmax = 0.957 kip

Page 38 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

(d) Ratio =
179.

F (b ) 0.603
=
= 0.892
F (a ) 0.676

A steel rod shown, AISI 2320, hot rolled, has been machined to the following
3
1
dimensions: D = 1 in. , c = in. , e = in. A semicircular groove at the
4
8
1
1
midsection has r = in. ; for radial hole, a = in. An axial load of 5 kips is
8
4
repeated and reversed ( M = 0 ). Compute the factor of safety (Soderberg) and
make a judgement on its suitability (consider statistical variations of endurance
strength i4.4). What steps may be taken to improve the design factor?

Problems 179-183
Solution:
AISI 2320 hot-rolled (Table AT 10)
su = 96 ksi
s y = 51 ksi
sn = 48 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
Surface factor = 0.85 (machined)
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.85)(48) = 27.74 ksi
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
sm = 0 , reversed
sa = s
1 K f sa
=
N
sn
s
sa = n
NK f
at the fillet, Figure AF 12
1
r = e = in
8

Page 39 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

d =c=

3
in
4

D = 1 in
1
r 8
= = 0.17
d 3
4
D 1
= = 1.3
d 3
4
K t = 1.55
a = 0.010 in
1
1
q=
=
= 0.926
a
0.010
1+
1+
1
r
8
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(1.55 1) + 1 = 1.51

sa = s =

N=

4(5)
3

4

= 11.32 ksi

sn
27.74
=
= 1.62
sa K f (11.32)(1.51)

At the groove, Figure AF 14

1 3
d = b = D 2r = 1 in 2 in = in
8 4
D = 1 in
1
r = in
8
1
r 8
= = 0.17
d 3
4
D 1
= = 1.3
d 3
4
K t = 1.75
a = 0.010 in

Page 40 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1
= 0.926
a
0.010
1+
1+
1
r
8
(
)
K f = q K t 1 + 1 = 0.926(1.75 1) + 1 = 1.7

q=

4F
4(5)
=
= 11.32 ksi
2
2
d
3

4
s
27.74
N= n =
= 1.44
sa K f (11.32)(1.7 )

sa = s =

At the hole, Figure AF8

D = h = 1 in
1
d = a = in
4
1
D 4
= = 0.25
h 1
K t = 2.44
a = 0.010 in
1
1
q=
=
= 0.926
a
0.010
1+
1+
1
r
8
K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(2.44 1) + 1 = 2.33
sa = s =

D
4

N=

Dd

(1)

1
(1)
4
4

= 9.34 ksi

27.74
sn
=
= 1.27
sa K f (9.34)(2.33)

Factor of safety is 1.27

From i4.4
s = 0.76sn
sn
N=
= 1.32 min > 1.27
0.76 sn
Therefore, dimensions are not suitable.
Steps to be taken:
1. Reduce number of cycle to failure
Page 41 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

2. Good surface condition
3. Presetting
186.

A stock stud that supports a roller follower on a needle bearing for a cam is
5
7
3
made as shown, where a = in , b = in , c = in . The nature of the junction
8
16
4
of the diameters at B is not defined. Assume that the inside corner is sharp. The
material of the stud is AISI 2317, OQT 1000 F. Estimate the safe, repeated load
F for N = 2 . The radial capacity of the needle bearing is given as 1170 lb. at
2000 rpm for a 2500-hr life. See Fig. 20.9, p. 532, Text.

Problem 186
Solution:
AISI 2317, OQT 1000 F
su = 106 ksi
s y = 71 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 53 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(53) = 45 ksi
Figure AF 12
5
d = a = in
8
3
D = c = in
4
r d 0 , sharp corner
3
D 4
= = 1.2
d 5
8
Assume K t = 2.7
K f K t = 2 .7
s=

32 M
a3

7
M = Fb = F = 0.4375 F
16

Page 42 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

5
in = 0.625 in
8
32(0.4375)F
s=
= 18.25 F
(0.625)3
sm = sa = s = 18.25F
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn

a=

1 18.25 F (2.7 )(18.25 F )

=
+
2
71
45
F = 0.370 kip = 370 lb < less than radial capacity of the needle bearing. Ok.

187.

The link shown is made of AISI C1035 steel, as rolled, with the following
3
7
1
1
dimensions a = in. , b = in. , c = 1 in. , d = in. , L = 12 in. , r = in. The
8
8
2
16
axial load F varies from 3000 lb to 5000 lb and is applied by pins in the holes.
(a) What are the factors of safety at points A, B, and C if the link is machined all
over? What are the maximum stresses at these points?

Problems 187, 188

Solution:
AISI C1035, as rolled
su = 85 ksi
s y = 55 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 42.5 ksi
size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.6)(0.85)(42.5) = 21.68 ksi
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
1
(5 + 3) = 4 kips
2
1
Fa = (5 3) = 1 kip
2

Fm =

Page 43 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

(a) at A, Figure AF 9
1
r = in
16
3
d = a = in
8
7
h = b = in
8
1
r 16
=
= 0.17
3
d
8
7
h 8
= = 2.33
d 3
8
K t = 1.9
a = 0.010 in
1
1
q=
=
= 0.862
a
0.010
1+
1+
1
r
16
K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.862(1.9 1) + 1 = 1.78
s=

F
ac

4
= 10.67 ksi
3
(1)
8
1
sa =
= 2.67 ksi
3
(1)
8
1 10.67 (1.78)(2.67 )
=
+
N
55
21.68
N = 2.42
sm =

At B, same as A, K f = 1.78
F
(b a )c
4
sm =
= 8 ksi
7 3
(1)
8 8
s=

Page 44 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1
= 2 ksi
7 3
(1)
8 8
1
8 (1.78)(2 )
=
+
N 55
21.68
N = 3.23

sa =

At C, Figure AF 8
1
d = in
2
h = c = 1 in
b h >1
1
d 2
= = 0.5
h 1
K t = 2.2
a = 0.010 in
d 1
r = = in = 0.25 in
2 4
1
1
q=
=
= 0.962
a
0.010
1+
1+
r
0.25
K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.962(2.2 1) + 1 = 2.15
F
(b a )(c d )
4
sm =
= 16 ksi
7
3

1
1
8 8 2
1
sm =
= 4 ksi
7 3 1
1
8 8 2
1 16 (2.15)(4 )
=
+
N 55
21.68
N = 1.45
s=

(b) Maximum stresses

at A
s A = sm + K f sa = 10.67 + 1.78(2.67 ) = 15.42 ksi
at B
sB = sm + K f sa = 8 + 1.78(2 ) = 11.56 ksi

Page 45 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

at C
sC = sm + K f sa = 16 + 2.15(4 ) = 24.6 ksi
IMPACT PROBLEMS
189.

A wrought-iron bar is 1in. in diameter and 5 ft. long. (a) What will be the stress
and elongation if the bar supports a static load of 5000 lb? Compute the stress
and elongation if a 5000 lb. weight falls freely 0.05 in. and strikes a stop at the
end of the bar. (b) The same as (a), except that the bar is aluminum alloy 3003H14.

Solution:
D = 1 in. , L = 5 ft
For wrought iron,
E = 28 106 psi
(a) elongation
F = 5000 lb
(5000)(5)(12) = 0.01364 in
FL
=
=

AE
(1)2 28 106
4
Stress and elongation
h = 0.05 in
W = 5000 lb
L = 5 ft = 60 in

W W 2hEA 2
s = + 1 +

A A
LW
1

2
6
2
(
0
.
05
)
28

10
(
1
)

5000 5000
4 = 24,741 psi
1 +
s=
+
2 2
(60)(5000)

(1)
(1)

4
4

sL (24,741)(60 )
=
=
= 0.053 in
E
28 106

(b) Aluminum alloy 3003-H14

E = 10 106 psi
F = 5000 lb
FL
(5000)(5)(12) = 0.038 in
=
=
AE (1)2 10 106
4
Stress and elongation
h = 0.05 in

Page 46 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

W = 5000 lb
L = 5 ft = 60 in
1

W W 2hEA 2
s = + 1 +

A A
LW
1

2
6
2
0
.
05
10

10
1
(
)
(
)

5000 5000
4 = 18,475 psi
1 +
s=
+
2 2
(60)(5000)

(1)
(1)

4
4

sL (18,475)(60 )
=
=
= 0.111 in
E
10 106

190.

What should be the diameter of a rod 5 ft. long, made of an aluminum alloy
2024-T4, if it is to resist the impact of a weight of W = 500 lb dropped through a
distance of 2 in.? The maximum computed stress is to be 20 ksi.

Solution:
For aluminum alloy, 2024-T4
E = 10.6 106 psi
W = 500 lb
h = 2 in
L = 5 ft = 60 in
s = 20 ksi = 20,000 psi
1

W W 2hEA 2
s = + 1 +

A A
LW

5000 5000 2(2 ) 10.6 106 A 2

20,000 =
+
1+
(60)(500)
A
A
1

40 A = 1 + (1 + 1413 A)2
A=

D 2
4

= 0.9332

D = 1.09 in , say D = 1

191.

1
in
16

A rock drill has the heads of the cylinder bolted on by 7/8-in. bolts somewhat as
shown. The grip of the bolt is 4 in. (a) If the shank of the bolt is turned down to
the minor diameter of the coarse-thread screw, 0.7387 in., what energy may each
bolt absorb if the stress is not to exceed 25 ksi? (b) Short bolts used as described
above sometimes fail under repeated shock loads. It was found in one instance
that if long bolts, running from head to head, were used, service failures were
eliminated. How much more energy will the bolt 21 in. long absorb for a stress of

Page 47 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

25 ksi. That the bolt 4 in. long? As before, let the bolt be turned down to the
minor diameter. The effect of the threads on the strength is to be neglected.

Problem 191
Solution:
2
s2
( AL ) = s AL
U=
2E
2E
2
D
(a) A =
4
L = 4 in
D = 0.7387 in
E = 30106 psi
s = 25 ksi = 25,000 psi

4
2 30 106

U=

= 17.86 in lb

(b) L = 21 in

(25,000)2 (0.7387 )2 (21)

4
= 93.75 in lb
2 30 106
U = 93.75 17.86 = 75.89 in lb

U=

192.

As seen in the figure, an 8.05-lb body A moving down with a constant

acceleration of 12 fps2, having started from rest at point C. If A is attached to a
steel wire, W & M gage 8 (0.162 in. diameter) and if for some reason the sheave
D is instantly stopped, what stress is induced in the wire?

Problems 192, 193

Solution:
s 2 AL
U=
2E
1 2 1
U = mv = m(2ah ) = mah = maL
2
2

Page 48 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

s 2 AL
= maL
2E
2maE 2WaE
s2 =
=
A
gA
W = 8.05 lb
a = 12 fps 2
g = 32 fps 2
b = 12 fps 2
E = 30106 psi
A=

D 2

4
8WaE 8(8.05)(12)(30 106 )
s2 =
=
D 2 g
(0.162)2 (32)
s = 93,741 psi
193.

The hoist A shown, weighing 5000 lb. and moving at a constant v = 4 fps is
attached to a 2 in. wire rope that has a metal area of 1.6 sq. in. and a modulus
E = 12 106 psi . When h = 100 ft , the sheave D is instantly stopped by a brake
(since this is impossible, it represents the worst conceivable condition).
Assuming that the stretching is elastic, compute the maximum stress in the rope.

Solution:

s 2 AL
2E
1
W 2
v
U = mv 2 =
2
2g

U=

s 2 AL W 2
=
v
2E
2g
Wv 2 E
gAL
W = 5000 lb
s2 =

Page 49 of 62

v = 4 fps

E = 12 106 psi
A = 1.6 in 2
L = h = 100 ft
g = 32 fps 2
s2 =

(5000)(4)2 (12 106 )

(32)(1.6)(100)

s = 13,693 psi

194.

A coarse-thread steel bolt, in. in diameter, with 2 in. of threaded and 3 in. of
unthreaded shank, receives an impact caused by a falling 500-lb weight. The area
at the root of the thread is 0.334 sq. in. and the effects of threads are to be
neglected. (a) What amount of energy in in-lb. could be absorbed if the maximum
calculated stress is 10 ksi? (b) From what distance h could the weight be
dropped for this maximum stress? (c) How much energy could be absorbed at the
same maximum stress if the unthreaded shank were turned down to the root
diameter.

Solution:
s 2 AL
U=
2E
(a) U = U1 + U 2
s12 A1L1
2E
2
s AL
U2 = 2 2 2
2E
A1 = 0.334 in 2
U1 =

A2 =

(0.75) = 0.442 in 2

4
s1 = 10,000 psi
s A (10,000 )(0.334 )
s2 = 1 1 =
= 7556 psi
A2
0.442
L1 = 2 in
L2 = 3 in

E = 30 10 6 psi
U1 =

U2 =

2(30 106 )

2(30 106 )

Page 50 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

U = U1 + U 2 = 1.113 + 1.262 = 2.375 in lb
1

W 2hEA 2
(b) s =
1 + 1 +

A
LW

W
2hE

s = 1 + 1 +
A1
L L
W 1 + 2

A1 A2

W
2hEA1 A2 2
s = 1 + 1 +

A1 W ( A2 L1 + A1L2 )

W = 500 lb

A1 = 0.334 in 2
A2 = 0.442 in 2
L1 = 2 in
L2 = 3 in
E = 30106 psi
s = 10,000 psi

2h 30 106 (0.334 )(0.442 ) 2

500
10,000 =
1 + 1 +

0.334
500[(0.442 )(2 ) + (0.334 )(3)]
h = 0.0033 in

s 2 AL
2E
A = 0.334 in 2
L = 5 in
E = 30106 psi
s = 10,000 psi

(c) U =

2
(
10,000) (0.334)(5)
U=
= 2.783 in lb

2(30 106 )

196.

A part of a machine that weighs 1000 lb. raised and lowered by 1 -in. steel rod
that has Acme threads on one end (see i8.18 Text, for minor diameter). The
length of the rod is 10 ft. and the upper 4 ft are threaded. As the part being

Page 51 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

lowered it sticks, then falls freely a distance of 1/8 in. (a) Compute the maximum
stress in the rod. (b) What would be the maximum stress in the rod if the lower
end had been turned down to the root diameter?
Solution:
1

W 2hEA 2
s=
1 + 1 +

A
LW

W
2hE

s = 1 + 1 +
A1
L L
W 1 + 2

A1 A2

W
2hEA1 A2 2
s = 1 + 1 +

A1 W ( A2 L1 + A1L2 )

1
see i8.18 , D2 = 1 in , D1 = 1.25 in
2
2
(1.25)
A1 =
= 1.227 in 2
4
(1.5)2
A2 =
= 1.767 in 2
4
L1 = 4 in
L2 = 6 in
1
h = in = 0.125 in
8
W = 1000 lb
E = 30106 psi

2(0.125) 30 106 (1.227 )(1.767 ) 2

1000
s=
1 + 1 +
= 28,186 psi
1.227
1000[(1.767 )(4 ) + (1.227 )(6 )]

W 2hEA 2
(b) s =
1 + 1 +

A
LW

2
A = A1 = 1.227 in
L = L1 + L2 = 10 in

Page 52 of 62

1000
s=
1 + 1 +
= 25,552 psi
1.227
10(1000 )

197.

A weight W of 50 lb is moving on a smooth horizontal surface with a velocity of

2 fps when it strikes head-on the end of a -in. round steel rod, 6 ft. long.
Compute the maximum stress in the rod. What design factor based on yield
strength is indicated for AISI 1010, cold drawn?

Solution:
1

2
2

Wv E

s=
g AL1 + We
o W
W
We = b
3
Wb = AL

= 0.284 lb in3
3

2
2

= 0.442 in
4 4
L = 6 ft = 72 in
Wb = (0.284)(0.442)(72) = 9.038 lb
9.038
= 3.013 lb
We =
3
W = 50 lb
v = 2 fps
A=

g o = 32 fps 2

E = 30106 psi
L = 6 ft
1

2
2
6

(50)(2) (30 10 ) = 8166 psi

s=
(32)(0.442)(6)1 + 3.013

50

For AISI 1010, cold drawn

s y = 55 ksi = 55,000 psi
N=

s y 55,000
=
= 6.74
s
8166

Page 53 of 62

199.

A rigid weight of 100 lb is dropped a distance of 25 in. upon the center of a 12

in., 50-lb. I-beam ( I x = 301.6 in 4 ) that is simply supported on supports 10 ft
apart. Compute the maximum stress in the I-beam both with and without
allowing for the beams weight.

Solution:
Without beams weight
y
s = sst
yst
FL3
48EI
F 48EI
k= = 3
y
L
y=

W 2hk 2
y = =
1 + 1 +

k
W

6
E = 3010 psi
L = 10 ft = 120 in

I = 301.6 in 4
48(30 106 )(301.6)
= 251,333 lb in
(120)3
W = 100 lb
h = 25 in
k=

100 2(25)(251,333) 2
y=
1 + 1 +
= 0.1415 in
100
251,333

WL3
(100)(120)
yst =
=
= 0.0004 in
48EI 48(30 106 )(301.6)
Mc
sst =
I
WL (100 )(120 )
M=
=
= 3000 in lb
4
4
h 12
c= =
= 6 in
2 2
(3000)(6) = 59.68 psi
sst =
301.6
0.1415
s = (59.68)
= 21,112 psi
0.0004
3

Page 54 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

with mass of beam
1

2h 2

y = yst + yst 1 +
yst
h - correction factor =

1
W
1+ e
W

17Wb
35
Wb = (50 lb ft )(10 ft ) = 500 lb
17(500 )
We =
= 243 lb
35
1
h - correction factor =
= 0.292
243
1+
100
1

2(25)(0.292 ) 2
y = 0.00041 + 1 +
= 0.0764 in
0
.
0004

y
0.0764
s = sst
= (59.68)
= 11,400 psi
yst
0.0004
We =

201.

A 3000 lb. automobile (here considered rigid) strikes the midpoint of a guard rail
that is an 8-in. 23-lb. I-beam, 40 ft. long; I = 64.2 in4 . Made of AISI C1020, as
rolled, the I-beam is simply supported on rigid posts at its ends. (a) What level
velocity of the automobile results in stressing the I-beam to the tensile yield
strength? Compare results observed by including and neglecting the beams
mass.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi = 48,000 psi
F Wv 2
=
2
2 go
F 48 EI
k= = 3

L
Mc FLc
s=
=
I
4I
4 Is
F=
Lc
F F 2 L3
16 I 2 s 2 L3
s 2 IL
=
= 2 2
=
2
96 EI L c (96 EI ) 6 Ec 2

Page 55 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

neglecting mass of beam
F s 2 IL Wv 2
=
=
2
6 Ec 2 2 go
3Wv 2 Ec 2
2 g o IL
W = 3000 lb
g o = 32 fps 2
h 8
c = = = 4 in
2 2
E = 30106 psi
I = 64.2 in4
L = 40 ft
s = s y = 48 ksi = 48,000 psi
s2 =

3Wv 2 Ec 2 3(3000 )v 2 30 106 (4 )

s = (48,000 ) =
=
2 g o IL
32(64.2 )(40 )
v = 6.62 fps
Including mass of beam

2
2
3Wv Ec
1

s2 =
2 g o IL 1 + We

W
17Wb
We =
35
Wb = (23 lb ft )(40 ft ) = 920 lb
17(920 )
We =
= 447 lb
35
2

2
2
2
2
6

3
Wv
Ec
3
(
3000
)
v
(
30

10
)
(
4
)
1
s 2 = (48,000) =
=

447
2 go IL
32(64.2)(40)
1 +

3000
v = 7.10 fps
2

DATA LACKING DESIGNERS DECISIONS

202.

A simple beam is struck midway between supports by a 32.2-lb. weight that has
fallen 20 in. The length of the beam is 12 ft. If the stress is not to exceed 20 ksi,
what size I-beam should be used?

Solution:

Page 56 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1

2h 2

y = yst + yst 1 +
yst
y
s = sst
yst
h = 20 in
s = 20,000 psi

WL3
yst =
48EI
1

y
96 EIh 2
= 1 + 1 +

yst
WL3

with correction factor

1

96 EIh
1
y

= 1 + 1 +
3
We
yst
WL

1+

W
Mc WLd
sst =
=
I
8I
17 wL
We =
35
1

WLd 96 EIh
1

s=
1 + 1 +
8I
WL3 1 + 17 wL

35W

W = 32.2 lb
h = 20 in
L = 12 ft = 144 in

E = 30106 psi

s=

(32.2)(144)d
8I

1
96 30 106 (I )(20)
1 + 1 +

(32.2)(144)3 1 + 17(w)(12)

35(32.2)

579.6d
1

2
s=

1 + 1 + 599 I
I
1 + 0.181w

From The Engineers Manual

By Ralph G. Hudson, S.B.

Page 57 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

Use 3, 5.7 lb, I = 2.5 in4
1

2
579.6(3)
1
s=
1 + 1 + 599(2.5)
= 19,600 psi < 20,000 psi
2.5
1 + 0.181(5.7 )

Therefore use 3-in depth, 5.7-lb I-beam ( I = 2.5 in4 )

204.

A 10-in., 25.4-lb.., I-bean, AISI 1020, as rolled, is 10 ft. long and is simply
supported at the ends shown. There is a static load of F1 = 10 kips , 4 ft from the
left end, and a repeated reversed load of F2 = 10 kips , 3 ft from the right end. It is
desired to make two attachments to the beam through holes as shown. No
significant load is supported by these attachments, but the holes cause stress
concentration. Will it be safe to make these attachments as planned? Determine
the factor of safety at the point of maximum moment and at points of stress
concentration.

Problem 204
Solution:
Mass of beam negligible
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
su = 65 ksi

( M

= 0)

4 F1 + (10 3)F2 = 10 B
1
B = (4 F1 + 7 F2 )
10
( M B = 0)
3F2 + (10 4)F1 = 10 A
1
A = (6 F1 + 3F2 )
10
F1 = 10 kips
F2 = 10 to 10 kips
1
Bmin = [4(10 ) + 7( 10 )] = 3 kips
10

Page 58 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

1
[4(10) + 7(10)] = 11 kips
10
1
Amin = [6(10 ) + 3( 10 )] = 3 kips
10
1
Amax = [6(10 ) + 7(30 )] = 9 kips
10
Figure AF 11,
1
e = 1 in ,
2
1
d = in
4
1 1
c = 1 + 2 = 1.625 in
2 4
h = 10 in
h
10 1
b = e = 1 = 3.5 in
2
2
2
d 0.25
=
= 0.07
b 3 .5
e 1.50
=
= 6 > 0 .5
d 0.25
Use K t = 3.0
1
q=
= 0.926
0.010
1+
1
8
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(3 1) + 1 = 2.85

Bmax =

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi

size factor = 0.85
sn = 0.85(32.5) = 27.6 ksi
left hole, M = (2)A
M max = 2(9) = 18 ft kips
M min = 2(3) = 6 ft kips
Mc
s=
I
1
M m = (18 + 6 ) = 12 ft kips = 144 in kips
2
1
M a = (18 6 ) = 6 ft kips = 72 in kips
2
c = 1.625 in
I = 122.1 in 4 (Tables)

Page 59 of 62

sm =
sa

122.1

(72 )(1.625) = 0.96 ksi

=

122.1
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn

1 1.92 (2.85)(0.96 )
=
+
N
48
27.6
N = 7 .2

right hole , M = (1.5)B

M max = 1.5(11) = 16.5 ft kips
M min = 1.5( 3) = 4.5 ft kips
Mc
s=
I
1
M m = (16.5 4.5) = 6 ft kips = 72 in kips
2
1
M a = (16.5 + 4.5) = 10.5 ft kips = 126 in kips
2
c = 1.625 in
I = 122.1 in 4 (Tables)
(72)(1.625) = 0.96 ksi
sm =
122.1
(126)(1.625) = 1.68 ksi
sa =
122.1
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
1 0.96 (2.85)(1.68)
=
+
N
48
27.6
N = 5.67

at maximum moment, or at , F2
M max = 3(11) = 33 ft kips
M min = 3( 3) = 9 ft kips
Mc
s=
I
1
M m = (33 9 ) = 12 ft kips = 144 in kips
2
1
M a = (33 + 9 ) = 21 ft kips = 252 in kips
2

Page 60 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

10
= 5 in
2
I = 122.1 in 4 (Tables)
(144)(5) = 5.90 ksi
sm =
122.1
(
252 )(5)
sa =
= 10.32 ksi
122.1
K f = 1 .0

c=

1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
1 5.90 (1.0 )(10.32 )
=
+
N
48
27.6
N =2

Since the design factor at the holes is much larger than at the point of maximum moment,
it is safe to make these attachment as planned.
205.

The runway of a crane consists of L = 20 ft. lengths of 15-in., 42.9-lb. I-beams,

as shown, each section being supported at its ends; AISI C1020, as rolled. The
wheels of the crane are 9 ft apart, and the maximum load expected is
F = 10,000 lb on each wheel. Neglecting the weight of the beam, find the design
factor (a) based on variable stresses for 105 cycles, (b) based on the ultimate
strength. (Hint. Since the maximum moment will occur under the wheel, assume
the wheels at some distance x from the point of support, and determine the
dM
reaction, R1 as a function of x ;
= 0 gives position for a maximum bending
dx
moment.)

Problem 205.
Solution:
M R2 = 0

(L x )F + (L x a )F = LR1
(2 L 2 x a )F
R =
1

L
x
M = R1 x = (2 L 2 x a )F
L

Page 61 of 62

SECTION 2 VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS

dM F
= [(2 L 2 x a ) + x( 2 )] = 0
dx
L
2L 2x a 2x = 0
1
a
x = L
2
2
2

a
L F
L
2
2 2 L L a a F =
M max =

L
2
2L

L = 20 ft = 240 in
a = 9 ft = 108 in
F = 10,000 lb = 10 kips
2

108

240
(10 )
2

M max =
= 720.75 in kips
2(240 )
For 15-in., 42.9 lb, I-beam
I = 441.8 in4
15
c = = 7.5 in
2
Mc (720.75)(7.5)
smax =
=
= 12.24 ksi
I
441.8
For AISI C1029, as rolled
su = 65 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 32.5 ksi

size factor = 0.85
sn = 0.85(32.5) = 27.6 ksi
(a) at 105 cycles
0.085

106
sn = 27.6 5
= 34 ksi
10
s
34
N= n =
=7
s 12.24

(b) N =

su
65
=
= 5.31
s 12.24

- end -

Page 62 of 62

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

SIMPLE TENSION INCLUDING TIGHTENING STRESSES
DESIGN PROBLEMS

221.

A 5000-lb. gear box is provided with a steel (as rolled B1113) eyebolt for use
in moving it. What size bolt should be used: (a) if UNC threads are used? (b)
If UNF threads are used? (c) If the 8-thread series is used? Explain the basis
of your choice of design factor.

Solution:
B1113, as rolled
s y = 45 ksi (Table AT-7)
Fe = 5000 lb
i5.6, sd =

sy
6

( As ) 2

D < in
4

3
4
sd = 0.4 sy

For D in
sd = 0.4(45,000) = 18,000 psi
As =

Fe
5000
=
= 0.2778 sq.in.
sd 18 ,000

3
4

Use D = in , As = 0.334 sq.in.

3
4

Use D = in , As = 0.373sq.in.

Use D = 1 in , As = 0.606sq.in.

Page 1 of 42

222.

A motor weighing 2 tons is lifted by a wrought-iron eye bolt which is screwed

into the frame. Decide upon a design factor and determine the size of the
eyebolt if (a) UNC threads are used, (b) UNF threads are used. Note: Fine
threads are not recommended for brittle materials.

Solution:
Table AT-7
Wrought iron, s y = 25 ksi
sd = 0.4 sy = 0.4(25) = 10 ksi = 10,000 psi
As =

Fe 2(2000)
=
= 0.4 sq.in.
sd 10,000

Table AT 17
7
8

7
8

Use D = in , As = 0.509 sq.in.

224.

A wall bracket, Fig. 8-13, Text, is loaded so that the two top bolts that fasten it
to the wall are each subjected to a tensile load of 710 lb. The bolts are to be
cold forged from AISI C1020 steel with UNC threads, Neglecting the effect of
shearing stresses, determine the diameter of these bolts if they are well
tightened.

Figure 8-13

Page 2 of 42

Solution:

cold forged, AISI C1020

s y = 66 ksi (Table AT-7)

Fe = 710 lb
s
3
3

Fe = y ( As ) 2 D < in
4
6

3
66,000
( As ) 2
710 =
6
3
As = 0.161 sq.in. , D < in
4

Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

Use D =

225.

9
in , As = 0.1820 sq.in.
16

A connection similar to Fig. 5.9, Text, is subjected to an external load Fe of

1250 lb. The bolt is made from cold-finished AISI B1113 steel with UNC
threads. (a) Determine the diameter of the bolt if it is well tightened. (b)
Compute the initial tension and corresponding approximate tightening torque
if si = 0.85s y (i5.8).
Figure 5.9

Page 3 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Solution:
Cold-finished AISI B1113
Table A-7, s y = 72 ksi
Fe = 1250 lb
s
3
(a) Fe = y ( As ) 2
6
3
72,000
1250 =
( As ) 2
6
3
in
4
Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

As = 0.2214 sq.in. , D <

Use D =

5
in , As = 0.2260 sq.in.
8

(b) si = 0.85s y = 0.85(72,000 ) = 61,200 psi

Initial Tension
Fi = si As = (61,200 )(0.2260 ) = 13,831 lb
Tightening torque
T = CDFi
5
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (13,831) = 1729 in lb
8
226.

The cylinder head of a 10 x 18 in. Freon compressor is attached by 10 stud

bolts made of SAE Grade 5. The cylinder pressure is 200 psi. (a) What size
bolts should be used? (b) What approximate tightening torque should be
needed to induce a tightening stress si of 0.9 times the proof stress?

Solution:

Page 4 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Table 5.2
Assume s y = 88 ksi

2
200 (10 )
4

(a) Fe =
= 1571 lb
10
s
3
3
Fe = y ( As ) 2 , D < in
6
4
3
88,000
1571 =
( As ) 2
6
3
As = 0.2255 sq.in. , D < in
4
Table AT 14 , UNC Threads

Use D =

5
in , As = 0.2260 sq.in.
8

(b) T = CDFi
C = 0. 2
s i = 0. 9 s p
s p = 85 ksi , (Table 5.2)

si = 0.9(85,000 ) = 76,500 psi

Fi = si As = (76,500 )(0.2260 ) = 17,289 lb
Tightening torque
5
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (17,289) = 2161 in lb
8
227.

The American Steel Flange Standard specifies that 8 bolts are to be used on
flanges for 4-in. pipe where the steam or water pressure is 1500 psi. It is also
specified that, in calculating the bolt load, the outside diameter of the gasket,
which is 6 3/16 in., should be used. Determine (a) the diameter of the UNC bolts
if they are well-tightened and made of ASTM 354 BD (Table 5-2), (b) the
approximate torque to tighten the nuts if the initial stress is 90 % of the proof
stress. The Standard specifies that 1 1/4 in. bolts with 8 th./in. be used (these
bolts are also subjected to bending). How does your answer compare?

Solution:
Table 5.2, ASTM 354 BD
s p = 120 ksi
s y = 125 ksi

Page 5 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

2

3
1500 6
4 16 = 5638 lb
Fe =
8

sy

(a) Fe =

( As ) 2

, D<

6
3
125,000
5638 =
( As ) 2
6
As = 0.4184 sq.in. ,
Table AT 14 , UNC Threads
Use D =
D>

3
in
4

7
in , As = 0.4620 sq.in.
8

3
in
4

use
sd = 50,000 psi 5.6, ASTM A354 BD
F
5638
As = e =
= 0.1128 sq.in.
sd 50 ,000

3
4

Use D = in , As = 0.334 sq.in.

(b) T = 0.2 DFi
s i = 0. 9 s p
si = 0.9(120,000) = 108,000 psi
Fi = si As = (108,000)(0.3340) = 36,072 lb
Tightening torque
3
T = 0.2DFi = 0.2 (36,072) = 5411 in lb
4

1
D < 1 in as specified by the standard.
4

CHECK PROBLEMS
228.

A cap screw, in.-10-UNC-2, with a hexagonal head that is 9/16 in. thick,
carries a tensile load of 3000 lb. If the material is AISI 1015, cold drawn, find
the factor of safety based on ultimate strengths of (a) the threaded shank, (b)
the head against being sheared off, and (c) the bearing surface under the head.
(d) Is there any need to consider the strength of standard cap-screw heads in
design?

Page 6 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Solution:
For in. UNC, Table AT 14,
As = 0.334 sq.in.

1
A = 1 in.
8

For AISI 1015, cold drawn

su = 77 ksi , sus = 58 ksi
F
3000
=
= 8982 psi
As 0.334
s
77,000
N= u =
= 8.57
sd
8982

(a) s =

(b) s s =

F
Dt

9
in
16
3000
ss =
= 2264 psi
3 9

4 16
s
58,000
N = us =
= 25.6
ss
2264

t=

(c) =

360 o
= 30 o
12

1
1
1 A A

1 8
Area = 6(2) tan = 6(2)
tan 30 = 1.096 sq.in.
2 2 2

2 2

Page 7 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

sb =

N=

F
=
Area Ab

3000
1.096

= 4586 psi

4 4

su 77,000
=
= 16.8
sb
4586

(d)

No need to consider the strength of standard cap-screw heads since its factor of
safety is very much higher than for the threaded shank.

229.

A bolt, 1 1/8 in.-7-UNC-2, is subjected to a tensile load of 10,000 lb. The head
has a thickness of in. and the nut a thickness of 1 in. If the material is SAE
grade 2 (Table 5.2), find the design factor as based on ultimate stresses (a) of
the threaded shank, (b) of the head against being sheared off, and (c) of the
bearing surface under the head. The bolt head is finished. (d) Is there any need
to consider the strength of standard bolt heads in design?

Solution:
1
For SAE grade 2 (Table 5.2), D = 1 in
8
su = 55 ksi , sus = 0.75su
For 1 1/8 in.-7-UNC-2 (Table AT 14)
As = 0.763 sq.in.

A =1

11
in
16

F = 10,000 lb.

F 10,000
=
= 13,106 psi
As
0.763
s
55,000
N= u =
= 4.2
sd 13,106

(a) s =

(b) s s =
t=

F
Dt

3
in
4

Page 8 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

10,000
= 3773 psi
1 3
1
8 4
0.75(55,000 )
s
N = us =
= 11
ss
3773

ss =

(c) =

360 o
= 30 o
12

11
1
1 A A

1 16
Area = 6(2) tan = 6(2)
tan 30 = 2.4661 sq.in.
2 2 2

2 2

F
10,000
sb =
=
= 6793 psi
2
Area Ab
1
2.4661 1
4 8
s
55,000
N= u =
= 8.1
sb
6793

(d)
No need to consider the strength of standard bolt head in design since its factor of
safety is higher than for the threaded shank.
230.

An axial force is applied to a regular nut which of course tends to shear the
threads on the screw. (a) What is the ratio of the force necessary to shear the
threads (all threads initially in intimate contact) to the force necessary to pull
the bolt in two? Use coarse threads, a 1 -in. bolt, and assume that
sus = 0.75su . The head thickness is 1 in. and the nut thickness is 1 5/16 in. (b)
Is failure of the thread by shear likely in this bolt?

Solution:
1 - in. UNC
As = 1.405 sq.in.
(a) Fs = shear force = susDt
1
D = 1 in.
2
5
t = 1 in.
16

Page 9 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

sus = 0.75su
1 5
Fs = (0.75su )( )1 1 = 4.6388su
2 16
F = su As = 1.405su
4.6388su
= 3.3
Ratio =
1.405su

(b) Ratio > 1, failure by shear is not likely to occur.

231.

For bolted structural joints, specifications suggest that -in. bolts (highstrength material) be tightened to an initial tension of Fi = 12,500 lb . What
should be the approximate tightening torque? How does your answer compare
with T = 90 ft lb ., which is the value in the specification?

Solution:
1
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (12,500) = 1250 in lb
2

T = 90 ft lb = 1080 in lb < 1250 in lb o.k.

232.

One method of estimating the initial tensile stress in a tightened bolt is to turn
the nut until it is snug, but with no significant stress in the bolt. Then the nut is
turned through a predetermined angle that induces a certain unit strain
corresponding to the desired stress. A - in. bolt of the type shown in Fig.
5.4, Text, is turned down until, for practical purposes, the diameter of the
entire shank is the minor diameter. The material is AISI 4140, OQT 1200 oF.
The grip is 5 in. and the effective strain length is estimated to be 5.3 in. If the
initial tensile stress at the root diameter is to be about 75 % of the yield
strength, through what angle should the nut be turned after it is just snug? The
threads are UNC and the parts being bolted are assumed to be rigid.

Solution:

For in., UNC

Dr = 0.6273 in
As = 0.334 sq.in.
Th in. = 10
AISI 4140, OQT 1200 oF

Page 10 of 42

s y = 115 ksi

s = 0.75(115) = 86.25 ksi

sL
E
L = 5.3 in

pitch, p =

1
in = 0.10 in
10

(360o )
p
sL
=
(
360 o )
pE
(86,250)(5.3) (360o ) = 55o
=
(0.10)(30 106 )
=

233.

When both ends of a bolt are accessible for micrometer measurements, the
total elongation caused by tightening can be determined by measuring
lengths before and after tightening. In order to reduce this total elongation to
unit elongation, thence to stress, the effective strain length for the bolt must be
known. For a 1 -in steel bolt, threaded for its full length, 8-thread series, the
effective strain length has been found by experiment to be
Le = 0.97G + 1.1 in. , where G is the grip (by W.A. McDonald, North
Carolina State College). Let the bolt material be AISI 8742, OQT 1000 oF. (a)
It is desired that the initial tensile stress be about 0.7 s y . What total elongation
should be obtained for a grip length of 4.8 in.? (b) Investigate the approximate
tightening torque for the specified condition. How could this torque be
obtained?

Solution:
1 in., 8-thread series
Table 5.1
Dr = 1.0966 in
As = 1.000 sq.in.
Th in. = 8
AISI 8742, OQT 1000 oF
s y = 147 ksi
(a) si = 0.70 s y
si = 0.70(147 ) = 102.9 ksi = 102,900 psi

Page 11 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

si Le
E
Le = 0.97G + 1.1 in.
G = 4.8 in
Le = 0.97(4.8) + 1.1 in. = 5.756 in

si Le (102,900 )(5.756 )
=
= 0.01975 in
E
30 106

(b) =

64TL
Dr4G

G = 11.5 10 6 psi
1
p = in = 0.125 in
8
0.01975
64T (5.756 )
=
=
4
0.125
(1.0966) (11.5 106 )
T = 22,408 in lb
ELASTIC CONSIDERATIONS
235.

The member C shown is part of a swivel connection that is to be clamped by a

1-in. bolt D to the member B, which has large dimensions in the plane
perpendicular to the paper. Both B and C are aluminum alloy 2024-T4, HT
aged. The bolt is made of AISI C1113, cold-drawn steel; consider the
unthreaded shank to be 2 in. long; it is well tightened with a torque of 250 ftlb.; UNC threads, unlubricated. (a) Estimate the initial tension by equation
(5.2), assume elastic action, and compute the bolt elongation and the total
deformation of B and C. Let the effective strain length be 2 in. (b) After
tightening an external axial force Fe of 5000 lb. is applied to member C.
Determine the total normal stresses in the bolt and in B and C. (c) Determine
the load required to open the connection. Draw a diagram similar to Fig.
5.6, Text, locating points A, B, D and M.

Page 12 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Prob. 235, 236
Solution:
For aluminum alloy, 2024-T4 HT aged,
E = 10.6 106 psi
s y = 47 ksi
For AISI C1113, cold-drawn steel,
E = 30106 psi
s y = 72 ksi
(a) T = 0.2 DFi
D = 1 in.
T = 250 ft lb = 3000 in lb
Fi = 15,000 lb
Deformations: L = 2 in.
Table AT 14, 1-in. UNC Bolt,
As = 0.66 sq.in.
2
Ab = (1) = 0.785 sq.in.
4
Bolt:
FL
(15,000)(2) = 0.00127 in
i = i =
Ab Ei (0.785)(30 10 6 )
Member B and C
FL
c = i
Ac Ec

Ac = De2 D 2
4
4
h
De = (Nut or head width across flats) +
2
Table AT 14
1
A = 1 in
2
1 2
1
De = 1 + = 2 in.
2 2
2
2 2
Ac = De D
4
4

2
Ac = (2.5) (1)2 = 4.1234 sq.in.
4
FL
(15,000)(2) = 0.000686 in.
c = i =
Ac Ec (4.1234 )(10.6 10 6 )
(b) Fe = 5000 lb

Page 13 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

kb
b
0.000686

= Fe
= 5000
Fb = Fe

0.000686 + 0.00127
kb + k c
b + c
Fb = 1754 lb
Bolt:
Ft = Fi + Fb = 15,000 + 1754 = 16,754 lb
F 16,754
sb = t =
= 29,132 psi
As 0.606
Member B and C
kc

Fc = Fi Fe
kb + k c
c

Fc = Fi Fe

+
b
c

0.00127

Fc = 15,000 5000
= 11,754 lb
0.00127 + 0.000686
F 11,754
sc = c =
= 2851 psi
Ac 4.1234
(c) Fo = opening load
+ c
Fo = Fi i
i
Fig. 5.6

237.

0.00127 + 0.000686
= 15,000
= 23,102 lb
0
.
00127

A 1-in. steel bolt is used to clamp two aluminum (2014-T6, HT aged) plates
together as shown by Fig. 5.9, Text. The aluminum plates have a total
thickness of 2 in. and an equivalent diameter of 2 in. The bolt is heated to a
temperature of 200 oF, the inserted in the aluminum plates, which are at 80 oF,
and tightened so as to have a tensile tightening stress of 30 ksi in the
unthreaded shank while steel at 200 oF. What is the tensile stress in the bolt
after assembly has cooled to 80 oF? The deformations are elastic.
Figure 5.9

Page 14 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Solution:
For aluminum 2014-T6
E = 10.6 106 psi
s b = 30,000 psi

2
Fi = s b Ab = (30,000 ) (1) = 23,562 lb
4
Steel bolt. Eb = 30 10 6 psi
s L (30,000 )(2 )
i = b =
= 0.002 in.
Eb
30 10 6

c =
Ac =
Ac =

Fi L
.
Ac E c

De2

[(2)
4

D2

(1) = 2.3562 sq.in.

2

Ec = 10.6 10 6 psi
FL
(23,562)(2) = 0.001887 in
c = i =
Ac Ec (2.3562) 10.6 10 6
L = L c = 2 0.001887 = 1.998113 in.
L = Lt
= 0.000007 in. (in. F ) for steel
L = (0.000007 )(1.998113)(80 200 ) = 0.001678 in.
i = i + L = 0.002 0.001678 = 0.000322 in.

Page 15 of 42

sb L
Eb

i =

sb (2 )
30 106
sb = 4830 psi

0.000322 =

238.

A 1 1/8-in. steel bolt A passes through a yellow brass (B36-8) tube B as

shown. The length of the tube is 30 in. (virtually the unthreaded bolt length),
the threads on the bolt are UNC, and the tubes cross-sectional area is 2 sq. in.
After the nut is snug it is tightened turn. (a) What normal stresses will be
produced in the bolt and in the tube? Assume that washers, nut, and head are
rigid. (b) What are the stresses if an axial load of 5 kips is now applied to the
bolts end? Compute the bolt load that just results in a zero stress in the tube.

Prob. 238
Solution:
For Yellow brass, B36-8,
E = 15 10 6 psi
Steel bolt
E = 30 106 psi
Table AT 14, 1 1/8 in., UNC
Dr = 0.9497 in.
As = 0.763 sq.in.
Th in = 7
L = 30 in.

p
1
p = in.
7
1
= turn
4
1 1 1
i = = in.
4 7 28

Page 16 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

i =

Fi L
Ab Eb

1
Fi (30)
=
28 1 2
6
1 30 10
4 8
Fi = 35,500 lb

(a)

Bolt: sb =

Fi 35,500
=
= 46,527 psi
As
0.763

Fi
Ac
Ac = 2 sq.in.
F 35,500
sc = i =
= 17,750 psi
Ac
2

Tube: sc =

(b) Fe = 5000 lb

Ac Ec (2 ) 15 106
kc =
=
= 1,000,000 lb in
L
30
2

1
6
1 30 10
Ab Eb 4 8
kb =
=
= 994,000 lb in
L
30

Bolts:
kb
Fe
Ft = Fi +
kb + k c
994,000

Ft = 35,500 +
(5000 ) = 38,000 lb
994,000 + 1,000,000
F 38,000
st = t =
= 49,800 psi
As
0.763
Tube:
kc
Fe
Fc = Fi
kb + kc

1,000,000

Fc = 35,500
(5000 ) = 33,000 lb
994,000 + 1,000,000
F 33,000
sc = c =
= 16,500 psi
Ac
2
For zero stress in the tube

Page 17 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

k +k
Fo = b c
kc

994,000 + 1,000,000
Fi =
(35,500) = 70,787 lb
1,000,000

ENDURANCE STRENGTH
DESIGN PROBLEMS
239.

As shown diagrammatically, a bearing is supported in a pillow block attached

to an overhead beam by two cap screws, each of which, it may be assumed,
carried half the total bearing load. This load acts vertically downward, varying
from 0 to 1500 lb. The screws are to be made of AISI C1118, as rolled, and
they are tightened to give an initial stress of about si = 0.5s y . The pillow
block is made of class-20 cast iron. Assume that the effective length of screw
is equal to the thickness t , as shown, and that the head and beam are rigid
(overly conservative?). The equivalent diameter of the compression area may
be taken as twice the bolt diameter. For a design factor of 1.75, determine the
size of the screw: (a) from the Soderberg line, (b) from the modified Goodman
line. (c) What size do you recommend using?

Problem 239
Solution:
For AISI C1118, as rolled
s y = 46 ksi
su = 75 ksi
si = 0.5s y

si = 0.5(46) = 23 ksi = 23,000 psi

Fi = si As = 23 As kip = 23,000 As lb
kb
Fe
Fb =
k
+
k
b c
Ab Eb
kb =
Lb

Page 18 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Eb = 30 10 6 psi (steel)

Lb = t
Ac Ec
Lc
For cast-iron class 20
Ec = 9.6 106 psi
Lc = t
kc =

Ac =

De2

D2

D2
4
De = 2 D
Ab =

Ac =

(2 D )2 D 2 = 3 D 2 = 3 Ab

4
AE
kb = b b
Lb

Ab 30 10 6
t
3 A 9.6 106
kc = b
t
kb
30 10 6
300
=
=
6
6
kb + k c 30 10 + 3(9.6 10 ) 588
Fb1 = 0
kb =

kb
300 1500
Fe =
Fb 2 =

= 383 lb
588 2
k b + kc
1
1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 23,000 As + (383 + 0) = 23,000 As + 192 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (383 0) = 192 lb
2
2
s n = 0.5su = 0.5(75,000 psi ) = 37,500 psi

s n = (0.8)(0.85)(37,500 psi ) = 25,500 psi
N = 1.75

sm =

Fm 23,000 As 192
192
=
+
= 23,000 +
As
As
As
As

Page 19 of 42

sa =

Fa 192
=
As
As

Table AT 12, K f = 1.8

(a) Soderberg line
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn

192
192
23,000 +
(1.8)

As
As
1

=
+
1.75
46,000
25,500
As = 0.2482 sq.in.
Table AT 14, UNC
3
Use D = in. , As = 0.334 sq.in.
4
(b) Modifies Goodman line
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N su
sn

192
192
23,000 +
(1.8)

As
As
1

+
=
1.75
75,000
25,500
As = 0.0609 sq.in.
Table AT 14, UNC
3
Use D = in. , As = 0.0775 sq.in.
8
(c) Recommended, D =
240.

3
in. UNC
4

A connection similar to Fig. 5.9, Text, is subjected to an external load that

varied from 0 to 1250 lb. The bolt is cold forged from AISI B1113 steel; UNC
threads.The aluminum parts C (3003 H14) have a total thickness of 1 in.
and an external diameter of 2 D . It is desired that the connection not open for
an external load of 1.5Fe . Determine (a) the initial tensile load on the bolt, (b)
the bolt diameter for N = 2 based on the Soderberg line.
Fig. 5.9

Page 20 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Solution:
kc
lb
(a) Fi = QFe
k
+
k
b c
Q = 1.5
AE
kb = b b
Lb
Ab =

D2

4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
1
Lb = 1 in.
2
Ac Ec
kc =
Lc
Ac =

De2

4
De = 2 D
Ac =

D2

(2 D )2 D 2 = 3 D 2 = 3 Ab

4
4
4
6
Ec = 10 10 psi (3003-H14 aluminum)
1
Lc = 1 in.
2
A 30 10 6
kb = b
1
1
2
3 A 10 10 6
kc = b
1
1
2
kc
3 10 10 6
=
= 0.5
kb + k c 30 10 6 + 3 10 10 6

Page 21 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Fe = 1250 lb
kc
lb
Fi = QFe
k
+
k
b c
Fi = (1.5)(1250 )(0.5) = 937.5 lb

(b) For AISI B1113 steel, cold forged

su = 83 ksi
s y = 72 ksi
s n = 0.5su = 0.5(83) = 41.5 ksi = 41,500 psi
s n = (0.8)(0.85)(41,500 psi ) = 28,220 psi
kb
Fe
Fb =
kb + k c
Fb1 = 0
kb

30 106
Fe =
(1250 ) = 625 lb
Fb 2 =
6
6
30 10 + 3(10 10 )
kb + k c
1
(Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 937.5 + 1 (625 + 0) = 1250 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (625 0) = 312.5 lb
2
2
F
1250
sm = m =
As
As
F 312.5
sa = a =
As
As
Fm = Fi +

Soderberg line, K f = 1.8 Table AT 12

1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn

1
1250
(1.8)(312.5)
=
+
2 72,000 As
28,220 As
As = 0.07459 sq.in.
Table AT 14, UNC

Page 22 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

3
in. , As = 0.0775 sq.in.
8

Use D =
243.

This problem concerns the Freon compressor of 226: size, 10 x 18 in.; 10

studs, UNC; made of C1118, as rolled; 200 psi gas pressure. The initial
tension in the bolts, assumed to be equally loaded, is such that a cylinder
pressure of 300 psi is required for the joint to be on the opening. The bolted
parts are cast steel and for the first calculations, it will be satisfactorily to
assume the equivalent diameter of the compressed parts to be twice the bolt
size. (a) For N = 2 on the Soderberg criterion, what bolt size is required? (b)
Compute the torque required for the specified initial tension.

Solution:

(10 )
Fo = 300
= 2356 lb.
4 10
kc

Fi = Fo
kb + k c
2

kb =

Ab Eb
Lb

D2
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
Ab =

Lb = L
AE
kc = c c
Lc
Ac =

De2

4
De = 2 D
Ac =

D2

(2 D )2 D 2 = 3 D 2 = 3 Ab

4
4
4
6
Cast Steel, Ec = 30 10 psi

Lc = L
Ab (30 10 6 )
L
3 Ab 30 106
kc =
= 3kb
L
kc
3kb
= (2356 )
= 1767 lb
Fi = Fo
kb + k c
kb + 3kb
kb =

Page 23 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

kb
Fe
(a) Fb =
kb + k c
Fb1 = 0
kb
Fb 2 =
k b + kc

k b (10 )2 (200 )
Fe =

= 393 lb
10

kb + 3kb 4

1
(Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 1767 + 1 (393 + 0 ) = 1964 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (393 0) = 196 lb
2
2
F
1964
sm = m =
As
As
F 196
sa = a =
As
As
For C1118, as rolled
su = 75 ksi
Fm = Fi +

s y = 46 ksi

s n = 0.5su = 0.5(75) = 37.5 ksi = 37,500 psi

s n = (0.8)(0.85)(37,500 psi ) = 25,500 psi
K f = 1.8 Table AT 12
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn

1
1964
(1.8)(196)
=
+
2 46,000 As 25,500 As
As = 0.1131 sq.in.
Table AT 14, UNC
1
Use D = in. , As = 0.1419 sq.in.
2
(b) T = 0.2 DFi

1
T = 0.2 (1767 ) = 176.7 in lb.
2
245.

A cast-iron (class 35) Diesel-engine cylinder head is held on 8 stud bolts with
UNC threads. These bolts are made of AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 oF (Fig.
AF2). Assume that the compressed material has an equivalent diameter twice

Page 24 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

the bolt size. The maximum cylinder pressure is 750 psi and the bore of the
engine is 8 in. Let the initial bolt load be such that a cylinder pressure of 1500
psi brings the joint to the point of opening. For a design factor of 2, determine
the bolt diameter (a) using the Soderberg equation, (b) using the Goodman
equation. (c) What approximate torque will be required to induce the desired
initial stress? (d) Determine the ratio of the initial stress to the yield strength.
Considering the lessons of experience (i5.8), what initial stress would you
recommend? Using this value, what factor of safety is computed from the
Soderberg equation?
Solution:

(8)
Fo = 1500
= 9425 lb.
4 8
kc

Fi = Fo
kb + k c
2

kb =

Ab Eb
Lb

D2
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
Ab =

Lb = L
AE
kc = c c
Lc
Ac =

De2

4
De = 2 D
Ac =

D2

(2 D )2 D 2 = 3 D 2 = 3 Ab

4
4
4
6
Ec = 14.5 10 psi , for cast-iron (class 35)

Lc = L

Ab 30 10 6
L
3 Ab 14.5 106
kc =
L
kc

3(14.5 10 6 )
= (9425)
= 5578 lb
Fi = Fo
6
6
30 10 + 3(14.5 10 )
kb + k c
kb =

Page 25 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

kb
Fe
Fb =
kb + k c
Fb1 = 0
kb

(8)2 (750 )
30 10 6
Fe =
Fb 2 =
= 1923 lb

6
6
8
30 10 + 3(14.5 10 ) 4
kb + k c
1
(Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 5578 + 1 (1923 + 0) = 6540 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (1923 0) = 962 lb
2
2
Fm = Fi +

Fm 6540
=
As
As
F
962
sa = a =
As
As
(a) For AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 oF
su = 153 ksi
s y = 134 ksi
sm =

s n = 0.5su = 0.5(153) = 76.5 ksi = 76,500 psi

s n = (0.8)(0.85)(76,500 psi ) = 52,000 psi
Table AT 12, K f = 3.3 (hardened)
Soderberg Equation
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
1
6540
(3.3)(962)
=
+
2 134,000 As 52,000 As
As = 0.2197 sq.in.
Table AT 14, UNC
5
Use D = in. , As = 0.226 sq.in.
8
(b) Goodman Equation
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N su
sn

Page 26 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

(3.3)(962)
1
6540
=
+
2 153,000 As 52,000 As
As = 0.2076 sq.in.
Table AT 14, UNC
5
Use D = in. , As = 0.226 sq.in.
8
(c) T = 0.2 DFi

5
T = 0.2 (5578) = 697 in lb.
8
Fi 5578
=
= 24,681 psi
As 0.226
s
24,681
Ratio = i =
= 0.184
s y 134,000
(d) si =

i5.8 si = 0.85s y = 0.85(134,000) = 113,900 psi

Factor of safety
Fi = si As = (113,900 )(0.226 ) = 25,742 lb
1
Fm = 25,742 + (1923) = 26,704 lb
2
1
Fa = (1923) = 962 lb
2
Fm 26,704
sm =
=
= 118,159 psi
As
0.226
F
962
sa = a =
= 4257 psi
As 0.226
Soderberg Equation
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
1 118,159 (3.3)(4257 )
=
+
N 134,000
52,000
N = 0.87
246.

A 30,000-lb. body is to be mounted on a shaker (vibrator). The shaker will

exert a harmonic force of F = 30,000 sin 2 t f lb. on the body where f cps is
the frequency and t sec. is the time. The frequency can be varied from 5 to
10,000 cps. The harmonic force will exert a tensile load on the bolts that

Page 27 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

attach the body to the shaker when F is positive. Determine the minimum
number of -in.-UNF bolts that must be used for N = 2 based on Soderberg
line. The material of the bolts is to be AISI 8630, WQT 1100 oF; the material
of the body that is to be vibrated is aluminum alloy, 2014-T6 and the joint is
not to open for an external force that is 1.25 times the maximum force exerted
by the shaker. It may be assumed that the equivalent diameter of the material
in compression is twice the bolt diameter.

Solution:
Fe min = 0
Fe max = 30,000 lb
kc

Fi = QFe
k
+
k
b c
Q = 1.25
AE
kb = b b
Lb
Ab =

D2

4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi

Lb = L
AE
kc = c c
Lc
Ac =

De2

4
De = 2 D
Ac =

D2

(2 D )2 D 2 = 3 D 2 = 3 Ab

4
4
4
6
Ec = 10.6 10 psi , (Aluminum 2014-T6)

Lc = L

Page 28 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Ab Eb Ab (30 106 )
kb =
=
Lb
L
Ac Ec 3 Ab (10.6 106 )
kc =
=
Lc
L
kc

Fi = QFe
kb + k c

3 10.6 10 6
Fi = (1.25)(30,000 )
= 19, 296 lb
6
6
30

10
+
3
10
.
6

10

kb
Fe
Fb =
k
+
k
b c
Fb1 = 0
kb

30 106
Fe =
(30,000 ) = 14,563 lb
Fb 2 =
6
6
k
+
k
30

10
+
3
(
10
.
6

10
)
b
c

1
(Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 19,296 + 1 (14,563 + 0) = 26,578 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (14,563 0 ) = 7282 lb
2
2
Fm = Fi +

Fm
nAs
F
sa = a
nAs
For -in.-UNF (Table AT 14)
As = 0.1419 sq.in.
F
26,578 187,300
sm = m =
=
nAs 0.1419n
n
F
7282
51,318
sa = a =
=
nAs 0.1419n
n
sm =

For AISI 8630, WQT 1100 oF

K f = 3.3
su = 137 ksi
s y = 125 ksi
s n = 0.5su = 0.5(137 ) = 68.5 ksi = 68,500 psi
Page 29 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

s n = (0.8)(0.85)(68,500 psi ) = 46,580 psi
Soderberg Equation, N = 2
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
1 187,300 (3.3)(51,318)
=
+
2 125,000n
46,580n
n = 10.3
Minimum number of bolts = 10 bolts
248.

The maximum external load on the cap bolts of an automotive connecting rod
end, imposed by inertia forces at top dead center, is taken to be 4000 lb.; the
minimum load is zero at bottom dead center. The material is AISI 4140, OQT
1100oF (qualifying for SAE grade 5); assume that s n = 0.45su . The grip for
through bolts is 1.5 in. For design purposed, let each bolt take half the load,
3
and use an equivalent De = 1 in. for the connected parts. The threads extend
8
a negligible amount into the grip. For the initial computation, use an opening
load Fo = 1.75 Fe . Considering the manner in which the bolt is loaded, we
decide that a design factor of 1.4 (Soderberg) should be quite adequate. (a)
Does a 5/16-24 UNF satisfy this situation? If not, what size do you
recommend? (b) Experience suggests that, in situations such as this, an initial
stress of the order suggested in i5.8, Text, is good insurance against fatigue
failure. Decide upon such an si and recomputed N . How does it change?
Would you be concerned about the safety in this case? Consider the variation
of si as a consequences of the use of torque wrench and also the stress
relaxation with time (due to seating and other factors), and discuss. Compute
the required tightening torque for each si .

Solution:
Fo = 1.75Fe = 1.75(4000) = 7000 lb
kc
Fi = Fe
kb + kc
AE
kb = b b
Lb
Ab =

D2

4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi

Page 30 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Lb = 1.5 in.
AE
kc = c c
Lc
Ac =

De2

4
2

D2

2
2
1 D = 1.485 D = 1.485 Ab
4 8 4
4
Ec = 10.6 106 psi , (Aluminum 2014-T6)

Ac =

Lc = 1.5 in.
As Ab
Ab Eb Ab (30 106 )
kb =
=
Lb
1.5
Ac Ec (1.485 As )(30 106 )
kc =
=
Lc
1.5
1.485 As
Fi = 7000
= 7000 4714 As
1.485
kb
Fe
Fb =
kb + k c
Fb1 = 0
kb
A
Fe = s (4,000 ) = 2694 As
Fb 2 =
1.485
kb + k c
1
(Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 7000 4714 As + 1 (2694 As + 0) = 7000 3367 As
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2694 As 0 ) = 1347 As
2
2
Fm = Fi +

Table 5.2
su = 120 ksi
s y = 88 ksi
s n = 0.45su = 0.45(120 ) = 54 ksi = 54,000 psi
F
7000
sm = m =
3367
As
As
F
s a = a = 1347
As

Page 31 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

K f = 3.3 (hardened, Table AT 12)

Soderberg Equation, N = 1.4

1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
1
7000
3367 (3.3)(1347 )
=

+
1.4 88,000 As 88,000
54,000
As = 0.1187 sq.in.
7
Table At14, we D = in , As = 0.1187 sq.in.
16
(a) 5/16-24 UNF will not

satisfy the situation. Instead use

D=

7
in ,
16

As = 0.1187 sq.in.

(b) i5.8, Text

si = 0.85s y = 0.85(88) = 74.8 ksi = 74,800 psi

Fi = si As = (74,800)(0.1187 ) = 8879 lb
1
1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 8879 + (2694 As + 0 ) = 8879 + 1347 As
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2694 As 0 ) = 1347 As
2
2
F
8879
sm = m =
+ 1347
As
As
F
s a = a = 1347
As
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
8879

+ 1347

1 0.1187
+ (3.3)(1347 )
=
N
88,000
54,000
N = 1.06 , it decreases
N > 1 , therefore, safe.

Considering variation of si , si tends to exceeds the limiting stress therefore reduces the
factor of safety. While stress relaxation tends to reduce the limiting stress approaching
the si and causing lower design factor.
(c) Fi = 7000 4714 As = 7000 4714(0.1187 ) = 6440 lb

Page 32 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

7
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (6440) = 564 in lb
16
at Fi = 8879 lb

7
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (8879 ) = 777 in lb
16
CHECK PROBLEMS
249.

A 1-in. steel bolt A (normalized AISI 1137, cold-rolled threads) passes

through a yellow brass tube B (B36-8, hard) as shown. The tube length is
30 in., its cross-sectional area is 2 sq. in. and the UNC bolt threads extend a
negligible amount below the nut. The steel washers are in. thick and are
assumed not to bend (clearances are exaggerated). The nut is turned turn.
(a) If an external tensile axial load, varying from 0 to 5 kips, is repeatedly
applied to the bolt, what is the factor of safety of the bolt by the Soderberg
criterion? (b) What is the external load on the bolt at the instant that the load
on the tube becomes zero.

Problem 249, 250

Solution:
For 1-in. UNC
As = 0.606 sq.in.
Dr = 0.8466 in.
Th in. = 8
1
1
= in.
Th in 8
1
=
p 4
1 1 1
= = in.
4 8 32
p=

Page 33 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1
Lb = 30 + 2 = 30.5 in.
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
1
Fi (30.5)
=
=

32
(1)2 30 106
4
Fi = 24,141 lb

kb

Fb = Fe
kb + k c

Ab Eb 4
=
Lb
AE
kc = c c
Lc
Ac = 2 sq.in.
Lc = 30 in.

kb =

30.5

= 772,525

Ec = 15 106 psi (Yellow Brass)

2 15 10 6
kc =
= 1,000,000
30
(a) Fb1 = 0
772,525

Fb 2 = (5000 )
= 2179 lb
772,525 + 1,000,000
1
1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 24,141 + (2179 + 0 ) = 25,230 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2179 0) = 1090 lb
2
2
Fm 25,230
sm =
=
= 38,227 psi
As
0.606
F
1090
sa = a =
= 1799 psi
As 0.606
For normalized AISI 1137, cold-rolled thread
su = 98 ksi
s y = 58 ksi
s n = 0.5su = 0.5(98) = 49 ksi = 49,000 psi
K f = 1.4 (Table AT 12)

Page 34 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

For axial loading, s n = 0.8(49,000 ) = 39,200 psi
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
1 38,227 (1.4 )(1799)
=
+
N 58,000
39,200
N = 1.38
kc

(b) Fi = Fo
kb + k c
1,000,000

24,141 = Fo

772,525 + 1,000,000
Fo = 42,790 lb

250.

A -in. fine-thread bolt, made of AISI 1117, cold drawn, with rolled threads,
passes through a yellow brass tube and two steel washers, as shown. The tube
is 4 in. long, 7/8 in. internal diameter, 1 -in. external diameter. The washers
are each -in. thick. The unthreaded part of the bolt is 3 in. long. Assume that
there is no stretching of the bolt inside the nut in finding its k . The
unlubricated bolt is tightened by a torque of 1800 in-lb. The external load,
varying from 0 to 4 kips, is axially applied to the washers an indefinite
number of times. (a) Compute the factor of safety of the bolt by the Soderberg
criterion. Is there any danger of failure of the bolt? (b) What pull must be
exerted by the washers to remove all load from the brass tube?

Solution:
T = 0.2 DFi
3
1800 = 0.2 Fi
4
Fi = 12,000 lb
kb

Fb = Fe
kb + k c
1
1
1
=
+
kb kb1 kb 2
AE
kb1 = b b
Lb1
Lb1 = 3 in.
Ab =

= 0.4418 sq.in.
4 4

Page 35 of 42

Eb = 30 10 6 psi

(0.4418)(30 106 ) = 4,418,000

kb1 =

As Eb
Lb 2
For -in. UNF (Table AT 14)
As = 0.373 sq.in.
kb 2 =

1
Lb 2 = 4 + 2 3 = 1.5 in.
2
(0.373) 30 106 = 7,460,000
kb 2 =
1.5
1
1
1
=
+
kb kb1 kb 2
1
1
1
=
+
kb 4,418,000 7,460,000
kb = 2,774,733
AE
kc = c c
Lc

2
2
1 7

1 = 0.6259 sq.in.
4 4 8
Ec = 15 106 psi

Ac =

Lc = 4 in.
kc =

(0.6259)(15 106 ) = 2,347,125

4

Fb1 = 0
2,774,733

Fb 2 = (4000)
= 2167 lb
2,774,733 + 2,347,125
1
1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 12,000 + (2167 + 0) = 13,084 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2167 0) = 1084 lb
2
2
F
13,084
sm = m =
= 35,078 psi
As
0.373
F
1084
sa = a =
= 2906 psi
As 0.373
For AISI 111, cold drawn, rolled threads
s n = 40 ksi
Page 36 of 42

s y = 68 ksi
K f = 1.4

(a)

1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn

1 35,078 (1.4 )(2906 )

=
+
N 68,000
32,000
N = 1.56
kc

(b) Fi = Fo
kb + k c
2,347,125

12,000 = Fo

2,774,733 + 2,347,125
Fo = 26,186 lb

A coupling bolt (i5.13, Text) is used to connect two parts made of cast-iron,

251.

class 35. The diameter of the coarse-thread bolt is -in.; its grip is 2 in., which
is also nearly the unthreaded length. The bolt tightened to have an initial
tension of 4000 lb. The parts support an external load Fe that tends to separate
them and it varies from zero to 5000 lb. What is the factor of safety,
(Soderberg)?
Solution:
Fi = 4000 lb
kb

Fb = Fe
kb + k c
AE
kb = b b
Lb

4 2
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
Ab =

Lb = 2 in.
kb =

2
Table AT 14, UNC

Page 37 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1
in.
2
As = 0.1419 sq.in.
3
A = in.
4
h
De = A +
2
h = 2 in.
3 2
3
De = + = 1 in.
4 2
4
AE
kc = c c
Lc
D=

Ac =

De2

D2 =

2
2
3 1

1 = 2.209 sq.in.
4 4 2

Ec = 14.5 106 psi , (Cast iron, class 35)

Lc = 2 in.
kc

(
2.209 )(14.5 106 )
=
= 16,015,250
2

Fb1 = 0
2,945,250

Fb 2 = (5000 )
= 777 lb
2,945,250 + 16,015,250
1
1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 4000 + (777 + 0 ) = 4389 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (777 0) = 389 lb
2
2
Fm
4389
sm =
=
= 30,930 psi
As 0.1419
F
389
sa = a =
= 2741 psi
As 0.1419
1
For ASTM 354 BC (Table 5.2), D = in.
2
su = 125 ksi
s y = 109 ksi
s n = 0.5su
s n = (0.8)(0.5)(125) = 50 ksi = 50,000 psi
K f = 1.8
Soderberg Line

Page 38 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn

1
30,930 (1.8)(2741)
=
+
N 109,000
50,000
N = 2. 6
252.

The cap on the end of a connecting rod (automotive engine) is held on by two
5/16-in. bolts that are forged integrally with the main connecting rod. These
bolts have UNF threads with a 5/8-in. on an unthreaded length of virtually 5/8
in. The nuts are to be tightened with a torque of 20 ft-lb. and the maximum
external load on one bolt is expected to be 2330 lb. Let the equivalent
diameter of the connected parts be in. (a) Estimate the maximum force on
the bolt. (b) Compute the opening load. Is this satisfactory? (c) If the bolt
material is AISI 4140, OQT 1000 oF, what is the factor of safety based on the
Soderberg criterion?

Solution:
T = 20 ft lb = 240 in lb
T = 0.2 DFi
5
240 = 0.2 Fi
16
Fi = 3840 lb
kb

Fb = Fe
kb + k c
AE
kb = b b
Lb

= 0.0767 sq.in. (unthreaded length)

4 16
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
5
Lb = in.
8
(0.0767) 30 106 = 3,681,600
kb =
5

8
AE
kc = c c
Lc
Ab =

2
2
3 5

= 0.3651 sq.in.
4 4 16
Ec = 30 10 6 psi , (Cast iron, class 35)

Ac =

De2

Page 39 of 42

D2 =

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

5
in.
8
(
0.3651) 30 10 6
kc =
= 17,524,800
5

8
3,681,600

Fb = (2330)
= 405 lb
3,681,600 + 17,524,800
Lc =

(a) Fmax = Fi + Fb = 3840 + 405 = 4245 lb

kc

(b) Fi = Fo
k
+
k
b c
17,524,800

3840 = Fo

3,681,600 + 17,524,80
Fo = 4647 lb < Fmax
Fb
405
= 3840 +
= 4042 lb
2
2
F
405
Fa = b =
= 202 lb
2
2
For AISI 4140, OQT 1000 oF
su = 170 ksi

(c) Fm = Fi +

s y = 155 ksi

Table AT 12, K f = 2.6

s n = 0.5su
s n = (0.8)(0.5)(170) = 68 ksi = 68,000 psi
Soderberg Line
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
For 5/16-in.-UNF, Table AT 14, As = 0.0580 sq.in.
F
4042
sm = m =
= 69,690 psi
As 0.0580
F
202
sa = a =
= 3843 psi
As 0.0580
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn

Page 40 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

1
69,690 (2.6 )(3483)
=
+
N 155,000
68,000
N = 1.72
SET SCREWS
254.

A 6-in. pulley is fastened to a 1 in. shaft by a set screw. If a net tangential

force of 75 lb, is applied to the surface of the pulley, what size screw should
be used when the load is steady?

Solution:
6
Tangential force = (75 lb )
= 365 lb
1.25
Assume tangential force = holding force
Table 5.3, use Screw size 8, Holding force = 385 lb.

255.

An eccentric is to be connected to a 3-in. shaft by a setscrew. The center of the

eccentric is 1 in. from the center of the shaft when a tensile force of 1000
lb. is applied to the eccentric rod perpendicular to the line of centers. What
size set screw should be used for a design factor of 6?

Solution:
1.25
= 833 lb
Tangential force = (1000 lb )
32
Holding force = (6)(833) = 5000 lb
Table 5.3, use Screw size in.

256.

A lever 16 in. long is to be fastened to a 2-in. shaft. A load of 40 lb. is to be

applied normal to the lever at its end. What size of set screw should be used
for a design factor of 5?

Solution:
Torque = (16)(40) = 640 in lb
2(640 )
Tangential force =
= 640 lb
2
Holding force = (5)(640 ) = 3200 lb
Table 5.3, use Screw size 9/16 in.
257.

A 12-in. gear is mounted on a 2-in. shaft and is held in place by a 7/16 in.
setscrew. For a design factor of 3, what would be the tangential load that
could be applied to the teeth and what horsepower could be transmitted by the
screw.

Solution:

Page 41 of 42

SECTION 3 SCREW FASTENINGS

Table 5.3, 7/16 in.
Holding force = 2500 lb
2500
Tangential force =
= 833 lb
3
2
Tangential load on gear = 833 = 139 lb
12
Assume vm = 4500 fpm
(139)(4500) = 19 hp
Hp transmitted =
33,000
- end -

Page 42 of 42

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
HELICAL COMPRESSION SPRINGS
DESIGN LIGHT, MEDIUM SERVICE
271.

A solenoid brake (Fig. 18.2, Text) is to be actuated by a helical compression

spring. The spring should have a free length of approximately 18 in. and is to
exert a maximum force of 2850 lb. when compressed to a length of 15 in. The
outside diameter must not exceed 7 in. Using oil-tempered wire, design a
spring for this brake, (wire diameter, coil diameter, number of active coils,
pitch, pitch angle, solid stress). General Electric used a spring made of 1 in.
wire, with an outside diameter of 6 in., and 11 free coils for a similar
application.

Solution:
For oil tempered wire, Table AT 17
146
su = 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw
solid stress = 0.6 s u
design stress, (average service)
ssd = 0.324 su
0.324(146 ) 47.304
ssd =
=
ksi
Dw0.19
Dw0.19
Dw + Dm 7
F = 2850 lb = 2.85 kips

8FDm 47.304
=
ss = K
3
Dw0.19
Dw
say K = 1.3
8(2.85)(7 Dw ) 47.304
ss = 1.3
=
Dw3
Dw0.19

Dw = 1.062 in > 0.5 in

47.304
use ssd =
ksi = 54 ksi
(0.5)0.19
8(2.85)(7 Dw )
ss = 1.3
= 54
Dw3

Dw = 1.015 in
say Dw = 1.0 in
8(2.85)Dm
ss = 1.3
= 54
3
(1)
Dm = 5.72 in
Page 1 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
say Dm = 5.0 in
OD = Dm + Dw = 5.0 + 1.0 = 6 in < 7 in.
D
5 .0
C= m =
=5
Dw 1.0
= Free length Compressed length = 18 in 15 in = 3 in.

8FC 3 N c
GDw

G = 10,500 ksi , Dw >

3
in
8

8(2.85)(5) N c
(10,500)(1)
N c = 11.05
say N c = 11.5
3

=3=

8(2.85)(5) (11.5)
= 3.12 in
(10,500)(1)
Free length = 15 + 3.12 = 18.12 in
3

At 2.85 kips
8FDm

ss = K
3
Dw
C =5
4C 1 0.615 4(5) 1 0.615
K=
+
=
+
= 1.3105
4C 4
C
4(5) 4
5
8(2.85)(5)
ss = 1.3105
= 47.55 ksi
3
(1)
Permissible solid stress
0.6(146 )
sso = 0.6 su =
ksi = 99.93 ksi
(0.5)0.19
F
k=

using
or let T = Free length Solid height
47.55 99.93
=
3.12
T
T = 6.56 in
T = Free length Solid height = (P Dw )N c
6.56 = (P 1)(11.5)
P = 1.570 in

Page 2 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
1
use P = 1 in
2
Pitch angle,
1.5
P
o
o
= tan 1
= tan 1
= 5.5 < 12 , o.k.
D

(
5
)

For actual solid stress

T = (1.5 1)(11.5) = 5.75 in.
47.55 sso
=
3.12 5.75
sso = 87.63 ksi < 99.93 ksi , ok
Dw = wire diameter = 1 in.
Dm = coil diameter = 5 in.
N c = no. of active coils = 11 1/2
P = pitch = 1 in.
= pitch angle = 5.5o
sso = solid stress = 87.63 ksi
272.

A coil spring is to be used for the front spring of a automobile. The spring is
to have a rate of 400 lb./in., an inside diameter of 4 3/64 in., and a free length
of 14 1/8 in., with squared-and-ground ends. The material is to be oiltempered chrome vanadium steel. Decide upon the diameter of the wire and
the number of free coils for a design load of F = 1500 lb . Be sure solid
stress is all right. How much is the pitch angle?

Solution:
Table AT 17 Cr-V steel
168
su = 0.166 ksi , [0.032 < Dw 0.437]
Dw
average service
ssd = 0.324su
0.324(168) 54.432
ssd =
= 0.166 ksi
Dw0.166
Dw
Max solid stress = 0.6su

Page 3 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
3
in = 4.046875 in
64
Dm = Dw + 4.046875 in
ID = Dm Dw = 4

8FDm
= ssd
ss = K
3
Dw
Assume K = 1.3
F = 1500 lb = 1.5 kips

ssd =

8(1.5)(Dw + 4.046875)
54.432
= 1.3

0.166
Dw
Dw3

Dw = 0.747 in > 0.437 in

use
54.432
ssd =
ksi = 62.45 ksi
(0.437 )0.19
8(1.5)(Dw + 4.046875)
ssd = 1.3
= 62.45
Dw3

Dw = 0.724 in
3
use Dw = in
4
3
3
51
Dm = + 4 = 4 in
4
64
64
8FDm

ss = K
3
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
51
4
Dm 64
C=
=
6.4
Dw
3

4
4(6.4) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.235
4(6.4) 4
6.4

51
8(1.5) 4
64 = 53.64 ksi < 62.45 ksi , (o.k.)
ss = 1.235
3

8FC 3 N c
GDw

Page 4 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
3
G = 10,500 ksi , D w > in
8
F 1500
= =
= 3.75 in
k
400
3
8(1.5)(6.4 ) N c
= 3.75 =
(10,500) 3
4
N c = 9.4

Table AT 16, Total coils = N c + 2 = 9.4 + 2 = 11.4 for square and grounded end.
Dw = wire diameter = in.
No. of free coils = 11.4
To check for solid stress.
Permissible solid stress =

0.6(168)
= 115.65 ksi
(0.437 )0.166

Free length = PN c + 2 Dw
3
Solid height = Dw ( N c + 2 ) = (11.4 ) = 8.55 in
4
1

14 8.55
= 78.74 ksi < 115.65 ksi (safe)
Solid stress = (53.64 ) 8
3.75

Pitch:
1
PN c + 2 Dw = 14 in
8
1
3
P(9.4 ) + 2 = 14
8
4
11
P = 1.343 in = 1 in
32
Pitch angle,
11
1

1 P
1
= tan 32 = 5.1o < 12o , o.k.
= tan
D
4 51
64

Page 5 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
273.

A coiled compression spring is to fit inside a cylinder 5/8 in. in diameter. For
one position of the piston, the spring is to exert a pressure on the piston
equivalent to 5 psi of piston area, and in this position, the overall length of the
spring must not exceed (but may be less than) 2 in. A pressure of 46 psi on the
piston is to compress the spring in. from the position described above.
Design a spring for medium service. Specify the cheapest suitable material,
number of total and active coils for square-and-ground ends, and investigate
the pitch angle, and solid stress.

Solution:
8FDm

ss = K
3
D

OD = Dm + Dw =
Dm + 1.5 Dw =

5
D
in w
8
2

5
in
8
2

5
F1 = (5) = 1.534 lb
4 8
2

5
F2 = (46 + 5) = 15.647 lb
4 8

Using hard-drawn spring wire, Cost Index = 1

ssd = 0.324su (0.85)
140
su = 0.19 ksi
Dw
, [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]
70
ksi
Dw0.19
140 38.556
ssd = 0.324(0.85) 0.19 =
Dw
Dw0.19

8FC 38.556
38,556
=
ss = K
ksi = 0.19 psi
2
0.19
Dw
Dw
Dw
8(15.647 )C
K
= 38,556 Dw1.81

K (39.845)C = 38,556 Dw1.81

Dm + 1.5Dw = 0.625
CDw + 1.5Dw = 0.625
0.625
Dw =
C + 1 .5

Page 6 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

K=

4C 1 0.615
+
4C 4
C
1.81

4C 1 0.615
0.625
+

(39.845)C = 38,556

C
4C 4
C + 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
1.81
+

(C + 1.5) C = 413.3
C
4C 4
C = 7.035
0.625
0.625
=
= 0.0732 in
Dw =
C + 1.5 7.035 + 1.5
Table AT 15, Dw = 0.0720 in , W & M 15

Dm = 7.035(0.0720) = 0.5065 in
For N c

2 1 =

8(F2 F1 )C 3 N c
GDw

G = 11.5 106 psi

3 8(15.647 1.534)(7.035) N c
2 1 = =
4
11.5 106 (0.0720)
N c = 15.8
Table AT 16,
Total coils = N c + 2 = 15.8 + 2 = 17.8
Solid height = ( N c + 2)Dw = (15.8 + 2)(0.0720) = 1.28 in
Free length = PN c + 2 Dw
Free length = 2 + 1
3

1 =

8(F1 )C 3 N c
GDw

8(1.534 )(7.035) (15.8)

= 0.082 in.
11.5 106 (0.0720)
Free length = 2 + 0.082 = 2.082 in
3

1 =

2 =

8(F2 )C 3 N c
GDw

8(15.647 )(7.035) (15.8)

= 0.832 in.
11.5 106 (0.0720)
Solid Height Free Length - 2
Solid Height 2.082 0.832 in
Solid Height 1.25 in
But Solid Height > 1.25 in.
3

2 =

Therefore change material to Oil-tempered spring wire, Cost Index = 1.5

Page 7 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Table AT 17
146
su = 0.19 ksi , 0.028 < Dw < 0.5
Dw
Max solid stress =
ssd = 0.324

87.5
ksi
D w0.19

146 47.304
=
Dw0.19
Dw0.19

8FC 47.304
47,304
=
ss = K
ksi =
psi
2
0.19
0.19

D
D
D
w
w
w
(
)
8 15.647 C
K
= 47,304 Dw1.81

K (39.845)C = 47,304 Dw1.81

0.625
Dw =
C + 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
1.81

4C 1 0.615
0.625
+

(39.845)C = 47,304

C
4C 4
C + 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
1.81
+

(C + 1.5) C = 507.1
C
4C 4
C = 7.684
0.625
0.625
Dw =
=
= 0.0680 in
C + 1.5 7.684 + 1.5
Table AT 15, Dw = 0.0625 in , W & M 16

Dm = 7.684(0.0625) = 0.48025 in
15
say Dm =
= 0.46875 in
32
D
0.46875
C= m =
= 7 .5
Dw
0.0625
8FC

ss = K
2
Dw
4C 1 0.615 4(7.5) 1 0.615
K=
+
=
+
= 1.1974
4C 4
C
4(7.5) 4
7.5
8(15.647 )(7.5)
ss = 1.1974
= 91,600 psi = 91.6 ksi
2
(0.0625)
For N c

Page 8 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

2 1 =

8(F2 F1 )C 3 N c
GDw

G = 11.5 106 psi

3 8(15.647 1.534)(7.5) N c
=
4
11.5 106 (0.0625)
N c = 11.32
Table AT 16, squared and ground ends
Total coils = N c + 2 = 11.32 + 2 = 13.32
Solid height = ( N c + 2)Dw = (11.32 + 2)(0.0625) = 0.8325 in
Free length = PN c + 2 Dw
Free length = 2 + 1
3

2 1 =

1 =

8(F1 )C 3 N c
GDw

8(1.534 )(7.5) (11.32)

= 0.082 in.
11.5 106 (0.0625)
Free length = 2 + 0.082 = 2.082 in = P(11.32) + 2(0.0625)
3

1 =

P = 0.1729 in

11
in
64

Pitch angle,
0.1729
P
o
o
= tan 1
= tan 1
= 6.7 < 12 , o.k.
0
.
46875
D

(
)

Solid stress
2 0.8325
sso = (91.6 )
= 142.6 ksi
0.75
87.5
Permissible solid stress =
= 148.8 ksi > 137.5 ksi , safe.
(0.0625)0.19
Suitable material = Oil-Tempered Spring Wire
Total Coils = 13.32
Active Coils, N c = 11.32
274.

A helical spring is to fit about a 11/16-in. rod with a free length of 2 in. or
less. A maximum load of 8 lb. is to produce a deflection of 1 in. The spring
is expected to be compressed less than 5000 times during its life, but is
subjected to relatively high temperatures and corrosive atmosphere. Select a
material and determine the necessary wire size, mean coil diameter, and
number of coils. Meet all conditions advised by Text.

Page 9 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Solution:
For 5000 cycles < 104 cycles, use light service
Use stainless steel, type 302 (Cr-Ni), ASTM A313 for relative high temperature and
corrosive atmosphere, Table AT 17.
ssd = 0.32su (i)
170
ksi , [0.01 < Dw < 0.13]
Dw0.14
97
su = 0.41 ksi , [0.13 < Dw < 0.375]
Dw
Maximum solid so = 0.47 su
su =

8FDm

ss = K
3

D
w

F = 8 lb
11 D
Dm Dw = + w
16 2
Dm 1.5Dw = 0.6875 in
CDw 1.5 Dw = 0.6875
0.6875
Dw =
C 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
170
assume su = 0.14 ksi
Dw
0.32(170 ) 54.4
54,400
ssd =
= 0.14 ksi =
psi
0.14
Dw
Dw
Dw0.14
4C 1 0.615 8(8)C
+
= 54,400 D1w.86

C
4C 4
1.86

4C 1 0.615 64C
0.6875
+

= 54,400

C
4C 4
C 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
1.86
+

(C 1.5) C = 1330
C
4C 4
C = 12.919
0.6875
Dw =
= 0.0602 in
12.919 1.5
Use Table AT 15, Dw = 0.0625 in , 16 W & M

Dm = 12.919(0.0602) = 0.8074 in
25
say Dm =
in = 0.78125 in
32

Page 10 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
11
16
0.78125 0.0625 > 0.6875
0.71875 > 0.6875
Dm Dw >

C=

Dw
, o.k.
2

Dm 0.71875
=
= 12.5
Dw
0.0625

[0.0625 < 0.13], therefore,

su =

170
ksi is o.k.
Dw0.14

8FC

ss = K
2

D
w
4(12.5) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.1144
4(12.5) 4 12.5
8(8)(12.5)
ss = 1.1144
= 72,648 psi
2
(0.0625)
8(F )C 3 N c
=
GDw
G = 10.6 106 psi
3
8(8)(12.5) N c
4 10.6 106 (0.0625)
N c = 9.3
To check for solid stress and pitch
Minimum solid height = Dw N c = (0.0625)(9.3) = 0.58125 in
3

=1 =

(72,648) 2 3 0.58125

4
= 90,000 psi = 90 ksi
3
1
4
(0.47 )(170) = 117.8 ksi > 90 ksi , o.k.
Permissible solid stress =
(0.0625)0.14
Free length = PN c , minimum
3
P (9.3) = 2
4
P = 0.2957 in
Pitch angle,
0.2957
P
= tan 1
= 7.5o < 12o , o.k.
= tan 1

D
(0.71825)
Material, Stainless Steel, Cr-Ni. ASTM A313
Solid stress =

Page 11 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Dw = 0.0625 in , 16 W & M
25
Dm =
in
32
N c = 9.3
275.

In order to isolate vibrations, helical compression springs are used to support a

machine. The static load on each spring is 3500 lb., under which the deflection
should be about 0.5 in. The solid deflection should be about 1 in. and the
outside coil diameter should not exceed 6 in. Recommend a spring for this
application; include scale, wire size, static stress, material, number of coils,
solid stress, and pitch of coils.

Solution:
Use Music wire (The best material)
Table AT 17
190
su = 0.154 ksi , [0.004 < Dw < 0.192]
Dw
Maximum solid sso = 0.5su
Light service, ssd = 0.405su
0.405(190 ) 76.95
76,950
ssd =
= 0.154 ksi = 0.154 psi
0.154
Dw
Dw
Dw
8FC

ss = K
2
Dw
F = 3500 lb
OD = Dm + Dw = 6 in
(C + 1)Dw = 6
6
Dw =
C +1

76,950
4C 1 0.615 8(3500 )C
=
ss =
+

C 6 6 0.154
4C 4

C + 1 C + 1

4C 1 0.615
1.846
+
= 235.9

C (C + 1)
C
4C 4
C = 5.635
6
Dw =
= 0.9043 in > 0.192 in
5.635 + 1
76.950
use ss =
= 99,216 psi
(0.192)0.154

Page 12 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615 8(3500 )C
= 99,216
ss =
+

C 6
4C 4

C + 1
4C 1 0.615
2
+

C (C + 1) = 400.8
C
4C 4
C = 6.205
6
= 0.8328 in
Dw =
6.205 + 1
13
Say Dw = in = 0.8125 in
16
Dm = (6.205)(0.8125) = 5.042 in

Say Dm = 5 in
D
5
C= m =
= 6.154
Dw 0.8125
4(6.154) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.2455
4(6.154) 4 6.154
8FC

ss = K
2
Dw
8(3500)(6.154)
ss = 1.2455
= 103,481 psi > 99,216 psi , not o.k.
2
(0.8125)
Use Dm = 4.5 in
D
4 .5
C= m =
= 5.5385
Dw 0.8125
4(5.5385) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.2763
45.5385 4 5.5385
8(3500)(5.5385)
ss = 1.2763
= 95,435 psi > 99,216 psi , o.k.
2
(0.8125)
To check for solid stress
(0.5)(190) = 122.488 ksi = 122,488 psi
Permissible solid stress =
(0.192 )0.154
1
Solid stress =
(95,435) = 190,870 psi > 122,488 psi , not ok
0 .5
Use
0 .5
ssd = 122,488
= 61,244 psi
1
.

Page 13 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615 8(3500 )C
= 61,244
ss =
+

C 6
4C 4

C + 1
4C 1 0.615
2
+

C (C + 1) = 247.4
C
4C 4
C = 5 .1
6
= 0.9836 in
Dw =
5 .1 + 1
Say Dw = 1.0 in

Dm = (5.1)(1.0) = 5.1 in
Say Dm = 5 in
D
5
C = m = =5
Dw 1
8FC

ss = K
2
Dw
4(5) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.3105
4(5) 4
5
8(3500)(5)
ss = 1.3105
= 58,400 psi > 61,244 psi o.k.
2
(
)
1
.
0

Use Dw = 1.0 in , Dm = 5 in
1
Solid stress =
(58,400 ) = 116,800 psi < 122,488 psi , o.k.
0 .5
8(F )C 3 N c
=
GDw
(Table AT 17)
G = 12 106 psi

8(3500 )(5) N c
= 0.5 =
12 106 (1.0)
N c = 1.7143
say N c = 1.75
Free length Solid length = Solid Deflection
PN c Dw N c = 1 in
P(1.75) (1)(1.75) = 1
9
P = 1.5714 in 1 in
16
Pitch angle,
3

Page 14 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
9
1
P
= tan 1 16 = 5.68o < 12o , o.k.
= tan 1
D
(5)

F 3500
Scale, k = =
= 7000 lb in

0 .5
Wire size, Dw = 1.0 in
Material = Music Wire
Solid sress = 116,800 psi
9
Pitch of stress = P = 1 in
16
CHECK PROBLEMS LIGHT, MEDIUM SERVICE
276.

The front spring of an automobile has a total of 9 coils, 7 3/8 active coils
(square-and-ground ends), an inside diameter of 4 3/64 in., and a free length
of 14 in. It is made of SAE 9255 steel wire, OQT 1000oF, with a diameter
of 43/64 in. Compute (a) the rate (scale) of the spring; (b) the solid stress
and compare with a permissible value (is a stop needed to prevent solid
compression?). (c) Can 95 % of the solid stress be repeated 105 times without
danger of failure? Would you advise shot peening of the spring?

Solution:
8FC 3 N c
GDw
43
3
Dw =
in > in
64
8
6
G = 10.5 10 psi
D
C= m
Dw
Dm Dw = ID
43
3
Dm
= 4 in
64
64
23
Dm = 4 in
32
23
4
C = 32 = 7.0233
43
64

(a) =

Page 15 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Nc = 7

3
8

43
(10.5 10 ) 64

GD
k = rate = = 3 w =
8C N c

= 345 lb in
3 3
8(7.0233) 7
8

(b) Solid Stress

43 1
Solid height = N c = (Dw )(Total Coils ) = 9 = 6.3828 in
64 2
Solid deflection = Free length Solid height = 14 - 6.3828 = 7.8672 in.

Solid Force = Fso = 7.8672(345) = 2714 lb

8F C
Solid Stress = K so2
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
4(7.0233) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.212
4(7.0233) 4 7.0233

8(2714)(7.0233)

ss = 1.212
= 130,322 psi
2

43

64

Permissible value, ss = s ys = 0.6 sy , [Dw > 0.5 in]

SAE 9255, OQT 1000 oF
s y = 160 ksi su = 180 ksi
,
s ys = 0.6(160 ) = 96 ksi = 96,000 psi < 130,322 psi
Therefore a stop is needed to prevent solid compression.

(c) ssd = 0.324su (105 cycles)

ssd = 0.324(180) = 58.32 ksi
0.95sso = 0.95(130,322) = 123,800 psi = 123.8 ksi > 58.32 ksi
There is a danger of failure, shot peening is advisable
s ys = 1.25(96,000 ) = 120,000 psi 0.95sso
277.

An oil-tempered steel helical compression spring has a wire size of No. 3 W

& M, a spring index of 4.13, 30 active coils, a pitch of 0.317 in., ground-andsquared ends; medium service. (a) What maximum load is permitted if the
recommended stress is not exceeded (static approach)? Compute (b) the

Page 16 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
corresponding deflection, (c) solid stress,. (d) pitch angle, (e) scale, (f) the
energy absorbed by the spring from a deflection of 0.25 in. to that of the
working load. (g) Is there any danger of this spring buckling? (h) What
maximum load could be used if the spring were shot peened?
Solution:
Table AT 17, oil-tempered
146
su = 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw
87.5
Maximum solid sso = 0.19 ksi
Dw
ssd = 0.324su (medium service)
Table AT 15, No. 3 W & M
Dw = 0.2437 in
C = 4.13
Dm = CDw = 4.13(0.2437 ) = 1.0 in
8F C
(a) ss = K s 2
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
4(4.13) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.3885
4(4.13) 4 4.13
0.324(146 )
ss = ssd =
= 61.858 ksi = 61,858 psi
(0.2437 )0.19
8(F )(4.13)
ss = 61,858 = 1.3885
2
(0.2437 )
F = 252 lb
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
G = 11.5 106 psi
N c = 30
8(252)(4.13) (30)
= 1.52 in
11.5 106 (0.2437 )
3

(c) For solid stress . Square-and-ground end)

Free length = PN c + 2 Dw = (0.317 )(30) + 2(0.2437 ) = 9.9974 in

Page 17 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (30 + 2)(0.2437 ) = 7.7984 in
Solid deflection = 9.9974 7.7984 = 2.199 in.
2.199
Solid stress = (61,858)
= 89,491 psi
1.52
Maximum solid sso =

87.5
87.5
ksi =
ksi = 114.4 ksi > 89.491 ksi , o.k. safe
0.19
Dw
(0.2437 )0.19

0.317
P
= tan 1
= 5.76o < 12o , o.k.

D
(1)
F 252
(e) scale = k = =
= 166 lb in
1.52
1
(f) U s = k ( 22 12 )
2
k = 166 lb in
1 = 0.25 in
2 = 1.52 in
1
2
2
U s = (166 ) (1.52 ) (0.25) = 186.6 in lb
2
(d) = tan 1

(g) i 6.18 Free length = 9.9974 in

Mean Diameter = Dm = 1.0 in
Free length
9.9974
=
= 9.9974 > 4
Mean Diameter
1 .0
There is a danger for spring buckling
(h) Shot peened, Table AT 17
ssd = (61,858)(1.25) = 77,322 psi
8(F )(4.13)
ss = 77,322 = 1.3885
2
(0.2437 )
F = 314 lb
280.

It is desired to isolate a furnace, weighing 47,300 lb., from the surroundings

by mounting it on helical springs. Under the weight, the springs should deflect
approximately 1 in., and at least 2 in. before becoming solid. It has been
decided to use springs having a wire diameter of 1 in., an outside diameter of
5 3/8 in., 4.3 free coils. Determine (a) the number of springs to be used, (b)
the stress caused by the weight, (c) the solid stress. (d) What steel should be
used?

Solution:

Page 18 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Dw = 1 in
3
Dm + Dw = 5 in
8
3
Dm = 4 in
8
3
4
D
C = m = 8 = 4.375
Dw
1

8FC 3 N c
(a) =
GDw
Assume N c = 4.3
G = 10.5 106 psi , Dw >

3
in
8

8F (4.375) (4.3)
10.5 106 (1)
F = 3645 lb
W 47,300
No. of springs =
=
= 13
F
3645
3

= 1.0 =

W 47,300
=
= 3638 lb
13
13
8F C
ss = K s 2
Dw

(b) F =

4C 1 0.615
+
4C 4
C
4(4.375) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.3628
4(4.375) 4 4.375
K=

8(3638)(4.375)
ss = 1.3628
= 55,235 psi
(1.0)2

2
(c) Solid Stress = ss = 55,235 = 110,470 psi
1
(d) s ys 110,470 psi

s ys

110,470
= 184,117 psi = 184.117 ksi
0.6
0.6
From Table AT 7,
Use AISI 8760, OQT 800 oF, s y = 200 ksi
sy =

Page 19 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

VARYING STRESS APPROACH

DESIGN PROBLEMS
282.

A spring, subjected to a load varying from 100 lb. to 250 lb., is to be made of oiltempered, cold-wound wire. Determine the diameter of the wire and the mean
diameter of the coil for a design factor of 1.25 based on Wahls line. The spring
index is to be at least 5. Conform to good practice, showing checks for all
significant parameters. Let the free length be between 6 and 8.

Solution:
Fmax = 250 lb
Fmin = 100 lb
1
1
Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (250 + 100 ) = 175 lb = 0.175 kip
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = (250 100 ) = 75 lb = 0.075 kip
2
2
Wahls line
1 sms sas 2sas
=
+
N
s ys
sno
8 KFa Dm 8 KFa C
=
sas =
Dw3
Dw2
8 KFm Dm 8 KFmC
sms =
=
K cDw3
K cDw2
C =5
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
4(5) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.31
4(5) 4
5
Fig. AF 15, C = 5
K c = 1.19
For oil-tempered wire,
87.5
s ys = 0.19
Dw , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
47
Dw0.1 , [0.041 < Dw < 0.15]
30
sno = 0.34
Dw , [0.15 < Dw < 0.625]
sno =

N = 1.25

Page 20 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
8(1.31)(0.075)(5) 1.251
=
Dw2
Dw2
8(1.31)(0.175)(5) 2.453
sms =
=
(1.19)Dw2
Dw2
30
say sno = 0.34 ksi
Dw
1 sms sas 2sas
=
+
N
s ys
sno
sas =

2.453 1.251
1.251

2 2
2
Dw
1
+ Dw
=
1.25
87.5
30
0.19
0.34
Dw
Dw
1
1
1
=
+
1.81
1.25 72.8 Dw
11.99 Dw1.66
Dw = 0.2857 in > 0.15 in
Table AT 15, use No. 1, W & M
Dw = 0.2830 in

Dm = CDw = 5(0.2830) = 1.415 in

7
say Dm = 1 in
16
6 in < Free length < 8 in
7
Free length = 4 Dm = 41 = 5.75 in
16
Increase Dm
1
Dm = 1 in
2
1
Free length = 4 Dm = 41 = 6 in , o.k.
2
Dw = 0.2830 in
1
Dm = 1 in
2
283.

A carbon-steel spring is to be subjected to a load that varies from 500 to 1200 lb.
The outside diameter should be between 3.5 and 4 in., the spring index between 5
to 10; approximate scale of 500 lb./in. Choose a steel and for a design factor of
1.4 by the Wahl line, find the wire diameter. Also determine the number of active

Page 21 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
coils and the free length for squared-and-ground ends. Conform to the general
conditions specified in the Text.
Solution:
For carbon steel, Table AT 17
91
s ys = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
49
sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
Fmax = 1200 lb
Fmin = 500 lb
1
1
Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (1200 + 500 ) = 850 lb = 0.85 kip
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = (1200 500 ) = 350 lb = 0.35 kip
2
2
OD = 3.5 ~ 4.0 in
C = 5 ~ 10
Wahls line
1 sms sas 2sas
+
=
N
s ys
sno
Figure AF 15, C = 5 ~ 10
Assume K = 1.2 , K c = 1.125
8 KFa Dm
sas =
Dw3
8 KFm Dm
sms =
K cDw3
OD 3.75 in
Dm = 3.75 Dw
8(1.2 )(0.35)(3.75 Dw ) 1.0695(3.75 Dw )
=
sas =
Dw3
Dw3
8(1.2 )(0.85)(3.75 Dw ) 2.3088(3.75 Dw )
sms =
=
(1.125)Dw3
Dw3

Dw

91
0.1
Dw
1
3.75 Dw
3.75 Dw
=
+
2.9
1.4 73.4285 Dw
22.9079 Dw2.85
Dw = 0.6171 in > 0.25 in
Use
1
=
1.4

3.75 Dw

2(1.0695)
Dw3
+

49
0.15
Dw

(2.3088 1.0695) 3.75 3 Dw

Page 22 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
91
= 104.53 ksi
(0.25)0.1
49
sno =
= 60.33 ksi
(0.25)0.15

s ys =

3.75 Dw

2(1.0695)
Dw3
+

60.33

(2.3088 1.0695) 3.75 3 Dw

Dw
1

=
1 .4
104.53
1
3.75 Dw 3.75 Dw
=
+
1.4 84.346 Dw3 28.205 Dw3
1
3.75 Dw
=
1.4 21.137 Dw3
Dw = 0.5935 in
use
19
Dw =
in
32
3
Dm + Dw 3 in
4
19
3
= 3 in
Dm +
32
4
5
Dm = 3 in
32
5
3
Dm 32
C=
=
= 5.316
Dw
19

32
. o.k.
19
Wire Diameter Dw =
in , Carbon Steel
32
Number of coils:
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
3
G = 10.5 106 psi = 10,500 ksi , Dw > in
8
F
GDw
=k = 3

8C N c

(10.5 10 ) 19

32
6

8(5.316 ) N c
N c = 10.4
Table AT 16, square-and-ground ends
500 =

Page 23 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Free length = PN c + 2 Dw
Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw
Total Coils = N c + 2
19
Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (10.4 + 2 ) = 7.3625 in
32
F 1200
= =
= 2.4 in
k
500
Min. Free length = 2.4 + 7.3625 in = 9.7625 in
Use Free length = 10 in

To check for pitch angle.

Free length = PN c + 2 Dw
19
P(10.4 ) + 2 = 10
32
P = 0.8474 in

P
0.8474
= 4.885o < 12o , o.k.
= tan 1
= tan 1
Dm
3 5
32

Solid stress:
T = solid deflection = 10 7.3625 = 2.6375 in
F = k T = (500)(2.6375) = 1319 lb
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
4(5.316) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.29
4(5.316) 4 5.316
5
8(1.29)(1319) 3
8 KFDm
32 = 23,033 psi = 23.033 ksi < s (= 104.53 ksi )
ss =
=
ys
3
3
Dw
19

32
284.

A helical compression spring, made of oil-tempered, cold-wound carbon steel, is

to be subjected to a working load varying from 100 to 300 lb. for an indefinite
time (severe). A mean coil diameter of 2 in. should be satisfactory. (a) Using the
static approach, compute a wire diameter. (b) For this wire size, compute the
factor of safety as given by the Wahl line.

Solution:

Page 24 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Table AT 16,
For carbon steel,
182
su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
91
s ys = 0.1 ksi
91
Dw
Max. solid s ys = 0.1 ksi
Dw
49
sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
Dm = 2 in.
Fmax = 300 lb
Fmin = 100 lb
(a) F = 300 lb = 0.3 kip
severe service, ssd = 0.263su =

Dw0.1

8F C
ss = K s 2
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
Dm
C=
Dw
D
2
Dw = m =
C C

4C 1 0.615 8(0.3)(2 ) 47.866

ss =
+
=
C 2 3 2 0.1
4C 4

C C
4C 1 0.615 2.9
4C 4 + C C = 233.84

C = 6.075
2
Dw =
= 0.3292 in > 0.25 in
6.075
47.866
Therefore use ssd =
= 54.984 ksi
(0.25)0.1

Page 25 of 70

Dw0.1

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

4C 1 0.615 8(0.3)(2 )
ss =
+
= 54.984
C 2 3
4C 4

C
4C 1 0.615 3
4C 4 + C C = 287.9

C = 6.136
2
= 0.3259 in
Dw =
6.136
21
say Dw =
in
64
91
= 104.53 ksi
(0.25)0.1
49
sno =
= 60.33 ksi
(0.25)0.15
1
1
Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (300 + 100 ) = 200 lb = 0.2 kip
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = (300 100 ) = 100 lb = 0.1 kip
2
2
Dm
2
C=
=
= 6.095
Dw 21

64
Figure AF 15
K c = 1.15
K = 1.25
K 8Fm Dm
sms =

K c Dw3

(b) s ys =

sms

1.25 8(0.2 )(2)

=
= 31.34 ksi
1.15 21 3

64

sas =

8 KFa Dm
Dw3

Page 26 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

8(0.1)(2)

sas = 1.25
= 18.02 ksi
21 3

64

Wahls line
1 sms sas 2sas
=
+
N
s ys
sno
1 31.34 18.02 2(18.02 )
=
+
N
104.53
60.33
N = 1.38
285.

A helical spring of hard-drawn wire with a mean diameter of 1 in. and squareand-ground ends is to be subjected to a maximum load of 325 lb. (a) Compute the
wire diameter for average service. (b) How many total coils are required if the
scale is 800 lb./in.? (c) For a minimum load of 100 lb., what is the factor of safety
according to Wahl line? Would it be safe for an indefinite life?

Solution:
Table AT 17,
Hard-drawn wire,
140
su = 0.19 ksi , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]
Dw
70
Maximum solid ss = s ys = 0.19 ksi
Dw
(0.9)(47 ) ksi , [0.041 < D < 0.15]
sno =
w
Dw0.1
(0.9)(30) ksi , [0.15 < D < 0.625]
sno =
w
Dw0.34
Average service
(a) ssd = 0.85(0.324 )su = 0.2754 su =
F = 325 lb = 0.325 kip
1
Dm = 1 in
2
8 FDm
ss = K
3
Dw

Page 27 of 70

0.2754(140 ) 38.556
=
ksi
Dw0.19
Dw0.19

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
4C 1 0.615
+
4C 4
C
1 .5
Dw =
C
K=

4C 1 0.615 8(0.325)(1.5) 38.556

ss =
+
=

3
0.19
C
4C 4
1.5 1.5

C C

4C 1 0.615 2.81
+

C = 97.05
C
4C 4
C = 4.586
1 .5
1 .5
Dw =
=
= 0.3271 in < 0.625 in
C 4.586
21
Dw =
in
64
Dm
1 .5
=
= 4.57
Dw 21

64
4(4.57 ) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.345
4(4.57 ) 4 4.57

(b) C =

8FC 3 N c
GDw
F
GD
=k = 3 w

8C N c
k = 800 lb in = 0.8 kip in
(11,500) 21
64
0.8 =
3
84.57 N c
N c = 6.2

(c) s ys =

70
0.19

21

64
(0.9)(30)

= 86.5 ksi

= 39.44 ksi , Dw > 0.15 in

0.19
21

64
1
Fm = (325 + 100 ) = 212.5 lb = 0.2125 kip
2

sno =

Page 28 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
1
(325 100) = 112.5 lb = 0.1125 kip
2
K c = 1.212 , Fig. AF 15
K = 1.345

sms =
=
= 25.5 ksi

K c Dw3 1.212
21

64

8Fm Dm
8(0.1125)(1.5)

sas = K
= 1.345
= 16.36 ksi
3
3

21
Dw

64

+
=
+
=
86.5
39.44
N
s ys
sno
Fa =

N = 1.07 < 1.15[N min ]

Not safe for indefinite life.
286.

A helical spring is to be subjected to a maximum load of 200 lb. (a) Determine

the wire size suitable for medium service if the material is carbon steel ASTM
A230; C = 6 . Determine the factor of safety of this spring according to the Wahl
line (b) If the minimum force is 150 lb., (c) if the minimum force is 100 lb., (d) if
the minimum force is 25 lb.

Solution:
For carbon steel ASTM A230
Table AT 17
182
su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
91
s ys = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
49
sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
Medium Service
ssd = 0.324su
182 58.968
58,968
(a) ssd = 0.324 0.1 =
ksi =
psi
0.1
Dw
Dw0.1
Dw

Page 29 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
8 FDm
ss = K
3
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
4(6) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.2525
4(6) 4
6
F = 200 lb
8(200)(6) 58,968
ss = 1.2525
=
2
Dw0.1
Dw
Dw = 0.2371 in

Table At 15, use Dw = 0.2437 in , No. 3 W & M

Dw = 0.2437 in < 0.25 in , o.k.
Factor of safety.
91
91
s ys = 0.1 ksi =
ksi = 104.8 ksi
Dw
(0.2437 )0.1
49
49
sno = 0.15 ksi =
ksi = 60.56 ksi
Dw
(0.2437 )
(a) Fm =

1
(200 + 150) = 175 lb = 0.175 kip
2

1
(200 150) = 25 lb = 0.025 kip
2
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.156
Fa =

K 8FmC 1.2525 8(0.175)(6 )

= 48.8 ksi

=
K c Dw2 1.156 (0.2437 )2
8(0.025)(6 )
8F C
sas = K a 2 = 1.2525
= 8.1 ksi
2
Dw
(0.2437 )
1 sms sas 2sas
=
+
N
s ys
sno
1 48.8 8.1 2(8.1)
=
+
N
104.8
60.56
N = 1.525

sms =

(b) Fm =
Fa =

1
(200 + 100) = 150 lb = 0.15 kip
2

1
(200 100) = 50 lb = 0.05 kip
2

Page 30 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.156
8FmC 1.2525 8(0.15)(6 )
=
= 41.8 ksi

2
2
Dw 1.156 (0.2437 )
8(0.05)(6)
8F C
sas = K a 2 = 1.2525
= 16.11 ksi
2
Dw
(0.2437 )
1 sms sas 2sas
+
=
N
s ys
sno
1 41.8 16.11 2(16.11)
+
=
N
104.8
60.56
N = 1.287

sms =

K
Kc

(c) Fm =

1
(200 + 25) = 112.5 lb = 0.1125 kip
2

1
(200 25) = 87.5 lb = 0.0875 kip
2
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.156
Fa =

K 8FmC 1.2525 8(0.1125)(6)

= 31.36 ksi

=
K c Dw2 1.156 (0.2437 )2
8(0.0875)(6)
8F C
sas = K a 2 = 1.2525
= 28.2 ksi
2
D

(
)
0
.
2437

1 sms sas 2sas

=
+
N
s ys
sno
1 31.36 28.20 2(28.20 )
=
+
N
104.8
60.56
N = 1.04

sms =

CHECK PROBLEMS
A Diesel valve spring is made of 3/8-in. chrome-vanadium steel wire, shot-peened; inside
diameter is 3 in., 7 active coils, free length is 7 3/8 in., solid length is 4 1/8 in., length
with valve closed, 6 in., length when open, 5 1/8 in. (a) Compute the spring constant
and the factor of safety as defined by the Wahl criterion (see 6.13, Text). (b) Is there
any danger of damage to the spring if it is compressed solid? (c) What is the natural
frequency? If this spring is used on a 4-stroke Diesel engine at 450 rpm, is there any
danger of surge? Compute the change of stored energy between working lengths.

Solution:
For chrome-vanadium steel wire, shot-peened, Table AT 17
Page 31 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

(1.25)(168) ksi , [0.032 < D

w < 0.437 ]
Dw0.166
(1.25)(100 ) ksi , [0.032 < D < 0.437]
s ys =
w
Dw0.166
(1.25)(49) ksi , [0.028 < D < 0.5]
sno =
w
Dw0.15
3
Dw = in = 0.375 in
8
(1.25)(100) ksi = 147.1 ksi
s ys =
(0.375)0.166
(1.25)(49) ksi = 70.96 ksi
sno =
(0.375)0.15

su =

8FC 3 N c
GDw
F
GD
=k = 3 w

8C N c

(a) =

G = 11.5 106 psi

Nc = 7
Dw = 0.375 in
Dm Dw = ID = 3 in
Dm = 3.375 in
D
3.375
C= m =
=9
Dw 0.375
k = spring constant
GDw
(
11.5 106 )(0.375)
k= 3 =
= 105.64 lb in
3
8C N c
8(9 ) (7 )
3
1
1 = 7 4 = 3.25 in
8
8
F1 = k1 = (105.64)(3.25) = 343.33 lb
3
1
2 = 7 6 = 1.125 in
8
4
F2 = k 2 = (105.64)(1.125) = 118.85 lb
1
Fm = (343.33 + 118.85) = 231.09 lb = 0.231 kip
2
1
Fa = (343.33 118.85) = 112.24 lb = 0.11224 kip
2
K 8FmC
sms =

K c Dw2

Page 32 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
4C 1 0.615
+
4C 4
C
4(9) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.162
4(9 ) 4
9
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.10
K=

8FmC 1.162 8(0.231)(9)

=
= 39.8 ksi

2
2
Dw 1.10 (0.375)
8(0.11224 )(9)
8F C
sas = K a 2 = 1.162
= 21.3 ksi
2
Dw
(0.375)
1 sms sas 2sas
=
+
N
s ys
sno
1 39.8 21.3 2(21.3)
=
+
N
147.1
70.96
N = 1.377

sms =

K
Kc

(b) max. solid ss = s ys = 147.1 ksi

Min. Solid Height = Dw N c = (0.375)(7 ) = 2.625 in
3
Solid deflection = 7 2.625 = 4.75 in.
8
F = k = (105.64)(4.75) = 501.8 lb = 0.5018 kip
8(0.5018)(9)
8 FC
Solid stress = ss = K 2 = 1.162
= 95 ksi < 147.1 ksi
2
Dw
(0.375)
There is no danger of damage

(c) Natural frequency

For steel
14,050 Dw
=
cps
N c Dm2
14,050
=
cps
N c C 2 Dw
14,050
=
cps = 66 cps
(7 )(9)2 (0.375)
2
For 450 rpm, = 450
= 47 cps
60
66
= 1.4 < 12 , there is danger of surging.
47

Page 33 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

(d) U s =

1
1
2
2
k 12 22 = (105.64 ) (3.25) (1.125) = 491 in lb
2
2

289.

A helical spring is hot wound from 5/8-in. carbon-steel wire with an outside
diameter of 3 in. A force of 3060 lb. is required to compress the spring 1
in to the solid heigh. In service the spring is compressed so that its
deformation varies form in. to1 1/8 in. (a) What is the factor of safety by
the Wahl criterion? (b) Is the solid stress safe? Compute (c) the pitch angle,
(d) the change of stored energy between the working lengths, (e) the factor of
safety if the spring is peened?

Solution:
For hot-wound carbon steel wire
5
Dw = in
8
Table AT 17
91
s ys = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
91
s ys =
ksi = 104.5 ksi , Dw > 0.25 in.
(0.25)0.1
49
sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
49
sno =
ksi = 60.33 ksi , Dw > 0.25 in.
(0.25)0.15
Permissible solid stress = ss =
ss =

117
ksi , [Dw > 0.375 in.] 6.3
Dw0.31

117
ksi = 35.4 ksi
(0.625)0.31

3060
= 1748.6 lb in
1.75
1
F1 = k1 = (1748.6 ) = 874.3 lb
2
1
F2 = k 2 = (1748.6 )1 = 1967.2 lb
8
1
Fm = (1967.2 + 874.3) = 1420.7 lb = 1.4207 kip
2
1
Fa = (1967.2 874.3) = 546.4 lb = 0.5464 kip
2

(a) k =

Page 34 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
5
in = 0.625 in
8
1
Dm + Dw = 3 in
4
Dm = 2.625 in
D
2.625
C= m =
= 4 .2
Dw 0.625
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
4(4.2) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.3808
4(4.2) 4
4.2
K c = 1.234
Dw =

K 8FmC 1.3808 8(1.4207 )(4.2)

= 43.5 ksi

=
K c Dw2 1.234 (0.625)2
8(0.5464)(4.2)
8F C
sas = K a 2 = 1.3808
= 20.7 ksi
2
Dw
(0.625)
1 sms sas 2sas
=
+
N
s ys
sno
1 43.5 20.7 2(20.7 )
+
=
N
104.5
60.33
N = 1.106

sms =

(b) Permissible solid stress = 135.4 ksi

F = 3.060 kip

8(3.060)(4.2)
8 FC
= 115.7 ksi < 135.4 ksi , safe
Solid stress, ss = K 2 = 1.3808
2
Dw
(0.625)
3
(c) Solid deflection = 1 in
4
(P Dw )N c = 1.75 in

8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
G = 10.5 106 psi , hot-wound
F
GD
k= = 3w
8C N c

Page 35 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

(10.5 10 )(0.625)
6

1748.6 =

8(4.2 ) N c
3

N c = 6.332
(P 0.625)(6.332) = 1.75
P = 0.9014 in
Pitch angle
P
P
tan =
=
Dm CDw

= tan 1

0.9014
P
= tan 1
= 6.24o

CDw
(4.2)(0.625)

1
1
2
2
k 12 22 = (1748.6 )(1.125) (0.5) = 888 in lb
2
2
(e) When peened
s ys = 12.5(104.5) = 130.6 ksi

(d) U s =

sno = 1.25(60.33) = 75.4 ksi

1 43.5 20.7 2(20.7 )
=
+
N
130.6
75.4
N = 1.38

ENERGY STORAGE
293.

A 10-lb. body falls 10 in. and then strikes a helical spring. Design a harddrawn carbon steel spring that will absorb this shock occasionally without
permanent damage. Determine appropriate values of wire diameter, coil
diameter, pitch, free length, closed length, and the maximum stress under the
specified conditions, and scale. Let C = 7 .

Solution:
For hard-drawn carbon steel, Table AT 17
182
su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
91
Max. solid ss = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
36.855
ssd = (0.50 )(0.405)su =
ksi
Dw0.1
Us =

ss2V
4 K 2G

Page 36 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
4C 1 0.615
+
4C 4
C
4(7 ) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.213
4(7 ) 4
7
K=

D 2
V w (Dm )N c
4
2 Dw2 Dm N c
V=
4
Dm = CDw

V=

2CDw3 N c

4
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
U s = W (h + )
8 FC
ss = K 2
Dw
s D 2
F= s w
8KC
s D 2 8C 3 N c
= s w

8KC GDw

s sDwC 2 N c
KG
2 2
3

ssDwC 2 N c s s CD w N c
U s = W h +
=
KG
16 K 2G

Wh
Nc = 2 2 2
ss CDw s sDwC 2W

16 K 2G
KG
36.855
when ss =
ksi
Dw0.1
Wh
Nc =
2 2
2.8
(36.855) CDw 36.855D w0.9C 2W
16 K 2G
KG
(
0.010)(10)
Nc =
(36.855)2 2 (7)Dw2.8 36.855D w0.9 (7 )2 (0.010)
2
(1.213)(11,500)
16(1.213) (11,500)
0.10
Nc =
2.8
0.3466 Dw 0.004067 D w0.9

Page 37 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
combination of Dw and N c
Gage No. W & M
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3

Dw
0.1055
0.1205
0.1350
0.1483
0.1620
0.1770
0.1920
0.2070
0.2253
0.2437

Nc
991.2
312.1
166.1
108.0
75.2
53.7
40.2
31
23.4
18.1

Dw N c
105
37.6
22.4
16.0
12.2
9.5
7.7
6.4
5.3
4.4

Use Dw = 0.2437 in < 0.25 in , N c = 18.1

45
Dm = 7 Dw = 7(0.2437 ) = 1.7059 in = 1 in
64
0.9 2
0.9
2
s sDwC 2 N c 36.855D w C N c 36.855 (0.2437 ) (7 ) (18.1)
=
=
= 2.066 in
(1.213)(11,500)
KG
KG
36.855
ss =
= 42.44 ksi
(0.2437 )0.1
91
91
sso = 0.1 =
= 104.8 ksi
Dw
(0.2437 )0.1
Solid deflection
104.8
=
(2.066 ) = 5.1 in
42.44
(P Dw )N c = 5.1

(P 0.2437)(18.1) = 5.1
P = 0.5255 in
17
say P =
= 0.53125 in
32
Minimum Solid Height = Dw N c = (0.2437 )(18.1) = 4.41 in
Assume squared and ground end
Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (0.2437 )(18.1) + 2(0.2437 ) = 5.0 in

Solid deflection = (0.53125 0.2437 )(18.1) = 5.2 in

Free length = 5.0 in + 5.2 in = 10.2in

Dw = 0.2437 in , No. 3 W & M
Page 38 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

Dm = 1

45
in
64

17
in
32
Free length = 10.2 in
Closed length = 5 in
Maximum stress = 42.44 ksi
P=

294.

A helical spring, of hard-drawn steel wire, is to absorb 75 in-lb of energy

without being stressed beyond the recommended value of average service. Let
C = 6 . Decide upon satisfactory dimensions; Dw , Dm , N c , free length, pitch
angle, solid stress, volume of metal, possibility of spring buckling.

Solution:
For hard-drawn steel wire, shock load, average service
140
su = 0.19 ksi , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]
Dw
70
Max. solid ss = 0.19 ksi , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]
Dw
140 19.278
ssd = (0.50)(0.85)(0.324)su = (0.50)(0.85)(0.324) 0.19 = 0.19 ksi
Dw Dw
s 2V
s 2 2 Dw3 CN c
Us = s 2 = s
4K G
16 K 2G
C=6
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
4(6) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.2525
4(6) 4
6
U s = 75 in lb = 0.075 in kip
19.278
2 Dw3 (6)N c
U s = 0.075 = 0.19
2
Dw 16(1.2525) (11,500)
0.9837 = Dw2.62 N c

Table AT-15
W&M

Page 39 of 70

Dw

Nc

Dw N c

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
2-0
3-0
4-0
5-0

0.1483
0.1620
0.1770
0.1920
0.207
0.2253
0.2437
0.2625
0.2830
0.3065
0.3310
0.3625
0.3938
0.4305

146
116
92
74
61
49
40
32.7
26.9
21.8
17.8
14.0
11.3
8.95

Use Dw = 0.4305 in , 5-0 W & M

Nc 9
9
Dm = 6(0.4305) = 2.583 in 2 in
16
19.278
ss =
= 22.63 ksi
(0.4305)0.19
70
Max. Solid Stress = sso =
= 82.16 ksi
(0.4305)0.19
s sDwC 2 N c (22.63)( )(0.4305)(6) (9)
=
= 0.6885 in
KG
(1.2525)(11,500)
82.16
Solid deflection =
(0.6885) = 2.5 in
22.63
(P Dw )N c = 2.5
(P 0.4305)(9) = 2.5
P = 0.7083 in
45
say P =
= 0.703125 in
64
Solid deflection = (0.703125 0.4305)(9) = 2.453625 in
2.453625
Solid stress = 22.63
= 80.65 ksi
0.6885
2

7
Minimum Solid Height = Dw N c = (0.4305)(9 ) = 3.8745 in 3 in
8
45
21

Minimum Free Length = PN c = (9 ) = 6.328125 in 6 in
64
64
Pitch Angle

Page 40 of 70

21.65
18.79
16.28
14.21
12.63
11.04
9.75
8.58
7.61
6.68
5.89
5.075
4.45
3.85

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
45

P
= tan 1 64 = 5o < 12o
= tan 1
Dm
2 9
16
Volume
(0.4305)2 9
Dw2
3
(Dm )N c =
V
2 (9 ) = 10.55 in
4
4

16

Dw = 0.4305 in , No. 5-0 W & M
9
Dm = 2 in
16
Nc = 9
21
Free length = 6 in
64
Pitch Angle = = 5o
Solid Stress = 80.65 ksi
Volume of metal = 10.55 in3
Possibility of spring buckling
21
6
64 = 2.47 < 4 , no possibility
9
2
16
CONCENTRIC HELICAL SPRINGS
297.

Two concentric helical springs are to be subjected to a load that varies from a
maximum of 235 lb. to a maximum of 50 lb. They are to fit inside a 1 5/8 in.
cylinder. The maximum deflection is to be in., and the deflection when
compressed solid is to be approximately 1 in. Using the static approach for
severe service (maximum load), determine the wire diameter, mean coil
diameter, number of coils, solid length, and free length of both springs. (Start
with oil-tempered wire and assume a diametral clearance between the outer
D
spring and the cylinder of w , assume a similar clearance between springs.
2
Search for a suitable spring index and wire size.)

Solution:
For oil-tempered wire
Table AT 17

Page 41 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
146
ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw0.19
87.5
Max. solid ss = 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw
Severe service
0.263(146 ) 38.398
ssd = 0.263su =
=
ksi
Dw0.19
Dw0.19
F = 235 lb = 0.235 kip
o = i
su =

8FoCo3 N co 8Fi Ci3 N i

=
GDwo
GDwi
Assume, Co = Ci
3GDwo
Fo =
32C 3 N co
3GDwi
Fi =
32C 3 N ci
8F C
sso = K o2
Dwo
8F C
ssi = K i 2
Dwi
D
D
C = mo = mi
Dwo Dwi
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
D
Dmo Dwo wi = Dmi + Dwi
2
Dmo Dmi = Dwo + 1.5Dwi
D
1.625 wo = Dmo + Dwo
2
Dmo + 1.5Dwo = 1.625
CDwo + 1.5Dwo = 1.625
1.625
Dwo =
C + 1 .5
1.625C
Dmo =
C + 1 .5
CDwo CDwi = Dwo + 1.5Dwi

(C 1)Dwo = (C + 1.5)Dwi
Page 42 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
1.625(C 1)
(C + 1.5)2
1.625C (C 1)
Dmi =
(C + 1.5)2
Dwi =

8F C 38.398
sso = K o2 = 0.19 ksi
Dwo
Dwo
1.81
15.08Dwo
Fo =
KC
8F C 38.398
ssi = K i 2 = 0.19 ksi
Dwi
Dwi
1.81
15.08Dwi
KC
Fo + Fi = F = 0.235 kip

Fi =

1.81
1.81
15.08Dwo
15.08Dwi
+
= 0.235
KC
KC
1.81
1.81
15.08 Dwo
+ 15.08 Dwi
= 0.235 KC
1.81

1.81

1.625
1.625(C 1)
15.08
= 0.235 KC
+ 15.08
C + 1 .5
C + 1.5
1.81

(
1
C 1)
4C 1 0.615
154.52
+
= 0.235
+
C
1.81
3.62
C
(C + 1.5)
4C 4
(C + 1.5)
C = 5.328
1.625(5.328 1)
Dwi =
= 0.1509 in
(5.328 + 1.5)2
1.625
Dwo =
= 0.2380 in
5.328 + 1.5
Table AT 15, use Dwi = 0.1620 in , No. 8 W & M and Dwo = 0.2625 in , No. 2 W & M
13
Dmo = CDwo = (5.328)(0.2625) = 1.3986 in 1 in
32
7
Dmi = CDwi = (5.328)(0.1620 ) = 0.8631 in in
8
7

Dmi
8
Ci =
= = 5.401
Dwi 0.1620

Co =

Dmo
Dwo

13
1
32
=
= 5.357
0.2625

Page 43 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
1.81
15.08Dwo
K o Co
4(5.357 ) 1 0.615
Ko =
+
= 1.287
4(5.357 ) 1 5.357

Fo =

15.08(0.2625)
= 0.194 kip
(1.287 )(5.357 )
1.81

Fo =

1.81
15.08Dwi
K i Ci
4(5.401) 1 0.615
Ki =
+
= 1.2843
4(5.401) 1 5.401
15.08(0.1620)
Fi =
= 0.081 kip
(1.2843)(5.401)
Fo + Fi = 0.194 + 0.071 = 0.275 kip > 0.235 kip , ok
3GDwo
Fo =
32C 3 N co
3(11,500)(0.2625)
0.194 =
3
32(5.357 ) N co
N co = 9.5
3GDwi
Fi =
32C 3 N ci
3(11,500)(0.1620)
0.071 =
3
32(5.401) N ci
N ci = 15.6
87.5
Max. solid stress, sss = 0.19 ksi ,
Dw
87.5
ssso =
= 112.82 ksi
(0.2625)0.19
87.5
sssi =
= 123.65 ksi
(0.1620)0.19
Stress
38.398
ssi =
= 54.26 ksi
(0.1620)0.19
38.398
sso =
= 49.51 ksi
(0.2625)0.19

Fi =

Solid stress
1
sso = 49.51
= 66.01 ksi < 112.82 ksi
0.75

Page 44 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
1
ssi = 54.26
= 72.35 ksi < 123.65 ksi
0.75
Solid length
Dwo N co = (0.2625)(9.5) = 2.5 in

Dwi N ci = (0.1620 )(15.6) = 2.53 in

assume solid length = 3 in
Dwi ( N ci + xi ) = (0.1620)(15.6 + xi ) = 3 in
xi = 2.92
Total coils = 15.6 + 2.92 = 18.52
Dwo ( N co + xo ) = (0.2625)(9.5 + xo ) = 3 in
xo = 1.93
Total coils = 9.5 + 1.93 = 11.43
Free Length = 3 in + 1 in = 4 in
Outside wire.
Dwo = 0.2625 in , No. 2 W & M
13
Dmo = 1 in
32
N to = 11.43
Solid length = 3 in
Free length = 4 in
Inside wire.
Dwi = 0.1620 in , No. 8 W & M
7
Dmi = in
8
N ti = 18.52
Solid length = 3 in
Free length = 4 in
298.

Two concentric, helical compression springs are used on a freight car. The
larger spring has an outside diameter of 7 in., a free length of 7 1/8 in., and is
made of a 1 in. steel bar. The smaller has an outside diameter of 4 1/8 in., a
free length of 6 13/16 in. , and is made of 7/8 in. steel bar. The solid height of
each spring is 5 in. and the forces required to compress them solid are
15,530 lb. and 7,000 lb., respectively. The working load on the two springs is
11,350 lb. Determine (a) the number of free coils in each spring, (b) the stress
in each spring when compressed solid, (c) the stresses induced by the working

Page 45 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
load. Notice that the outer spring deflects 5/16 in. before the inner one takes a
load. (d) What energy is absorbed while changing deflection from that at the
working load to that when the springs are compressed solid?
Solution:
ODo = 7 in
3
Dwo = 1 in
8
1
FLo = 7 in
8
1
ODi = 4 in
8
7
Dwi = in
8
13
FLi = 6 in
16
1
(a) Solid height = Dw N T = 5 in
4
5.25
N To =
= 3.82
1.375
5.25
=6
N Ti =
0.875

(b) Fo = 15,530 lb
Fi = 7000 lb
8 FC
ss = K 2
Dw
3
Dmo = 7 1 = 5.625 in
8
Dmo 5.625
Co =
=
= 4.091
Dwo 1.375
4(4.091) 1 0.615
Ko =
+
= 1.393
4(4.091) 4 4.091
1 7
Dmi = 4 = 3.25 in
8 8
D
3.25
Ci = mi =
= 3.714
Dwi 0.875
4(3.714) 1 0.615
Ki =
+
= 1.442
4(3.714) 4 3.714

Page 46 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Solid stress
8(15,530)(4.091)
sso = 1.393
= 119,203 psi
2
(
)

1
.
375

8(7000 )(3.714 )
ssi = 1.442
= 124,689 psi
2
(0.875)
(b) Stresses induced by working load
Fi + Fo = 11,350 lb
15,530
ko =
= 8283 lb in
1
1
7 5
4
8
7000
ko =
= 4480 lb in
1
13
6 5
4
16
5
o i = = 0.3125 in
16
Fi = ki i = 4480 i
Fo = ko o = 8283(0.3125 + i )
Fi + Fo = ko o = 4480 i + 8283(0.3125 + i ) = 11,350 lb
i = 0.6865 in
o = 0.3125 + 0.6865 = 0.9990 in
Fi = (4480)(0.6865) = 3076 lb
Fo = (8283)(0.9990) = 8275 lb
Stresses
8(8275)(4.091)
sso = 1.393
= 63,516 psi
2
(1.375)
8(3076)(3.714)
ssi = 1.442
= 54,792 psi
2
(0.875)

(d) Energy
1
U so = ko ( o22 o21 )
2
1
1
o 2 = 7 5 = 1.875 in
8
4
o1 = 0.9990 in
1
2
2
U so = (8283)(1.875) (0.999 ) = 10,427 in lb
2

Page 47 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
1
ki i22 i21
2
13
1
i 2 = 6 5 = 1.5625 in
16
4
o1 = 0.6865 in
1
2
2
U si = (4480 )(1.5625) (0.6865) = 4,413 in lb
2
U si =

TORSION-BAR SPRINGS
299.

A torsion-bar similar to that shown is to be used for the front spring of an

automobile. Its rate should be 400 lb./in. of deflection of the end of the arm
which is e = 10 in. long. It is made of AISI 9261,OQT 900 oF, and the
maximum repeated load is 1500 lb. perpendicular to the centerline of the arm.
The support is such that bending of the bar is negligible. (a) Determine its
diameter and length so that no permanent set occurs due to a 30 % overload
(limited by a stop). Use s ys = 0.6 s y , but check with equation (c) 6.3, Text, if
appropriate. (b) Determine the factor of safety according to the Soderberg
criterion if the load varies from 1200 lb. to 1500 lb.; minimum r d = 0.1 ,
D d = 3 . (c) The same as (b) except that the bar is shot-peened all over. What
other steps may be taken to improve the fatigue strength?

Problem 299, 300

Solution:
e = 10 in
For AISI 9261, OQT 900 oF
s y = 192 ksi
su = 215 ksi
s ys = 0.6 s y = 115.2 ksi = 115,200 psi

Page 48 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
16T
d3
T = Fe = (1.3)(1500)(10) = 19,500 in lb
16(19,500 )
115,200 =
d3
d = 0.95 in
use d = 1 in
117 117
6.3 ss = 0.3 = 0.3 = 117 ksi s ys
Dw
(1)

(a) ss =

(b) Soderberg Criterion

1 sms K f sas
=
+
N s ys
sns
sns = (0.6)(0.5)(215) = 64.5 ksi
Figure AF 12, r d = 0.1 , D d = 3
K t = 1.45
K f K t = 1.45
1
(1500 + 1200) = 1350 lb
2
Tm = (1350)(10) = 13,500 in lb = 13.5 in kips
16(13.5)
sms =
= 68.8 ksi
(1)3
Fm =

1
(1500 1200) = 150 lb
2
Ta = (150)(10) = 1500 in lb = 1.5 in kips
16(1.5)
sas =
= 7.64 ksi
(1)3
1
68.8 (1.45)(7.64 )
=
+
N 115.2
64.5
N = 1.30
Fa =

(c) Shot-peened
s ys = 1.25(115.2 ) = 144 ksi
sns = 1.25(64.5) = 80.6 ksi
1 68.8 (1.45)(7.64 )
=
+
N 144
80.6
N = 1.625

Page 49 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

300.

A solid steel torsion bar is loaded through a 10 in. arm as shown. The load F
perpendicular to the center-line of the arm varies from 500 to 1000 lb.,
7
200,000 cycles. The bar is d = in. in diameter and 30 in. long; let D d = 3 ;
8
r d = 0.1 ; (a) Determine the maximum stress in the bar, the angular
deflection, and the scale (lb./in.) where F is applied. The support is such that
bending of the bar is negligible. (b) Select a material and heat treatment for
this bar for a minimum N = 1.2 , Soderberg criterion.

Problem 299, 300

Solution:
Fig. AF 12, K f = 1.45
1
(1000 + 500) = 750 lb
2
1
Fa = (1000 500 ) = 250 lb
2
Tm = (750)(10) = 7500 in lb = 7.5 in kips
Fm =

Ta = (250)(10) = 2500 in lb = 2.5 in kips

K fl =

(log K f ) 3

Kf

(200,000)(log1.45) 3 1.33
1.45

16T
d3
16(7.5)
sms =
= 57 ksi
3
7

8
16(2.5)
sas =
= 19 ksi
3
7

8
ss =

(a) smax = sms + K fl sas = 57 + (1.33)(19 ) = 82.27 ksi

Page 50 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
TL 64TL
=
JG d 4G
64(500 )(10 )(30 )
min =
4
7
6
11.5 10
8
64(1000 )(10 )(30 )
max =
4
7
6
11.5 10
8
F
1000
scale =
=
= 110.3 lb in
e (0.9066)(10)

(c)

1 sms K f sas
=
+
N s ys
sns

10 6

sns = (0.6 )(0.5)su

200,000
s ys = 0.6 s y

0.085

= 0.344 su

1
57
(1.33)(19)
=
+
1.2 0.6s y 0.344su
Use AISI 8760, OQT 800 oF
s y = 200 ksi
su = 220 ksi
N = 1.24
HELICAL SPRINGS NON CIRCULAR SECTION
301.

A spring is to be designed of square oil-tempered steel wire and subjected to a

repeated maximum load of 325 lb.; mean coil diameter, 1 in.; deflection,
13/32 in. Determine (a) the wire size for average service, (b) the required
number of active coils, (c) the solid height, free length, and pitch (the ends are
squared and ground, the solid stress must be satisfactory, and the pitch angle
not excessive). (d) What amount of energy is stored when the load is 325 lb.?
Express in in-lb. and Btu.

Solution:
For oil-tempered wire,
146
su = 0.19 , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw
Max. solid ss = 0.6su

Page 51 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
(a) average service,
b = Dw , t = b
K FD (3b + 1.8t )
2.4 FDm
ss= q m 2 2
= Kq
2b t
b3
s sd = 0.324su , average service
2.4 FDm 0.324(146 )
Kq
=
2b 3
b 0.19
F = 0.325 kip
1
Dm = 1 in
2
K q = 1.25 (assumed)
2.4(0.325)(1.5) 0.324(146 )
1.25
=
b3
b 0.19

b = 0.2902 in
Table AT 15, use b = 0.313 in , # 1 wire size
D
1 .5
C= m =
= 4 .8
b
0.313
Figure AF 15, K q = 1.275

(b) =

2.45 FDm3 N c
2.45FDm3 N c
=
Gt 3 (b 0.56t )
0.44Gb 4

13 2.45(0.325)(1.5) N c
=
32 0.44(11,500 )(0.313)4
N c = 7.34
3

(c) Solid height = b( N c + 2) = 0.313(7.34 + 2) = 2.92 in

Free length = PN c + 2b
F = 0.325 lb
2.4(0.325)(1.5)
2.4 FDm
ss = Kq
= 1.275
= 48.65 ksi
3
3

(0.313)

0.6(146 )
solid stress = =
= 109.2 ksi
(0.313)0.19
109.2 13
solid deflection = =
= 0.91 in
48.65 32
(P b )N c = 0.91
(P 0.313)(7.34) = 0.91
P = 0.437 in

Page 52 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

use P =

7
in
16

27
7
Free length = PN c + 2b = (7.34 ) + 2(0.313) = 3.837 in 3 in
32
16

7

P
16
tan =
=
Dm (1.5)

= 5.3o < 10o

(d) U s =
Us =

1 2 1
1
13
k = F = (0.325) = 0.066 in kip = 66 in lb
2
2
2
32

66
= 0.085 Btu
778

302.

A coil spring, of hard-drawn carbon steel, is to deflect 1 in. under a load of

100 lb. The outside coil diameter is to be 1 in. Compute the number of active
coils, (a) if the wire is round, 5/32 in. in diameter, (b) if the wire is square,
5/32 in. on the side, (c) if the wire is rectangular 1/8 x 3/16 in., long
dimension parallel to the axis, (d) If the wire is rectangular 3/16 x 1/8 in.,
short dimension parallel to the axis. (e) What is the maximum stress in each of
the above springs under the 100-lb load? (f) What is the ratio of the
approximate volumes, square- or rectangular-wire to round wire spring?

Solution:
Dm + Dw = 1 in
5
(a) Dw =
in
32
5 27
Dm = 1
=
in
32 32
27

Dm 32
C=
=
= 5.4
Dw 5

32
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
8(100 )(5.4 ) N c
5
11.5 10 6
32
N c = 14.3
3

1=

Page 53 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
5
in
32
5 27
Dm = 1
=
in
32 32
2.45 FD m3 N c
=
0.44Gb 4

(b) Square, b =

27
2.45(100) N c
32
1=
4
6 5
0.44 11.5 10
32
N c = 20.5

3
1
in , t = in
16
8
1 7
Dm = 1 t = 1 = in
8 8
3
2.45FD m N c
= 3
Gt (b 0.56t )

(c) b =

7
2.45(100 ) N c
8
1=
3
1 3
1
11.5 10 6 0.56
8 16
8

N c = 16.1
1
3
in , t = in
8
16
3 13
Dm = 1 t = 1 = in
16 16
3
2.45FD m N c
= 3
Gt (b 0.56t )

(d) b =

13
2.45(100 ) N c
16
1=
3
3 1
3
11.5 10 6 0.56
16 8
16

N c = 11.5
(e) Maximum Stress

Page 54 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
8 FC
Dw3
4(5.4) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.284
4(5.4) 4
5.4

For (a) ss = K

8(100)(5.4)
ss = 1.284
= 72,320 psi
5 3

32
FD m (3b + 1.8t )
2.4 FD m
= Kq
2 2
2b t
b3
27

Dm 32
C=
=
= 5.4
b
5

32
K q = 1.25

For (b) ss = K q

27
2.4(100)
32 = 66,355 psi
ss = 1.25
3

32

FD m (3b + 1.8t )
For (c) ss = K q
2b 2t 2
7

D
8
C = m = =7
t
1

8
K q = 1 .1

7
(100)
8 3 3 + 1.8 1 = 68,992 psi
ss = 1.1

2
3 1 2 16
8
2
16 8
FD m (3b + 1.8t )
For (d) ss = K q
2b 2t 2
13

Dm 16
C=
=
= 4.33
t
3

16

Page 55 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
K q = 1 .2

13
(100)
16 3 1 + 1.8 3 = 63,232 psi
ss = 1.2

2
1 3 2 8
16
2
8 16

(e) Ratio of the approximate volumes

For (a) Round wire

Va = Dw2 ( Dm )N c
4

5 2 27
Va = (14.3) = 0.727 in 3
4 32 32
For (b) Square wire
Vb = b 2 ( Dm )N c
2

5 27
Vb = (20.5) = 1.327 in 3
32 32
For (c) rectangular wire
Vc = bt ( Dm )N c
3 1 7
Vc = (16.1) = 1.037 in3
16 8 8
For (d) rectangular wire
Vd = bt ( Dm )N c
1 3 13
Vd = (11.5) = 0.688 in 3
8 16 16

Ratio of volume
Square to round wire
V 1.327
= b =
= 1.825
Va 0.727
Rectangular to round wire (long dimension parallel to the axis)
V 1.037
= c =
= 1.426
Va 0.727
Rectangular to round wire (short dimension parallel to the axis)
V
0.688
= d =
= 0.946
Va 0.727

Page 56 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
TENSION SPRINGS
305.

Design two tension springs for a spring balance with a capacity of 200 lb.
Each spring supports a maximum load of 100 lb. The outside diameter must
not exceed 1 in. and the total length including end loops must not exceed 9
in. Select a material and determine the dimension, including wire diameter,
number of coils, and free length.

Solution:
Table AT 17, assume oil tempered wire
146
su = 0.19 ksi
Dw
87.5
s ys = 0.19 ksi
Dw
0.8(87.5)
70
ssd =
= 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
0.19
Dw
Dw
F = Fi + k
8 K cFDm
ss =
Dw3
2r
D
C= m = m
Dw Dw
8FaC 3 N c
G Dw
GD
k = 3w
8C N
3
G D 8F C N c
k = 3 w a
= Fa
8C N GDw
Fa = 100 lb = 0.10 kip
Figure AF 15, assume K c = 1.2
8 K cFi Dm 8 K cFa Dm
ss =
+
Dw3
Dw3
8 K cFaC
s s = K c si +
Dw2
OD = Dm + Dw = 1.25 in
1.25
Dw =
C +1
6.21, assume si = 18 ksi
ssd = ss

Page 57 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
70
8(1.2 )(0.1)C
= (1.2 )(18) +
0.19
Dw
Dw2
70(C + 1)
(1.25)0.19

0.19

8(1.2 )(0.1)C (C + 1)
(1.25)2

= 21.6 +

67.1(C + 1)

0.19

= 21.6 + 0.1956C (C + 1)

67.1(C + 1) 0.1956C (C + 1) = 21.6

C = 6 .7
1.25
1.25
=
= 0.1623 in
Dw =
C + 1 6 .7 + 1
Table AT 15, use Dw = 0.1620 in , 8 W & M
0.19

Dm = CDw = (6.7 )(0.1620 ) = 1.085 in

say Dm = 1.0 in
D
1 .0
C= m =
= 6.17
Dw 0.1620
si = 17.7 ksi
To check, Fig. AF 15, K c = 1.15
8(1.15)(0.10 )(6.17 )
ss = 1.15(17.7 ) +
= 89.20 ksi
(0.1620)2
70
ssd =
= 98.92 ksi > 89.20 ksi , o.k.
(0.1620)0.19
Total length = Dw N c + 2(Dm + Dw )
9.5 = (0.162)N c + 2(1.0 + 0.162)
N c = 44.3 coils
Free length = Dw N c = (0.1620)(44.3) = 7.18 in
Material, oil-tempered wire
Dw = 0.1620 in , 8 W & M
N c = 44.3 coils
Free length = 7.18 in.
306.

Two helical tension springs are to be used in scales for weighing milk. The
capacity of the scales is 30 lb., each spring carries 15 lb. with a deflection of 3
9/16 in. The springs are made of No. 14, W & M steel wire, outside diameter,
29/32 in. (a) how many coils should each spring have? (b) What is the
maximum stress in the wire? What material should be used?

Page 58 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Solution:
k = 15 lb
9
= 3 in
16
(a) Table AT 15, No. 14 W &M

Dw = 0.0800 in
29
0.0800 = 0.82625 in
32
D
0.82625
C= m =
= 10.328
Dw
0.0800
Dm = OD Dw =

8(k )C 3 N c
GDw

9 8(15)(10.328) N c
=
16 11.5 106 (0.080)
N c = 24.8
3

(b) F = Fi + k
Fi =

si Dw3

8Dm
6.21, C = 10.328
si = 11,272 psi
Fi =

(11,272)(0.08)3

= 2.743 lb
8(0.82625)
F = 2.743 + 15 = 17.743 lb
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.09
8 K c FDm 8(1.09 )(17.743)(0.82625)
ss =
=
= 79,476 psi
Dw3
(0.080)3
s
79,476
s ys s =
= 99,345 psi = 99.345 ksi
0 .8
0 .8
Table AT 17, use Hard drawn wire
70
70
s ys = 0.19 =
= 113 ksi > 99.345 ksi
Dw
(0.080)0.19
307.

A tension spring for a gas-control lever is made of Dw = 0.078 in steel wire;

inside diameter, 0.609 in.; number of coils, 55; free length including end
loops, 5 9/16 in. When the spring is extended to a length of 6 5/16 in., it must
exert a force 5 lb.; it must extend to (a) the initial tension, (b) the stress in
the spring caused by the initial tension (compare with the recommended

Page 59 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
maximum values), (c) the stress caused by the 5 -lb load, (d) the maximum
stress. What material should be used? (e) What energy is absorbed from the
point where the load is the initial tension until the springs length is 6 5/16 in.?
(Data courtesy Worthington Corporation.)
Solution:
Dw = 0.078 in
Dm Dw = 0.609 in
Dm = 0.609 + 0.078 = 0.687 in
D
0.687
C= m =
= 8 .8
Dw 0.078
N c = 55
8FC 3 N c
GDw
1
F = 5 lb
2
5
9
= 6 5 = 0.75 in
16
16
3
8(k )(8.8) (5)
= 0.75 =
11.5 106 (0.078)
k = 2.244 lb

(a) Fi = F k = 5.5 2.244 = 3.256 lb

8 F C 8(3.256 )(8.8)
(b) si = i 2 =
= 12,000 psi
Dw
(0.078)2
6.21, C = 8.8
si = 13,300 psi > 12,000 psi , ok
(c) F = 5.5 lb
8 K c FC
ss =
Dw2
C = 8 .8
Figure AF 15
K c = 1.1
8(1.1)(5.5)(8.8)
ss =
= 22,284 psi
(0.078)2
(d) maximum stress
k 2.244
k=
=
= 2.992 lb in

0.75

Page 60 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
F = k
5
9
= 9 5 = 3.75 in
16
16
F = Fi + k = 3.256 + (2.992)(3.75) = 14.476 lb
8 K c FC 8(1.1)(14.476 )(8.8)
ss =
=
= 58,651 psi
Dw2
(0.078)2
Table AT 16
s
58,651
s ys s =
= 73,300 psi = 73.3 ksi
0 .8
0 .8
Table AT 17, use Hard drawn wire
70
70
s ys = 0.19 =
= 113.658 ksi > 73.3 ksi
Dw
(0.078)0.19

(e) U s =

1 2 1
2
k = (2.992 )(0.75) = 0.8415 in lb
2
2

TORSION SPRINGS
308.

A carbon-steel (ASTM A230) torsion spring is to resist a force of 55 lb. at a

radius of 2 in.; the mean diameter is to be 2 in. Compute (a) the diameter of
the wire for average service, (b) the number of coils for a deflection of 180o
under the given torque, (c) the energy the spring has absorbed when the force
is 55 lb.

Solution:
T = M = Fa
F = 55 lb
a = 2 in
T = M = (55)(2) = 110 in lb
Dm = 2.5 in
182
Table AT 17, su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
Average service
182 117.936
117,936
sd = (1.6 )(0.405)su = 0.648 0.1 =
ksi =
psi
0.1
Dw
Dw0.1
Dw
KMc
I
For round wire, assume K c = K ci = 1.08 , Table AT 18
D
c= w
2

(a) ss =

Page 61 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
I Dw3
=
c
32
(1.08)(110)(32) = 117,936
ss =
Dw3
Dw0.1
Dw = 0.2060 in < 0.25 in
Table AT 15, use Dw = 0.2070 in , No. 5 W & M
r D
2
= 9.66 > 9 , ok
To check: = m =
c Dw 0.2070
Table AT 18, K = 1.08
(1.08)(110)(32) = 136,430 psi
ss =
(0.2070 )3
117,936
ssd =
= 138,054 psi > 136,430 psi
(0.2070)0.1
Therefore, use No. 5 W & M, Dw = 0.2070 in
MDm N c
EI
6
E = 30 10 psi

(b) =

I=

Dw4

64
= 180o =
64 MDm N c
=
EDw4
64(110 )(2 )N c
=
(30 106 )(0.2070)4
N c = 12.29
1
1
(c) U s = T = (110 )( ) = 172.8 in lb
2
2

312.

A pivoted roller follower is held in contact with the cam by a torsion spring.
The moment exerted by the spring varies from 20 lb-in to 50 lb-in. as the
follower oscillates through 30o. The spring is made of AISI 6152 steel, OQT
1000 oF. What should be the value of Dw , Dm , and N c if the factor of safety
is 1.75 based on the Soderberg line? Would this be a conservative or risky
approach?

Solution:
AISI 6152, OQT 1000 oF
su = 184 ksi

Page 62 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
s y = 173 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 92 ksi
1
M m = (50 + 20 ) = 35 lb in
2
1
M a = (50 20 ) = 15 lb in
2
assume K = 1.08
32 KM m 32(1.08)(35) 385
sm =
=
= 3 psi
Dw3
Dw3
Dw
32 KM a 32(1.08)(15) 165
sa =
=
= 3 psi
Dw3
Dw3
Dw
1 s m sa
=
+
N s y sn
1
385
165
=
+
3
1.75 173,000 Dw 92,000 Dw3
Dw = 0.1916 in
Table AT 15, use Dw = 0.1920 in , No. 6 W & M
To solve for K
32(35)K
sm =
= 50,369 K psi
(0.1920)3
32(15)K
sa =
= 21,587 K psi
(0.1920)3
1
50,369 K 20,587 K
=
+
1.75 173,000
92,000
K = 1.0868
Table AT 18 K ci = K = 1.0868
r Dm
=
= 9.32 > 9 , ok
c Dw
Dm = 9.32(0.1920) = 1.7894 in
7
use Dm = 1 in = 1.875 in
8
MDm N c 64MDm N c
=
=
EI
EDw4
30 64(50 20 )(1.875)N c
=
180
(30 106 )(0.1920)4
N c = 5.93
Dw = 0.1920 in , No. 6 W & M

Page 63 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
7
Dm = 1 in
8
N c = 5.93 , N > 1.4 , therefore conservative.

315.

A cantilever flat spring of uniform strength, Fig. 6.20, Text, is to absorb an

energy impact of 500 ft-lb. Let the thickness of the steel, AISI 1095, OQT 900
o
F, be in. and let the maximum stress be half of the yield strength. (a) Find
the width b of the spring at the widest point in terms of the length L .
Determine values of b for lengths of 36 in., 48 in., 60 in., and 72 in. (b)
Determine the deflection of the spring for each set of values found in (a).

Solution.
Fig. 6/20

6 FL
bh 2
6 FL3
=
Ebh3
AISI 1095, OQT 900 oF, s y = 104 ksi , Table AT 9
sB =

s B = 0.5s y = 0.5(104 ) = 52 ksi = 52,000 psi

1
F
2
s bh 2
F= B
6L
s bh 2 L3
s B L2

=
= 6 B
3
Eh
6 L Ebh

Us =

1 s bh 2 s B L2 1 s B2 bhL

U s = B
2 6 L Eh 12 E
U s = 500 ft lb = 6000 in lb

Page 64 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

(52,000)2 b 1 L

1
2
12
30 106
bL = 1598 in 2
6000 =

b=

1598 in 2
L

L = 36 in , b =

1598 in 2
= 44.4 in
36 in

L = 48 in , b =

1598 in 2
= 33.3 in
48 in

L = 60 in , b =

1598 in 2
= 26.6 in
60 in

L = 72 in , b =

1598 in 2
= 22.2 in
72 in

(b) =

s B L2
Eh

2
(
52,000 )(36 )
L = 36 in , =

= 4.4928 in
1
30 10
2
2
(
52,000 )(48)
L = 48 in , =
= 7.9872 in
6 1
30 10
2
2
(
52,000 )(60 )
L = 60 in , =
= 12.48 in
6 1
30 10
2
2
(
52,000)(72 )
L = 72 in , =
= 17.9712 in
6 1
30 10
2

317.

One of the carbon contacts on a circuit breaker is mounted on the free end of
a phosphor-bronze beam ( = 0.35 ). This beam has the shape of the beam
9
1
1
shown in Fig. 6.24, Text, with b = 1 in. , b = in. , L = 4 in. , and h = in.
16
2
16
When the contacts are closed, the beam deflects in. Compute (a) the force
on the contacts, (b) the maximum stress.

Solution:

Page 65 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
Figure 6.24
6 FL 3WL
s= 2 =
bh
bh 2
K FL3 1 2
K WL3 1 2
= 1
= 1
3EI
6 EI
9

b 16
=
= 0.5625
b
1
Figure 6.25, K1 = 1.14

(a) Force on contacts = F

K FL3 1 2
= 1
3EI
E = 16 106 psi (phosphor bronze)

bh3
12
3
4 K FL 1 2
= 1
Ebh 3
3
2
3 4(1.14 )F (4.5) 1 (0.35)
=
3
4
(16 106 )(1) 161

F = 8 lb

as a beam, I =

(b) s =

318.

6 FL 6(8)(4.5)
=
= 55,296 psi
2
bh 2
1
(1)
16

A cantilever leaf spring 26 in. long is to support a load of 175 lb. The
construction is similar to that shown in Fig. 6.22 (a), Text. The leaves are to
be 2 in. wide, 3/16 in. thick; SAE 9255 steel, OQT 1000 oF; 107 cycles (
6.26). (a) How many leaves should be used if the surfaces are left as rolled?
(b) The same as (a) except that the leaves are machined and the surfaces are
not decarburized. (c) The same as (b), except that the surface is peened all
over. (d) Which of these springs absorbs the most energy? Compute for each:
(e) What are the load and deflection of the spring in (b) when the maximum
stress is the standard-test yields strength?

Solution:
Figure 6.22 (a)
6 FL
sA = 2
bh

Page 66 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
6 FL3
Ebh3
b = N1b
F = 175 lb
b = 2 in
3
h = in
16
L = 26 in
6.26, SAE 9255, OQT 1000 oF
su = 180 ksi
s y = 160 ksi

A =

3
in = 0.1875 in
16
sd = 83.75 ksi

t=

(a) As rolled, Figure AF 5

Surface factor = 0.275
sd = 0.275(83.75) = 23 ksi = 23,000 psi
6 FL
sA = 2
bh
6(175)(26 )
23,000 =
2
3
N 1 (2 )
16
N1 = 16.88
say N1 = 17
(b) Machined, Figure AF 5
Surface factor = 0.75
sd = 0.75(83.75) = 62.8 ksi = 62,800 psi
6 FL
sA = 2
bh
6(175)(26 )
62,800 =
2
3
N 1 (2 )
16
N1 = 6.2
say N1 = 7
(c) Peened surface, (b)

Page 67 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS

sd = 1.25(62.8) = 78.5 ksi = 78,500 psi

6 FL
sA = 2
bh
6(175)(26 )
78,500 =
2
3
N 1 (2 )
16
N1 = 4.95
say N1 = 5
1
F
2
F = 175 lb

(d) U s =

6 FL3
EN1bh 3
For (a) N1 = 17

6(175)(26 )

= 2.745 in
3
3
30 10 (17 )(2 )
16
1
U s = (175)(2.745) = 240 in lb
2
For (b) N1 = 7

6(175)(26 )

= 6.666 in
3
3

30 10 6 (7 )(2 )
16
1
U s = (175)(6.666 ) = 583 in lb
2
For (c) N1 = 5

6(175)(26 )

= 9.332 in
3
3
30 10 (5)(2 )
16
1
U s = (175)(9.332 ) = 817 in lb
2

(e) sd = s y = 160 ksi , N1 = 7 (b)

Page 68 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
6 FL
6 FL
=
2
bh
N1bh 2
6 F (26 )
160,000 =
2
(7 )(2) 3
16
load F = 505 lb
sd =

6(505)(26 )

3
30 10 (7 )(2 )
16

(
319.

= 19.24 in

The rear spring of an automobile has 9 leaves, each with an average thickness
of 0.242 in. and a width of 2 in.; material is SAE 9261, OQT 1000 oF. The
length of the spring is 56 in. and the total weight on the spring is 1300 lb.
Assume the spring to have the form shown in Fig. 6.22 (b), Text. Determine
(a) the rate of the spring, (b) the maximum stress caused by the dead weight.
(c) What approximate repeated maximum force (0 to Fmax ) would cause
impending fatigue in 105 cycles, the number of applications of the maximum
load expected during the ordinary life of a car? (If the leaves are cold rolled
to induce a residual compressive stress on the surfaces, the endurance limit as
su 2 should be conservative.)

Solution:
Figure 6.22 (b)
3FL
sA =
2bh 2
3FL3
A =
8Ebh 3
F = 1300 lb
h = 0.242 in
N1 = 9
b = 2 in
L = 56 in
(a) Rate , k =
k=

8Ebh3
3L3

8 EN1bh 3 8 30 10 6 (9 )(2 )(0.242 )

=
= 116.21lb in
3
3L3
3(56 )

(b) s A =

3FL
3(1300 )(56 )
=
= 103,590 psi
2
2
2 N1bh
2(9 )(2 )(0.242 )

Page 69 of 70

SECTION 4 - SPRINGS
(c) SAE 9261. OQT 1000 oF
su = 192 ksi
192
sn =
= 96 ksi
2
3FL
sA =
2 N1bh 2
3F (56 )
96,000 =
2
2(9 )(2 )(0.242 )
F = 1200 lb
321.

The front spring of an automobile is made similar to Fig. 6.23, Text. The
average thickness for each of the 6 leaves, 0.213 in.; material is SAE 9255,
OQT 1000 oF. The load caused by the weight of the car is 775 lb. (a) What
stress is caused by a force of twice the dead weight? (b) What load would
stress the spring to the yield strength?

Solution:
Figure 6.23
6 FL 3WL
3WL
s= 2 =
=
2
bh
bh
N1bh 2
W = 775 lb , N1 = 6 , b = 2 in , h = 0.213 in
36 in
= 18 in
L=
2
(a) W = 2(775) = 1550 lb
3(1550 )(18)
s=
= 153,740 psi
(6)(2)(0.213)2
(b) SAE 9255, OQT 1000 oF
s y = 160 ksi
6 FL 3WL
3WL
=
=
2
2
bh
bh
N1bh 2
3W (18)
160,000 =
(6)(2)(0.213)2
W = 1613 lb
s=

- end -

Page 70 of 70

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
DESIGN PROBLEMS
334.

A round steel rod made of structural steel, AISI C1020, as rolled, is to be used as
a column, centrally loaded with 10 kips; N = 3 . Determine the diameter for (a)
L = 25 in. , (b) L = 50 in. (c) The same as (a) and (b) except that the material is
AISI 8640, OQT 1000 F. Is there any advantage in using this material rather than
structural steel?

Solution:
For AISI C1020,as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
F = 10 kips
N =3
(a) Le = L = 25 in.
Consider first J.B. Johnson
2

Le
sy
k
Fc = NF = s y A1 2

4 E

2
D
A=
4
D
k=
4
E = 30 103 ksi
2

(48) 25
D

2
(3)(10) = (48) D 1 2 4 3
4 4 30 10

30 = 12D 2 1 2 2
D
48
30 = 12D 2

D = 1.096 in
1
say D = 1 in = 1.0625 in
16

Page 1 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Le
25
=
= 94 < 120 o.k.
k 1.0625

4
(b) Le = L = 50 in.
Consider Eulers Equation
2 EA
Fc = NF =
2
Le

k
D 2

2 30 103
4

(3)(10 ) =
2

50

D
4
3 4
30 = 0.1875 D
D = 1.507 in
1
say D = 1 in = 1.5 in
2
Le
50
=
= 133 > 120 o.k.
k 1 .5

4

s y = 150 ksi
1

Le 2 2 E 2
=
k s y

Le 2 2 30 103 2
=
= 62.83
k
150

For (a) Le = L = 25 in.

Consider first J.B. Johnson
2

Le
sy
k
Fc = NF = s y A1 2

4 E

Page 2 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
2

(150) 25
D

2
(3)(10) = (150) D 1 2 4 3
4 4 30 10

12.5

30 = 37.5D 2 1 2 2
D
468.75
30 = 37.5D 2

D = 1.23 in
say D = 1.25 in
Le
25
=
= 80 > 62.83 use Eulers equation
k 1.25

4
2 EA
Fc = NF =
2
Le

k
D 2

2 30 103
4

(3)(10) =
2

25

D
4
3 4
30 = 0.75 D
D = 1.0657 in
1
say D = 1 in = 1.0625 in
16
Le
25
=
= 94 > 62.83 ok
k 1.0625

4
For (b) Le = L = 50 in.
Consider Eulers Equation
2 EA
Fc = NF =
2
Le

k

Page 3 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
D 2

2 (30 103 )

(3)(10) =

50

D
4
3 4
30 = 0.1875 D
D = 1.507 in
1
say D = 1 in = 1.5 in
2
Le
50
=
= 133 > 62.83 o.k.
k 1 .5

4
There is no advantage.
335.

A hollow circular column, made of AISI C1020, structural steel, as rolled, is to

support a load of 10,000 lb. Let L = 40 in , Di = 0.75Do , and N = 3 . Determine
Do by (a) using either Eulers or the parabolic equation; (b) using the straightline equation. (c) What factor of safety is given by the secant formula for the
dimensions found in (a)?

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
Le = L = 40 in
F = 10,000 lb = 10 kips
N =3
Di = 0.75Do

I
A
(Do4 Di4 )
4
I=
= Do4 (0.75Do ) = 0.033556 Do4
64
(Do2 Di2 ) Do2 (0.75Do )2
A=
=
= 0.343612 Do2
4
4

k=

[
[

k=

0.033556 Do4
= 0.3125Do
0.343612 Do2

Page 4 of 18

]
]

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
(a) Consider parabolic equation
2

Le
sy
k
Fc = NF = s y A1 2

4 E

25
(48)
0.3125Do

(3)(10) = (48)(0.343612)Do2 1 2 4 3
4 30 10

30 = 16.493376 Do2 10.9519

Do = 1.576 in
9
say Do = 1 in = 1.5625 in
16
Le
40
=
= 82 < 120 o.k.
k 0.3125(1.5625)

(b) Straight-line equation

F
L
= 16,000 70
A
k

10,000
40

= 16,000 70
2
0.343612 Do
0.3125 Do
10,000 = 5498 Do2 3078 Do

Do = 1.6574 in
5
say Do = 1 in = 1.625 in
8
Le
40
=
= 78.8 < 120 o.k.
k 0.3125(1.625)
(c) Secant formula
NF ec Le NF
sy =
1 + sec
A k 2
2k EA
Do = 1.5625 in
k = 0.3125Do = 0.4883 in
A = 0.343612 Do2 = 0.8389 in 2

Page 5 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
ec
= 0.25 , (i7.8)
k2

48 =

N (10)
40
1 + 0.25 sec
0.8389
2(0.4883)

N = 2.289

336.

)]

A column is to be built up of -in., AISI C1020, rolled-steel plates, into a square

box-section. It is 6 ft long and centrally loaded to 80,000 lb. (a) Determine the
size of section for N = 2.74 . (b) Compute N from the secant formula for the
size found and compare with 2.74.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, rolled-steel plate
s y = 48 ksi
4

b 4 (b 1) b 4 (b 1)

=
12
12
12
2
2
A = b (b 1)

I=

k=

10 N
(30 103 )(0.8389)

I
b 4 (b 1)
=
2
A
12 b 2 (b 1)

Le = L = 6 ft = 72 in
F = 80,000 lb = 80 kips
(a) N = 2.74
Consider J.B. Johnson
2

Le
sy
k
NF = s y A1 2

4 E

72
(48)

(2.74)(80) = (48)A 1 2 k 3
4 (30 10 )

10.085 A
219.2 = 48 A
k2

Page 6 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
try b = 3.23 in
4
4
(
3.23) (3.23 1)
k=
2
2 = 1.1331 in
12[(3.23) (3.23 1) ]
2
2
2
A = b 2 (b 1) = (3.23) (3.23 1) = 5.46 in 2
10.085(5.46 )
219.2 = 48(5.46 )
= 219.2 ok
(1.1331)2

Therefore use b = 3.23 in

Le
72
=
= 63.54 < 120 o.k.
k 1.1331
1
b = 3.23 in or b = 3 in
4
(b) s y =

NF ec Le
1 + sec
A k 2
2k

NF
EA

ec
= 0.25 , (i7.8)
k2

48 =

72
N (80)
1 + 0.25 sec
5.46
2(1.1331)

80 N
(30 103 )(5.46)

N = 2.2 < 2.74

337.

)]

A column is to be made of -in structural steel plates (AISI 1020, as rolled),

welded into an I-section as shown in Table AT 1 with G = H . The column, 15 ft
long, is to support a load of 125 kips. (a) Determine the cross-sectional
dimensions from the straight-line equation. (Using either Johnsons or Eulers
equation, compute the equivalent stress and the factor of safety. (c) Compute N
from the secant formula.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
Le = L = 15 ft = 180 in
F = 125 kips

Page 7 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Table AT 1.

G=H
A = GH gh = H 2 (H 0.5)(H 1) = H 2 H 2 1.5H + 0.5 = 1.5H 0.5 = 0.5(3H 1)

k=

3
1 GH 3 gh3
1 H 4 (H 0.5)(H 1)

=
12 GH gh
12
0.5(3H 1)

(a) Straight-line equation

L

F = 16,000 A1 0.0044
k

(180)

k

0.792
7.8125 = A1

use H = 7.37 in

(7.37 )4 (7.37 0.5)(7.37 1)3

6(3(7.37 ) 1)
A = 0.5[3(7.37 ) 1] = 10.555 in

k=

= 3.04527 in

0.792

7.8125 10.5551
= 7.81
3.04527
Therefore use H = 7.37 in
3
Or H = 7 in = 7.375 in
8
L
180
= 59 < 120
(b) Consider J.B. Johnson, e =
k 3.04527
s
se = y
N
F
125
se =
=
= 13.8 ksi
2
2

Le
180

sy
(48)
k
3.04527

A 1
10.555 1

4 2 E
4 2 30 103

Page 8 of 18

H 4 (H 0.5)(H 1)
6(3H 1)

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

N=

sy
48
=
= 3.48
se 13.8

NF ec Le NF
sy =
1 + sec

A k 2
2k EA
ec
= 0.25 , (i7.8)
k2
48 =

180
N (125)
1 + 0.25 sec
10.555
2(3.04527 )

N = 2 .8

338.

125 N
3
(30 10 )(10.555)

)]

The link shown is to be designed for N = 2.5 to support an axial compressive

load that varies from 0 to 15 kips; L = 20 in ; Material AISI 1030, as rolled. (a)
Determine the diameter considering buckling only. (b) Determine the diameter
considering varying stresses and using the Soderberg line (perhaps too
conservative). Estimate an appropriate strength-reduction factor (see Fig. AF 6).
(c) Keeping in mind that the stress is always compressive, do you think that the
answer from (a) will do? Discuss.

Problem 338.
Solution:
For AISI C1030, as rolled
s y = 51 ksi

su = 80 ksi
1

Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 30 103 2
=
=
= 108
k s y
51

L = 20 in
N = 2 .5
(a) F = 15 kips
Consider J.B. Johnson

Page 9 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
2

Le
s

y
k
NF = s y A1 2

4 E

D
k=
4
D 2
A=
4
Le = L = 20 in
2

20

(51) D

2
(2.5)(15) = (51) D 1 2 4 3
4 4 (30 10 )

2.72

37.5 = 12.75 D 2 1 2 2
D
34.68
37.5 = 12.75 D 2

D = 1.101 in
3
say D = 1 in = 1.1875 in
16
Le
20
=
= 68 < 108 o.k.
k 1.1875
4

(b) Variable stresses

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(80) = 40 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
sn = 0.85(40) = 34 ksi
K f = 2.8 (Figure AF 6)
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
F = 0 to 15 kips
Fm = Fa = 7.5 kips
sem = sea
(2.8)sem
1
s
= em +
2.5 51
34
sem = 3.923 ksi

Page 10 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
2

Le
s

em
k
Fm = sem A1 2

4 E

20

(51) D
2
D
1 2 4 3
7.5 = (3.923)
4 4 (30 10 )

2.72

7.5 = 0.98 D 2 1 2 2
D
2.67
7.5 = 0.98 D 2

D = 1.65 in
5
say D = 1 in = 1.625 in
8
Le
20
=
= 49 < 108 o.k.
k 1.625
4

(c) The answer in (a) will not do because it is lower than (b)
339.

The connecting link for a machine (see figure) is subjected to a load that varies
fro + 450 (tension) to 250 lb. The cross section is to have the proportions
G = 0.4 H , t = 0.1H , fillet radius r 0.05 H ; L = 10 in ; material, AISI C1020,
as rolled. (a) Considering buckling only, determine the dimensions for a design
factor of 2.5. (b) For the dimension found compute the factor of safety from the
Soderberg criterion.

Problems 339, 340

Solution:
For AISI C1030, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi

su = 65 ksi

Page 11 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Table AT 1

G = 0 .4 H
t = 0.1H
r 0.05 H
A = GH gh
g = G t = 0.4 H 0.1H = 0.3H
h = H 2(0.1H ) = 0.8 H

A = (0.4 H )(H ) (0.3H )(0.8H ) = 0.16 H 2

k=

3
3
1 GH 3 gh3
1 (0.4 H )(H ) (0.3H )(0.8 H )

= 0.35824 H
12 GH gh
12
0.16 H 2

2

Le
s

y
k
NF = s y A1 2

4 E

F = 350 lb = 0.35 kip

Le = 10 in
2

10

48
2
(
0
.
35824
H
)
2

(2.5)(0.35) = (48) 0.16 H 1 2
3

4 30 10

0.875 = 7.68 H 2 0.2425

H = 0.3815 in
Le
10
=
= 73 < 120 ok
k (0.35824)(0.3815)
15
say H =
in = 0.46875 in
32
3
G = 0.4 H = 0.1875 in = in
16
3
t = 0.1H = 0.046875 in =
in
64

Page 12 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
(b) with H = 0.46875 in
2

A = 0.16(0.46875) = 0.0352 in 2
k = 0.35824(0.46875) = 0.1679 in
350
Fmin
0.0352
A
smin = s e =
=
= 11,600 psi = 11.6 ksi
2
2

Le
10

s y 48
1 k 1 0.1679

4 2 E 4 2 30 103

F
+ 450
smax = max =
= +12,800 psi = +12.8 psi
A
0.0352
1
sm = (12.8 11.6 ) = 0.6 ksi
2
1
sa = (12.8 + 11.6 ) = 12.1 ksi
2
su = 0.5sn = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
su = 0.85(32.5) ksi = 27.62 ksi

Figure AF 9, r = 0.05H = 0.05(0.46875) = 0.023

h = 1.5H = 15.(0.46875) = 0.7031 in
d = H = 0.4688 in
r 0.05 H
=
= 0.05
d
H
h 1 .5 H
=
= 1 .5
d
H
K t = 2.65
1
1
q=
=
= 0.70
0.01
0.01
1+
1+
r
0.023
K f = 0.70(2.65 1) + 1 = 2.2
1 sm K f sq
=
+
N sy
sn
1 0.6 (2.2 )(12.1)
=
+
N 48
27.62
N = 1.024

CHECK PROBLEMS
341.

The link shown is subjected to an axial compressive load of 15 kips. Made of

AISI C1030, as rolled, it has sectional length of 20 in. Assume a loose fit with the

Page 13 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
pins. What is (a) the critical load for this column, (b) the design factor, (c) the
equivalent stress under a load of 15 kips? What material does the secant formula
indicate as satisfactory for the foregoing load, when (e) ec k 2 = 0.25 , (f)
L
e= e .
400

Problem 341, 342

Solution:
For AISI C1030, as rolled
s y = 51 ksi
b = 0.75 in
h = 1.75 in

A = bh = (0.75)(1.75) = 1.3125 in 2
For loose fit
bh3
I=
12
I
bh 3
h
1.75
k=
=
=
=
= 0.5052 in
A
12bh
12
12
Le
20
=
= 39.6 < 108 for AISI C1030, as rolled
k 0.5052
use J.B. Johnson equation
2
2

Le
20

sy
51
k
0.5052

(a) Fc = s y A 1
= (51)(1.3125) 1
= 62.42 kips

4 2 (30,000)
4 2 E

(b) Fc = NF
F 62.42
N= c =
= 4.16
F
15
s
51
(c) se = y =
= 12.26 ksi
N 4.16
F
15
(d) Actual s = =
= 11.43 ksi
A 1.3125

Page 14 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS

Secant Formula
NF ec Le NF
sy =
1 + sec

A k 2
2k EA
ec
(e) 2 = 0.25
k

62.42
20
62.42
sy =
1 + 0.25 sec
= 64.4 ksi
3
1.3125
2(0.5052) 30 10 (1.3125)
use AISI C1020, cold drawn, s y = 66 ksi

Le
20
=
= 0.05 in
400 400
h 1.75
c= =
= 0.875 in
2
2
ec (0.05)(0.875)
=
= 0.1714
k2
(0.5052)2

(f) e =

sy =

62.42
20
1 + 0.1714 sec
1.3125
2(0.5052 )

62.42
= 59.12 ksi
3
30 10 (1.3125)

343.

A schedule-40, 4-in. pipe is used as a column. Some of its properties are:

Do = 4.5 in , Di = 4.026 in , I = 3.174 sq.in. , L = 15 ft ; material equivalent to
AISI C1015, as rolled. The total load to be carried is 200 kips. (a) What
minimum number of these columns should be used if a design factor of 2.5 is
desired and the load evenly distributed among them? For the approximately fixed
ends, use Le = 0.65L as recommended by AISC. (b) What is the equivalent stress
in the column?

Solution:
For AISI C1015, as rolled
s y = 45.5 ksi
1

Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 30 103 2
=
=
= 114
k s y
45.5

L = 15 ft = 180 in
Le = 0.65L = 0.65(180) = 117 in
Le
117
=
= 77.5 < 114
k 1.509

Page 15 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Use J.B. Johnson equation
2

Le
sy
2
s y A
k (45.5)(3.174) 45.5(77.5)

(a) F =
1
=
1 2
= 44.4 kips
N
4 2 E
2.5
4 (30,000)

No. of columns
200
=
= 4.5 say 5 columns
44.4
F
A
(b) se =
2

Le
s

y
1 k

4 2 E

200
F=
= 40 kips
5
40
3.174
se =
= 16.4 ksi
2

77.5

45.5
k
1
4 2 (30,000)

344.

A generally loaded column is a 10-in. x 49 lb., wide-flange I-beam whose

properties are (see figure); k x = 4.35 in , k y = 2.54 in , area A = 14.4 sq.in. ,
I x = 272.9 in 4 , I y = 93.0 in 4 ; length L = 30 ft , material AISI 1022, as rolled. Let

the ends be a little fixed with Le = 0.8L and determine the critical load (a)
according to the Johndon or the Euler equation; (b) according to the secant
formula if ec k 2 is assumed to be 0.25.

Page 16 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Solution:
For AISI C1022, as rolled
s y = 52 ksi
1

Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 (30 103 ) 2
=
=
= 107
k s y
52

(a) k = 2.54 in
I = 93.0 in 4
Le = 0.8(30)(12) = 288 in
Le 288
=
= 113.4 > 107
k 2.54
Use Eulers Equation
2 EA 2 (30,000)(14.4)
Fc =
=
= 332 kips
2
(113.4)2
Le

k
(b) Secant formula
NF ec Le NF
sy =
1 + sec
A k 2
2k EA
113.4
F
52 = c 1 + 0.25 sec
14.4
2
F
52 = c 1 + 0.25 sec 0.0863
14.4
Fc = 273 kips

348.

Fc
3
(30 10 )(14.4)
Fc

]}

A 4 x 3 x -in. angle is used as a flat-ended column, 5 ft. long, with the resultant
load passing through the centroid G (see figure); k x = 1.25 in , k y = 0.86 in ,
ku = 1.37 in , kv = 0.64 in , A = 3.25 sq.in. Find the safe load if N = 2.8 and the
material is (a) structural steel, (b) magnesium alloy AZ 91C (i7.12.\, Text), (c)
magnesium alloy AZ 80A, (d) magnesium alloy AZ 80A as before, but use the
Johnson formula and compare.

Page 17 of 18

SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Solution:
L (5)(12 )
Le = =
= 30 in
2
2
k = k min = 0.64 in
Le
30
=
= 46.875
k 0.64
(a) Structural steel, s y = 48 ksi
Le
= 46.875 < 120
k
use J.B. Johnson
2

Le
sy
2
s y A
k (48)(3.25) 48(46.875)

F=
1
=
1 2
= 50.75 kips
N
4 2 E
2.8
4 (30,000 )

(b) magnesium alloy AZ 91C

NF
C
=
2
A
Le
C
k
1+ 6
64.4 10
C = 57,000
(2.8)(F ) =
57,000
psi
2
3.25
57,000(46.875)
1+
64.4 106
F = 22,467 lb = 22.467 kips
(c) magnesium alloy AZ 80A
C = 82,900
(2.8)(F ) =
82,900
psi
2
3.25
82,900(46.875)
1+
64.4 106
F = 25,134 lb = 25.134 kips

(d) By J.B. Johnson

For magnesium alloy AZ 80A, s y = 36 ksi
2

Le
s

y
s y A
(36)(3.25) 1 36(46.875)2 = 39 kips > 25.134 kips
k
F=
1 2 =

2
N
4 E
2.8
4 (30,000)

- end -

Page 18 of 18

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

DESIGN PROBLEM
361.
It is necessary to shape a certain link as shown in order to prevent interference with
another part of the machine. It is to support a steady tensile load of 2500 lb. with a
design factor of 2 based on the yield strength. The bottom edge of the midsection is
displaced upward a distance a = 2 in. above the line of action of the load. For AISI
C1022, as rolled, and h 3b, what should be h and b?

Solution:
F = 2500 lb
Ny = 2

a = 2.5 in
F Fec
=
A
I
For AISI C1022, as rolled, sy = 52 ksi (Table AT7).

sy
Ny

52
= 26 ksi = 26,000 psi
2

A = bh = 3b2
bh 3 b(3b )2
I=
=
= 2.25b 4
12
12
h
c = = 1.5b
2
h
e = a + = a + 1.5b = 2.5 + 1.5b
2
F Fec
=
A
I
(2.5 + 1.5b)(1.5b)
1
26,000 = 2500 2 +

2.25b 4
3b
2.5 + 1.5b
1
26,000 = 2500 2 +

1.5b 3
3b
By trial and error method:
5
b = 0.625 in = in
8
7
h = 3b = 3(0.625) in = 1.875 in = 1 in
8

Page 1 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

362.

A tensile load on a link as described in 361 varies from 0 to 3000 lb.; it is machined from
AISI 1045, as rolled, and the lower edge of the link is a = 0.5 in. above the center line of
the pins; h 3b. Determine the dimensions of the link for N = 2 based on the Soderberg
line.

Solution:
Soderberg Line:
1 sm sa
=
+
N s y sn
For AISI 1045, as rolled (Table AT 7).
sy = 59 ksi
su = 96 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 48 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
Load factor (axial) = 0.80
sn = 0.85(0.80)(48) = 32.64 ksi
1
(3000 lb + 0 ) = 1500 lb
2
1
Fa = (3000 lb 0 ) = 1500 lb
2
h
e = a + = a + 1.5b = 0.5 + 1.5b
2
1 ec
sm = Fm +
A I
(0.5 + 1.5b )(1.5b)
1
sm = 1500 2 +

2.24b 3
3b
0.5 + 1.5b
1
sm = 1500 2 +

1.5b 3
3b
1 ec
sa = Fa +
A I
(0.5 + 1.5b)(1.5b )
1
sa = 1500 2 +

3
b
2.24b 3

0.5 + 1.5b
1
sa = 1500 2 +

1.5b 3
3b
1 sm sa
=
+
N s y sn
Fm =

Page 2 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

1 1500
1500 1 0.5 + 1.5b
=
+
+

2 59,000 32,640 3b 2
1.5b3
1
0.5 + 1.5b
+
= 7.00
2
3b
1.5b 3
By trial and error method:
b = 0.53 in
h = 3b = 3(0.53) in = 1.59 in
Use b x h = 9/16 in x 1 5/8 in

363.

The same as 362, except that the load continuously reverses, 3 kips to -3 kips.

Solution:
1
Fm = (3 3) = 0 lb
2
1
Fa = (3 + 3) = 3 kips
2
1 ec
sm = Fm +
A I
(0.5 + 1.5b )(1.5b)
1
sm = 1500 2 +

2.24b 3
3b
0.5 + 1.5b
1
sm = (0) 2 +
=0
1.5b 3
3b
1 ec
sa = Fa +
A I
(0.5 + 1.5b)(1.5b)
1
s a = 3 2 +

2.24b 3
3b
0.5 + 1.5b
1
sa = 3 2 +

1.5b 3
3b
1 sm sa
=
+
N s y sn
1
3 1
0.5 + 1.5b
=0+
2 +

2
32.64 3b
1.5b 3
1
0.5 + 1.5b
+
= 5.44
2
3b
1.5b 3
By trial and error method:
b = 0.5905 in

Page 3 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

h = 3b = 3(0.5905) in = 1.7715 in
Use b x h = 5/8 in x 1 13/16 in
364.

A circular column (See Fig. 8.3, Text), the material of which is SAE 1020, as rolled, is to
have a length of 9 ft. and support an eccentric load of 16 kips at a distance of 3 in. from
the center line. Let N = 3. (a) What should be the outside diameter Do if the column is
hollow and Di = 0.75Do? (b) What should be the diameter if the column is solid?

Solution:
a. Try J.B. Johnson
2

Le
sy
F
k
= se 1 2

A
4 E

For SAE 1020, as rolled, s y = 48 ksi

E = 3010 6 psi
Transition point
1

Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 30 10 6 2
=
=
= 111
k sy
48000

Le = 2L
L = 9 ft = 108 in
Le = 2L = 2(108) = 216 in
I
A
Do4 Di4 Do4 (0.75Do )4 0.6836Do4
I=
=
=
64
64
64
k=

) [

A=

(D
4

2
o

Di2 =

Page 4 of 133

[D

2
o

(0.75Do )2 = 0.109375Do2

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

0.6836Do4
64
k=
= 0.3125Do
0.109375Do2

16
46.5642
F
2
0.109375Do
Do2
A
se =
=
=
2
2

Le
216 1 19.363
s
48

y
Do2
0.3125Do
1 k

4 2 E 1 4 2 30 103

= se +

Fec
I

Do
= 0.5Do
2
e = 3 in
F = 16 kips
c=

sy

48
= 16 ksi
N 3
46.5642
Do2
16(3)(0.5Do )
= 16 =
+
19.363 0.6836Do4
1

64
Do2

= 16 =

46.5642
Do2
19.363
1

Do2

715.22
Do3

By trial and error method

Do = 3.23 in
k = 0.3125(3.23) = 1.0094 in
Le 2L
216
= =
= 214 > 111
k
k 1.0094
Therefore use Eulers equation
2E
se =
2
L
N e
k

Page 5 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

se =

2 (30,000)

216
3
0.3125Do
Fec
= se +
I

16 = 0.20658Do2 +

= 0.20658Do2 ksi

16(3)(0.5Do )
715.22
= 0.20658Do2 +
4
0.6836Do
Do3

64

Do = 3.802 in
Di = 0.75Do = 0.75(3.802) = 2.8515 in
To check:
k = 0.3125Do = 0.3125(3.802) in = 1.188125 in
Le
216 in
=
= 182 > 111
k 1.188125 in
Use Do = 3 13/16 in, Di = 2 13/16 in
b. For solid, also using Eulers equation.
I
A
D 4
I=
64
D 2
A=
4
k=

D 4
k=

se =

se =

64 = 1 D = 0.25D
D 2 4
4

2E
2

L
N e
k
2 (30,000)

216
3

0.25D
Fec
= se +
I

= 0.1322D 2 ksi

16(3)(0.5D )
489
= 0.1322D 2 + 3
4
D
D

64
By trial and error method.
16 = 0.1322D 2 +

Page 6 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

D = 3.221 in
k = 0.25D = 0.25(3.221) in = 0.80525 in
Le
216 in
=
= 268 > 111
k 0.80525 in
Use D = 3 in.
365.

The same as 364, except that the length is 15 ft.

Solution:
Eulers Equation:
Le = 2L = 2(15)(12 ) = 360 in
= 16 ksi
e = 3 in
0.6836Do4
64
A = 0.109375Do2
k = 0.3125Do

a. I =

se =

se =

2E
L
N e
k

2 (30,000)

360
3
0.3125Do
Fec
= se +
I

16 = 0.07437Do2 +

= 0.07437Do2 ksi

16(3)(0.5Do )
715.22
= 0.07437Do2 +
4
0.6836Do
Do3

64

Do = 3.624 in
Di = 0.75Do = 0.75(3.624 ) = 2.718 in
To check:
k = 0.3125Do = 0.3125(3.624) in = 1.1325 in
Le
216 in
=
= 191 > 111
k 1.1325 in
Use Do = 3 5/8 in, Di = 2 5/8 in

Page 7 of 133

b. I =
A=

D 4
64

D 2

4
k = 0.25D

se =

se =

2E
2

L
N e
k
2
(30,000)

360
3

0.25D
Fec
= se +
I

16 = 0.0476D 2 +

= 0.0476D 2 ksi

16(3)(0.5D )
489
= 0.0476D 2 + 3
4
D
D

64

By trial and error method.

D = 3.158 in use 3 3/16 iin
k = 0.25D = 0.25(3.158) in = 0.7895 in
Le
216 in
=
= 274 > 111
k 0.7895 in
Use D = 3 3/16 in.
366.

A link similar to one shown is to be designed for: steady load F = 8 kips, L = 20 in. = 30o;
aluminum alloy 2024-T4; N = 2.6 on the yield strength. It seems desirable for the
dimension b not to exceed 1 3/8 in. Determine b and h and check their proportions for
reasonableness. The support is made so that the pin at B carries the entire horizontal
component of F.

Page 8 of 133

Solution:

Aluminum alloy (2024-T4), sy = 47 ksi

RBH = F sin 30o
FL cos 30o
d
F (L + d )cos 30o
RBV =
d
M = RAd = FL cos 30o
Mc
s2 =
I
h
c=
2
bh 3
I=
12
6M 6FL cos 30o
s2 = 2 =
bh
bh 2
F sin 30o
s1 =
bh
t = s1 + s2
RA =

F sin 30o 6FL cos 30o

+
bh
bh 2
s
47
t = y =
= 18 ksi
N 2. 6
F = 8 kips
3
b = 1 in = 1.375 in
8
L = 20 in

t =

t =

+
bh
bh 2

Page 9 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

6(8)(20)cos 30o
1.375h
1.375h 2
24.75h 2 4h 831.4 = 0

18 =

(8)sin 30o

7
h = 5.877 in 5 in
8
7
5 in
h
= 8 = 4.27
b 1 3 in
8
7
3
Therefore, use h = 5 in , b = 1 in
8
8

367.

A column 15 ft. long is to support a load F2 = 50,000 lb. Acting at a distance of e = 8 in.
from the axis of the column as shown (with F1 = 0). Select a suitable I-beam for a design
factor of 3 based on yield strength. The upper end of the column is free. See handbook
for the properties of rolled sections.

Solution:
Use C1020, structural steel, sy = 48 ksi
Secant Formula
NF ec
L NF
1 + 2 sec e

sy =
A k
2 EI
F = F2 = 50,000 lbs = 50 kips
e = 8 in
N =3
E = 30,000 ksi
depth
c=
2
Le = 2L = 2(15)(12 ) = 360 in

Page 10 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

(8) depth

(
)(
)
3(50)
360
3
50
2

sec
48
1 +

A
k2
2 (30,000)(I )

rd
From Strength of Materials, 3 Edition by F.S. Singer and A. Pytel, Table B-2, pg. 640, select
Wide-Flange Sections by trial and error.
Then selecting W360 x 51, properties are
A = 6450 mm2 = 10 in2
Depth = 355 mm = 14 in
k = 148 mm = 5.83 in
I = 1.41 x 108 mm4 = 338.8 in4
Substitute,

(8) 14

(3)(50)
3(50)
2 sec 360
48
1 +

2
10 (5.83)
2 (30,000)(338.8)

48 47.08
Therefore suitable wide flange I-beam is W14 x 34 lb. (English units)
A = 10 in2
Depth = 14 in
k = 5.83 in
I = 338.8 in4

368.

The same as 367, except that F1 = 50,000 lb.

Solution:
Use C1020, structural steel, sy = 48 ksi
N =3
E = 30,000 ksi
Le = 2L = 2(15)(12 ) = 360 in
Transition Point
1

Le 2 2E 2 2 2 (30,000) 2
=
=
= 111
k sy
48

Page 11 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Check J.B. Johnson Formula
2

Le
sy
k
Fc = NF1 = sy A 1 2

4 E

NF1
sy =
2

Le
sy
k
A 1 2

4 E

3(50 )
48
2

360
48

k
A 1 2
4 (30,000)

150
48
5.2549
A1

k2

From Strength of Materials, 3rd Edition by F.S. Singer and A. Pytel, Table B-2, pg. 640, select
Wide-Flange Sections by trial and error.
Then selecting W310 x 21, properties are
A = 2690 mm2 = 4.17 in2
k = 117 mm = 4.61 in
Substitute,
150
48
5.2549
4.17 1
2
(4.61)
48

150

5.2549
4.17 1
2
(4.61)
48 47.8
Check for validity of JB Johnson Formula
Le 360
=
= 78.1 < 111
k 4.61
Therefore, JB Johnson formula is valid and suitable wide flange I-beam is W12 x 14 lb. (English
units)
A = 4.17 in2
k = 4.61 in

Page 12 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

CHECK PROBLEMS
369.

A cam press, similar to that of Fig. 19-1, Text, exerts a force of 10 kips at a distance of 7
in. from the inside edge of the plates that make up the frame. If these plates are 1 in.
thick and the horizontal section has a depth of 6 in., what will be the maximum stress in
this section?

Solution:

F Fec
+
A
I

F = 10 kips
6
e = 7 in + in = 10 in
2
6
c = in = 3 in
2
A = 2(1)(6 ) = 12 in 2
I=2

(1)(6 )3
12

= 36 in 4

F Fec
+
A
I
10 (10)(10)(3)
= +
= 9.2 ksi
12
36

370.

A manufacturer decides to market a line of aluminum alloy (6061-T6) C-clamps, (see Fig.
8.4, Text). One frame has a T-section with the following dimensions (letters as in Table
AT 1): H = 1 1/16 , B = 17/32, a = 1/8, and t = 1/8. The center line of the screw is 2 3/8 in.
from the inside face of the frame. (a) For N = 3 on the yield strength, what is the

Page 13 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

capacity of the clamp (gripping force)? (b) Above what approximate load will a
permanent deformation of the clamp occur?

Solution:
AA 6061-T6, sy = 40 ksi (Table AT 3)
See Fig. 8.4, (C-clamp) T-section
F Fec
+
A
I
1 ec
= F +

A I
From Table AT 1 (T-section)
A = Bt + a(H t )

I=

Bt 2
ah 2
+ (Bt )d 2 +
+ (ah )e 2
12
12

H = 1.0625 in
B = 0.53125 in
a = 0.125 in
t = 0.125 in
h = H t = 1.0625 0.125 = 0.9375 in
For c1 :
h
t
c1 (Bt + ha ) = t + (ha ) + (Bt )
2
2
0.9375

c1 [(0.53125)(0.125) + (0.9375)(0.125)] = 0.125 +

(0.9375)(0.125)
2

0.125
+
(0.53125)(0.125)
2

c1 = 0.4016 in
c 2 = H c1 = 1.0625 0.4016 = 0.6609 in

Page 14 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

t
0.125
d = c1 = 0.4016
= 0.3391 in
2
2
h
0.9375
e = t + c1 = 0.125 +
0.4016 = 0.19215 in
2
2

A = Bt + a(H t )
A = (0.53125)(0.125) + (0.125)(1.0625 0.125) = 0.1836 in 2
Bt 2
ah 2
+ (Bt )d 2 +
+ (ah )e 2
12
12
(0.53125)(0.125)2
(0.125)(0.9375)2
I=
+ (0.53125)(0.125)(0.3391)2 +
12
12
2
4
+ (0.125)(0.9375)(0.19215) = 0.02063 in
I=

c = c1 = 0.4016 in
e = 2.375 + 0.4016 = 2.7766 in
sy

40
= 13 ksi
N 3
(2.7766)(0.4016)
1
= 13 = F
+

0.02063
0.1836
F = 0.218 kips = 218 lbs

a. =

b. = sy = 40 ksi

(2.7766)(0.4016)
1
+

0.02063
0.1836
F = 0.672 kips = 672 lbs

= 40 = F

371.

A C-frame (Fig. 8.5 Text) of a hand-screw press is made of annealed cast steel, ASTM
A27-58 and has a section similar to that shown. The force F acts normal to the plane of
the section at a distance of 12 in. from the inside face. The various dimensions of the
sections are: a = 3 in., b = 6 in., h = 5 in., d = e= f = 1 in. Determine the force F for N = 6
based on the ultimate strength.

Page 15 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:
a = 3 in
b = 6 in
h = 5 in
d = e = f = 1 in
A = fa + dh + (b f d )e
A = (1)(3) + (1)(5) + (6 1 1)(1) = 12 in 2

For c1 :
f
d
b

c1 A = hd + (b f d ) + af b
2
2
2

1
1
6

c1 (12) = (5)(1) + (6 1 1) + (3)(1) 6

2
2
2

c1 = 2.583 in
c 2 = b c1 = 6 2.583 = 3.417 in

Page 16 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

j=

6 1 + 1
b f d
b f +d
2.583 = 0.417 in
(c1 d ) =
c1 =
2
2
2

f
1
= 3.417 = 2.917 in
2
2
d
1
m = c1 = 2.583 = 2.083 in
2
2
k = c2

af 3
e(b f d )3
hd 3
+ afk 2 +
+ e(b f d ) j 2 +
+ hdm 2
12
12
12
(3)(1)3
(1)(6 1 1)3
(5)(1)3
I=
+ (3)(1)(2.917 )2 +
+ (1)(6 1 1)(0.417 )2 +
+ (5)(1)(2.083)2
12
12
12
I = 53.92 in 4
I=

su = 60 ksi

su 60
=
= 10 ksi
N 6

Page 17 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

1 ec
+

A I
c = c1 = 2.583 in
e = 12 + 2.583 = 14.583 in

= F

1 (14.583)(2.583)
10 = F +

53.92
12
F = 12.789 kips = 12,789 lbs

In the link shown (366), let b = in., h = 2 in., d = 2 in., L = 18 in., and = 60o. The
clearance at the pins A and B are such that B resists the entire horizontal component of
F; material is AISI C1020, as rolled. What may be the value of F for N = 3 based on the
yield strength?

372.

Solution:
Refer to Prob. 366.
F sin 6FL cos
+
t =
bh
bh 2
sin 6L cos
+
t = F

bh 2
bh
For AISI C1020, as rolled, sy = 48 ksi .

sy
N

48
= 16 ksi
3

b = 0.5 in
h = 2 in
L = 18 in

= 60o
sin 60 6(18)cos 60
16 = F
+
(0.5)(2)2
(0.5)(2)

F = 0.574 kips = 574 lbs

373.

The link shown is subjected to a steady load F1 = 2.1 kips; b = 0.5 in., h = a = d = 2 in., L =
18 in.; material AISI 1040, cold drawn (10% work). The dimensions are such that all of
the horizontal reaction from F2 occurs at A; and F2 varies from 0 to a maximum, acting

Page 18 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

towards the right. For N = 1.5 based on the Soderberg line, what is the maximum value
of F2? Assume that the stress concentration at the holes can be neglected.

Solution:
b = 0.5 in
h = a = d = 2 in
L = 18 in
F1 = 2.1 kips

=0

(a + L + d )E = aF1 + hF2
E=

aF1 + hF2
a+L+d

=0

Ay = F1 E

=0

Ax = F2
For F2 = 0 :
(2 )(2.1) + 0 = 0.191 kip
E=
2 + 18 + 2
Ay = F1 E = 2.1 0.191 = 1.909 kips
Ax = F2 = 0
M = aAy = (L + d )E
M=

(L + d )(aF1 + hF2 )
a+L+d

F2 = 0

Page 19 of 133

M=

(18 + 2)[(2)(2.1) + 0] = 3.82 in kips

2 + 18 + 2

Let F2 = max F2
Mmax + 3.82
2
(
18 + 2)[2(2.1) + 2F2 ]
Mmax =
= 1.82(2.1 + F2 )
2 + 18 + 2
1.82(2.1 + F2 ) + 3.82
Mm =
= 3.82 + 0.91F2
2
Mm =

Mmax 3.82
2
1.82(2.1 + F2 ) 3.82
Ma =
= 0.91F2
2

Ma =

Fm = Fa = 0.5F2
For SAE AISI 1040 Cold Drawn (10% Work)
sy = 85 ksi
sn = 54 ksi
sn (bending ) = sn size factor = (54)(0.85) = 45.9 ksi
se = sm +
se =

sy
sn

sa

M c F
= m + m
N I
A

sy

sy Ma c Fa
+
+
A
sn I

85 (1.82 )(2.1 + F2 )(1) 0.5F2 85 (0.91F2 )(1) 0.5F2

=
+
+
+
1
1.5
(0.5)(2) 45.9 1
(0.5)(2)
3
3

F2 = 3.785 kips

376.

A free-end column as shown, L = 12 ft. long, is made of 10-in. pipe, schedule 40, (Do =
10.75 in., Di = 10.02 in., k = 3.67 in., Am = 11.908 in2., I = 160.7 in4., Z = 29.9 in3.). The load
completely reverses and e = 15 in.; N = 3; material is similar to AISI C1015, as rolled. (a)
Using the equivalent-stress approach, compute the safe (static) load as a column only.
(b) Judging the varying loading by the Soderberg criterion, compute the safe maximum
load. (c) Determine the safe load from the secant formula. (d) Specify what you consider

Page 20 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:
For AISI C1015, as rolled.
sy = 45.5 ksi
su = 61 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(61) = 30.5 ksi
Do = 10.75 in
Di = 10.02 in
L = 12 ft
k = 3.67 in
Am = 11.908 in 2
I = 160.07 in 4
Z = 29.9 in3
N =3

a. As a column only (static)

Le = 2L = 2(12)(12) = 288 in
Le 288 in
=
= 78.5 < 120
k 3.67 in
E = 30,000 ksi
Use J.B. Johnson Formula:
F
s1 =
2

Le
sy
k
A 1 2

4 E

Page 21 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

F

s1 =

(45.5)(78.5)2
11.9081

2
4 (30,000)
F
s1 =
9.09
Fe
s2 =
Z
e = 15 in
F (15) F
s2 =
=
29.9 2
= s1 + s2
45.5
F
F
=
+
3
9.09 2
F = 24.863 kips = 24,863 lbs

b. Varying load: Fmax = F , Fmin = F

F F
=0
2
F ( F )
Fa =
=F
2
s
se = sm + y sa
sn
Axial load factor = 0.80
sn = sn size factor load factor = (30.5)(0.85)(0.80) = 20.74 ksi
Fm =

F e F s F e F
se = m + m + y a + a
A sn Z
A
Z
sy
45.5 F (15)
F
se = = (0) +
+

= 2.25F
N
20.74 29.9 1.908
45.5
= 2.25F
3

F = 6.74 kips = 6740 lbs

c. Secant Formula
sy =
Z=

NF ec
L
1 + 2 sec e

A k
2

I
c

Page 22 of 133

NF
EI

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

I 160.07
=
= 5.354 in
Z
29.9
ec (15)(5.354)
=
= 5.963
k2
(3.67 )2

c=

Le NF 288
3F
=
= 0.11382 F
2 EI
2 (30,000)(160.07 )
NF
3F
=
= 0.252F
A 11.908
NF ec
L NF
1 + 2 sec e

sy =

A k
2 EI

)]

F = 22.5 kips = 22,500 lbs

d. 6740 lbs.
377.

A bracket is attached as shown (367) onto a 14-in. x 193-lb., wide flange I-beam (A =
56.73 sq. in., depth = 15.5 in., flange width = 15.710 in., Imax = 2402.4 in4., Imin = 930.1
in4., kmin = 4.05 in.). The member is an eccentrically loaded column, 40 ft. long, with no
central load (F1 = 0) and no restraint at the top. For e = 12 in. and N = 4, what may be
the value of F2?

Solution:
Using secant formula:
NF ec
L NF
1 + 2 sec e

sy =

A k
2 EI
I = Imax = 2402.4 in 4
E = 30,000 ksi
e = 12 in
k = kmax = 6.50 in

Le = 2L = 2(40)(12) = 960 in

Page 23 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Le
= 148
k
N=4
A = 56.73 in 2
depth 15.5
c=
=
= 7.75 in
2
2
For C1020, as rolled, structural steel,
sy = 48 ksi

sy = 48 =

4F (12)(7.75)
460
sec
1 +
2
56.73
2
(6.50)

48 = 0.0705F 1 + 2.2 sec 0.11308 F

F = F2 = 104.9 kips = 104,900 lbs

378.

4F
(30,000)(2402.4)

)]

A 14-in. x 193-lb., wide flange I-beam is used as a column with one end free (A = 56.73
sq. in., depth = 15.5 in., Imax = 2402.4 in.4, Imin = 930.1 in.4, kmin = 4.05 in., length L = 40
ft.). If a load F2 is supported as shown on a bracket at an eccentricity e = 4 in. (with F1 =
0), what may be its value for a design factor of 4? Flange width = 15.71 in.

Solution:
Using secant formula:
L NF
NF ec
1 + 2 sec e

sy =
A k
2 EI
F = F2
A = 56.73 in 2
e = 4 in
flange width 15.71
c=
=
= 7.855 in
2
2
k = kmin = 4.05 in
E = 30,000 ksi

Page 24 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

I = Imin = 930.1 in 4
Le = 2L = 2(40 )(12) = 960 in
N=4
s y = 48 ksi
s y = 48 =

4F2 (4)(7.855)
960
1 +
sec
2

56.73
2
(4.05)

4F2

(30,000)(930.1)

F2 = 68.88 kips = 68,880 lbs

379. The same as 378, except that F1 = 0.5 F2.

Solution:
s
L
F ec
= y = 2 1 + 2 sec e
N A k
2

NF2
EI

F1
+
A

F1 = 0.5F2
F
0.5F2
48
= 2 1 + 0.554 sec 0.18174 F2 +
4 56.73
56.73
12 = 0.01763F2 1 + 0.554 sec 0.18174 F2 + 0.008814F2

By Trial and error:

F2 = 68.56 kips
F1 = 0.5F2 = 34.28 kips
380.

The cast-steel link (SAE 080) shown (solid lines) is subjected to a steady axial tensile load
and was originally made with a rectangular cross section, h = 2 in., b = in., but was
found to be too weak. Someone decided to strengthen it by using a T-section (dotted
addition), with h and b as given above. (a) Will this change increase the strength?
Explain. (b) What tensile load could each link carry with N = 3 based on yield?

Page 25 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:
For SAE 080, s y = 40 ksi
(a) This change will not increase the strength because of increased bending action that
s y 40
(b) = =
= 13.3 ksi
N
3
Rectangular cross section:
F F
= =
A bh
F
13.3 =
(0.5)(2 )
F = 13.3 kips
T-section:
h = 2 in , b = 0.5 in
A = b(h b ) + bh = 0.5(2 0.5) + 0.5(2) = 1.75 in 2

b
1

c1 A = b(h b ) (h b ) + b + bh
2
2

0. 5
1

c1 (1.75) = 0.5(2 0.5) (2 0.5) + 0.5 + 0.5(2)

2
2

c1 = 0.6786 in
c 2 = h c1 = 2 0.6786 = 1.3214 in
1
(h b) = 1.3214 1 (2 0.5) = 0.5714 in
2
2
b
0.5
f = c1 = 0.6786
= 0.4286 in
2
2

d = c2

b(h b )3
hb 3
+ b(h b )d 2 +
+ hbf 2
12
12
0.5(2 0.5)3
2(0.5)3
I=
+ 0.5(2 0.5)(0.5714)2 +
+ 2(0.5)(0.4286)2
12
12
I=

I = 0.59 in 4

Page 26 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

F Fec
+
A
I
c = c1 = 0.6786 in
e = c = 0.6786 in

(0.6786)(0.6786)
1
13.3 = F
+

0.59
1.75
F = 6.941 kips

COPLANAR SHEAR STRESSES

381.

The figure shows a plate riveted to a vertical surface by 5 rivets. The material of the
plate and rivets is SAE 1020, as rolled. The load F = 5000 lb., b = 3 in., = 0, and c = 5 in.;
let a = 3D. Determine the diameter D of the rivets and the thickness of plate for a design
factor of 3 based in yield strengths.

Solution:
=0
For SAE 1020, as rolled.
s y = 48 ksi
s sy = 0.6s y
N=3

Page 27 of 133

1
2

F 2
R = F12 +
5

F2 F1
=
a 2a
F1 = 2F2

[ M

=0

2F1 (2a ) + 2F2 (a) = F (c ) + F sin (2a b)

=0
a = 3D
b = 3 in
c = 5 in
F = 5 kips
F1 = 2F2
4(2F2 )(3D ) + 2F2 (3D ) = (5)(5) + 5 sin 0 o (6D 3)
30F2 D = 25
5
F2 =
6D

5 5
F1 = 2F2 = 2 =
6D 3D
A=

=
=

D2

R
A
s sy
N

0.6s y
N

Page 28 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

0.6 sy
N

R
A
1

2 F 2 2
F1 +
5
0.6 sy
=
N
A
1

0.6(48)
=
3

5 2 5 2 2
+
3D 5

D2

2.778 2
2 + 1
D

9. 6 =
0.7854D 2
By trial and error method.
5
D = 0.625 in = in
8
For thickness of plate, t .
A = Dt
R
=
A
1

2
2
5 2 5 2 2 5
5 2
R = + =
+
= 2.85 kips
3D 5
3(0.625) 5
s
R
= y =
N Dt
48
2.85
=
3 0.625t
1
t = 0.285 in = in
4

382.

Page 29 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:

2
F
F
R = F12 + 2F1 cos120o
5
5

2 F 2
2
F
R = F1 + + 2F1 cos 60o
5
5

MC = 0

4(2F2 )(3D ) + 2F2 (3D ) = 5 cos 30 o (5) + 5 sin 30 o (6D 3)

30F2 D = 21.65 + 7.5(2D 1) = 15D + 14.15
15D + 14.15
F2 =
30D
0.472
F2 = 0.5 +
D
0.472
0.944

F1 = 2F2 = 2 0.5 +
=1+
D
D

R
=
A
s
0.6s y
= sy =
N
N
0.6 sy
N

R
A
1

2 F 2
2
F
o
F1 + + 2F1 cos 60
0.6 sy
5
5

=
N
A

Page 30 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

1

0.6(48)
=
3

0.944 2 5 2 0.944 5
2
o
+ + 21 +
cos 60
1 +
D 5
D 5

2
D
4
1

0.944 2
2
0.944
o
1
+
+
1
+
2
1
+
cos
60

D
D

9. 6 =
2
0.7854 D
By trial and error method. D = 0.641 in
5
Say D = 0.625 in = in (same as 381).
8
For t .
1

0.944 2
2
0.944
o
R = 1 +
+ 1 + 21 +
cos 60
D
D

0.944 2
2
0.944
o
R = 1 +
+ 1 + 21 +
cos 60 = 3.1325 in
0.625
0.625

R
=
A
s
R
= y =
N Dt
48 3.1325
=
3 0.625t
5
t = 0.31325 in = in
16

383.

Design a riveted connection, similar to that shown, to support a steady vertical load of F
= 1500 lb. when L = 18 in. and = 0o. Let the maximum spacing of the rivets, horizontally
and vertically, be 6D, where D is the diameter of the rivet; SAE 1020, as rolled, is used
for all parts; N = 2.5 based on yield. The assembly will be such that there is virtually no
twisting of the channel. The dimensions to determine at this time are: rivet diameter
and minimum thickness of the plate.

Page 31 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:
= 0 o , a = b = 6D

1
(6D ) = 3D
2
F
R = F1 +
4
R
=
A
For SAE 1020, as rolled, s y = 48 ksi .
c=

N = 2.5
s sy = 0.6s y

s sy
N

0.6s y
N

0.6(48)
= 11.52 ksi
2.5

4F1c = F (L + c )
4F1 (3D ) = 1.5(18 + 3D )
0.375(6 + D )
F1 =
D
0.375(6 + D ) 1.5 2.25
R=
+
=
+ 0.75
D
4
D
1
A = D 2
4

Page 32 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

R
A

2.25
+ 0.75
11.52 = D
1 2
D
4
11
D = 0.6875 in = in
16
sy

R
N A
2.25
+ 0.75
48
= D
2.5
Dt
2.25
+ 0.75
0
.
6875
19.2 =
0.6875t
5
t = in
16
384.
The same as 383, except that = 45o.

Solution:
= 11.52 ksi , = 19.2 ksi

Page 33 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

2

F
F
R
+ + 2F1 cos 45 o
4
4
4F1 (3D ) = F cos (L + 3D ) = 1.5 cos 45 o (18 + 3D )
0.2652(6 + D )
F1 =
d
2

= F12

0.2652(6 + D ) 1.5
0.2652(6 + D ) 1.5
o
R =
+
+ 2

cos 45

D
D

4
2

0.2652(6 + D )
6+D
R2 =
+ 0.140625 + 0.140625

D
2

0.84375
6+D
R = 0.0703
+ 0.28125
+
D
D
R
=
A
2

1
2

2
0.84375
6+D
+ 0.28125
0.0703
+
D
D

11.52 =
1 2
D
4
D = 0.594 in
19
say D = in = 0.59375 in
32
1
2

2
0.84375
6 + 0.59375
R = 0.0703
+ 0.28125 = 3.221 kips
+
0.59375
0.59375

R
=
Dt
R
19.2 =
Dt
3.221
19.2 =
0.59375t

t = 0.2815 in
say t =
385.

1
in .
4

The plate shown (381) is made of SAE 1020 steel, as rolled, and held in place by five
in. rivets that are made of SAE 1022 steel, as rolled. The thickness of the plate is in., a
= 2 in., c = 6 in., b = 4 in., and = 0. Find the value of F for a design factor of 5 based
on the ultimate strength.

Page 34 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:
Plate, SAE 1020, as rolled (Table AT 7)
su = 65 ksi
su 65
=
= 13 ksi
N
5
R = Dt
3 1
R = (13)( ) = 15.3 kips
4 2

Rivets, SAE 1022, as rolled (Table AT 7)

s su = 54 ksi
s
54
= su = = 10.8 ksi
N
5
3 2

D 2
4

R =
= 10.8 = 4.77 ksi

4
4

use R = 4.77 ksi

From 381.
1
2

F 2
R = F12 +
5

F1 = 2F2
2F1 (2a ) + 2F2 (a ) = Fc
2(2F2 )(2 )(2.5) + 2F2 (2.5) = F (6)
25F2 = 6F
F2 = 0.24F
F1 = 2(0.24F ) = 0.48F
2

R = (0.48F )
2

F
+ = (4.77 )2
5

Page 35 of 133

386.

The same as 385, except that = 90o.

Solution:

R = 4.77 kips
F
R = F1 +
5
F1 = 2F2
2F1 (2a) + 2F2 (a ) = F (2a b)
2(2F2 )(2 )(2.5) + 2F2 (2.5) = F [2(2.5) 4]
25F2 = F
F2 = 0.04F
F1 = 0.08F
F
R = 4.77 = 0.08F +
5
F = 17 ,000 lbs

Page 36 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

387.

The plate shown is made of AISI 1020 steel, as rolled, and is fastened to an I-beam (AISI
1020, as rolled) by three rivets that are made of a steel equivalent to AISI C1015, cold
drawn. The thickness of the plate and of the flanges of the I-beam is in., the diameter
of the rivets is in., a = 8.5 in., b = 11.5 in. and c = 4.5 in., d = 4 in. For F2 = 0, calculate
the value of F1 for N = 2.5 based on yield strength.

Solution:
3
D = in
4
1
t = in
2
a = 8.5 in
b = 11.5 in
c = 4.5 in
d = 4 in
Plate, AISI 1020 Steel, as rolled, s y = 48 ksi
Rivet, AISI C1015, cols drawn, s sy = 0.6(63) = 37.8 ksi
sy

48
= 19.2 ksi
N 2.5
s
37.8
= sy =
= 15.12 ksi
N
2.5

3 1
R = (Dt ) = 19.2( ) = 22.6 kips
4 2
D 2
R =
4

3
= 15.12 = 6.68 kips

4 4

D 2
Use R =
4

3
= 15.12 = 6.68 kips

4 4

F2 = 0 ,

Page 37 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

d
2

4
2
= 2.5 in

c
3

2 = +
4. 5

2 = +

F
F
=
2c

3
F 2c
F =
3
c

2c
F1 a + = 2F + F
3

3
2(4.5)
F
4. 5

3
F1 8.5 +
= 2F (2.5) +
3
2. 5

F1 = 0.86F
F
F= 1
0.86
c3
cos =

4. 5 3
cos =
= 0.60
2. 5
2
F
F
R 2 = F 2 + 1 + 2F 1 cos
3
3
2

F F
F F
R = 1 + 1 + 2 1 1 (0.60)
0.86 3
0.86 3
2

Page 38 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

R = 1.389F1
R = 6.68 kips = 1.389F1
F1 = 4.8 kips .
388.

Solution:
R = 6.68 kips

R=F+

F2
3

F
(2c 3)
c 2c

F2 b = F + 2F
3 3

F =

F2 11.5
+
=F
3 3 2(4.5)

3
F2 = 0.7167F

Page 39 of 133

0.7167F
= 1.24F
3
6.68 = 1.24F
F = 5.387 kips

R =F +

NORMAL STRESSES WITH SHEAR

DESIGN PROBLEMS
The bracket shown is held in place by three bolts as shown. Let a = 5 in., = 30o, F =
1500 lb.; bolt material is equivalent to C1022, as rolled. (a) Compute the size of the bolts
by equation (5.1), Text. (b) Assuming that the connecting parts are virtually rigid and
that the initial stress in the bolts is about 0.7sy, compute the factor of safety by (i) the
maximum shear stress theory, (ii) the octahedral shear theory. (c) Compute the
maximum normal stress.

389.

Solution:
3

[ M

corner

=0

s y As 2
6

, D < in
4

18FA + 3FB = (1500) sin 30 o (3) + (1500) cos 30 o (5.25)

18FA + 3FB = 9070 lbs
FA FB
=
9
3
FA = 3FB

Page 40 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

18FA + FA = 9070 lbs
FA = 477.4 lbs
Fe = FA

For C1022, as rolled, s y = 52,000 psi

3

Fe =

s y As 2
6
3

52,000 As 2
Fe = 477.4 =
6
2
As = 0.1448 in

Select
Say D =

1
in , UNC, As = 0.1419 in 2
2

Fe
+ si
A
477.4
st =
+ 0.7(52,000) = 39,764 psi
0.1419

(b) st =

ss =

=
= 3052 psi
As
0.1419

(i)

1

1 s
=
N s y

ss
+

s 2
y

2
2

= 39,764 + 3052

52,000 52,000

N = 1.293

(ii)

1

1 s
=
N s y

ss

+
s

3
y

2
2
2

2
= 39,764 + 3052

52,000 52,000 3

N = 1.296

(c) Maximum normal stress = 39,764 psi.

390.

For the mounted bracket shown, determine the rivet diameter (all same size) for N = 3,
the design being for the external loading (initial stress ignored); F = 2.3 kips, = 0, c = 17
in., a = 1 in., b = 14 in.; rivet material is AISI 1015, as rolled. Compute for (a) the
maximum shear theory, (b) the maximum normal stress theory, (c) the octahedral shear
theory.

Page 41 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:

F2
F
= 1
a a+b
F2
F1
=
1.5 1.5 + 14.5
F2 = 0.09375F1

2F1 (a + b) + F2 (a ) = Fc
2F1 (1.5 + 14.5) + 0.09375F1 (1.5) = (2.3)(17 )
F1 = 1.2165 kips
F1 1.2165
=
ksi
A
A
F
2.3 0.7667
ss =
=
=
ksi
3 A 3A
A
For AISI 4015, as rolled. s y = 45.5 ksi
s=

(a) Maximum shear theory

1

1 s
=
N sy

ss 2
+
s
ys
s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(45.5) = 22.75 ksi
2

Page 42 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

1
2
2
1 1.2165 0.7667 2
=
+

3 45.5A 22.75A

A = 0.1291 in 2

D 2

= 0.1291 in 2
4
D = 0.4054 in
3
say D = in
8
A=

2
2 1.2165 1.2165 2 0.7667 2 1.5869
s s
(b) = + + s s2 =
+
+
=
2 2
2A
A

2 A A
1
=
N sy

sy

N
1.5869 45.5
=
A
3
A = 0.1046 in 2
A=

D 2

= 0.1046 in 2

4
D = 0.365 in
3
say D = in
8

(c) s ys =

sy

45.5
3

= 26.27 ksi
1

2
1 1.2165 0.7667 2
=
+

3 45.5A 26.27 A

A = 0.11874 in 2
A=

D 2

= 0.11874 in 2

4
D = 0.3888 in
3
say D = in
8

Page 43 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

392.

The same as 390, except that the two top rivets are 2 in. long and the bottom rivet is 1
in. long.

Solution:

2
a

2
1.5

=
=

1
a+b

1
1.5 + 14.5

2 = 0.093751
F2 (1.25) = 0.09375(2)F1
F2 = 0.15F1
2F1 (a + b) + F2 a = Fc
2F1 (16) + 0.15F1 (1.5) = (2.3)(17 )
F1 = 1.2133 kips
F1 1.2133
=
ksi
A
A
F
2.3 0.7667
ss =
=
=
ksi
3 A 3A
A
For AISI 4015, as rolled. s y = 45.5 ksi
s=

Page 44 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

(b) Maximum shear theory
1

1 s
=
N sy

ss 2
+
s
ys
s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(45.5) = 22.75 ksi
2

1
2
2
1 1.2133 0.7667 2
=
+

3 45.5 A 22.75A
A = 0.1289 in 2

D 2

= 0.1289 in 2
4
D = 0.4051 in
3
say D = in
8
A=

2
2 1.2133 1.2133 2 0.7667 2 1.5843
s s
+
(b) = + + s s2 =
+
=
2 2
2A
A

2 A A

1
=
N sy

sy

N
1.5843 45.5
=
A
3
A = 0.1045 in 2

D 2

= 0.1045 in 2
4
D = 0.3648 in
3
say D = in
8
A=

(c) s ys =

sy

45.5
3

= 26.27 ksi

1
2
1 1.2133 0.7667 2
=
+

3 45.5 A 26.27 A
A = 0.1186 in 2

Page 45 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

D 2

= 0.1186 in 2
4
D = 0.3886 in
3
say D = in
8
A=

393.

The same as 390, except that the load is applied vertically at B instead of at A; let AB = 8
in. The two top rivets are 12 in. apart.

Solution:

b
= 6 +
3
2

14.5

3
= 7.705 in

2 = 62 +

F1

F2
2b 3

2b F 2(14.5) F1
F2 = 1 =

= 1.2546F1
3 3 7.705

Page 46 of 133

2b
F (8) = 2F1 + F2
3
2(14.5)
3

(2.3)(8) = 2F1 (7.705) + 1.2546F1

F1 = 0.6682 kips
cos =

6
= 0.7787
7.705
2

F
F
R 2 = F12 + + 2F1 cos
3
3
2

2.3
2.3
R = (0.6682) +
+ 2(0.6682)
(0.7787 )
3
3
R = 1.3536 kips
R 1.3536
ss = =
ksi
A
A
2

1
s
(a) =

N sy

ss
+
s
ys

From Problem 390.

1.2165
s=
ksi
A
s y = 45.5 ksi
s ys = 22.75 ksi
N=3
1
2
2
1 1.2165 1.3536 2
=
+

3 45.5A 22.75A

A = 0.1957 in 2

D 2

= 0.1957 in 2
4
D = 0.5 in
1
say D = in
2
A=

2
2 1.2165 1.2165 2 1.3536 2 2.10
s s
(b) = + + s s2 =
+
+
=
2 2
2A
A

2 A A
1
=
N sy

Page 47 of 133

sy

N
2.10 45.5
=
A
3
A = 0.1385 in 2
A=

D 2

= 0.1385 in 2

4
D = 0.42 in
7
say D = in
16

(c) s ys = 26.27 ksi

1
2
1 1.2165 1.3536 2
=
+

3 45.5A 26.27 A
A = 0.1742 in 2

D 2

= 0.1742 in 2
4
D = 0.471 in
1
say D = in
2
A=

394.

The bracket shown is made of SAE 1020, as rolled, and the rivets are SAE 1015, cold
drawn. The force F = 20 kips, L = 7 in., and = 60o. Let the design factor (on yield) be 2.
(a) Determine the thickness t of the arm. (b) Compute the rivet diameter by both
maximum shear and octahedral shear theories and specify a standard size. (c) Decide
upon a proper spacing of rivets and sketch the bracket approximately to scale. Is some
adjustment of dimensions desirable? Give suggestions, if any. (No additional calculations
unless your instructor asks for a complete design.)

Solution:
Bracket: SAE 1020, as rolled, s y = 48 ksi
Rivets: SAE 1015, cold drawn, s y = 63 ksi

Page 48 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

N=2

(a) Bracket.

(F cos )(L ) 4
F sin
2
s=
+
A
I
A = 4t
t (4)3
I=
= 5.333t
12

48 20 sin 60 o
20 cos 60 o (7 )(2)
=
+
N
2
4t
5.333t
t = 1.275 in
1
say t = 1 in
4
s=

sy

(b)
F2 F1
=
2 6
F1 = 3F2

(
)
3(3F )(6) + 2F (2 ) = (20)(cos 60 )(7 ) + (20)(sin 60 )(3)
3F1 (6) + 2F2 (2) = F cos 60o (L ) + F sin 60 o (3)
o

F2 = 2.10 kips
F1 = 3F2 = 3(2.10) = 6.31 kips
F cos 20 cos 60 2
=
=
5A
5A
A
F1 F sin 60 6.31 20 sin 60 9.774
s= +
=
+
=
A
5A
A
5A
A
ss =

1 s
=
N sy

ss
+
s
ys

s y = 63 ksi

1

2
2
1 9.774 2 2
=
+

2 63A 31.5A

A = 0.3353 in 2

Page 49 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

A=

D 2

= 0.3353 in 2

4
D = 0.653 in
3
say D = in
4

Octahedral shear, s ys =

sy

63

3
1

2
2
1 9.774 2 2
=
+

2 63A 36.37 A
A = 0.3292 in 2

A=

D 2

= 0.3292 in 2

4
D = 0.6474 in
3
say D = in
4

(c) Spacing

F cos
5(S D )t
t = 1.5 in , s y = 48 ksi

D = 0.75 in
F = 20 kips
sy

F cos
N 5(S D )t
48
20 cos 60
=
2 5(S 0.75)(1.5)
S = 0.806 in
7
use S = in adjust to 2 in
8

Page 50 of 133

= 36.37 ksi

Adjust spacing to 2 in from 7/8 in as shown.

CHECK PROBLEMS
396.

(a) If the rivets supporting the brackets of 390 are 5/8 in. in diameter, = 0, c = 14 in. a =
2 in., and b = 18 in., what are the maximum tensile and shear stresses in the rivets
induced by a load of F = 10 kips. (b) For rivets of naval brass, hard, compute the factor
of safety by maximum shear and octahedral shear theories (initial tension ignored).

Solution:

Page 51 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

F2
F
= 1
a a+b
F2
F
= 1
2 2 + 18
F2 = 0.1F1

2F1 (a + b) + F2 (a ) = Fc
2F1 (2 + 18) + 0.1F1 (2) = (10)(14)
F1 = 3.8425 kips
F1
F
3.8425
= 1 =
= 12.525 ksi

A
(0.625)2
D2
4
4
F
F
10
ss =
=
=
= 10.865 ksi
3A
2

2
3 D
3 (0.625)
4
4
s=

s 2 2 2 12.525 2
2
2
(a) = + s s =
+ (10.865) = 12.541 ksi
2

2
2 12.525 12.525 2
2
s s
2
= + + s s2 =
+
+ (10.865) = 18.804 ksi
2 2
2

(b) Naval Brass, hard, s y = 48 ksi .

1

1 s
=
N sy

ss 2
+
s
ys
Max. shear theory; s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(48) = 24 ksi
2

Page 52 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

1
2
2
1 12.525 10.865 2
=
+

N 48 24
N = 1.914

Octahedral shear theory; s ys =

sy
3

48
3

= 27.71 ksi

1
2
2
1 12.525 10.865 2
=
+

N 48 27.71
N = 2.123

397.

The same as 396, except that the two top rivets are in. in diameter and the bottom
one is in. in diameter.

Solution:

a+b
a
2 =
1
a+b
F2
a F1
=
A2 a + b A1
a

Page 53 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

2

a D2
F2 =
F1

a + b D1
2

2 0. 5
F2 =

F1 = 0.0444F1
2 + 18 0.75

2F1 (a + b) + F2 (a ) = Fc
2F1 (2 + 18) + 0.0444F1 (2) = (10)(14)
F1 = 3.492 kips
F1
3.492
=
= 7.9043 ksi

A1
(0.75)2
4
F
10
ss =
=
= 9.26 ksi
2 A1 + A2

2
2
2 (0.75) + (0.50)
4
4
s=

s 2 2 2 7.9043 2
2
2
(a) = + s s =
+ (9.26) = 10.068 ksi
2
2

2
2 7.9043 7.9043 2
2
s s
2
= + + s s2 =
+
+ (9.26) = 14.02 ksi
2 2
2

1
s
(b) =
N sy

ss 2
+
s
ys
Max. shear theory; s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(48) = 24 ksi
2

1
2
2
1 7.9043 9.26 2
=
+

N 48 24
N = 2.384

1
2
2
1 7.9043 9.26 2
=
+

N 48 27.71
N = 2.684

Page 54 of 133

sy
3

48
3

= 27.71 ksi

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

398.

What static load F may be supported by the -in. rivets shown, made of cold-finished
C1015, with N = 3; = 0, a = 1 , b = 9, c = 14, f = 9, g = 12 in.? Count on no help from
friction and ignore the initial tension. Check by both maximum shear and octahedral
shear theories.

Solution:
For cold-finished, C1015, s y = 63 ksi .

F1
F
= 2
a+b a
F1
F
= 2
1.5 + 9 1.5
F1 = 7F2

= 0o
3F1 (a + b) + F2 a = Fc
3(7F2 )(1.5 + 9 ) + F2 (1.5) = F (14)
F2 = 0.0631F
F1 = 7F2 = 0.4417F
s=

F1 0.4417F
=
=F
A (0.75)2
4

Page 55 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

ss =

F
F
=
= 0.5659F
4A

2
(
)
4 0.75
4
1

1 s
=
N sy

2
2
ss 2
+
s
ys
Max. shear theory; s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(63) = 31.5 ksi
1
2
2
1 F 0.5659F 2
= +

3 63 31.5
F = 13.9 kips

Octahedral shear theory; s ys =

sy
3

63
3

= 36.37 ksi

1
2
2
1 F 0.5659F 2
= +

3 63 36.37
F = 15 kips

399.

The 2-in., UNC cap screw shown has been subjected to a tightening torque of 20 in-kips.
The force F = 12 kips, = 60o, and Q = 0; L = 24 in., a = 20 in., b = 15 in.; screw material is
AISI C1137 as rolled. (a) What is the approximate initial tightening load? (b) What is the
increase in this load caused by the external force F if the bar is 8 in. wide and 2 in. thick
and the unthreaded shank of the screw is 2 in. long? (See 5.9, Text.) (c) What are the
maximum tensile and shear stresses in the bolt? (d) Compute the factor of safety from
maximum normal stress, maximum shear, and octahedral shear theories.

Solution:
(a) T = CDFi
C = 0.2
D = 2 in
T = 20 in kips
20 = 0.2(2)Fi

Page 56 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Fi = 50 kips
(b) = 60 o
Fe (L a ) = F cos 60 o (a )

Fe (24 20) = 12 cos 60 o (20)

Fe = 30 kips
kb

Fb = Fe
kb + kc
AE
kb = s
Lb
AE
kc = c
Lc
For 2-UNC
As = 2.50 in 2
Width across flat = 3 in.
2.5E
kb =
= 1.25E
2

kc = 4

(3)2 E
2

= 3.5343E

1.25E

Fb = (30)
= 7.84 kips
1.25E + 3.5343E
F + Fb 50 + 7.84
(c) s = i
=
= 23.14 ksi
As
2.50

ss =

F sin 12 sin 60o

=
= 4.16 ksi
As
2.5
1

s 2
2 23.14 2
2
2
= + ss2 =
+
(
4
.
16
)

= 12.3 ksi
2
2

2
2 23.14 23.14 2
2
s s
2
2
= + + s s =
+
+ (4.16) = 23.87 ksi
2 2
2

sy
N

23.87 =

55
N

Page 57 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

N = 2.304

Maximum Shear:
0.5sy
=
N
0.5(55)
12.3 =
N
N = 2.236
Octahedral shear, s ys =

sy
3

55
3

= 31.75 ksi

1 s
=
N sy

2
2
ss 2
+
s
ys
1

2
2
1 23.14 4.16 2
=
+

N 55 31.75
N = 2.269

400.

The plate shown is attached by three -in., UNC cap screws that are made of ASTM
A325, heat-treated bolt material; L = 26 in., a = 6 in., b = 4 in., = 0. The shear on the
screws is across the threads and they have been tightened to an initial tension of 0.6sp
(sp = proof stress, 5.8, Text). Which screw is subjected to (a) the largest force, (b) the
largest stress? What safe static load can be supported by the screws for N = 1.5 based
on the Hencky-Mises criterion?

Solution:
For ASTM A325, Heat-Treated, -in. UNC
s y = 88 ksi
s p = 85 ksi
si = 0.6s p = 0.6(85) = 51 ksi

Page 58 of 133

b a
2 3
= 2.83 in

4
2

6
3

2 = + = +

(a) Largest force, at A

(b) Largest stress, at A
F2

F1
(2a 3)
F1
2.83F1
F2 =
=
= 0.7075F1
(2a 3) 2(6 ) 3
=

2a
2a
2F2 + F1 = F L +
3
3
2(6)
2(6 )

2(0.7075)(F1 )(2.83) + F1
= F 26 +

3
3

F1 = 3.75F
F
F
R = F1 + = 3.75F + = 4.1F
3
3
For in UNC, As = 0.1419 in 2
R
4.1F
ss = =
= 29F
A 0.1419
s = si = 51 ksi

By Hencky-Mises Criterion.
1

1
(s x + s y )+ (1 + ) s x sy
=
2
2

Page 59 of 133

2
+ s s2

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

s x = s = 51 ksi
sy = 0
s s = 29F

= 0.3
1

1
(s x + sy ) + (1 + ) s x sy
= =
N
2
2

sy

2
2
+ ss

2
88 1 0.3
=
(51) + (1 + 0.3) 51 + (29F )2
1.5
2
2

F = 0.63 kips = 630 lbs

401.

The same as 400, except that the cap screw A is in. in diameter.

Solution:
A1 = As1 = 0.3340 in 2 (3/4 in UNC)
A2 = As2 = 0.1419 in 2 (1/2 in UNC)
F2
F1
=
A2 A1 (2a 3)
F2
F1
=
(0.1419 )(2.83) (0.3340)[2(6) 3]
F2 = 0.3006F1
2a
2a
2F2 + F1 = F L +
3
3
2(6)
2(6)

2(0.3006F1 )(2.83) + F1
= F 26 +

3
3

F1 = 5.262F
F2 = 0.3006F1 = 0.3006(5.262F ) = 1.582F

For in UNC.
F
F
R = F1 + = 5.262F + = 5.6F
3
3

Page 60 of 133

ss =

5.6F
= 16.8F ksi
0.3340

For in. UNC,

1
2

2
F
F
R = F22 + 2F2 cos
3
3

a3 63
cos =
=
= 0.7067
2.83
1
2

2
F
F
R = (1.582F )2 + 2(1.582F ) (0.7067 ) = 1.367F
3
3

1.367F
ss =
= 9.6F ksi
0.1419

(a) Max. force, at in.

(b) Max. stress, at in.
s s = 16.8F ksi
s = si = 51 ksi
1
2

2
88 1 0.3
= =
=
(51) + (1 + 0.3) 51 + (16.8F )2
N 1.5
2
2

sy

NORMAL STRESSES WITH TORSION

DESIGN PROBLEMS
402.

A section of a machined shaft is subjected to a maximum bending moment of 70,000 inlb., a torque of 50,000 in-lb., and an end thrust of 25,000 lb. The unsupported length is 3
ft. and the material is AISI C1030, normalized. Since the computations are to be as
though the stresses were steady, use N = 3.3. Compute the diameter from both the
maximum-shear and the octahedral-shear theories and specify a standard size.

Solution:
wL2
2
M1 = 70,000 in lb
L = 3 ft = 36 in
M = M1 +

Page 61 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

w = A

= 0.284 lb in 3
D 2
A=
4
0.284D 2
w=
= 0.223D 2 lb in
4
0.223D 2 (36 )2
M = 70,000 +
= 70,000 + 144.5D 2
2
F = 25,000 lb
F Mc
s= +
A
I
D
c=
2
D 2
A=
4
D 4
I=
64
4F 32M
s= 2 +
D
D 3
4(25,000) 32 70,000 + 144.5D 2
s=
+
D 2
D 3

31,831 713,014 1472

+
+
D
D2
D3
713,014 31,831 1472
s=
+
+
D
D3
D2
s=

ss =

=
=
D 3
D 3
D3

For AISI C1030, normalized, s y = 47 ksi = 47 ,000 psi

1

1 s
=
N sy

ss
+
s
ys

Maximum shear
s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(47 ) = 23.5 ksi = 23,500 psi
1

2
2
+
+

1 D 3
D + 254,648
D2
=
23,500D 3
3.3
47 ,000

Page 62 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

D = 4.125 in
Octahedral Shear
sy
47
s ys =
=
= 27.14 ksi = 27 ,140 psi
3
3
1

2
2
+
+

1 D 3
D + 254,648
D2
=
27 ,140D 3
3.3
47 ,000

By trial and error,

D = 4.125 in
1
use D = 4 in standard
4
403. The same as 402, except that the unsupported length is 15 ft. Do not overlook the
moment due to the weight of the shaft, which acts in the same sense as the given
bending moment.
Solution:
L = 15 ft = 180 in
M = 70,000 +

0.223D 2 (180)2
= 70,000 + 3612.6D 2
2

F = 25,000 lb
F Mc
s= +
A
I
4F 32M
s= 2 +
D
D 3
4(25,000) 32 70,000 + 3612.6D 2
s=
+
D 2
D 3

31,831 713,014 36,798

+
+
D
D2
D3
713,014 31,831 36,798
s=
+
+
D
D3
D2

s=

Maximum shear
1

2
2
+
+

1 D 3
D + 254,648
D2
=
23,500D 3
3.3
47 ,000

D = 5.125 in

Page 63 of 133

Octahedral Shear
1

2
2
+
+

3
2
1 D
D + 254,648
D
=
27 ,140D 3
3.3
47 ,000

By trial and error,

D = 5.0625 in
1
use D = 5 in standard
4
404.

A shaft is to be made in two sections, I and II, of diameters D1 and D2, somewhat as
shown, machined from AISI 1045, annealed. It is expected that a = 8 in., b = 24 in., L = 20
in., and the load Q = 2 kips, so seldom repeated that the design is for steady load. The
factor of safety is to be 2.2 on the basis of the octahedral-shear theory and closely the
same in each section. The ends A and B are restrained from twisting, but they are
designed to support the balancing reactions from Q without other moments. Decide
upon standard size for D1 and D2.

Solution:
T = QL = (2)(20 ) = 40 in kips
T1 + T2 = T = 40 in kips
1 = 2
T1L1 T2 L2
=
J1G J 2 G
T1a
Tb
= 24
4
D1 D2
32
32
8T1 24T2
= 4
D14
D2

Page 64 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

4

D
T1 = 3T2 1
D2
T1 + T2 = T = 40 in kips
D
T2 3 1
D 2

+ 1 = 40

40
T2 =
D 4
3 1 + 1
D 2

D
D
40(3) 1
120 1
D2
D2
T1 =
=
4
D
D 4
1
3 + 1 3 1 + 1
D 2
D2

A + B = Q = 2 kips
aA = bB
8A = 24B
A = 3B
3B + B = 2
B = 0.5 kips
A = 1.5 kips
4
D 4
D
16120 1
1920 1
D 2
16T
D2
s s1 = 31 =
=
D1
D 4
D 4
3
3
1

D1 3 + 1 D1 3 1 + 1
D 2

D 2

16T2
16(40)
640
s s2 =
=
=
3
4
D 2
D

D 4
3
3
1

D2 3 + 1 D2 3 1 + 1
D 2

D 2

32M1 32 Aa 32(1.5)(8) 384

s1 =
=
=
= 3
D13
D13
D13
D1
32M 2 32Bb 32(0.5)(24) 384
s2 =
=
=
= 3
D 23
D23
D 23
D2
For AISI 1045, annealed, s y = 55 ksi ,

N = 2.2

Octahedral Shear

Page 65 of 133

1

1 s
=
N sy

s ys =

sy
3

ss
+
s
ys

55
3

= 31.75 ksi
1

1 s1
=
N sy

s s1
+
s
ys

2
4

1920 1
2

D2
1 384

=
+

2.2 55D13
D 4
3
1

31.75D1 3 + 1
D

1
2

2
4

19.25 D1
2

D
1 2.2224
2

=
+

2.2 D13 D 4
3
1

D1 3 + 1

D 2

1 s2
=
N sy

s s2
+

s
ys

1 384
640
+
=
3
2.2 55D 2
D
3
1

31.75D 2 3
D 2

+ 1

1 2.2224
6.42
+
=

2.2 D 23 D 4
3
1

D 2 3 + 1
D

Page 66 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

By trial and error,
D
Trial 1
D2
1
1.25
1.37
1.40

D1

D2

2.268
2.372
2.398
2.403

1.820
1.730
1.714
1.712

D1
D2
1.25
1.37
1.40
1.40

Actual

1
3
Use standard D1 = 2 in , D 2 = 1 in
2
4
1
But D1 > D 2 , use D1 = 2 in
2
1
D 2 = D1 + 2r = 1.3D1 = 1.3 2 = 3.25 in
2
1
say D 2 = 3 in
2

405.

The shaft shown overhangs a bearing on the right and has the following dimensions: a =
5 in., b = in., and e = 10 in. The material is AISI C1040, annealed. This shaft is subjected
to a torque T = 10,000 in-lb., forces F1 = 10,000 lb., and F2 = 20,000 lb. Using a staticdesign approach, determine the diameter D for N = 2.5, with computations from the
maximum-shear and octahedral-shear theories.

Solution:
= 0.284 lb in 3

w = 0.284 D 2 = 0.223D 2
4

2
we
0.223D 2 (10 )2
M=
=
= 11.15D 2
2
2
Bending due to F1 and load

32(F1a + M ) 32 (10,000)(5) + 11.15D 2 509,296 114

=
=
+
D 3
D 3
D3
D
Bending due to F2
s1 =

Page 67 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

1
32(20,000 )
32F2 b
2 = 101,859
s2 =
=
3
3
D
D
D3
Tension,
4(20,000 ) 25,465
s3 =
=
D 2
D2
since s1 > s 2
s = s3 + s1 s2
25,465 509,296 114 101,859
+
+

s=
D
D2
D3
D3
407,437 25,465 114
s=
+
+
D
D3
D2

16T 16(10,000) 50,930

=
=
D 3
D 3
D3
N = 2.5
ss =

1 s
=
N sy

ss 2
+
s
ys
For AISI C1040, annealed (Fig. AF 1) s y = 48 ksi
2

1

2
2
+
+

1 D 3
D + 50,930
D2
=

24,000D 3
2.5
48,000

D = 2.95 in
Octahedral Shear
sy
48
s ys =
=
= 27.71 ksi
3
3
1

2
2
+
+

1 D 3
D + 50,930
D2
=
27,710D 3
2.5
48,000

D = 2.95 in
use D = 3.0 in

Page 68 of 133

406.

The same as 405, except that F2 = 0.

Solution
F2 = 0
s 2 = 0 , s3 = 0
509,296 114
s = s1 =
+
D
D3
50,930
ss =
D3
N = 2.5
Maximum shear, s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(48) = 24 ksi
1

509,296 114 2
+

1 D 3
D
+ 50,930
=
24,000D 3
2.5
48,000

2
2

D = 3 in
Octahedral Shear
sy
48
s ys =
=
= 27.71 ksi
3
3
1

509,296 114 2
2
2
+

1 D 3
D + 50,930
=
27 ,710D 3
2.5
48,000

D = 2.997 in
use D = 3.0 in
CHECK PROBLEMS
407.

The shaft shown overhangs a bearing at the right and has the following dimensions: D =
2 in., a = 4 in., b = in., c = 2 in., d = 6 in., e = 8 in., r = in. This shaft is subjected to a
torque T = 8000 in-lb. and forces F1 = 8000 lb., and F2 = 16,000 lb. Determine the
maximum-shear and normal stresses, and the octahedral-shear stress: (a) at points A
and B ( = 45o), (b) at points M and N, (c) at point G.

Page 69 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:
Bending due to F2 :
32F2 b 32(16,000 )(0.75)
s2 =
=
= 15,279 psi
D 3
(2)3
Tension
4F
4(16,000)
s3 = 22 =
= 5093 psi
D
(2)2
Bending due to F1 and weight of beam

wx 2

32 F1a +
2

s1 =
D 3
x from the free end.

ss =

16T 16(8000)
=
= 5093 psi
D 3
(2)3

w = 0.223D 2 = 0.223(2)2 = 0.892 lb in

(A) x = e c = 8 2 = 6 in

0.892(6)2
32 (8000)(4) +

s1 =
= 40,764 psi
3
(2 )
at A
s = s3 + (s1 s 2 ) sin 45o = 5093 + (40,764 15,279) sin 45o = 23,114 psi

Max. Shear
1

s 2
2 23,114 2
2
2
= + s s2 =
+ (5093) = 12,629 psi
2

Max. Normal
1

2
2 23,114 23,114 2
2
s s
2
2
= + + s s =
+
+ (5093) = 24,186 psi
2 2
2

Page 70 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

o =

2 2
s + 3s s2
3

1
2

2
(23,114)2 + 3(5093)2
3

1
2

= 11,662 psi

At B:
s = (s1 s2 )sin 45o s3 = (40,764 15,279) sin 45o 5093 = 12,928 psi
Max. Shear
1

s 2
2 12,928 2
2
2
= + s s2 =
+ (5093) = 8229 psi
2

Max. Normal
1

2
2 12,928 12,928 2
2
s s
2
= + + s s2 =
+
+ (5093) = 14,693 psi
2 2
2

Octahedral Shear Stress

1
2 2
2
o =
s + 3s s2 2 =
(12,928)2 + 3(5093)2
3
3

1
2

= 7 ,378 psi

(B)
1
= 7.75 in
4

0.892(7.75)2
32(8000)(4 ) +

x =e c =8

s1 =

(2)3

= 40,778 psi

at M
s = s3 + s1 s2 = 5093 + 40,778 15,279 = 30,592 psi
Max. Shear
1

s 2
2 30,592 2
2
2
= + s s2 =
+ (5093) = 16,122 psi
2
2

Max. Normal
1

2
2 30,592 30,592 2
2
s s
2
2
= + + s s =
+
+ (5093) = 31,418 psi
2 2
2

Octahedral Shear Stress

1
2 2
2
o =
s + 3s s2 2 =
(30,592)2 + 3(5093)2
3
3

1
2

= 15,009 psi

At N:
s = s1 s 2 s3 = 40,778 15,279 5093 = 20,406 psi
Max. Shear

Page 71 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

1

s 2
2 20,406 2
2
2
2
= + s s =
+ (5093) = 11,403 psi
2

Max. Normal
1

2
2 20,406 20,406 2
2
s s
2
= + + s s2 =
+
+ (5093) = 21,606 psi
2 2
2

Octahedral Shear Stress

1
1
2 2
2
o =
s + 3s s2 2 =
(20,406)2 + 3(5093)2 2 = 10,480 psi
3
3

(C) At G.
x = e c = 8 2 = 6 in

0.892(2 )2
32 (8000)(4) +

s1 =
= 40,746 psi
3
(2)

s = s3 + (s1 s 2 ) cos 30 o = 5093 + (40,746 15,279) cos 30 o = 17 ,826 psi

Max. Shear
1

s 2
2 17 ,826 2
2
2
= + s s2 =
+ (5093) = 10,265 psi
2

Max. Normal
1

2
2 17 ,826 17 ,826 2
2
s s
2
= + + s s2 =
+
+ (5093) = 19,178 psi
2 2
2

Octahedral Shear Stress

1
2 2
2
o =
s + 3s s2 2 =
(17,826)2 + 3(5093)2
3
3

411.

1
2

= 9376 psi

A 4-in. shaft carries an axial thrust of 20 kips. The maximum bending moment is 2/3 of
the twisting moment; material is AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F, and N =3. Use the steady stress
approach and compute the horsepower that may be transmitted at 2000 rpm?

Solution:
For AISI 8630, WQT 1100oF, s y = 125 ksi
32M 4F
+
D 3 D 2
16T
ss = 3
D
2
M= T
3
F = 20 kips
s=

Page 72 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

D = 4 in
2
32 T
3 4(20 )
s=
+
= 0.1061T + 1.59155
(4 )3
(4)2
16T
ss =
= 0.0796T
(4)3
By maximum shear.
s ys = 0.5s y = 0.5(125) = 62.5 ksi
1

1 s
=
N sy

2
2
ss 2
+
s
ys
1

2
2
1 0.1061T + 1.59155 0.0796T 2
=
+

3
125
62.5
T = 213 in kips = 213,000 in lb
Tn
(213,000 )(2000)
hp =
=
= 6762 hp
63,000
63,000

412.

The same as 411, except that the shaft is hollow with an inside diameter of 2 in.

Solution:
32MDo
4F
s=
+
4
4
2
Do Di
D o D i2

) (

2
32 T (4)
4(20)
3
s=
+
= 0.1252T + 2.612
4
4
(4) (2.5)
(4)2 (2.5)2
16TDo
16T (4)
ss =
=
= 0.0939T
4
4
Do Di
(4)4 (2.5)4

] [

1 s
=
N sy

2
2
ss 2
+
s
ys
1

2
2
1 0.1252T + 2.612 0.0939T 2
=
+

3
125
62.5
T = 177 in kips = 177,000 in lb
Tn
(177,000)(2000)
hp =
=
= 5619 hp
63,000
63,000

413.

A hollow, alloyed-steel shaft, AISI 4130, OQT 1100 F, has an OD of 3 in. and an ID of 2
in. It is transmitting 1500 hp at 1200 rpm, and at the same time is withstanding a
maximum bending moment of 40,000 in-lb. and an axial compressive force F = 10 kips.
The length of the shaft between bearings is 10 ft. Using a steady stress approach,

Page 73 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

determine (a) the maximum shearing stress in the shaft, (b) the maximum normal stress,
(c) the factor of safety in each case. (d) Also compute N from the octahedral shear
theory.
Solution:
For alloy-steel shaft, AISI 4130, WQT 1100oF, s y = 114 ksi (Table AT 7)
63,000hp 63,000(1500 )
=
= 78,750 in lb
n
1200
1
Do = 3 in
4
1
Di = 2 in
2

w = 0.284 Do2 Di2 = 0.284 (3.25)2 (2.5)2 = 0.962 lb in
4

4
2
wL
M = M1 +
(Table AT 8)
8
L = 10 ft = 120 in

T=

0.962(120)2
= 41,732 in lb
8
32MDo
4F
s=
+
4
4
2
Do Di
Do Di2
32(41,732)(3.25)
4(10,000)
s=
+
= 22,000 psi
4
4
(3.25) (2.5)
(3.25)2 (2.5)2
16TDo
16(78,750)(3.25)
ss =
=
= 17 ,978 psi
4
4
Do Di
(3.25)4 (2.5)4

M = 40,000 +

) (

] [

) [

1
2

s 2
22,000 2
2
2
(A) = + s s2 =
+ (17 ,978) = 21,076 psi
2

2
2 22,000 22,000 2
2
s s
2
2
(B) = + + s s =
+
+ (17 ,978) = 32,076 psi
2 2
2

sys

(C) N =

0. 5s y

0.5(114)
= 2.704
21.076

sy

114
N= =
= 3.554
32.076
1

1
s
(D) =
N sy

s ys =

sy
3

ss
+
s
ys

114
3

= 65.82 ksi

Page 74 of 133

1
2
2
1 22.0 17.978 2
=
+

N 114 65.82
N = 2.99

VARYING STRESSES COMBINED

DESIGN PROBLEMS
414.

The force F on the lever in the illustration (in the plane of the lever) varies from a
maximum of 424.2 lb. to a minimum of -141.4 lb.; L = 20 in., a = 15 in., D2 = 1.2D1, r =
0.125D1, = 45o; the material is cold-drawn SAE 1040, 10% worked, the design factor N
= 1.5. Compute the diameter D1 using the Soderberg-line approach with both the
maximum-shear and octahedral-shear theories; indefinite life.

Solution:
For SAE 040, 10% Worked
s n = 54 ksi
s y = 85 ksi
s n 54
1
=
=
sy 85 1.574
s ns s n
1
=
=
s ys s y 1.574
SF = 0.85

Strength Reduction Factors

With r d = r D1 = 0.125
D d = D 2 D1 = 1.2
Fig. AF 12
K t = 1.54
K ts = 1.27

Page 75 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Assume q = 1
K f = 1 + q (K t 1) = 1 + (1)(K t 1) = K t
K f = 1.54
K fs = 1.27

Forces:
Fmax = 424.2 lb
Fmin = 141.4 lb
1
(Fmax + Fmax ) = 1 (424.2 141.4) = 141.4 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fmax Fmax ) = (424.2 + 141.4) = 282.8 lb
2
2

Fm =

D 2
= 0.223D 2
w = 0.284

4
wL2
wL2
M = M1 +
= FL +
2
2
0.233D 2 (20 )2
M m = (141.4)(20) +
= 2828 + 44.6D 2
2
0.233D 2 (20)2
Ma = (282.8)(20) +
= 5656 + 44.6D 2
2

T = (F cos )a

(
)
= (282.8)(cos 45 )(15) = 3000 in lb

Tm = (141.4) cos 45o (15) = 1500 in lb

Ta

32M
D 3
32 2828 + 44.6D 2
28,806 454
sm =
=
+
3
D
D
D3
32 5656 + 44.6D 2 57 ,612 454
sa =
=
+
D
D 3
D3
s=

16T
D 3
16(1500) 7640
sms =
= 3
D 3
D
16(3000 ) 15,280
sas =
=
D 3
D3
ss =

Page 76 of 133

s es =

K fs sas
sns
sms +
s ys
SF

1 7640 1.27 15,280 27,684

=
1.574 D 3 0.85 D 3
D3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF

s es =

se =

+
+
+

=
1.574 D 3
D 0.85 D 3
D
D
D3
1

2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn s ns

Maximum shear, sns = 0.5sn = 0.5(54,000) = 27,000 psi

1

122,681 1111 2
2
2
+

1 D 3
D + 27 ,684
=
1.5
54,000
27,000D 3

D = 1.5625 in = 1

9
in
16

Octahedral Shear. sns =

sn
3

54,000
3

= 31,177 psi
1

122,681 1111 2
2
2
+

1 D 3
D + 27,684
=
1.5
54,000
31,177D 3

D = 1.55 in
9
say D = 1 in
16
5
say D = 1 in
8

417.

A hollow steel shaft, SAE 1045, as rolled, has an inside diameter of one half of the
outside diameter and is transmitting 1600 hp at 600 rpm. The maximum bending
moment is 40,000in-lb. Determine the diameter for N = 3 by both the maximum-shear
and octahedral shear theories. Specify a standard size. Use the Soderberg line for
obtaining the equivalent stresses.

Page 77 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:
For SAE 1045, as rolled, s y = 59 ksi , su = 96 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 48 ksi
sn sns 48
1
=
=
=
sy sys 59 1.229
Assume K f = K fs = 1
Do = 2Di
For bending:
sm = 0
sa = s
s
1
se = n sm + K f sa =
(0) + (1)s = s
sy
1.229
32MDo
32(40,000)(2Di ) 54,325
=
=
4
4
Di3
Do D i
(2Di )4 Di4
For torsion:
63,000hp 63,000(1600)
T=
=
= 168,000 in lb
n
600
s
s es = ns sms + K fs sas
sys
se = s =

sas = 0
s ms = s
sns
1 16TDo
1 16(168,000)(2Di ) 92,825
=
sms =

4
4
s ys
1.229 Do Di 1.229 (2Di )4 Di4
D i3
Maximum shear, sns = 0.5sn = 0.5(48,000) = 24,000 psi
ses =

1
2
2 2
1 54,325 92,825

=
+
1.5 48,000Di3 24,000D i3

Di = 2.295 in
say Di = 2.25 in , Do = 2Di = 4.5 in
Octahedral Shear. sns =

sn
3

48,000
3

= 27,713 psi
1

2
2 2
1 54,325 92,825

=
+
1.5 48,000Di3 27,713Di3

Di = 2.20 in
say Di = 2.25 in , Do = 2Di = 4.5 in

Page 78 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

1
1
Standard Size Di = 2 in , Do = 4 in
4
2

418.

A section of a shaft without a keyway is subjected to a bending moment that varies

sinusoidally from 30 to 15 then to 30 in-kips during two revolutions, and to a torque that
varies similarly and in phase from 25 to 15 to 25 in-kips; there is also a constant axial
force of 40 kips; the material is AISI 2340, OQT 1000 F; N = 1.5. Determine the diameter
by (a) the maximum-shear-stress theory; (b) the octahedral-shear-stress theory.

Solution:
For AISI 2340, OQT 1000oF. s y = 120 ksi , su = 137 ksi

s n = 0.5su = 0.5(137 ) = 68.5 ksi

sn sns 68.5
1
=
=
=
sy sys 120 1.752
Assume K f = K fs = 1
1
(30 + 15) = 22.5 in kips
2
1
Ma = (30 15) = 7.5 in kips
2
1
Tm = (25 + 15) = 20 in kips
2
1
Ta = (25 15) = 5 in kips
2
Mm =

32M m
4F 32(22.5) 4(40) 229 51
+
=
+
= 3 + 2
3
D
D
D
D 2
D 3
D 2
32Ma 32(7.5) 76
sa =
=
= 3
D
D 3
D 3

sm =

16Tm 16(20) 102

=
= 3
D
D 3
D 3
16Ta 16(5) 25.5
sas =
=
= 3
D 3 D 3
D
sms =

se =

Kf
sn
1 229 51 1 76 220 29
sm +
sa =
+
+

+
=
sy
SF
1.752 D 3 D 2 0.85 D 3 D 3 D 2

ses =

K fs
sns
1 102 1 25.5 88
sms +
sas =

=
s ys
SF
1.752 D 3 0.85 D 3 D 3

Page 79 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

1

220 29
+
1 D 3 D 2
=
1.5 68.5

2
2
88
+
3
34.25D

D = 1.93 in
say D = 2 in ,
Octahedral Shear. sns =

sn
3

68.5
3

= 39.55 psi
1

220 29
+
1 D 3 D 2
=
1.5 68.5

2
2
88
+
3
39.55D

D = 1.909 in
say D = 2 in
419.

The same as 418, except that the shaft has a profile keyway at the point of maximum
moment.

Solution:
K f = 1.6
K fs = 1.3
Kf
sn
1 229 51 1.6 76 274 29
sm +
sa =
+
+

+
=
sy
SF
1.752 D 3 D 2 0.85 D 3 D 3 D 2
K fs
s
1 102 1.3 25.5 97
ses = ns sms +
sas =

=
s ys
SF
1.752 D 3 0.85 D 3 D 3
se =

(a) Maximum shear, sns = 0.5sn = 0.5(68.5) = 34.25 psi

1

274 29
+
1 D 3 D 2
=
1.5 68.5

2
2

+ 97
34.25D 3

D = 2.04 in
say D = 2 in
(b) Octahedral Shear. sns =

Page 80 of 133

sn
3

68.5
3

= 39.55 psi

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

1

274 29
+
1 D 3 D 2
=
1.5 68.5

2
2
97
+
3
39.55D

D = 2.02 in
say D = 2 in
CHECK PROBLEMS
420.

A 2-in. shaft made from AISI 1144, elevated temperature drawn, transmits 200 hp at 600
rpm. In addition to the data on the figure, the reactions are B = 4.62 kips and E = 1.68
kips. Compute the factor of safety by the maximum-shear and octahedral-shear
theories.

Solution:
For AISI 1144, Elevated Temperature, drawn, s y = 83 ksi , su = 118 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(118) = 59 ksi
sn 59
1
=
=
sy 83 1.407
MB = (2.1)(10) = 21 in kips , MC = (1.68)(10) = 16.8 in kips
63,000hp 63,000(200)
T=
=
= 21,000 in lbs = 21 in kips
n
600
Table AT 13
K f = 2.0 , K fs = 1.6
se =

sn
sm + K f sa
sy

Mm = 0 , s m = 0
Ma = Mm
32(16.8)
32MC
s e = K f sa = K f
= 2.0
= 42.8 ksi
3
3
D
(2)
s
s es = ns sms + K fs sas
sys

Tm = T ,
Ta = 0

Page 81 of 133

ses =

sns
s 16T
1 16(21)
sms = ns 3 =

= 9.5 ksi
s ys
sys D 1.407 (2)3

Maximum shear, sns = 0.5sn = 0.5(59 ) = 29.5 psi

1

1 se
=
N sn

ses
+
sns

2
2
1 42.8 9.5 2
=
+

N 59 29.5

N = 1.26
Octahedral Shear. s ns = 0.577 sn = 0.577(59 ) = 34.05 psi
1

2
2
1 42.8 9.5 2
=
+

N 59 34.05

N = 1.26

421.

In the figure (399), the bar supports a static load Q = 3000 lb. acting down; L = 16 in., a =
12 in., b = 7 in. The force F = 2500 lb. is produced by a rotating unbalanced weight and is
therefore repeated and reversed in both the horizontal and the vertical directions. The
1-in. cap screw, with cut UNC threads, is made of AISI C1137, annealed, and it has been
subjected to a tightening torque of 4600 in-lb. The thickness of the bar is 2 in. (a)
Compute the factor of safety for the load reversing in the vertical direction, and (b) in
the horizontal direction (maximum-shear theory), with the conservative assumption
that friction offers no resistance.

Solution:
For AISI C1137, annealed, s y = 50 ksi , su = 85 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(85) = 42.5 ksi
K f = 2.8 (Table AT 12)
sn sns 42.5
1
=
=
=
sy sny
50 1.1765
T = 0.2DFi
4600 = 0.2(1)(Fi )

Page 82 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Fi = 23,000 lbs = 23 kips
For 1-in cap screws, UNC
As = 0.606 in 2
Nut: A = 1.5 in
kb

Fb = Fe
kb + kc
AE
AE
kb = s , kc = c
Le
Le
kb
As
0.606
=
=
= 0.2554
k b + k c As + Ac 0.606 + (1.5)2
4

Q = 3000 lb = 3 kips
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
(a) Vertical, Moment at Edge = 0, Q > F

(a b)Fe max = (Q + F )(b)

(12 7 )Fe max = (3.0 + 2.5)(7 )
Fe max = 7.7 kips

(a b)Fe min = (Q F )(b)

(12 7 )Fe min = (3.0 2.5)(7 )
Fe min = 0.7 kips
Fb max = (7.7 )(0.2554) = 1.97 kips
Fb min = (0.7 )(0.2554) = 0.18 kips
Fb max = Fi + Fbmax = 23 + 1.97 = 24.97 kips
Fb min = Fi + Fb min = 23 + 0.18 = 23.18 kips
1
(Fb max + Fb min ) = 1 (24.97 + 23.18) = 24.1 kips
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb max Fb min ) = (24.97 23.18) = 0.9 kip
2
2

Fm =

Fm
24.1
=
= 39.8 ksi
As 0.606
F
0.9
sa = a =
= 1.5 ksi
As 0.606
sm =

Page 83 of 133

1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn

say K f = 2.8 , SF = 0.85 , Factor for tension = 0.80

sn = (0.85)(0.80)(42.5) = 28.9 ksi
1 39.8 2.8(1.5)
=
+
N
50
28.9
N = 1.06
(b) Horizontal:

(a b)Fe = Qb
(12 7 )Fe = (3)(7 )
Fe = 4.2 kips
Fb = (4.2 )(0.2554 ) = 1.073 kips
Fb = Fi + Fb = 23 + 1.073 = 24.1 kips
F
24.1
s= b =
= 39.8 ksi
A 0.606
sm = s
sa = 0
K f sa
s
1
se = n sm +
=
(39.8) + 0 = 33.83 ksi
sy
SF
1.1765
Shear:
Fm = 0
1
Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = 2.5 kips
2

s ms = 0
Fa
2.5
=
= 4.13 ksi
As 0.606
K fs sas
s
(1.0)(4.13) = 4.86 ksi
ses = ns sms +
=0+
s ys
SF
0.85
sas =

1 se
=
N sn

ses 2
+

sns
sns = 0.5sn = 0.5(42.5) = 21.25 ksi , maximum shear
2

1
2
2
1 33.83 4.86 2
=
+

N 42.5 21.25
N = 1.21

Page 84 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

422.

The load Q, as seen (404), acts on the arm C and varies from 0 to 3 kips. The ends A and
B of the shaft are restrained from turning through an angle but are supported to take
the reactions A and B without other moments. The shaft is machined from AISI 1045, as
rolled; D1 = 2, D2 = 2.5, L = 15, a = 10, b = 20 in. For calculation purposes, assume that
the shaft size changes at the section of application of Q. Determine the factor of safety
in accordance with the maximum-shear and octahedral-shear theories. Investigate both
sections I and II. Would you judge the design to be 100% reliable?

Solution:
T = QL
Tmax = (3)(15) = 45 in kips
T1 + T2 = 45 in kips
T1a T2 b
=
J
J
T1a T2 b
=
D14 D 24
T1 (10) T2 (20)
=
(2 )4 (2.5)4
T1 = 0.8192T2
0.8192T2 + T2 = 45 in kips

T2 = 24.74 in kips
T1 = 0.8192T2 = 0.8192(24.74) = 20.27 in kips
1
1
Ta1 = Tm1 = T1 = (20.27 ) = 10.14 in kips
2
2
1
1
Ta 2 = Tm 2 = T2 = (24.74 ) = 12.37 in kips
2
2
16T
D 3
16T 16(10.14)
sms1 = sas1 = 31 =
= 6.46 ksi
D1
(2)3

sms = sas =

Page 85 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

sms 2 = sas 2 =

16T2 16(12.37 )
=
= 4.03 ksi
D 23
(2.5)3

A + B = Q = 3 kips
Aa = Bb
A(10) = B(20)
A = 2B
2B + B = 3 kips
B = 1 kip
A = 2 kips
M = Aa = Bb = (2 )(10) = 20 in kips
Mmax = M = 20 in kips
1
M m = Ma = Mmax = 10 in kips
2
32M
sm = sa =
D 3
32(10 )
sm1 = sa1 =
= 12.73 ksi
(2)3
32(10)
sm 2 = sa 2 =
= 6.52 ksi
(2.5)3
Use (1)
sms = 6.46 ksi , sm = 12.73 ksi
sas = 6.46 ksi , sa = 12.73 ksi
r = 0.15D1
r
D D
2.5
= 0.15 , = 2 =
= 1.25
D1
d D1 2.0
K t = 1.5 , K ts = 1.25 (Figure AF 12)
r = 0.15D1 = 0.15(2 ) = 0.30
1
=
= 0.968
a
0.01
1+
1+
r
0. 3
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.968(1.5 1) + 1 = 1.484

q=

K fs = q (K ts 1) + 1 = 0.968(1.25 1) + 1 = 1.242

Profile Keyway
K f = 1.6 , K fs = 1.3
Net

Page 86 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

K f = (1.484)(1.6 )(1 0.20) = 1.9
K fs = (1.242)(1.3)(1 0.20 ) = 1.3

For AISI 1045, as rolled, s y = 59 ksi , su = 96 ksi

sn = 0.5su = 48 ksi
sns sn 48
1
= =
=
s ys sy 59 1.229
SF = 0.85 , RF = 0.85
se =

K f sa
sn
1
sm +
=
(12.73) + 1.9(12.73) = 43.84 ksi
sy
(SF )(RF ) 1.229
(0.85)(0.85)

ses =

K fs sas
sns
1
s ms +
=
(6.46) + 1.3(6.46) = 16.88 ksi
s ys
(SF )(RF ) 1.229
(0.85)(0.85)

Maximum shear, sns = 0.5sn = 0.5(48) = 24 psi

1

1 se
=
N sn

ses
+
sns

2
2
1 43.84 16.88 2
=
+

N 48 24

N = 0.87
Octahedral Shear. sns = 0.577 sn = 0.577(48) = 27.7 psi
1
2
2
1 43.84 16.88 2
=
+

N 48 27.7
N = 0.91

Not 100% reliable, N < 100.

423.

A rotating shaft overhangs a bearing, as seen in the illustration. A -in. hole is drilled at
AB. The horizontal force F2 varies in phase with the shaft rotation from 0 to 5 kips, but
its line of action does not move. A steady torque T = 8 in-kips is applied at the end of the
shaft; D = 2, D2 = 2.5, a = 2, b = 5, e = 0.5, r = in. The material is AISI C1040, annealed.
What steady vertical load F1 can be added as shown if the design factor is to be 2.5 from
the octahedral-shear theory? Assume that the cycling of F2 may be such that the worst
stress condition occurs at the hole.

Page 87 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:
AISI C1040, annealed, s y = 48 ksi (Fig. AF 1), su = 80 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 40 ksi
sn 40 1
=
=
sy 48 1.2
For hole: d D = 0.25 2 = 0.125
K t = 2.2 , K ts = 1.6
a = 0.01 (annealed)
0.25
r=
= 0.125
2
1
1
q=
=
= 0.926
a
0.01
1+
1+
r
0.125
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(2.2 1) + 1 = 2.11
K fs = q (K ts 1) + 1 = 0.926(1.6 1) + 1 = 1.56

At hole
s = s3 + s1 s2
Bending F2 :
Mc M
s2 =
=
I
I c
F2 e
(5)(0.5)
s2 =
=
= 4.04 ksi
3
2
3
D
dD
(2) (0.25)(2 )2

32
6
32
6
F2
(
5)
s3 =
=
= 1.89 ksi
D 2
(2)2
dD
(0.25)(2)
4
4
F1b
(F1 )(5)
s1 =
=
= 8.08F1
3
2
3
D
dD
(2) (0.25)(2)2

32
6
32
6

Page 88 of 133

ss =

dD

16
6

(2 )

16

(8)
(0.25)(2 )2

= 5.70 ksi

smin = s3 + s1 s2 = 1.89 + 8.08F1 4.04 = 8.08F1 2.15

smax = s1 = 8.08F1
1
1
sm = (smax + smin ) = (8.08F1 + 8.08F1 2.15) = 8.08F1 1.08 ksi
2
2
1
1
sa = (smax smin ) = (8.08F1 8.08F1 + 2.15) = 1.08 ksi
2
2
se = 6.74F1 1.78
s
s es = ns sms + K fs sas
sys
s ms = s s
sas = 0
1
(5.7 ) = 4.75 ksi
1.2
N = 2.5
ses =

Octahedral Shear Theory

s
sns = n = 0.577 sn = 0.577(40) = 23.08 ksi
3
1

1 se
=
N sn

ses
+
sns

2
2
1 6.74F1 1.78 4.75 2
=
+

2.5
40
23.08

F1 = 2.3 kips
POWER SCREWS
424.

Design a square-thread screw for a screw jack, similar to that shown, which is to raise
and support a load of 5 tons. The maximum lift is to be 18 in. The material is AISI C1035,
as rolled, and N 3.3 based on the yield strength.

Page 89 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:
AISI C1035, as rolled, s y = 55 ksi
sy

55
= 16.6 ksi
N 3.3
F = (5)(2) = 10 kips
F 10
A= =
= 0.6034 in 2
s 16.6
D 2
A = r = 0.6034 in 2
4
Dr = 0.876 in
say 1 in, Dr = 1.000 in
L = 18 in
Le = 2L = 36 in
1
1
k = Dr = (1.000) = 0.125 in
8
8
Le
36
=
= 288 > 40
k 0.125
Transition:
s=

Le 2 2E 2 2 2 (30,000) 2
=
=
= 104
k sy
55

L
Use column formula, Eulers e > 104
k
2EI
F= 2
NLe

10,000 =
I=

2 (30 10 6 )I
3.3(36)2

Dr4

= 0.14444
64
Dr = 1.31 in
use 1 in, Dr = 1.400 in

Page 90 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

425.

(a) For the screw of 424, what length of threads h will be needed for a bearing pressure
of 1800 psi? (b) Complete the design of the jack. Let the base be cast iron and the
threads integral with the base. Devise a method of turning the screw with a round steel
rod as a lever and fix the details of a nonrotating cap on which the load rests. (c) What
should be the diameter of the rod used to turn the screw? If a man exerts a pull of 150
lb. at the end, how long must the rod be?

Solution:
(a)
Th/in = 2.5
Dr = 1.40 in
1
= 0.4 in
2.5
= tan 1
D m
1
Dm = (1.75 + 1.40 ) = 1.575 in
2
0.40
o
= tan 1
= 4.62
(
)

1
.
575

f = 0.15
tan = f = 0.15
= 8.53o
F cos( + )

s=

(Do Dr )L

(1.75 1.40)L
L = 16.30 in

1800 =

say h = 1.5 in

Page 91 of 133

32
= 6.4 ksi
5
20
s=
= 4 ksi
5

ss =

F
Dh
10
6.4 =
D(1.5)
D = 0.33 in
ss =

Dr = 1.4 in > 0.33 in

3
Do = 1 in
4
Use proportions from figure based on diameter.
Method: Manual, normal pull.
7
(c) D = in (Based on proportion)
8
FDm
(10 )(1.575) tan(8.53 + 4.62) = 1.84 in kips
T=
tan( + ) =
2
2
T = F a
F = 150 lb = 0.15 kips
1.84 = 0.15a
a = 12.3 in
426.

A screw jack, with a 1 -in. square thread, supports a load of 6000 lb. The material of
the screw is AISI C1022, as rolled, and the coefficient of friction for the threads is about
0.15. The maximum extension of the screw from the base is 15 in. (a) Considering the
ends of the screw restrained so that Le = L, find the equivalent stress and the design
factor. (b) If the load on the jack is such that it may sway, the screw probably acts as a
column with one end free and the other fixe. What is the equivalent stress and the
factor of safety in this instance? (c) What force must be exerted at the end of a 20-in.
lever to raise the load? (d) Find the number of threads and the length h of the threaded
portion in the cast-iron base for a pressure of 500 psi on the threads. (e) What torque is
necessary to lower the load?

Page 92 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:
From Table AT 7,
AISI C1022, as rolled, sy = 52 ksi
F = 6000 lb = 6 kips
For 1 in square thread, Dr = 1.0 in, Th/in. = 3.5
f = 0.15
(a) With Le = L = 15 in
1
1
k = Dr = (1.0) = 0.125 in
8
8
Le
15
=
= 120
k 0.125
Transition for AISI C1020;
1

Le 2 2E 2 2 2 (30,000) 2
=
=
= 107
k sy
52

Le
Use column formula, Eulers
> 107
k
2EA
Fc = NF =
(Le k )2
sd =

F
2E
=
A N (Le k )2

Equivalent stress
F
4F
sd = = 2
A Dr
4(6)
sd =
= 7.64 ksi
(1.0)2
Design factor
2E
sd =
N (Le k )2

Page 93 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

7.64 =

2 (30,000)
N (120)2

N = 2.69

(b) With Le = 2L = 30 in
Le
30
=
= 240
k 0.125
Transition for AISI C1020;
1

Le 2 2E 2 2 2 (30,000) 2
=
=
= 107
k sy
52

Le
Use column formula, Eulers
> 107
k
2EA
Fc = NF =
(Le k )2
sd =

F
2E
=
A N (Le k )2

Equivalent stress
F
4F
sd = = 2
A Dr
4(6)
sd =
= 7.64 ksi
(1.0)2
Design factor
2E
sd =
N (Le k )2
7.64 =

2 (30,000)

N (240)2
N = 0.673 not safe

(c) For force exerted at the end of 20-in. lever to raise the load = Fa
WDm
T=
tan( + )
2
1
Lead = Pc =
= 0.2857 in
3. 5
1
Dm = (1.25 + 1.00) = 1.125 in
2
0.2857
= tan1
= tan1
= 4.62o
Dm
(1.125)
f = tan = 0.15

= 8.53o
W = 6000 lb

Page 94 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

WDm
tan( + )
2
6000(1.125)
Fa (20) =
tan(8.53 + 4.62)
2
Fa = 39.43 lb

T = Fa a =

(d) Let p = pressure = 500 psi, W = 6000 lb, Do = 1.25 in, Di = 1.00 in.
Nt = number of threads, h = length of threaded portion.
4W
p=
2
Do Dr2 Nt
4(6000 )
500 =
(1.25)2 (1.00 )2 Nt
Nt = 27
Then
h = Nt Pc = (27 )(0.2857 ) = 7.7 in

(e) Torque necessary to lower the load.

WDm
T=
tan( )
2
(6000)(1.125) tan(8.53 4.62)
T=
2
T = 230.7 in lb.
427.

A square-thread screw, 2 in. in diameter, is used to exert a force of 24,000 lb. in a shaftstraightening press. The maximum unsupported length of the screw is 16 in. and the
material is AISI C1040, annealed. (a) What is the equivalent compressive stress in the
screw? Is this a satisfactory value? (b) What torque is necessary to turn the screw
against the load for f = 0.15? (c) What is the efficiency of the screw? (d) What torque is
necessary to lower the load?
Solution:
For 2 in. square thread screw, Do = 2 in, Dr = 1.612 in, Th/in. = 2.25 from Table 8.1
W = 24,000 lb = 24 kips, L = 16 in
(a) For unsupported length, Le = L = 16 in.
For AISI C1040, annealed, Figure AF-1, sy = 47.5 ksi
Transition,
1
1
k = Dr = (1.612 ) = 0.2015 in
8
8
1

Le 2 2E 2 2 2 (30,000) 2
=
=
= 112
k sy
47.5

Then
Le
16
=
= 79.4 < 112
k 0.2015

Page 95 of 133

Le
< 112
k

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

sy (Le k )2
F
= se 1

A
4 2E

se =

4W

sy (Le k )2

4 2E

4(24)
se =
47.5(79.4)2
(1.612)2 1 2

4 (30,000)

Dr2 1

se = 15.74 ksi
s
47.5
= 3.0 satisfactory
N= y =
se 15.74
(b) Torque to turn the screw against the load
WDm
tan( + )
2
1
Lead = Pc =
= 0.4445 in
2.25
1
Dm = (2.00 + 1.612 ) = 1.806 in
2
0.4445
= tan1
= tan1
= 4.48o
Dm
(1.806)
f = tan = 0.15

T=

= 8.53o
W = 24,000 lb
WDm
tan( + )
2
24,000(1.806)
T=
tan(8.53 + 4.48)
2
T = 5008 in lb
T=

(c) Torque necessary to lower the load.

WDm
T=
tan( )
2
24,000(1.806)
T=
tan(8.53 4.48)
2
T =1535 in lb.

428.

(a) A jack with a 2-in., square-thread screw is supporting a load of 20 kips. A single
thread is used and the coefficient of friction may be as low as 0.10 or as high as 0.15.

Page 96 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Will this screw always be self-locking? What torque is necessary to raise the load? What
torque is necessary to lower the load? (b) The same as (a) except that a double thread is
used. (c) The same as (a) except that a triple thread is used.
Solution:
Table 8.1, 2 in. square thread, Do = 2 in, Dr = 1.612 in, Th/in = 2.25
(a) Self-locking? And Torque necessary to raise the load.
1
Dm = (2.00 + 1.612 ) = 1.806 in
2
1
Lead = Pc =
= 0.4445 in
2.25
0.4445
= tan1
= tan1
= 4.48o
Dm
(1.806)
If f = 0.10
f = tan = 0.10

= 5.71o
If f = 0.15
f = tan = 0.15
= 8.53o
Since is always greater than , the screw is always self-locking.
WDm
tan( + )
2
W = 20 kips
WDm
tan( + )
T=
2
20(1.806)
T=
tan(8.53 + 4.48)
2
T = 4.173 in kips
Torque necessary to lower the load.
WDm
T=
tan( )
2
20(1.806)
T=
tan(8.53 4.48)
2
T = 1.279 in kips.
T=

2
Lead = 2Pc =
= 0.8889 in
2.25
0.8889
= tan1
= tan1
= 8.904o
Dm
(1.806)
If f = 0.10
f = tan = 0.10

= 5.71o
If f = 0.15

Page 97 of 133

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

f = tan = 0.15

= 8.53o
Since is always less than , the screw is always not self-locking.
WDm
tan( + )
2
W = 20 kips
WDm
tan( + )
T=
2
20(1.806)
T=
tan(8.53 + 8.904)
2
T = 5.671 in kips
Torque necessary to lower the load = 0
T=

(c) Self-locking? And Torque necessary to raise the load.

3
Lead = 3Pc =
= 1.3333 in
2.25
1.3333
= tan1
= tan1
= 13.224o
Dm
(1.806 )
If f = 0.10
f = tan = 0.10

= 5.71o
If f = 0.15
f = tan = 0.15
= 8.53o
Since is always less than , the screw is always not self-locking.
WDm
tan( + )
2
W = 20 kips
WDm
T=
tan( + )
2
20(1.806)
T=
tan(8.53 + 13.224)
2
T = 7.207 in kips
Torque necessary to lower the load = 0
T=

429.

The conditions for a self-locking screw are given in 8.23, Text. Assume that the
coefficient of friction is equal to the tangent of the lead angle and show that the
efficiency of a self-locking screw is always less than 50%.
Solution:
tan

e=

tan( + ) +
For self-locking, > , then + > 2
Then,

Page 98 of 133

e<

e < 0.50
e < 50%

CURVED BEAMS
430.

It is necessary to bend a certain link somewhat as shown in order to prevent

interference with another part of the machine. It is estimated that sufficient clearance
will be provided if the center line of the link is displaced e = 3 in. from the line of action
of F, with a radius of curvature of R 5.5 in., L = 10 in., material is wrought aluminum
alloy 2014 T6; N = 2 on the basis of the maximum shear stress; F = 2500 lb. with the
number of repetitions not exceeding 106. (a) If the section is round, what should be its
diameter D? (b) If the link is bend to form cold, will the residual stresses be helpful or
damaging? Discuss.

Solution:
(a) Table AT3. Wrought aluminum alloy 2014 T6
sn = 18 ksi @5 108 cycles
sy = 60 ksi
At 106 cycles
106

sn = sn

nc

0.09

0.09

10 6

18 = sn
8
5 10
sn = 31.49 ksi
With size factor.
sn = 0.85sn = 0.85(31.49) = 26.77 ksi
sn 26.77
=
= 13.38 ksi
N
2
Equation:
F K Mc
s= + c
A
I
s=

Page 99 of 133

A=
I=

D 2
4

D 4

64
D
c=
2
M = Fe
D
K c (Fe )
4F
2
s= 2 +
D
D 4
64

s=

4F 32K c Fe
+
D 2
D 3

Using Trial and error and Table AT 18:

r 2R 2(5.5) 11
=
=
=
c D
D
D
4(2.5) 32K c (2.5)(3)
+
13.38 =
D 2
D 3
By trial and error D = 1.92 in
r 11
=
= 6.0908
c 1.92
Table AT 18: Kc = 1.152
4(2.5) 32(1.152)(2.5)(3)
s=
+
= 13.30 ksi 13.38 ksi
(1.92)2
(1.92)3
Use D = 2 in.
(b) Residual stress is helpful due to a decrease in total stress on tension side.
431.

The same as 430, except that the section is rectangular with h 3b; see figure.

Solution:
(a) Table AT3. Wrought aluminum alloy 2014 T6
sn = 18 ksi @5 108 cycles
sy = 60 ksi
At 106 cycles

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

106

sn = sn

nc

0.09

0.09

10 6

18 = sn
8
5

10

sn = 31.49 ksi
With size factor.
sn = 0.85sn = 0.85(31.49) = 26.77 ksi
s
26.77
s= n =
= 13.38 ksi
N
2
Equation:
F K Mc
s= + c
A
I
A = bh = b(3b) = 3b 2
bh 3 b(3b)3
=
= 2.25b 4
12
12
h
c = = 0.5h = 1.5b
2
M = Fe
F
K (Fe )(1.5b)
s= 2 + c
3b
2.25b 4

I=

s=

F
K Fe
+ c 3
2
3b 1.5b

Using Trial and error and Table AT 18:

r 2R 2(5.5) 11 11
=
=
= =
c h
h
h 3b
2.5 K (2.5)(3)
13.38 = 2 + c
3b
1.5b3
By trial and error b = 0.787 in
r
11
=
= 4.66
c 3(0.787 )
Table AT 18: Kc = 1.1736
2.5
(1.1736 )(2.5)(3)
s=
+
= 13.38 ksi
2
3(0.787 )
1.5(0.787 )3
Use b = 7/8 in. h = 3b = 2 5/8 in
(b) Residual stress is helpful due to a decrease in total stress on tension side.

432.

A hook is to be designed similar to that shown to support a maximum load F = 2500 lb.
that will be repeated an indefinite number of times; the horizontal section is to be
circular of radius c and the inside radius a is 1 in. (a) Determine the diameter of the

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

horizontal section for N = 2 based on the Soderberg line, if the material is AISI 4130,
WQT 1100 F. (b) Calculate the value of the static load that produces incipient yielding.

Solution:
(a) For AISI 4130, WQT 1100 F, Table AT 7
sy = 114 ksi, su = 127 ksi, sn = su/2 for reversed bending
sn = SFsn = 0.85sn = 0.85(su 2)
Soderberg line:
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
sm = sa =

s
2

K f = 1.0

s2
1
s
=
+
N 2 sy 0.85(su 2 )
1 1
1
=
+
s
N 2sy 0.85su

1 1
1
s
=
+
2 2(114) 0.85(127 )
sd = 36.63 ksi
For curved beam
F K Mc
s= + c
A
I
a = 1.5 in
A=

(2c )2 = c 2

4
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
M = F (a + c )
I=

(2c )4
64

c 4
4

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Table AT 18,
r =a+c
r a + c 1. 5 + c
=
=
c
c
c
Substitute:
2.5 K (2.5)(1.5 + c )c
36.63 = 2 + c
c
c 4 4
2.5 10K c (1.5 + c )
36.63 = 2 +
c
c 3
By trial and error: c = 0.633
r 1.5 + 0.633
=
= 3.37 , K c = 1.293
c
0.633
2.5
10(1.293)(1.5 + 0.633)
36.63 = s =
+
2
(0.633)
(0.633)3
36.63 = s 36.60 ksi
Use c = 11/16 = 0.6875 in
Diameter = 2c = 1.375 in = 1 3/8 in
(b) Static load that produces incipient yielding.
sd = sy = 114 ksi
F K Mc
s= + c
A
I
K (F )(1.5 + c )c
F
114 = 2 + c
c
c 4 4
F
K (F )(1.5 + c )
114 = 2 + c
c
c 3
r 1.5 + 0.6875
=
= 3.18 , K c = 1.312
c
0.6875
1.312(F )(1.5 + 0.6875)
F
114 =
+
2
(0.6875)
(0.6875)3
F = 32.71 kips
433.

The same as 432, except that the hook is expected to be subjected to 100,000
repetitions of the maximum load.

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:
(a) For AISI 4130, WQT 1100 F, Table AT 7
sy = 114 ksi, su = 127 ksi, sn = su/2 for reversed bending
At 100,000 repetitions
10 6

sn = 0.85(su 2 )

n
c
Soderberg line:
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
sm = sa =

0.085

106

= 0.85(su 2)

100
,
000

s
2

K f = 1.0

s2
1
s
=
+
N 2 sy 0.5169su

1 1
1
s
=
+

N 2sy 1.0338su

1 1
1
s
=
+
2 2(114 ) 1.0338(127 )
sd = 41.66 ksi
For curved beam
F K Mc
s= + c
A
I
a = 1.5 in

(2c )2 = c 2
4
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
M = F (a + c )
A=

I=

(2c )4

c 4

64
4
Table AT 18,
r =a+c
r a + c 1. 5 + c
=
=
c
c
c
Substitute:
2.5 K (2.5)(1.5 + c )c
41.66 = 2 + c
c
c 4 4
2.5 10K c (1.5 + c )
41.66 = 2 +
c
c 3
By trial and error: c = 0.601
r 1.5 + 0.601
=
= 3.5 , K c = 1.28
c
0.601

0.085

= 0.5169su

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

2. 5
10(1.28)(1.5 + 0.601)
+
2
(0.601)
(0.601)3
41.66 = s 41.64 ksi
Use c =5/8
Diameter = 2c = 1.25 in = 1 1/4 in
41.66 = s =

(b) Static load that produces incipient yielding.

sd = sy = 114 ksi
F K Mc
s= + c
A
I
K (F )(1.5 + c )c
F
114 = 2 + c
c
c 4 4
F
K (F )(1.5 + c )
114 = 2 + c
c
c 3
r 1.5 + 0.625
=
= 3.4 , K c = 1.29
c
0.625
1.29(F )(1.5 + 0.625)
F
114 =
+
2
(
)
0.625
(0.625)3
F = 25.97 kips
434.

A hook, similar to that shown with a horizontal circular section of diameter 2c, is to be
designed for a capacity of 2000 lb. maximum, a load that may be applied an indefinite
number of times. A value of a = 2 in. should be satisfactory for the radius of curvature of
the inside of the hook. Let N = 1.8 based on the modified Goodman line. At the outset of
design, the engineer decided to try AISI C1040, OQT 1100 F. (a) Compute the diameter
of the horizontal section, (b) If the 45o circular section is made the same diameter, what
is its design factor (modified Goodman)? Could this section be made smaller or should it
be larger?

Solution:
(a) For AISI C1040, OQT 1100 F, Figure AF 1
su = 100 ksi, sn = su/2 for reversed bending
sn = SF x sn = 0.85(0.5)(100) = 42.5 ksi
Kf = 1.0
Modified Goodman line:

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

1 sm K f sa
=
+
N su
sn
s
sm = sa = repeated load
2
K f = 1.0
s2 s2
1
=
+
1.8 100 42.5
sd = 33.14 ksi
For curved beam
F K Mc
s= + c
A
I
a = 2.0 in
A=

(2c )2 = c 2

4
F = 2000 lb = 2.0 kips
M = F (a + c )
I=

(2c )4

c 4

64
4
Table AT 18,
r =a+c
r a + c 2. 0 + c
=
=
c
c
c
Substitute:
2.0 K (2.0)(2.0 + c )c
33.14 = 2 + c
c
c 4 4
2.0 8K (2.0 + c )
33.14 = 2 + c 3
c
c
By trial and error: c = 0.639
r 2.0 + 0.639
= 4.13 , K c = 1.224
=
c
0.639
2. 0
8(1.224)(2.0 + 0.639)
33.14 = s =
+
2
(0.639)
(0.639)3
33.14 = s 33.08 ksi
Use c = 11/16 in
Diameter = 2c = 1.375 in = 1 3/8 in

(b) sus = 0.6su = 0.6 x 100 ksi = 60 ksi

sns = 0.6sn = 0.6 x 42.5 ksi = 25.5 ksi
Equivalent stress (Modified Goodman Line)
s s
se = m n + K f sa
su
s s
ses = ms ns + K f sas
sus

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn sns

s
sm = sa =
2
s
sms = sas = s
2
F cos 45 K c Mc F cos 45 K c F (a + c )(cos 45)c
s=
+
=
+
A
I
c 2
c 4 4
F cos 45 4K c F (a + c )(cos 45)
+
s=
c 2
c 3
F sin 45 F sin 45
ss =
=
A
c 2
11
c = in = 0.6875 in (assuming constant diameter)
16
r a + c 2.0 + 0.6875
=
=
= 3.91
c
c
0.6875
Table AT 18,
K c = 1.239
(2.0 )cos 45 4(1.239)(2.0)(2.0 + 0.6875)(cos 45)
s=
+
(0.6875)2
(0.6875)3
s = 19.40 ksi
(2.0 )sin 45
ss =
= 0.95 ksi
(0.6875)2
Then
s s
se = m n + K f sa
su

19.40 42.5
ss
se = n + K f =
+ 1 = 13.82 ksi

2 su
2 100

s s
ses = ms ns + K f sas
sus
ses =

0.85 25.5
ss sns

+ K f =
+ 1 = 0.68 ksi

2 sus
2 60

2
2
1 se ses
= +
N sn sns

2
2
1 13.82 0.68 2
=
+

N 42.5 25.5
N = 3.06
Since N > 1.8, this section could be made smaller.

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

435.

A C-frame hand press is made of annealed cast steel (A27-58) and has a modified Isection, as shown. The dimensions of a 45o section CD are: a = 3, b = 6, h = 4, t = 1 in.,
radius r = 1 in.; also g = 12 in.; and the maximum force is F = 17 kips, repeated a
relatively few times in the life of the press. (a) Applying the straight-beam formula to
the 45o section, compute the maximum and minimum normal stresses. (b) Do the same,
applying the curved-beam formula. (c) By what theory would you judge this section to
have been designed? If the radius r were increased several times over, as it could have
been done, would the stress have been materially reduced? Give reasons for your
conclusions.

Solution:
(a) Straight-beam formula
Consider only normal stresses, relatively static.
F cos 45 Mc
s=

A
I

M = F g r + 2 + r cos 45
2

A = ht + at + (b 2t )t

t
t
b 2t

ht + (b 2t )(t )
+ t + at b t +
2
2
2

c2 =
ht + (b 2t )t + at

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

ht 2
t
bt

+ (b 2t ) + at b
2
2
2

c2 =
ht + (b 2t )t + at
c1 = b c 2

(4)(1)2

1
(6 )(1)

+ [6 2(1)]
+ (3)(1) 6

2
2
2

c2 =
= 2.77273 in
(4 )(1) + [6 2(1)](1) + (3)(1)
c1 = b c 2 = 6 2.7723 = 3.22727 in

I = I + Ad 2
A1 = ht
A2 = (b 2t )t
A3 = at
ht 3
t

I1 =
+ ht c 2
12
2

I2 =

t (b 2t )3
b

+ (b 2t )(t ) c2
12
2

at 3
t

I3 =
+ at c1
12
2

I1 =

2
(4)(1)3 ( )( )
1
+ 4 1 2.77273 = 21 in 4

12

2
(1)[6 2(1)]3 [ ( )]( ) 6

I2 =
+ 6 2 1 1 2.77273 = 5.54 in 4

12

(3)(1)

12
2

I = 21 + 5.54 + 22.564 = 49.104 in 4

Then
F cos 45 Mc 2
smax =
+
A
I
F cos 45 Mc1
smin =

A
I
A = (4 )(1) + (3)(1) + [6 2(1)](1) = 11 in 2
I3 =

2.77273
M = 17 12 1 +
+ 1 cos 45 = 215.686 in kips
2

17 cos 45 (215.686)(2.77273)
smax =
+
= 13.27 ksi in tension
11
49.104
17 cos 45 (215.686)(2.77273)
smin =

11
49.104

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

F cos 45 K ci Mc 2
+
A
I
F cos 45 K co Mc1
smin =

A
I
Using Table AT18
r
Z = 1 + [b1 log e (r + c1 ) (t b1 )log e (r + c 4 ) + (b t )log e (r c3 ) blog e (r c 2 )]
A
smax =

r = 1 + 2.77273 = 3.77273 in
c 2 = 2.77273 in
c1 = 3.22727 in
c 4 = 3.22727 1 = 2.22727 in
c3 = 2.77273 1 = 1.77273 in
b1 = 3 in
t = 1 in
b = 4 in

c
1 + Z (r + c ) I

Kc =
Arc
3.77273 3log e (3.77273 + 3.22727 ) (1 3)log e (3.77273 + 2.22727)
Z = 1 +

11 + (4 1)log e (3.77273 1.77273) 4 log e (3.77273 2.77273)

Z = 2.944455

c = c2

c2

2.77273
(49.104)
1 +
I 1 +
Z (r c 2 ) 2.944455(3.77273 2.77273)

K ci =
=
(11)(3.77273)(2.77273)
Arc 2
K ci = 0.8286

c = c1

c1

3.22727
(49.104)
1 +
I 1 +
Z (r + c1 ) 2.944455(3.77273 + 3.22727 )

K co =
=
(11)(3.77273)(3.22727 )
Arc1
K co = 0.424
F cos 45 K ci Mc 2
smax =
+
A
I
F cos 45 K co Mc1
smin =

A
I
17 cos 45 (0.8286)(215.686)(2.77273)
smax =
+
= 11.18 ksi in tension
11
49.104

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

smin =

17 cos 45 (0.424)(215.686)(2.77273)

= 4.07 ksi = 4.07 ksi in compression

11
49.104

(c) This section must be designed based on straight beam formula. Maximum stress is
higher.
Increasing the radius r.
Table A-18.
r = 2 + 2.77273 = 4.77273 in
c 2 = 2.77273 in
c1 = 3.22727 in
c 4 = 3.22727 1 = 2.22727 in
c3 = 2.77273 1 = 1.77273 in
b1 = 3 in
t = 1 in
b = 4 in

c
1 + Z (r + c ) I

Kc =
Arc
4.77273 3log e (4.77273 + 3.22727 ) (1 3)log e (4.77273 + 2.22727 )
Z = 1 +

11 + (4 1)log e (4.77273 1.77273) 4 log e (4.77273 2.77273)

Z = 3.622343

c = c2

c2

2.77273
1 +
I 1 +
(49.104)
(
)
Z
r

c
3
.
622343
(
4
.
77273

2
.
77273
)
2

K ci =
=
(
)(
)(
)
Arc 2
11 4.77273 2.77273
K ci = 0.4664

c = c1

c1

3.22727
(49.104)
1 +
I 1 +
Z
(
r
+
c
)
3.622343(4.77273 + 3.22727 )

K co =
=
(11)(4.77273)(3.22727)
Arc1
K co = 0.3221
F cos 45 K ci Mc 2
smax =
+
A
I
F cos 45 K co Mc1
smin =

A
I
17 cos 45 (0.4664)(215.686)(2.77273)
smax =
+
= 6.77 ksi in tension
11
49.104
17 cos 45 (0.3221)(215.686)(2.77273)
smin =

11
49.104

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

436.

The stress is reduced using by increasing the radius r in Curved Beam Formula.
Reason: As the radius r increased the stress factor for curved beam decreases thence
the maximum stress is reduced.
A heavy C-clamp, similar to the figure, is made of normalized cast steel (A27-58) and has
a T-section where t= 7/16 in.; q= 2 , a =1 in. What is the safe capacity if N = 2 based
on yield?

Solution:
F K Mc
s = + ci i
A
I
Table AT 1
2

3t
7
A = 4t + t (4.5t ) = 10.5t 2 = 10.5 = 2.009766 in 2
2
16

(t ) 4.5t + 3 t

3
+ (4t t ) t
2
2 = 2.035714t
c1 =

3
3
2t 4.5t + t + (4t t ) t
2

7
c1 = 2.035714 = 0.890625 in
16
c 2 = 4.5t + 1.5t c1 = 6t 2.035714t = 3.964286t
7
c 2 = 3.964286 = 1.734375 in
16
Table AT 18
r = a + c1 = 1.75 + 0.890625 = 2.640625 in
r a + c1 2.640625
=
=
= 2.965
c
c1
0.890625
K ci = 1.4212

M = F (q + ci ) = F (2.75 + 0.890625) = 3.640625F

For Normalized cast steel, A27-58,
sy = 36 ksi
Moment of Inertia

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

3

(4t ) 3 t
2
2
3
2 + (4t ) 3 t 2.035714t 3 t + (t )(4.5t ) + (t )(4.5t ) 3.964286t 4.5 t
I=

12
4
12
2
2

7
I = 31.861607t = 31.861607 = 1.167293 in 4
16
4

F K ci Mc i
+
A
I
sy 36
F
(1.4212 )(3.640625)(F )(0.890625)
s= = =
+
N 2 2.009766
1.167293
F = 4.049 kips = 4049 lb
s=

437.

The same as 436, except that the section is trapezoidal with b = in. (see figure). Ignore
the effect of resounding off the corners.

Solution:
F K Mc
s = + ci i
A
I
From other sources.
2

1
(b + 2b)(3b ) = 4.5b 2 = 4.5 3 = 2.53125 in 2
2
4
3b 2b + 2b 4
43
c1 =
= b = = 1 in
3 b + 2b 3
34
4
5
5 3
c 2 = 3b b = b = = 1.25 in
3
3
3 4
A=

4
(3b)3 [b 2 + 4b(2b) + (2b)2 ]
3
4
I=
= 3.25b = 3.25 = 1.02832 in 4
36(b + 2b)
4

Table AT 18
3.25b4
Z = 1 +

2r b a
(r + c 2 ) log e r + c 2 (b a )
a +
(a + b)c
c

r c1

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

r = a + c1 = 1.75 + 1 = 2.75 in
a = b = 0.75 in
b = 2b = 2(0.75) = 1.50 in
c = 3b = 3(0.75) = 2.25 in
Z = 1 +

2(2.75)

1.50 0.75
2.75 + 1.25
(2.75 + 1.25) log e
(1.50 0.75)
0.75 +
(0.75 + 1.5)(2.25)
2.25
2.75 1

Z = 0.05627

c1

1
(1.02832)
1 +
I 1 +
Z (r c1 ) 0.05627(2.75 1)

K ci =
=
= 1.6479
(2.53125)(2.75)(1)
Arc1
M = F (q + c1 ) = F (2.75 + 1) = 3.75F
For Normalized cast steel, A27-58,
sy = 36 ksi
F K ci Mc i
+
A
I
sy 36
F
(1.6479)(3.75)(F )(1)
s= = =
+
N 2 2.53125
1.02832
F = 2.810 kips = 2810 lb
s=

THICK-SHELL CYLINDERS; INTERFERENCE FITS

438.

Special welded steel pipe, equivalent in strength to SAE 1022, as rolled, is subjected to
an internal pressure of 8000 psi. The internal diameter is to be 4 in. and the factor of
safety is to be 3, including an allowance for the weld. (a) Find the thickness of the pipe
according to the distortion-energy theory. (b) Using this thickness find the maximum
normal and shear stresses and the corresponding safety factors. (c) Compute the
thickness from the thin-shell formula and from the Barlow formula.
Solution:
4.5
ri =
= 2.25 in , N = 3 , pi = 8000 psi
2
SAE 1022, as rolled, sy = 52 ksi
(a) Distortion-Energy Theory
1

1
1 in
t = ri

1 3pi

sy 52
s = = = 17.333 ksi = 17 ,333 psi
N 3

1

1
1 = 2.774 in
t = 2.25

1 3 8000

17 ,333

(b) Maximum normal stress

p r 2 + r 2 2p r 2
ti = i o 2 i 2 o o
ro ri

pi ro2 + ri2
ro2 ri 2
ri = 2.25 in
ro = 2.25 + 2.774 = 5.024 in

ti =

8000 5.024 2 + 2.25 2

= 12,014 psi
5.0242 2.252
s
52,000
= 4.33
N= y =
ti 12,014
Maximum shear stress
r 2 (p p )
= o 2 i 2o
ro ri

ti =

=
=

ro2 pi
ro2 ri 2

(5.024)2 (8000)

= 10,007 psi
5.0242 2.252
sy
52,000
N=
=
= 2.60
2 2(10,007 )
(c) From thin-shell formula
p r (8000)(2.25)
t= i i =
= 1.0385 in
st
17,333
From Barlow formula
pr
p (r + t )
t= i o = i i
st
st
pr
(8000)(2.25)
t= i i =
= 1.929 in
st pi 17,333 8000

439.

The internal diameter of the cast-steel cylinder, SAE 0030, of a hydraulic press is 12 in.
The internal working pressure is 6000 psi, N = 2.5. Find the thickness of the cylinder
walls (a) from the maximum-shear-stress theory, (b) from the octahedral-shear theory.
(c) Compute the thickness from the thin-shell and Barlow formulas. What do you
recommend?
Solution:

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Table AT 6. SAE 0030 = A27-58, sy = 35 ksi
(a) Maximum shear theory
r 2 (p p ) s
= o 2 i 2o = y
ro ri
2N
12
ri = = 6 in
2
pi = 6,000 psi = 6 ksi
po = 0 ksi
ro2 (6 0 )
35
=
2
2
2(2.5)
ro (6)
ro = 15.8745 in
t = ro ri = 15.8745 6 = 9.8745 in
(b) Octahedral Sheat Theory
12

1
1
t = ri

3pi

sy 35
= 14 ksi
s= =
N 2.5
12

t = (6 )
1 = 5.8195 in

3 (6)

14

(c) Thin shell formula

p r sy
st = i i =
t
N
(6)(6) = 35
t
2.5
t = 2.5714 in
Barlow formula
sy
pr
st = i o =
t
N
6(6 + t ) 35
=
t
2.5
t = 4.5 in
Recommended: Maximum shear theory , t = 9.8745 in thick.

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

440.

The same as 439, except a higher-strength material is selected. Try cast-steel SAE 0105.

Solution:
Table AT 6. SAE 0105 = A148-58, sy = 85 ksi
(a) Maximum shear theory
r 2 (p p ) s
= o 2 i 2o = y
ro ri
2N
12
ri = = 6 in
2
pi = 6,000 psi = 6 ksi
po = 0 ksi
ro2 (6 0 )
85
=
2
2
2(2.5)
ro (6)
ro = 7.459 in
t = ro ri = 7.459 6 = 1.459 in
(b) Octahedral Sheat Theory
12

1
1
t = ri

3pi

sy 85
s= =
= 34 ksi
N 2.5
12

1
1 = 1.2005 in
t = (6)

3 (6 )

34

(c) Thin shell formula

p r sy
st = i i =
t
N
(6)(6) = 85
t
2.5
t = 1.0588 in
Barlow formula
sy
pr
st = i o =
t
N
6(6 + t ) 85
=
t
2.5
t = 1.2857 in
Recommended: Maximum shear theory , t = 1.459 in thick.

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

441.

A 2 in. heavy-wall pipe has the following dimensions: OD = 2.875, ID = 1.771, t = 0.552
in.; inside surface area per foot of length = 66.82 in.2, outside surface area per foot of
length = 108.43 in.2. The material is chromium-molybdenum alloy, for which the
permissible tangential tensile stress is 15 ksi at temperatures between 700 800 F. (a)
Compute the maximum internal working pressure for this pipe from Lames formula, by
the maximum-shear and octahedral-shear theories. (b) What is the stress at an external
fiber? (c) A higher design stress would be permitted for an external pressure alone.
Nevertheless, compute the external pressure corresponding to a maximum tangential
stress of 15 ksi.
Solution:
OD 2.875
ro =
=
= 1.4375 in
2
2
ID 1.771
ri = =
= 0.8855 in
2
2
t = 0.552 in
(a) Lames Equation
p r 2 + r 2 2p r 2
ti = i o 2 i 2 o o = s
ro ri

pi (1.4375)2 + (0.8855)2 0
(1.4375)2 (0.8855)2
pi = 6.7477 ksi
Maximum shear theory
r 2 (p p ) s
= o 2 i 2o =
ro ri
2
15 =

(1.4375)2 (pi )
15
=
2
2
(1.4375) (0.8855) 2
pi = 4.654 ksi
Octahedral shear theory
12

t = ri
1

3pi

12

0.552 = (0.8855)
1

3pi

15

pi = 5.374 ksi
(b) Stress at external fiber, pi = 4.654 ksi

to =

ro2 ri2

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

2(4.654)(0.8855)2 0
to =
= 5.592 ksi
(1.4375)2 (0.8855)2
(c) External pressure alone.
p r 2 + r 2 2p r 2
ti = i o 2 i 2 o o = s
ro ri

0 2po (1.4375)2
(1.4375)2 (0.8855)2
po = 4.654 ksi
15 =

442.

A cast-steel hub is to be shrunk on a 1.5-in., SAE 1035, as-rolled, steel shaft. The
equivalent diameter of the hub is 2.5 in., its length is 4 in. (a) What must be the
interference of metal if the holding power of this fit is equal to the torsional yield
strength of the shaft? Use Baughers recommendations. (b) What are the corresponding
tangential and radial stresses in the hub?
Solution:
Table AT 7, SAE 1035, as rolled, sy = 55 ksi.
sys = 0.6 sy = 33 ksi
Es = 30,000 ksi
s = 0.3
For hub, Cast steel, Eh = 30,000 ksi, h ~ 0.3
(a) Interference of metal
For solid shaft, same E and .
2
Ei Di
1
pi =
2Di Do

Di = 1.5 in
Do = 2.5 in
L = 4 in
For pi:
fp D 2L
T= i i
2
But
Di3 sys
T=
16
Then
Di3 sys fpiDi2L
=
16
f = 0.1 as per Baughers recommendation
Di sys (1.5)(33)
pi =
=
= 15.46875 ksi
8 fL 8(0.1)(4 )
Then

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

pi =

2
Ei Di
1
2Di Do

(30,000)(i ) 1.5 2
15.46875 =

1
2(1.5) 2.5
i = 0.002417 in - answer.
(b) Tangential and radial stresses in the hub
Tangential stress
Ei Di
1 +
th =
2Di Do

th =

(30,000)(0.002417 ) 1.5 2
= 32.87 ksi
1 +
2(1.5)
2.5

rh = pi = 15.46875 ksi
443.

The same as 442, except that the hub is ASTM 20, cast iron. Will the resulting tensile
stresses be safe for cast iron?
Solution:
Table AT 6, ASTM 20, cast iron, suc = 83 ksi, su = 20 ksi (hub)
Table AT 7, SAE 1035, as rolled, sy = 55 ksi.
sys = 0.6 sy = 33 ksi
(a) Interference of metal
For hub of cast iron and the shaft is steel.
D 2
Ei 1 i
Do
pi =
2

D
Di 3 + + (1 ) i

Do
Di = 1.5 in
Do = 2.5 in
L = 4 in
E = 30,000 ksi
= 0.27
For pi:
fp D 2L
T= i i
2
But
Di3 sys
T=
16

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Then
Di3 sys

fpiDi2L

16
f = 0.1 as per Baughers recommendation
Di sys (1.5)(33)
pi =
=
= 15.46875 ksi
8 fL 8(0.1)(4 )
Then
D 2
Ei 1 i
Do
pi =
2

Di

Di 3 + + (1 )

Do
2

(30,000)(i )1 1.5
2.5
15.46875 =
2

(1.5)3 + 0.27 + (1 0.27 ) 1.5

2.5

i = 0.004269 in - answer.
(b) Tangential and radial stresses in the hub
Tangential stress
D 2
Ei 1 + i
Do
th =
2

D
Di 3 + + (1 ) i

Do
2

(30,000)(0.004269)1 + 1.5
2.5 = 32.87 ksi
th =
2

(1.5)3 + 0.27 + (1 0.27 ) 1.5

2.5

(30,000)(0.002417 ) 1.5 2
th =
= 32.87 ksi
1 +
2(1.5)
2.5

> 20 ksi.

Not safe for cast iron ASTM 20.

rh = pi = 15.46875 ksi
444.

A cast-steel gear is pressed onto a 2-in. shaft made of AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F. The
equivalent hub diameter is 4 in., and the hub length is 4 in. (a) What are the maximum
tangential and radial stresses in the hub caused by a class FN 2 interference fit?
Compute for the apparent maximum value of i (but recall the probability of this event).

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

(b) What axial force F in tons will be required to press the gear on the shaft if f1 is
assumed to be 0.2? (c) What torque may the force fit safely transmit? (d) Is the holding
capacity of this fit large enough to transmit a torque that produces a simple torsional
stress of 0.6sys in the shaft?
Solution:
Cast steel, E = 30 x 106 psi, = 0.27 or approximately 0.3
AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F, E = 30 x 106 psi, = 0.3, sy = 133 ksi (Fig. AF 2).
Di = 2 in, Do = 4 in, L = 4 in.
For Class FN 2 interference fit.
Table 3.2, page 85, 2 in diameter.
Maximum value of i = 0.0027 0.0000 = 0.0027 in
(a) For same material and same Poissons ratio
Tangential stress
Ei Di
1 +
th =
2Di Do

(30 10 )(0.0027) 1 + 2
=
6

th

2(2)

= 25,313 psi
4
2

2
Ei Di
1
rh = pi =
2Di Do

2
6
30 10 (0.0027 ) 2
rh =
1 = 15,188 psi
2(2)
4

(b) Axial force F in tons.

f p D L
F = 1 i i tons
2000
(
0.2 )(15,188)( )(2)(4)
= 38.17 tons
F=
2000
(c) Torque safely transmit.
fp D 2L
T= i i
2
f = 0.1 as recommended by Baugher.
(0.1)(15,188)( )(2)2 (4)
T=
= 38,172 in lb
2
(d) With simple torsional stress of 0.6sys.
ss = 0.6sys = 0.6(0.6sy ) = 0.6(0.6 )(133) = 47.88 ksi = 47 ,880 psi
ssDi3 (47 ,880)( )(2)3
=
= 72,210 psi
16
16
No. The holding capacity of this fit is not large enough to transmit a torque that
produces a simple torsional stress of 0.6sys in the shaft.
T=

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

445.

The same as 444, except that a class FN 4 fit is investigated and the computation is
made for the average i.
Solution:
Cast steel, E = 30 x 106 psi, = 0.27 or approximately 0.3
AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F, E = 30 x 106 psi, = 0.3, sy = 133 ksi (Fig. AF 2).
Di = 2 in, Do = 4 in, L = 4 in.
For Class FN 4 interference fit.
Table 3.2, page 85, 2 in diameter.
Maximum value of i = 0.0042 0.0000 = 0.0042 in
Minimum value of i = 0.0035 0.0012 = 0.0023 in
Average value of i = 0.5 (0.0042 + 0.0023) = 0.00325 in
(a) For same material and same Poissons ratio
Tangential stress
Ei Di
1 +
th =
2Di Do

(30 10 )(0.00325) 1+ 2
=
6

th

2(2 )

= 30,469 psi
4
2

2
Ei Di
1
rh = pi =
2Di Do

2
6
30 10 (0.00325) 2
rh =
1 = 18,281 psi
2(2 )
4

(b) Axial force F in tons.

f p D L
F = 1 i i tons
2000
(
0.2)(18,281)( )(2 )(4)
= 45.95 tons
F=
2000
(c) Torque safely transmit.
fp D 2L
T= i i
2
f = 0.1 as recommended by Baugher.
(0.1)(18,281)( )(2)2 (4)
T=
= 45,945 in lb
2
(d) With simple torsional stress of 0.6sys.
ss = 0.6sys = 0.6(0.6sy ) = 0.6(0.6 )(133) = 47.88 ksi = 47 ,880 psi
ssDi3 (47 ,880)( )(2)3
=
= 72,210 psi
16
16
No. The holding capacity of this fit is not large enough to transmit a torque that
produces a simple torsional stress of 0.6sys in the shaft.
T=

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

446.

A No. 217 ball bearing has a bore of 3.3465 in., a width of 1.1024 in., and the inner race
is approximately 3/8 in. thick. This bearing is to be mounted on a solid shaft with i =
0.0014. (a) Calculate the maximum radial and tangential stresses in the race. (b)
Estimate the force required to press the bearing onto the shaft.
Solution:
Di = 3.3465 in, Do = 3.3465 + 2(3/8) = 4.0965 in, i = 0.0014 in.
(a) Maximum radial stress in the race
2
Ei Di
1
rh = pi =
2Di Do

2
6
30 10 (0.0014) 3.3465
rh =
= 2,087 psi
1
2(3.3465)
4.0965
Tangential stress
2
Ei Di
1 +
th =
2Di Do

2
6
30 10 (0.0014) 3.3465
th =
1
+
= 10,463 psi

2(3.3465)
4.0965
(b) Force required to press the bearing onto the shaft
f p D L
F = 1 i i tons , use f1 = 0.175 on the average
2000
(0.175)(2,087 )( )(2)(4 ) = 4.59 tons
F=
2000

447.

A steel disk of diameter Do and thickness L = 4 in. is to be pressed onto a 2-in. steel
shaft. The parts are manufactured with class FN 5 fit, but assembled parts are selected
so as to give approximately the average interference. What will be the maximum radial
and tangential stresses in the disk if (a) Do is infinitely large; (b) Do = 10 in.; (c) Do = 4 in.;
(d) Do = 2.5 in.?
Solution:
(a) Maximum radial stress if Do .
2
Ei Di
1
rh = pi =
2Di Do

Ei
rh = pi =
2Di

(30 10 )(0.005) = 37,500 psi

6

rh =

2(2 )
Maximum tangential stress if Do .

th =

Ei Di
1 +
2Di Do

th =

Ei
2Di

(30 10 )(0.005) = 37,500 psi

6

th =

2(2 )
(b) Maximum radial stress if Do = 10 in .
2
Ei Di
1
rh = pi =
2Di Do

2
30 10 6 (0.005) 2
rh =
1 = 36,000 psi
2(2 )
10
Maximum tangential stress if Do = 10 in .

2
Ei Di
1 +
th =
2Di Do

6
30 10 (0.005) 2
th =
1 + 10 = 39,000 psi
2(2 )

(c) Maximum radial stress if Do = 2.5 in .

2
Ei Di
1
rh = pi =
2Di Do

2
30 106 (0.005) 2
rh =
= 13,500 psi
1
2(2 )
2.5
Maximum tangential stress if Do = 2.5 in .

2
Ei Di
1 +
th =
2Di Do

6
30 10 (0.005) 2
th =
1 + 2.5 = 61,500 psi
2(2 )

448.

A steel cylinder is to have an inside diameter of 3 in. and pi = 30,000 psi. (a) Calculate
the tangential stresses at the inner and outer surfaces if the outside diameter is 6 in. (b)
It was decided to make the cylinder in two parts, the inner cylinder with D1 = 3 in. and Di
= 4.5 in., the outer cylinder with Di = 4.5 in. and Do = 6 in. (see figure). The two cylinders
were shrunk together with i = 0.003 in. Calculate the pressure at the interface and the
tangential stresses at the inner and outer surfaces of each cylinder. (Suggestion: first
derive an equation for the interface pressure).

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Solution:
(a) Tangential stresses at the inner and outer surface.
Di = 3 in, ri = 1.5 in, pi = 30,000 psi
Do = 6 in, ro = 3 in, po = 0
p r 2 + r 2 2p r 2
ti = i o 2 i 2 o o
ro ri

ti =

(30,000)[(3)2 + (1.5)2 ] 0
= 50,000 ksi
(3)2 (1.5)2

to =

2pi ri 2 po ro2 + ri2

ro2 ri2

2(30,000 )(1.5)2 0
= 20,000 ksi
(3)2 (1.5)2
(b) Pressure at the interface, tangential stresses at the inner and outer surface of each
cylinder.
+ h pi ts + s pi

i = 2( h + s ) = Di th

E
E
h
s

to =

Eh = E s , h = s

th =

pi ro2 + ri2
ro2 ri 2

ts =

2 p1r12 pi ri2 + r12

ri 2 r12

p
p D

i = Di th + i ts i = i ( th ts )
E
E
E E
E
D p r2 +r2 p r2 +r2
2p r 2
i = i i 2o 2i + i 2i 21 2 1 1 2
E ro ri
ri r1
ri r1
p1 = 30,000 psi, ro = 3 in, ri = 2.25 in, r1 = 1.5 in

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

Pressure at the interface, pi.
Ei 2 p1r12
+
Di ri2 r12
pi = 2 2
ro + ri
r2 +r2
+ i2 12
2
2
ro ri
ri r1

(30 10 )(0.003) + 2(30,000)(1.5)

4.5
(2.25)2 (1.5)2 = 20,000 + 48,000
3.571429 + 2.6
(3)2 + (2.25)2 + (2.25)2 + (1.5)2
2
2
2
2
(3) (2.25) (2.25) (1.5)
pi = 11,018.5 psi
Tangential stresses:
Inner cylinder:
Inner surface:
p r 2 + r 2 2p r 2
ti = 1 i 2 1 2 i i
ri r1
pi =

30,000 (2.25)2 + (1.5)2 2(11,018.5)(2.25)2

= 38,333.4 psi
(2.25)2 (1.5)2
Outer surface:
2p r 2 p r 2 + r 2
to = 1 1 2 i 2i 1
ri r1

ti =

to =

2(30,000)(2.25)2 11,018.5 (2.25)2 + (1.5)2

= 79,351.9 psi
(2.25)2 (1.5)2

Outer cylinder:
Inner surface:
p r 2 + r 2 2p r 2
ti = i o 2 i 2 o o
ro ri

11,018.5 (3)2 + (2.25)2 2(0 )(3)2

= 39,351.8 psi
(3)2 (2.25)2
Outer surface:
2p r 2 p r 2 + r 2
to = i i 2 o 2o i
ro ri

ti =

to =

449.

= 28,333.3 psi
(3)2 (2.25)2

A phosphor-bronze (B139C) bushing has an ID = in., an OD = 1 in., and a length of 2

in. It is to be pressed into a cast-steel cylinder that has an outside diameter of 2 in. An
ASA class FN 2 fit is to be used with selective assembly to give approximately the
interference i = 0.0016 in. Calculate (a) pi, (b) the maximum tangential stress in the steel

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

cylinder, (c) the force required to press bushing into the cylinder, (d) the decrease of the
inside diameter of the bushing.

Solution:
Phosphor Bronze B139C, Es = 16 x 106 psi (Table AT3), s = 0.36 (other reference).
Cast steel, Eh = 30 x 106 psi , h = 0.27 (Table AT 6)
+ h pi ts + s pi

i = 2( h + s ) = Di th

Eh
Es

th =

pi ro2 + ri2
ro2 ri 2

ts =

pi ri2 + r12
ri2 r12

p
p
i = Di th + h i ts s i
Eh
Es
Es
Eh
p r2 +r2 p p r2 + r2 p
i = Di i o2 i 2 + h i + i i 2 12 s i
Eh
Es
E s ri r1
E h ro ri
(a) pi
i
Di
pi =
2
2
ro + ri
ri2 + r12

+
+ h s
2
2
2
2
E h ro ri
E s ri r1
Eh Es

(
(

)
)

(
(

2.25
= 1.125 in
2
1.25
ri =
= 0.625 in
2
0.75
r1 =
= 0.375 in
2
ro =

)
)

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

L = 2 in
Di = 1.25 in
pi =

(1.125)2 + (0.625)2
30 10 6 [(1.125)2 (0.625)2 ]

0.0016
1.25
(
0.625)2 + (0.375)2
0.27
0.36
+
+

2
2
6
6
30 10 16 10 6
16 10 (0.625) (0.375)

1.28 10
6.309524 10 + 1.328125 10 7 + 0.9 10 8 2.25 108
pi = 7,017 psi
(b) Maximum tangential stress in the steel cylinder.
p r2 + r2
th = i 2o 2i
ro ri
pi =

(7,017 )[(1.125)2 + (0.625)2 ]

= 13,282 psi
(1.125)2 (0.625)2

th =
(c) F

f1piDi L
tons , use f1 = 0.175 on the average
2000
(0.175)(7,017 )( )(1.25)(4) = 4.82 tons
F=
2000
(d) Decrease of the inside diameter of the bushing. The bushing is phosphor bronze.
Subscript is s as in shaft.
+ s pi

s = ts

Es

F=

ts =

pi ri2 + r12
ri2 r12

ts =

7,017 (0.625)2 + (0.375)2

= 14,911 psi
(0.625)2 (0.375)2

14,911 + 0.36(7,017 )
= 0.000774 in
16 10 6

s =

DESIGN PROJECTS
DESIGN PROJECTS
450.

A jib crane similar to the one shown is to be designed for a capacity of F = ___ (say, 1 to
3 tons). The load F can be swung through 360o; L 10 ft., b 8.5 ft., c 2 ft. The
moment on the jib is balanced by a couple QQ on the post, the forces Q acting at
supporting bearings. The crane will be fastened to the floor by 6 equally spaced bolts on
a D1 = 30-in. bolt circle; outside diameter of base D2 = 36 in. (a) Choose a pipe size
(handbooks) for the column such that the maximum equivalent stress does not exceed
12 ksi. (b) Choose an I-beam for the jib such that the maximum stress does not exceed
12 ksi. (c) Compute the maximum external load on a base bolt and decide upon the size.

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

(d) Complete other details as required by the instructor, such as: computing Q and
choosing bearings (ball or roller?), the internal construction and assembly in this vicinity,
detail sketches giving full information.

451.

Design an air-operated punch press similar to the one shown. Let the force at the punch
be 12 tons, (or other capacity as specified by the instructor), the depth of throat to the
inside edge of the frame be 25 in., the diameter and stroke of the piston about 8 in. by 8
in., the mechanical advantage of the lever about 7, and the diameter of the punch 3/16
in. Determine first the horizontal section of the frame, and locate and design the
cylinder. Then determine the relative arrangement of the various links and make a force
analysis, from which the design of certain parts follows. Determine the actual distance
of movement of the punch (not less than about 1 in.). The illustration will assist the
student in settling upon the proportions of parts for which strength calculations cannot

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

452.

Design a screw press similar to that shown for a load of ___ (say, 3) tons on the screw.
The depth of the throat g is to be ___ (10) in. and the height of the throat h is to be ___
(15) in. (The instructor will assign the data.) The order of procedure may be as follows:
(a) Find the diameter of the screw. If Le/k > 40, check as a column. If the top of the screw
is squared off for a handwheel or handle, check this section for twisting. The equation
for pivot friction, if desired, is in 18.10, Text. (b) Decide upon the diameter of the
handwheel or the length of handle (if one is needed to obtain the maximum pressure),
assuming that the maximum force to be exerted by a man is about 150 lb. Dimensions
of handwheels may be found in handbooks. The handle may be designed by the flexure
formula. (c) Design the frame. The shape of the section of the frame will depend on the
material used. A T-section is suitable for cast iron (say N = 6 on the ultimate strength), a
hollow box or modified I-section is suitable for cast steel. The 45o section CD of the
frame should be safe as a curved beam. See Table AT 18. In this connection, it will be
well to make the radius r as large as practicable, since the larger r the less the stresses
from a given load. Compute the dimensions of the vertical section. It is a good plan to
keep t and a the same in all sections. (d) Design the bushing if one is used. The height b
depends upon the number of threads in contact, which in turn depends upon the
bearing pressure used in design. (Say half-hard yellow brass?) Compute the outside

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

bushing diameter, the diameter and thickness of the collar, and decide upon dimensions
to be used. (e) Fix the location and number of bolts to be used to fasten the frame to
the base plate, and determine their size. Use a common bolt material. (f) Decide upon
all other details of design. Make a separate sketch of each part of the machine showing
thereon all dimensions necessary for manufacture. It is suggested that, first, all
materials be tentatively decided upon, after which design stresses may be chosen. See
that design stresses for the various parts bear a logical relation to one another. It is not
necessary to follow this procedure in detail. It is likely that one will have to leave certain
details unfinished from time to time, because these details depend on parts of the
design not yet completed. Make sure that all parts can be assembled after they are
made. Notice that the plate on the lower end of the screw must be connected in such a
manner that the screw may turn while the plate does not.

453.

Design a jib crane, as suggested by the illustration, to lift a load of W of ___ tons. The
maximum radius of swing is to be about ___ ft. (The instructor will assign data).
Suggested procedure: (a) From catalogues, select a hoist to suit the purpose, giving
reasons for your choice, and noting significant dimensions. Of course, in the end, the
hoist trolley has to match the size of I-beam used. (b) Let the angle that the diagonal
tension rod makes with the horizontal be about 20o to 25o, and decide upon the
dimensions H and L. Note that the point G does not necessarily have to be at the
extreme position of the load. As a matter of fact, some advantage may result from
having G inside the outermost position of the load. Make the force analyses (including
weight of hoist as part of load) for (1) the condition of maximum column action, (2) the
condition of maximum bending moment on the beam, and (3) the condition for
maximum force on the hinge B (to be used for the design of this hinge). (c) Find the size
of I-beam such that the maximum stress for any position of the load falls within the
limits of 12 and 15 ksi, usually by assuming a standard beam and checking the stress.
According to the arrangement of parts, it may be necessary to design the connection at
G between the rod and the beam first. With the details of this connection known and

SECTION 6 COMBINED STRESSES

with the details of beam assumed, the location of point G, the point of application of the
force T, can be determined. The bending moment of a section a minute distance to the
right of G is W(x dx). A minute distance to the left of G, the bending moment is W(x +
dx) Txe Tydx; that is, the moment changes suddenly at G by the amount Txe. (d)
Determine the size of diagonal support, including details of connections. (e) Design the
connections at each end of the diagonal and the hinge at C. Settle upon the details
including the method of attaching the hinge to the vertical surface, which may be wideflange beam. (f) Design the hinge at B and the connection to the I-beam; also the details
of the method of attaching the hinge to the vertical surface. Where material is not
specified, make your choice clear. There should be no doubt as to your design stresses
or design factor. Show a neat large sketch, fully dimensioned, of each part separately. It
is unlikely that too much detail will be shown.
-

E
n
d
-

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

471.

A short stub shaft, made of SAE 1035, as rolled, receivers 30 hp at 300 rpm via a
12-in. spur gear, the power being delivered to another shaft through a flexible
coupling. The gear is keyed (profile keyway) midway between the bearings. The
pressure angle of the gear teeth = 20 o ; N = 1.5 based on the octahedral shear
stress theory with varying stresses. (a) Neglecting the radial component R of the
tooth load W , determine the shaft diameter. (b) Considering both the tangential
and the radial components, compute the shaft diameters. (c) Is the difference in
the results of the parts (a) and (b) enough to change your choice of the shaft size?

Problem 471.
Solution:
For SAE 1035, as rolled
s y = 55 ksi
su = 85 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(85) = 42.5 ksi
A = W cos
63,000hp 63,000(30 )
T=
=
= 6300 in lb
n
300
T=
2
A(12 )
6300 =
2
A = 1050 lb
A = W cos
1050 = W cos 20
W = 1118 lb
Shear stress
16T 16(6300 )
ss =
=
d3
d3
100,800
ss = sms =
d3
sas = 0

Page 1 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

bending stress

From Table AT 2
FL
M=
4
(a) Negligible R :
AL (1050 )(16 )
M=
=
= 4200 in lb
4
4
32 M 32(4200 ) 134,400
s=
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sm = 0
134,400
sa = s =
d3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
For profile keyway
K f = 2 .0
K fs = 1.6
SF = 0.85
K s
(2.0)(134,400) = 100,661
se = f a =
SF
(0.85) d 3
d3
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF

sns sn 42.5
1
= =
=
s ys s y
55 1.294
sns
1 100,800 24,796
=
sms =

3
s ys
d3
1.294 d
Octahedral-shear theory
ses =

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2
1 100,661
24,796
=
+
3
1.5 42,500d 0.577 42,500d 3
d = 1.569 in

Page 2 of 76

use d = 1

11
in
16

(b) Considering both radial and tangential component.

WL (1118)(16 )
M=
=
= 4472 in lb
4
4
32 M 32(4472 ) 143,104
s=
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sm = 0
143,104
sa = s =
d3
K s
(2.0)(143,104) = 107,180
se = f a =
SF
(0.85)( d 3 )
d3
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2
1 107,180
24,796
=
+
3
1.5 42,500d 0.577 42,500d 3
d = 1.597 in
11
use d = 1 in
16

(c) The difference in the results of the parts (a) and (b) is not enough to change the choice
of the shaft size.
472.

A cold-finished shaft, AISI 1141, is to transmit power that varies from 200 to 100
and back to 200 hp in each revolution at a speed of 600 rpm. The power is
received by a 20-in. spur gear A and delivered by a 10-in. spur gear C. The
tangential forces have each been converted into a force ( A and C shown) and a
couple (not shown). The radial component R of the tooth load is to be ignored in
the initial design. Let 2 and, considering varying stresses with the maximum
shear theory, compute the shaft diameter.

Page 3 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Solution:
For AISI 1141, cold-finished
s y = 90 ksi
sn = 50 ksi
sn
1
=
s y 1.8
SF = 0.85
63,000hp
T=
n
63,000(200 )
Tmax =
= 21,000 in lb
600
63,000(100 )
Tmin =
= 10,500 in lb
600
1
1
Tm = (Tmax + Tmin ) = (21,000 + 10,500 ) = 15,750 in lb
2
2
1
1
Ta = (Tmax Tmin ) = (21,000 10,500 ) = 5,250 in lb
2
2
16T
ss =
d3
16(15,750 ) 252,000
sms =
=
d3
d3
16(5250 ) 24,000
=
sas =
d3
d3
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
For profile keyway
K f = 2 .0
K fs = 1.6

sns sn
1
= =
s ys s y 1.8
1 252,000 (1.6)(84,000) 94,894
+
ses =
=
3
0.85 d 3
d3
1.8 d
T = 21,000 in lb at 200 hp

For A:
20
A = T
2
A(10 ) = 21,000

Page 4 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

A = 2100 lb at 200 hp
For C:
10
C = T
2
C (5) = 21,000
C = 4200 lb at 200 hp

[ M

= 0 A(10 ) + D(25) = C (15)

at 200 hp
(2100)(10) + D(25) = (4200)(15)
D = 1680 lb

[ F

=0
A+C = B + D
at 200 hp
2100 + 4200 = B + 1680
B = 4620 lb
At 200 hp: A = 2100 lb , B = 4620 lb , C = 4200 lb , D = 1680 lb
Shear Diagram
V

Maximum moment at B
M = (2100)(10 ) = 21,000 in lb
32 M 32(21,000 ) 672,000
s=
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sm = 0
672,000
sa = s =
d3
K f sa
(2.0)(672,000) = 503,304
s
se = n s m +
= 0+
sy
SF
0.85 d 3
d3

Page 5 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

94,894
d3
Maximum Shear Theory
ses =

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.5sn

2
1 503,304
94,894
=
+
3
2 50,000d 0.5 50,000d 3
d = 2.78 in
3
use d = 2 in
4

475.

A shaft S, of cold-drawn AISI 1137, is to transmit power received from shaft W,

which turns at 2000 rpm, through the 5-in. gear E and 15-in. gear A. The power
is delivered by the 10-in. gear C to gear G, and it varies from 10 hp to 100 hp and
back to 10 hp during each revolution of S. The design is to account for the
varying stresses, with calculations based on the octahedral shear stress theory.
Let N = 1.8 and compute the shaft diameter, using only the tangential driving
loads for the first design.

Problem 475 477

Solution.
For AISI 1137, cold drawn
s y = 93 ksi
su = 103 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(103) = 51.5 ksi
sn sns 51.5
1
=
=
=
s y s ys
93 1.806
63,000hp
T=
n
5 in. E
n=
(2000 rpm) = 667 rpm
15 in. A

Page 6 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

63,000(100 )
= 9450 in lb
667
63,000(10 )
Tmin =
= 945 in lb
667
1
1
Tm = (Tmax + Tmin ) = (9450 + 945) = 5197.5 in lb
2
2
1
1
Ta = (Tmax Tmin ) = (9450 945) = 4252.5 in lb
2
2
16T
ss =
d3
16(5197.5) 83,160
sms =
=
d3
d3
16(4252.5) 68,040
=
sas =
d3
d3
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
For profile keyway
K f = 2 .0
Tmax =

K fs = 1.6
SF = 0.85
1 83,160 (1.6)(68,040) 55,425
+
ses =
=

3
0.85 d 3
d3
1.806 d
Bending stress, using only tangential loads

T = 9450 in lb
15
A = T
2
A(7.5) = 9450
A = 1260 lb
For C:
10
C = T
2

Page 7 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

C (5) = 9450
C = 1890 lb

[ M

= 0 6 A + 20 D = 14C

6(1260) + 20 D = 14(1890)
D = 945 lb

[ F

=0
A+C = B + D
1260 + 1890 = B + 945
B = 2205 lb
Shear diagram
V

Maximum moment at B
M = (1260)(6) = 7560 in lb
32 M 32(7560 ) 241,920
s=
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sm = 0
241,920
sa = s =
d3
K f sa (2.0 )(241,920 ) 181,189
s
se = n s m +
=
=
sy
SF
0.85 d 3
d3
55,425
d3
Octahedral Shear Theory
ses =

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2
1 181,189
55,425
=
+
3
2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3

d = 1.997 in
use d = 2 in

Page 8 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

478.

A shaft made of AISI 1137, cold rolled, for a forage harvester is shown.
Power is supplied to the shaft by a vertical flat belt on the pulley A. At B, the
roller chain to the cutter exerts a force vertically upwards, and the V-belt to
the blower at C exerts a force vertically upwards. At maximum operating
conditions, the flat belt supplies 35 hp at 425 rpm, of which 25 hp is delivered
to the cutter and 10 hp to the blower. The two sections of the shaft are joined
by a flexible coupling at D and the various wheels are keyed (sled-runner
keyway) to the shafts. Allowing for the varying stresses on the basis of the
von Mises-Hencky theory of failure, decide upon the diameters of the shafts.
Choose a design factor that would include an allowance for rough loading.

Problem 478.
Solution:
For AISI 1137, cold rolled
s y = 93 ksi
su = 103 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(103) = 51.5 ksi
sn sns 51.5
1
=
=
=
s y s ys
93 1.806
Pulley,
63,000hp 63,000(35)
TA =
=
= 5188 in lb
n
425
For flat-belt
2T 4(5188)
FA = F1 + F2 = 2(F2 F1 ) = 2 A =
= 692 lb
30
DA
Sprocket,
63,000hp 63,000(25)
TB =
=
= 3706 in lb
n
425
For chain,
2T
2(3706 )
FB = B =
= 741 lb
DB
10
Sheave,
63,000hp 63,000(10 )
TC =
=
= 1482 in lb
n
425

Page 9 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

For V-belt,
2T
FC = F1 + F2 = 1.5(F2 F1 ) = 1.5 C
DC
Consider shaft ABD.

35 hp
Shaft ABD

[ M

D'

=0

(6 + 8 + 4)FA = (8 + 4)A'+4FB
18(692) = 12 A'+4(741)
A' = 791 lb

[ F

=0

FA + D = FB + A
692 + D = 741 + 791
D = 840 lb

Shear Diagram

Maximum M at A.
M = (6)(692) = 4152 in lb.
32 M 32(4152 ) 132,864
s=
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sm = 0
sa = s =

132,864
d3

Page 10 of 76

3(1482 )
=
= 445 lb
10

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
For sled-runner keyway (Table AT 13)
K f = 1 .6
se =

K fs = 1.6
SF = 0.85
K f sa
(1.60)(132,864) = 79,610
s
se = n s m +
= 0+
sy
SF
0.85 d 3
d3

at A T = TA = 5188 in lb
16T 16(5188) 83,008
ss =
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sms = ss
sas = 0
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
1 83,000 14,630
=
ses =

3
d3
1.806 d
Choose a design factor of 2.0
N = 2 .0
von Mises-Hencky theory of failure (Octahedral shear theory)
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2
1 79,610
14,630
=
+
3
2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3
d = 1.48 in
1
use d = 1 in
2

Consider shaft D-C

63,000hp 63,000(10 )
TC =
=
= 1482 in lb
n
425
For V-belt,
2T 3(1482 )
FC = F1 + F2 = 1.5(F2 F1 ) = 1.5 C =
= 445 lb
10
DC

Page 11 of 76

[ M

C'

=0

8 D = 3FC
8 D = 3(445)
D = 167 lb

[ F

=0

C = D + FC
C = 167 + 445
C = 612 lb
Shear Diagram

M = (167 )(8) = 1336 in lb

32 M 32(1336 ) 42,752
s=
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sm = 0 , sa = s
K f sa
(1.60)(42,752) = 25,616
s
se = n s m +
= 0+
sy
SF
0.85 d 3
d3
at C, TC = 1482 in lb
16T 16(1482 ) 23,712
ss =
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sms = ss
sas = 0
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
4180
1 23,712
+0 = 3
ses =

3
d
1.806 d
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2
1 25,616
4180
=
+
3
2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3

Page 12 of 76

d = 1.011 in
use d = 1 in

479.

A shaft for a punch press is supported by bearings D and E (with L = 24 in.)

and receives 25 hp while rotating at 250 rpm, from a flat-belt drive on a 44in. pulley at B, the belt being at 45o with the vertical. An 8-in. gear at A
delivers the power horizontally to the right for punching operation. A 1500-lb
flywheel at C has a radius of gyration of 18 in. During punching, the shaft
slows and energy for punching comes from the loss of kinetic energy of the
flywheel in addition to the 25 hp constantly received via the belt. A
reasonable assumption for design purposes would be that the power to A
doubles during punching, 25 hp from the belt, 25 hp from the flywheel. The
phase relations are such that a particular point in the section where the
maximum moment occurs is subjected to alternating tension and
compression. Sled-runner keyways are used for A, B, and C; material is colddrawn AISI 1137, use a design factor of N = 2.5 with the octahedral shear
theory and account for the varying stresses. Determine the shaft diameters.

Problems 479-480
Solution:
Flat-Belt Drive (B)
63,000hp 63,000(25)
TB =
=
= 6300 in lb
n
250
2T 4(6300)
FB = F1 + F2 = 2(F1 F2 ) = 2 B =
= 573 lb
44
DB
Gear A, Doubled hp
63,000hp 63,000(25 + 25)
TA =
=
= 12,600 in lb
n
250
2T
2(12,600 )
FA = A =
= 3150 lb
DA
8

Page 13 of 76

Vertical:

BV = FB cos 45 = 573 cos 45 = 405 lb

[ M

=0

6(1500) + 8BV = 24 EV
6(1500) + 8(405) = 24 EV
EV = 510 lb

[ F

=0

1500 + EV = DV + BV
1500 + 510 = DV + 405
DV = 1605 lb
Shear Diagram

Page 14 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M DV = (6 )(1500 ) = 9000 in lb
M BV = (16 )(510 ) = 8160 in lb
M AV = (5)(510 ) = 2550 in lb

Horizontal:

Bh = FB sin 45 = 573 sin 45 = 405 lb

[ M

=0

8 Bh + 24 Eh = 19 FA
8(405) + 24 Eh = 19(3150)
Eh = 2359 lb

[ F

=0

Dh + Bh + Eh = FA
Dh + 405 + 2359 = 3150
Dh = 386 lb
Shear Diagram

Page 15 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M Dh = 0 in lb
M Bh = (8)(386 ) = 3088 in lb
M Ah = (5)(2359 ) = 11,795 in lb
MA =
MB =

(M ) + (M )
(M ) + (M )
2

Ah

Bh

(11,795)2 + (2550)2

(3088)2 + (8160)2

AV

BV

= 12,068 in lb

= 8725 in lb

M D = 9000 in lb
Therefore
M max = 12,068 in lb
32 M 32(12,068) 386,176
s=
=
=
d3
d3
d3
Maximum moment subjected to alternating tension and compression
sm = 0
386,176
sa = s =
d3
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
For AISI 1137, cold-drawn,
s y = 93 ksi
se =

su = 103 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(103) = 51.5 ksi
For sled-runner keyway (Table AT 13)
K f = 1 .6
K fs = 1.6
SF = 0.85
(1.60)(386,176 ) = 231,386
se = 0 +
0.85 d 3
d3

Page 16 of 76

At A, 50 hp max. and 25 hp min.

50 hp
63,000hp 63,000(25 + 25)
TA =
=
= 12,600 in lb
n
250
2T
2(12,600 )
FA = A =
= 3150 lb
DA
8
16T 16(12,600 ) 201,600
ss max =
=
=
d3
d3
d3
25 hp
63,000hp 63,000(25)
TA =
=
= 6,300 in lb
n
250
2T
2(6,300 )
FA = A =
= 1575 lb
DA
8
16T 16(6,300 ) 100,800
ss min =
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sms =

1
,800 151,200
=
(ss max + ss min ) = 1 201,600 + 100
3
2
2
d
d3

sas =

1
,800 50,400
=
(ss max ss min ) = 1 201,600 100
3
2
2
d
d3

ses =

K fs sas
sns
sms +
s ys
SF

1 151,200 (1.6)(50,400) 56,848

+
ses =
=

3
0.85 d 3
d3
1.806 d
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2
1 231,386
56,848
=
+
3
2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3
d = 2.14 in
3
say d = 2 in
16

Page 17 of 76

481.

A cold-drawn monel propeller shaft for a launch is to transmit 400 hp at 1500

rpm without being subjected to a significant bending moment; and Le k < 40 .
The efficiency of the propeller is 70 % at 30 knots (1.152 mph/knot). Consider
that the number of repetitions of the maximum power at the given speed is 2x
105. Let N = 2 based on the maximum shear theory with varying stress.
Compute the shaft diameter.

Solution:
For cold-drawn monel shaft, Table AT 10
s y = 75 ksi
sn = 42 ksi at 108
at 2 x 105
0.085

108

sn 42
= 71.23 ksi
5
2

10

sn sns 71.23
1
=
=
=
s y s ys
75
1.053
63,000hp 63,000(400 )
=
= 16,800 in lb
n
1500
16T 16(16,800 ) 268,800
ss =
=
=
D3
D3
D3
s ms = ss

T=

s as = 0
K fs sas
sns
sms +
s ys
SF
SF = 0.85
assume K f = K fs = 1.0
ses =

81,255
1 268,800
+ 0 =
ses =

3
D3
1.053 D
Fvm
= hp
33,000
vm = (30 knots )(1.152 mph knot )(5280 ft mi )(1 hr 60 min ) = 3041 fpm
F (3041)
= (0.70)(400)
33,000
F = 3040 lb
4F
4(3040 ) 12,160
s=
=
=
2
D
D2
D2
sm= s
sa = 0

Page 18 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

se =

K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF

3676
1 12,160
+0 = 2
se =

2
D
1.053 D
Maximum Shear Theory
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.5sn

2
1 3676
81,255
=
+
2
2 71,230 D 0.5 71,230 D 3

2
2
1
1
2.2815 2
=
+

2 19.377 D 2 D 3
By trial and error
11
D = 1.66 in = 1 in
16

482.

A shaft receives 300 hp while rotating at 600 rpm, through a pair of bevel gears,
and it delivers this power via a flexible coupling at the other end. The shaft is
designed with the average forces ( at the midpoint of the bevel-gear face); the
tangential driving force is F , G = 580 lb , Q = 926 lb ; which are the rectangular
components of the total reaction between the teeth; Dm = 24 in , L = 36 in ,
a = 10 in . Let the material be AISI C1045, cold drawn; N = 2 . Considering
varying stresses and using the octahedral shear theory, determine the shaft
diameter.

Problems 482, 485, 486.

Solution:
For AISI C1045, cold drawn
s y = 85 ksi
su = 100 ksi

Page 19 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

sn = 0.5su = 0.5(100) = 50 ksi
SF = 0.85
sn sns 50 1
=
=
=
s y s ys 85 1.7
63,000hp 63,000(300 )
T=
=
= 31,500 in lb
600
600
16T 16(31,500 ) 504,000
ss =
=
=
D3
D3
D3
s ms = ss
s as = 0
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
94,370
1 504,000
+ 0 =
ses =

3
D3
1.7 D
D
F m = T
2
24
F = 31,500
2
F = 2625 lb
Vertical:

D
24
Q m = 926 = 11,112 in lb
2
2
G = 580 lb

[ M

=0 

Av (36 ) +

QDm
G (10 ) = 0
2

QDm
= G (10 ) + Av (36 )
2
11,112 = 580(10) + Av (36)

Av = 148 lb

Page 20 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[ F =0]
v

Av + Bv = 580 lb
148 + Bv = 580 lb
Bv = 432 lb
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Cv = 11,112 in lb
M Bv = 5328 in lb

Horizontal:

[ M

=0

Ah (36) = (2625)(10)
Ah = 729 lb

[ F

=0

Bh = Ah + F
Bh = 725 + 2625

Page 21 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Bh = 3354 lb
Shear Diagram

M Ch = 0
M Bh = (36 )(729 ) = 26,244 in lb

Maximum M
M = MB =

(M ) + (M )
2

Bh

(26,244)2 + (5328)2 = 26,780 in lb

32(26,780 ) 4(926 ) 856,960 3,704
=
+
=
+
2

BV

32 M
4Q
+
3
D D2
D3
D2
D3
4Q 32 M 3704 856,960
smin =

D 2 D3 D 2
D3
1
sm = (smax + smin )
2
1 856,960 3704 3704 856,960 3704
=
sm =
+
+

D2 D2
D 3 D 2
2 D3
1
sa = (smax smin )
2
856,960
sa =
D3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
smax =

assume K f = 1.0 at B
1 3704 1.0 856,960 964 320,916
+
= 2 +
se =

2
3
D3
1.7 D 0.85 D D
Octahedral Shear Theory
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

Page 22 of 76

D2

1
2

694 320,916

1
2
2
2 2
+

2
3

1
94,370
6.42 3.27
1
D
+
=
= D
+ 3 + 3
3
2
2
50,000
D D
0.577(50,000)D
72 D

By trial and error, use

1
D = 2 in
2
2

483.

The worm shown is to deliver 65.5 hp steadily at 1750 rpm. It will be integral
with the shaft if the shaft size needed permits, and its pitch diameter 3 in. The 12in. pulley receives the power from a horizontal belt in which the tight tension
F1 = 2.5F2 . The forces (in kips) on the worm are as shown, with the axial force
taken by bearing B. The strength reduction factor for the thread roots may be
taken as K f = 1.5 , shear or bending. The shaft is machined from AISI 1045, as
rolled. (a) For N = 2.2 (Soderberg criterion) by the octahedral-shear theory,
compute the required minimum diameter at the root of the worm thread (a first
approximation). (b) What should be the diameter of the shaft 2.5 in. to the left of
the centerline of the worm? (c) Select a shaft size D and check it at the pulley A.

Problem 483.
Solution:
For AISI 1045, as rolled
s y = 59 ksi
su = 96 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 48 ksi
sn sns 48
1
=
=
=
s y s ys 59 1.229
63,000hp 63,000(65.5)
T=
=
= 2358 in lb
1750
1750
(F1 F2 ) 12 = T
2
(2.5F2 F2 )(6) = 2358
F2 = 262 lb
F1 = 2.5F2 = 655 lb

Page 23 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

FA = F1 + F2 = 655 + 262 = 917 lb
Horizontal

[ M

=0

(917 )(6) + (1570)(6.5) = 13Eh

Eh = 1208 lb

[ F

=0

917 + Eh = Bh + 1570
917 + 1208 = Bh + 1570
Bh = 555 lb
Shear Diagram

M Ah = 0
M Bh = (917 )(6 ) = 5502 in lb
M Ch = (1208)(6.5) = 7852 in lb

Vertical:

3
M = (2540 ) = 3810 in lb
2
M E =0

M + (1170)(6.5) = 13Bv
3810 + (1170)(6.5) = 13Bv
Bv = 878 lb

Page 24 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[ F =0]
v

Ev + Bv = 1170
Ev + 878 = 1170
Ev = 292 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Av = 0
M Bv = 0
M Cv = 5707 in lb

M=
MA =
MB =
MC =

(M h )2 + (M v )2

(0)2 + (0)2 = 0
(5502)2 + (0)2 = 5502 in lb
(7852)2 + (5707)2 = 9707 in lb

(a) Minimum diameter at the root of the warm thread.

K f = K fs = 1.5
M = M C = 9707 in lb
F = 2540 lb
smax =

32 M
4F
32(9707 ) 4(2540 ) 310,624 10,160
+
=
+
=
+
3
2
Dr Dr
Dr3
Dr2
Dr3
Dr2

Page 25 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

smin =

310,624 10,160
+
Dr3
Dr2

1
(smax + smin )
2
10,160
sm =
Dr2
1
sa = (smax smin )
2
310,624
sa =
Dr3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
sm =

1 10,160 1.5 310,624 2632 174,485

se =
+

2
3
= D2 + D3
1.229 Dr 0.85 Dr
r
r
16T 16(2358) 12,000
ss =
=
=
Dr3
Dr3
Dr3
sms = ss
sas = 0
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF

9764
1 12,000
ses =
+0= 3

Dr
1.229 Dr
N = 2.2 , Octahedral shear theory
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2632 174,485 2
2
1
+
2
2
2 2

1 Dr
Dr
9764
1
3.635 1

=
+
=
+
2

0.577(48,000)Dr3
2.2
48,000
Dr3 2.84 Dr3
18.24 Dr

By trial and error

Dr = 2.023 in
1
say Dr = 2 in
16
(b) D shaft diameter 2.5 in. to the left of the center line of worm

Page 26 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

3
in
16
Figure AF 12
3
r
16
=
0.1
d
3
2.023 2 2
16
D
2.023
=
= 1 .2
d
3
2.023 2 2
16
K f = K t = 1.65
r=

K fs = K ts = 1.34
at 2.5 in to the shaft
M h = (917 )(6) + (362)(6.5 2.5) = 6950 in lb

M v = (878)(6.5 2.5) = 3512 in lb

M=

(6950)2 + (3512)2

= 7787 in lb

10,160
D2
32 M 32(7787 ) 249,184
sa =
=
=
D3
D3
D3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
sm =

+
=
se =
+

2
3
D2
D3
1.229 D 0.85 D
9764
ses =
D3
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2632 153,970 2
2
1
2
2
2 2
+

2
3

1
9764
1
3.21 1

D
+
=
= D
+ 3 +

3
2
2.2
48,000
18.24 D
D 2.84 D 3
0.577(48,000)D

D = 1.9432 in
15
say D = 1 in
16

Page 27 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

15
in = 1.9375 in
16
At the pulley A, or 3 in. right of centerline
M h = (917 )(3) = 2751 in lb

(c) Selecting D = 1

Mv = 0
M = 2751 in lb
For sled runner keyway
K f = 1 .6
K fs = 1.6

sm = 0
32 M
32(2751)
sa =
=
= 3853 psi
3
D
(1.9375)3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
1 .6
se = 0 +
(3853) = 7253 psi
0.85
9764
ses =
= 1343 psi
(1.9375)3
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2 2
2

1 7253
1343

=
+
N 48,000 0.577(48,000)
N = 6.30 > 2.2 , therefore o.k.

484.

A propeller shaft as shown is to receive 300 hp at 315 rpm from the right through
a flexible coupling. A 16-in. pulley is used to drive an auxiliary, taking 25 hp.
The belt pull FB is vertically upward. The remainder of the power is delivered to
a propeller that is expected to convert 60% of it into work driving the boat, at
which time the boat speed is 1500 fpm. The thrust is to be taken by the right-hand
bearing. Let N = 2 ; material cold-worked stainless 410. Use the octahedral shear
theory with varying stresses. (a) Determine the shaft size needed assuming no
buckling. (b) Compute the equivalent column stress. Is this different enough to
call for another shaft size? Compute N by the maximum shear stress theory,
from both equations (8.4) and (8.11).

Page 28 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Problem 484.
Solution:
For stainless 410, cold-worked
s y = 85 ksi
sn = 53 ksi
SF = 0.85
Belt drive
63,000hp 63,000(25)
TB =
=
= 5000 in lb
n
315
2T 4(5000)
FB = F1 + F2 = 2(F1 F2 ) = 2 B =
= 1250 lb
16
DB
Propeller
63,000hp 63,000(300 25)
TP =
=
= 55,000 in lb
n
315
Thrust
Fvm = hp(33,000)
F (1500) = (0.60)(300 25)(33,000)
F = 3630 lb

[ M

=0

(20)(1250) = 60C
C = 417 lb

[ F =0]
v

A + C = FB
A + 417 = 1250

Page 29 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

A = 833 lb

Shear Diagram

M B = (20)(833) = 16,660 in lb
Maximum T at B
T = TB + TP = 60,000 in lb
(a) Shaft size assuming no buckling
M = 16,660 in lb
F = 3630 lb
4F
4(3630 ) 14,520
=
=
sm =
2
D
D2
D2
32 M 32(16,660 ) 533,120
sa =
=
=
D3
D3
D3
For sled-runner keyway
K f = 1 .6
K fs = 1.6

sn sns 53
1
=
=
=
s y s ys 85 1.604
se =

K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF

1 14,520 1.6 533,120 2882 319,430

+
=
se =
+

2
3
D2
D3
1.604 D 0.85 D
16
16(60,000 ) 960,000
ss = sms =
=
=
3
D
D3
D3
sas = 0
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF

190,510
1 960,000
+ 0 =
ses =

2
D3
1.604 D

Page 30 of 76

1
2

1 se ses
= +
N sn sns

2

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1
2

2882 319,430

1
2
2
2 2
+

2
3

1
190,510
1
6.027 6.230

D
+
=
= D
+
+

3
2
2
53,000
18.39 D
D 3 D 3
0.577(53,000 )D

By trial and error

D = 2.6 in
5
say D = 2 in = 2.625 in
8
2

(b) Equivalent Column Stress

4F
s=

D2
Le = 12 + 60 + 10 = 82 in
1
1
k = D = (2.625) = 0.65625 in
4
4
Le
82
=
= 125 > 120
k 0.65625
Use Eulers equation
2

L
sy e
2
85(125)
k

=
= 2
= 4.486
2E
30 103
4F
4(3630 )
s=
(4.486) = 3000 psi
=
2
D
(2.625)2
Since > 1 , it is different enough to call for another shaft size.

2882 319,430
2882
319,430
se =
+
=
+
= 18,078 psi
2
2
3
D
D
(2.625) (2.625)3
190,510
ses =
= 10,533 psi
(2.625)3
Equation (8.4)

Page 31 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1

2
2 s 2 2
18,078 2
2
= ss + = (10,533) +
= 13,880 psi
2
2

0.5sn 0.5(53,000)
N=
=
= 1.91

13,880
Equation (8.11) sns = 0.5sn
1

2
2 2
18,078 2 10,533 2 2
1 s ss

= + =
+
(
)
N sn sns
53
,
000
0
.
5
53
,
000

N = 1.91

CHECK PROBLEMS
485.

A 3-in. rotating shaft somewhat as shown (482) carries a bevel gear whose mean
diameter is Dm = 10 in and which is keyed (profile) to the left end. Acting on the
gear are a radial force G = 1570.8 lb , a driving force Q = 3141.6 lb . The thrust
force is taken by the right-hand bearing. Let a = 5 in and L = 15 in ; material,
AISI C1040, annealed. Base calculations on the maximum shearing stress theory
with variable stress. Compute the indicated design factor N . With the use of a
sketch, indicate the exact point of which maximum normal stress occurs.

Solution:
For AISI C1040, annealed, Figure AF 1
s y = 48 ksi
su = 80 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 40 ksi
sn sns 40 1
=
=
=
s y s ys 48 1.2
FDm (6283.2 )(10 )
T=
=
= 31,416 in lb
2
2
16T 16(31,416 )
ss =
=
= 5926 psi
D3
(3)3
sms = ss
sas = 0
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
1
ses =
(5926 ) + 0 = 4940 psi
1 .2
Vertical

Page 32 of 76

QDm (3141.6 )(10 )

=
= 15,708 in lb
2
2
M E =0

QDm
= 5G + 15 AV
2
15,708 = 5(1570.8) + 15 AV

AV = 523.6 lb

[ F =0]
v

AV + BV = G
523.6 + BV = 1570.8
BV = 1047.2 lb
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M CV = 15,708 in lb
M BV = 7854 in lb

Page 33 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Horizontal

[ M

=0

15 Ah = 5(6283.2)
Ah = 2094.4 lb

[ F

=0

Bh = Ah + F
Bh = 2094.4 + 6283.2
Bh = 8377.6 lb
Shear Diagram

M Ch = 0
M Bh = (15)(2094.4 ) = 31,416 in lb

Maximum Moment
2
M = M B2h + M Bv
=

(31,416)2 + (7854)2

= 32,383 in lb

Since thrust force is taken by the right-hand bearing

sms = 0
32 M 32(32,383)
sas =
=
= 12,217 psi
D3
(3)3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
Assume K f = 1.0 at the bearing B
1 .0
se = 0 +
(12,217 ) = 14,373 psi
0.85

Page 34 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Maximum shear theory sns = 0.5sn
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.5sn

2 2
2
1 14,373 4940

=
+
N 40,000 0.5(40,000)
N = 2 .3

487.

A 2 7/16-in. countershaft in a machine shop transmits 52 hp at 315 rpm. It is

made of AISI 1117, as rolled, and supported upon bearing A and B, 59-in. apart.
Pulley C receives the power via a horizontal belt, and pulley D delivers it
vertically downward, as shown. Calculate N based on the octahedral-shearstress theory considering varying stresses.

Problem 487, 488

Solution:
For AISI 1117, as rolled
s y = 44.3 ksi

Page 35 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

su = 70.6 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 35.3 ksi
sn sns 35.3
1
=
=
=
s y s ys 44.3 1.255
SF = 0.85
63,000(52 )
T=
= 10,400 in lb
315
Pulley C
2T 4(10,400)
=
FC = F1 + F2 = 2(F2 F1 ) = 2
= 2311 lb
D
18
C
Pulley D
2T 4(10,400)
=
FD = F1 + F2 = 2(F2 F1 ) = 2
= 1664 lb
D
25
D
Horizontal

[ M

=0

15(2311) = 59 Bh
Bh = 588 lb

[ F

=0

Ah + Bh = 2311
Ah + 588 = 2311
Ah = 1723 lb
Shear Diagram

M Ch = (1723)(15) = 25,845 in lb

Page 36 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M Dh = (1723)(15) (588)(26 ) = 10,557 in lb

Vertical

[ M

=0

18(1664) = 59 Av
Av = 508 lb

[ F =0]
v

Av + Bv = 1664
508 + Bv = 1664
Bv = 1156 lb
Shear Diagram

M Cv = (508)(15) = 7620 in lb
M Dv = (1156 )(18) = 20,808 in lb
M C = M C2h + M C2v =

(25,845)2 + (7620 )2

M D = M D2 h + M D2 v =

(10,557 )2 + (20,808)2

Maximum M at C
M = M C = 26,945 in lb
sm = 0
32 M
sa =
D3
7
D = 2 in = 2.4375 in
16
Page 37 of 76

= 26,945 in lb
= 23,333 in lb

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

32(26,945)
= 18,952 psi
(2.4375)3
assume K f = K fs = 1.0
sa =

se =

K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF

(1.0)(18,952) = 22,300 psi

1
se =
(0 ) +
0.85
1.255
16T 16(10,400 )
ss =
=
= 3658 psi
D 3 (2.4375)3
sms = s s = 3658 psi
sas = 0
ses =

K fs sas
sns
sms +
s ys
SF

1
ses =
(3658) + 0 = 2915 psi
1.255
Octahedral shear theory sns = 0.577 sn
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2 2
2

1 22,300
2915

=
+
N 35,300 0.577(35,300)
N = 1.544

489.

A shaft for a general-purpose gear-reduction unit supports two gears as shown.

The 5.75-in. gear B receives 7 hp at 250 rpm. The 2.25-in. gear A delivers the
power, with the forces on the shaft acting as shown; the gear teeth have a
o
1
A
B
pressure angle of = 14
( tan = h = h ). Both gears are keyed (profile) to
2
Av Bv
the shaft of AISI 1141, cold rolled. (a) If the fillet radius is 1/8 in. at bearing D,
where the diameter is 1 3/8 in., compute N based on the octahedral-shear-stress
theory (Soderberg line). The shaft diameter at A is 1 11/16 in. What is N here?

Page 38 of 76

Problem 489, 490

Solution:
For AISI 1141, cold rolled
s y = 90 ksi
sn = 50 ksi
sn sns 50 1
=
=
=
s y s ys 90 1.8
SF = 0.85
63,000(7 )
T=
= 1764 in lb
250
16T
sms =
D 3
sas = 0
Gear B:
5.75
Bv
= T = 1764 in lb
2
Bv = 614 lb
Bh = Bv tan = 614 tan 14.5 = 159 lb
Gear A:
2.25
Av
= T = 1764 in lb
2
Av = 1568 lb
Ah = Av tan = 1568 tan 14.5 = 406 lb
Vertical

Page 39 of 76

[ M

=0

8Cv = 4(1568) 3(614)

Cv = 554 lb

[ F =0]
v

Cv + Dv = Av + Bv
554 + Dv = 1568 + 614
Dv = 1628 lb
Shear Diagram

M Av = (554 )(4 ) = 2216 in lb

M Dv = (614 )(3) = 1842 in lb

Horizontal

[ M

=0

4(406) + 8Dh = 11(159)

Dh = 16 lb

[ F

=0

Ch + Bh = Ah + Dh
Ch + 159 = 406 + 16
Ch = 263 lb
Shear Diagram

Page 40 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M Ah = (263)(4 ) = 1052 in lb
M Dh = (159 )(3) = 477 in lb
M A = M A2h + M A2v =

(1052)2 + (2216)2

= 2453 in lb

M D = M D2 h + M D2 v =

(477 )2 + (1842)2

= 1903 in lb

(a) At bearing D
1
r = in
8
3
d = 1 in
8
r 0.125
=
0.10
d 1.375
D 1.375 + 0.25
=
1 .2
d
1.375
K t K f = 1 .6
K ts K fs = 1.34

M = MD
sm = 0
32 M 32(1903)
sa =
=
= 7456 psi
d 3 (1.375)3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
se = 0 +
sms

(1.6)(7456) = 14,035 psi

0.85
16T
16(1764 )
=
=
= 3456 psi
3
D (1.375)3

sas = 0
ses =

K fs sas
sns
sms +
s ys
SF

1
ses = (3456 ) + 0 = 1920 psi
1 .8
Octahedral shear theory
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

Page 41 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1

2 2
2

1 14,035
3456

=
+

N 50,000 0.577(50,000)
N = 3.28

(b) At A
For profile keyway
K f = 2.0 , K fs = 1.6
11
in = 1.6875 in
16
M = M A = 2453 in lb
sm = 0
32 M
32(2453)
sa =
=
= 5200 psi
3
d
(1.6875)3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF

d =1

se = 0 +
sms

(2.0)(5200) = 12,235 psi

0.85
16T
16(1764 )
=
=
= 1870 psi
3
D (1.6875)3

sas = 0
ses =

K fs sas
sns
sms +
s ys
SF

1
ses = (1870 ) + 0 = 1040 psi
1 .8
Octahedral shear theory

1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1
2

2 2
2

1 12,235
1040

=
+
N 50,000 0.577(50,000)
N = 4.043

491.

The high-speed shaft of a worm-gear speed reducer, made of carburized AISI

8620, SOQT 450 F, is subjected to a torque of 21,400 in-lb. Applied to the right

Page 42 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

end with no bending. The force on the worm has three components: a horizontal
force opposing rotation of W = 6180 lb , a vertical radial force S = 1940 lb , and a
rightward thrust of F = 6580 lb . The shaft has the following dimensions: a = 6 ,
7
9
3
9
b = 4 , c = 10 , d = 4 , e = 2 , f = 13 , g = 11.646 , h = 10.370 ,
8
16
4
16
13
D2 = 4 ,
D3 = 4 ,
D4 = 3.3469 , D5 = 3.253 ,
r1 = 0.098 ,
D1 = 3.740 ,
16
3
1
r2 = r3 = , r4 = 0.098 , r5 = , all in inches. The pitch diameter of the worm,
4
16
6.923 in., is the effective diameter for the point of application of the forces. The
root diameter, 5.701 in. is used for stress calculations. The left-hand bearing
takes the thrust load. Calculate N based on the octahedral-shear-stress theory
with varying stresses. (Data courtesy of Cleveland Worm and Gear Company.)

Problem 491
Solution:
Table AT 11n For AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F
s y = 120 ksi
su = 167 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 83.5 ksi
sn sns 83.5
1
=
=
=
s y s ys 120 1.437
SF = 0.85
T = 21,400 in lb
Vertical

Page 43 of 76

6.923
6.923
M = F
= 6580
= 22,777 in lb
2
2
M A =0

22,777 + (11.646)(1940) = (11.646 + 10.370)Gv

Gv = 2061 lb

[ F =0]
v

S + Av = Gv
1940 + Av = 2061
Av = 121 lb
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Av = 0
M Bv = (121)(1.2035) = 146 in lb
M Cv = (121)(1.2035 + 4.875) = 736 in lb
M Dv = (121)(1.2035 + 4.875 + 5.5675) = 1409 in lb at left side
M Dv = 1409 + M = 1409 + 22,777 = 21,368 in lb at right side
M Ev = 21,368 (2061)(4.4325) = 12,233 in lb
M Fv = 12,233 (2061)(4.5625) = 2830 in lb
M Gv = 2830 (2061)(1.375) = 0
Horizontal

Page 44 of 76

[ M

=0

(11.646)(6180) = (11.646 + 10.370)Gh

Gh = 3269 lb

[ F

=0

Ah + Gv = W
Ah + 3269 = 6180
Ah = 2911 lb
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Ah = 0
M Bh = (2911)(1.2035) = 3500 in lb
M Ch = (2911)(1.2035 + 4.875) = 17,695 in lb
M Dh = 33,900 in lb
M Eh = 33,900 (3269 )(4.4325) = 19,410 in lb
M Fh = 19,410 (3269 )(4.5625) = 4495 in lb
M Fh = 4495 (3269 )(1.375) = 0

Combined
M = M h2 + M v2
MA =
MB =
MC =
MD =
MD =
ME =

(0)2 + (0)2 = 0 in lb
(3500)2 + (146)2 = 3503 in lb
(17,695)2 + (736)2 = 17,710 in lb
(33,900)2 + (1409)2 = 33,930 in lb (left)
(33,900)2 + (21,368)2 = 40,073 in lb (right)
(19,410)2 + (12,233)2 = 22,944 in lb

Page 45 of 76

MF =
MG =

(2830)2 + (4495)2 = 5312 in lb

(0)2 + (0)2 = 0 in lb

Bending stresses (Maximum)

At A, s A = 0
32 M B 32(3503)
At B, s B =
=
= 682 psi
D13 (3.740)3
32 M C 32(17,710 )
=
= 1618 psi
At C, sC =
D23 (4.8125)3
32 M D 32(40,073)
At D, s D =
=
= 2203 psi
Dr3
(5.701)3
32 M E 32(22,944 )
At E, s E =
=
= 3652 psi
D33
(4)3
32 M F
32(5312 )
At F, s F =
=
= 1443 psi
3
D4
(3.3469 )3
At G, sG = 0
Shear Stresses:
16T 16(21,400 )
ssA = ssB =
=
= 2083 psi
D13 (3.740)3
16T 16(21,400 )
ssC =
=
= 978 psi
D23 (4.8125)3
16T 16(21,400 )
ssD =
=
= 588 psi
Dr3 (5.701)3
16T 16(21,400 )
ssE =
=
= 1703 psi
D33
(4)3
16T 16(21,400 )
ssF = ssG =
=
= 2907 psi
D43 (3.3469)3
Tensile stresses: F = 6580 lb
4F
4(6580 )
sA = sB =
=
= 599 psi
2
D1 (3.740)2
4F
4(6580 )
sC =
=
= 362 psi
2
D2 (4.8125)2
4F
4(6580 )
sD =
=
= 258 psi
2
Dr (5.701)2
4F
4(6580 )
sE =
=
= 524 psi
2
D3
(4 )2

Page 46 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

sE = sF =

4F
4(6580 )
=
= 748 psi
2
D4 (3.3469 )2

r1 0.098
=
= 0.03
D1 3.740
D2 4.8125
=
= 1 .3
D1
3.740
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 2 .3

At B:

K fs K ts = 1.7
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
sm = sB = 599 psi

se =

sa = s B = 682 psi

(2.3)(682 ) = 2262 psi

1
se =
(599 ) +
0.85
1.437
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
sms = ssB = 2083 psi
sas = 0
1
ses =
(2083) + 0 = 1450 psi
1.437
Octahedral shear theory
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2 2
2

1 2262
1450

=
+
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)
N = 24.7

r2
0.75
=
= 0.16
D2 4.8125
Dr
5.701
=
= 1 .2
D2 4.8125
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 1 .5

At C:

K fs K ts = 1.2

Page 47 of 76

se =

K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF

sm = 362 psi
sa = 1618 psi

(1.5)(1618) = 3107 psi

1
se =
(362 ) +
0.85
1.437
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
sms = ssC = 978 psi
sas = 0
1
ses =
(978) + 0 = 681 psi
1.437
Octahedral shear theory
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2 2
2

1 3107
681

=
+
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)
N = 25.1

At D:
Assume K f = 1.5 as in Prob. 483
se =

K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF

sm = 258 psi
sa = 2203 psi

(1.5)(2203) = 4067 psi

1
se =
(258) +
0.85
1.437
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
sms = s sD = 588 psi
sas = 0
1
ses =
(588) + 0 = 409 psi
1.437
Octahedral shear theory

Page 48 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

1
2

2 2
2

1 4067
409

=
+
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)
N = 20.2

r3 0.75
=
= 0.19
D3
4
Dr 5.701
=
= 1.43
D3
4
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 1.45

At E:

K fs K ts = 1.25
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
sm = sE = 524 psi
se =

sa = s E = 3652 psi

(1.45)(3652) = 6595 psi

1
se =
(524 ) +
0.85
1.437
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
sms = s sE = 1703 psi
sas = 0
1
ses =
(1703) + 0 = 1185 psi
1.437
Octahedral shear theory
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2 2
2

1 6595
1185

=
+
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)

N = 12

At F:

r4
0.098
=
= 0.03
D4 3.3469

Page 49 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

D3
4
=
= 1 .2
D4 3.3469
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 2 .3
K fs K ts = 1.7
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
sm = sF = 748 psi

se =

sa = s F = 1443 psi

(2.3)(1443) = 4425 psi

1
se =
(748) +
0.85
1.437
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
sms = s sF = 2907 psi
sas = 0
1
ses =
(2907 ) + 0 = 2023 psi
1.437
Octahedral shear theory
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2 2
2

1 4425
2023

=
+
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)

N = 14.8

Then N = 12 at r3 =
492.

3
in (E)
4

The slow-speed shaft of a speed reducer shown, made of AISI 4140, OQT 1200
F, transmits 100 hp at a speed of 388 rpm. It receives power through a 13.6 in.
gear B. The force on this gear has three components: a horizontal tangential
driving force Ft = 2390 lb , a vertical radial force S = 870 lb , and a thrust force
Q = 598 lb taken by the right-hand bearing. The power is delivered to a belt at
F that exerts a downward vertical force of 1620 lb.; sled runner keyways. Use
the octahedral shear theory with the Soderberg line and compute N at sections C
and D. (Data courtesy of Twin Disc Clutch Company.)

Page 50 of 76

Problem 492, 493

Solution:
For AISI 4140, OQT 1200 F
s y = 83 ksi
su = 112 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 56 ksi
sn sns 56
1
=
=
=
s y s ys 83 1.482
SF = 0.85
63,000(100 )
T=
= 16,237 in lb
388
Vertical

13.6
13.6
M = Q
= (598)
= 4066.4 in lb
2
2
M A =0

Page 51 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

5
5
3
7
11 13
3
3
3
1 + 1 (870 ) + 1 + 1 + 3 + 1 + 1 + + 2 (1620 ) + 4066.4
8 32 32 16
4
16 8
16 8
5
3
7
3
= 1 + 1 + 3 + 1 Gv
8 32
16 8
Gv = 3573 lb

[ F =0]
v

Av + S + F = Gv
Av + 870 + 1620 = 3573
Av = 1083 lb
Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M Av = 0
3
M Pv = (1083)1 = 1286 in lb
16
5
M Bv = 1286 + ( 1083)1 = 3046 in lb at the left
8
M Bv = 3046 + 4066.4 = 1021 in lb at the right
3
M Cv = 1021 (1953) 3 = 5570 in lb
8
7
M Gv = 5570 (1953)1 = 7950 in lb
32

Page 52 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

11
M Dv = 7950 + (1620 )1 = 5773 in lb
32
13
M Ev = 5773 + (1620 ) = 4457 in lb
16
3
M Fv = 4457 + (1620 ) 2 = 0 in lb
4

Horizontal

[ M

=0

19
13
13
2 (2390 ) + 2 + 4 Gh
32
16
16
Gh = 908 lb

[ F

=0

Ah + Gh = Ft
Ah + 908 = 2390
Ah = 1482 lb
Shear Diagram

M Ah = 0
3
M Ph = (1482 )1 = 1760 in lb
16
5
M Bh = 1760 + (1482 )1 = 4168 in lb
8

Page 53 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

3
M Ch = 4168 (908) 3 = 1104 in lb
8
7
M Ch = 1104 (908)1 = 0 in lb
32
M Dh = 0 in lb
M Eh = 0 in lb
M Fh = 0 in lb

Combined
M = M h2 + M v2
M A = 0 in lb
MP =
MB =
MC =
MD =
ME =
MF =

(1760)2 + (1286)2 = 2180 in lb

(4168)2 + (3046)2 = 5163 in lb
(1104)2 + (5570)2 = 5678 in lb
(0)2 + (5773)2 = 5773 in lb
(0)2 + (4457 )2 = 4457 in lb
(0)2 + (0)2 = 0 in lb

1
in = 0.125 in
8
d = 2.750 in
D = 2.953 in
r 0.125
=
= 0.05
d 2.750
D 2.953
=
= 1.10
d 2.750
Figure AF 12
K f 1 K t = 1 .9

at C: r =

K fs1 K ts = 1.3
For sled runner keyway
K f 2 = 1 .6
K fs 2 = 1.6
K f = 0.8 K f 1 K f 2 = 0.8(1.9 )(1.6 ) = 2.4
K fs = 0.8 K fs1 K fs 2 = 0.8(1.3)(1.6 ) = 1.7

Page 54 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

se =

K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF

4Q
4(598)
=
= 101 psi
2
d
(2.750)2
32 M C 32(5678)
sa =
=
= 2781 psi
d3
(2.750)3
(2.4)(2781) = 7920 psi
1
se =
(101) +
0.85
1.482
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
sm =

16T 16(16,237 )
=
= 3976 psi
d 3 (2.750)3
sas = 0

sms =

1
ses =
(3976 ) + 0 = 2683 psi
1.482
Octahedral shear theory
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2 2
2

1 7920
2683

=
+
N 56,000 0.577(56,000)
N =6

1
in = 0.0625 in
16
d = 2.953 in
3
D = 3 in = 3.375 in
8
r 0.0625
=
= 0.02
d
2.953
D 3.375
=
= 1.14
d 2.953
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 2 .4

at D: r =

K fs K ts = 1.6
se =

K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF

Page 55 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

4Q
4(598)
=
= 87.3 psi
2
d
(2.953)2
32 M C 32(5773)
sa =
=
= 2284 psi
d3
(2.953)3
(2.4)(2284) = 6508 psi
1
se =
(87.3) +
0.85
1.482
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
sm =

16T 16(16,237 )
=
= 3211 psi
d 3 (2.953)3
sas = 0
sms =

1
ses =
(3211) + 0 = 2167 psi
1.482
Octahedral shear theory
1

2
2 2
1 se ses

= +
N sn 0.577 sn

2 2
2

1 6508
2167

=
+
N 56,000 0.577(56,000)
N = 7 .5

TRANSVERSE DEFLECTIONS
494.

The forces on the 2-in. steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips , C = 4 kips . Determine
the maximum deflection and the shafts slope at D.

Problems 494-496
Solution:

Page 56 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

[M B = 0]
2(10) + 25D = 4(15)
D = 1.6 kips
[Fv = 0]
A+C = B + D
2 + 4 = B + 1 .6
B = 4.4 kips

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

M
64 M
=
EI E D 4

M (in kip )
M 4 4
D 10
EI

Page 57 of 76

A
0

B
-20

C
16

D
0

-135.8

108.6

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Scale ss = 10 in in

M
200 104
, Scale sM =
per in
EI
EI
D4

Deflection:
At A: y A =

0.625
in
D4

Page 58 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

At C: yC =

0.375
in
D4

Slope:
0.075
D4
0.0125
At B: =
D4
0.05625
At D: =
D4

At A: =

Maximum deflection:
0.625
y = yA =
= 0.04 in
(2 )4
Shafts slope at D
0.05625
=
(2)4
495.

The forces on the steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips , C = 4 kips . Determine the
constant shaft diameter that corresponds to a maximum deflection of 0.006 in. at
section C.

Solution:
(see Problem 494)
0.375
yC =
= 0.006
D4
D = 2.812 in
7
say D = 2 in
8
496. The forces on the steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips , C = 4 kips . Determine a
constant shaft diameter that would limit the maximum deflection at section A to
0.003 in.
Solution:
(see Problem 494)
0.625
yA =
= 0.003
D4
D = 3.80 in
7
say D = 3 in
8
497.

A steel shaft is loaded as shown and supported in bearings at R1 and R2 .

Determine (a) the slopes at the bearings and (b) the maximum deflection.

Page 59 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Problem 497
Solution:
M R1 = 0

(3000 ) 7 + 1 1 (2100) 7 + 2 1 + 1 = 7 + 2 1 + 2 + 7 R2
8 8
R2 = 444 lb

[ F = 0]

R1 + R2 + 2100 = 3000
R1 444 + 2100 = 3000
R1 = 1344 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

Page 60 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M A = 0 in lb
7
M B = (1344 ) = 1176 in lb
8
7 1
M C = (1134 ) + 1 = 2688 in lb
8 8
1
M D = 2688 (1656 )1 = 825 in lb
8
M E = 825 (1656)(1) = 831 in lb
M F = 831 + (444)(1) = 387 in lb
7
M G = 387 + (444 ) = 0 in lb
8

M (in kips )
D(in )
M
10 4
EI

)( )

A
0
1

B1
1.18
1

B2
1.18
2

C
2.69
2

D1
0.83
2

D2
0.83
1

E
-0.83
1

F1
-0.39
1

F2
-0.39
1

G
0
1

1.58

0.50

1.14

0.35

0.60

-0.60

-0.28

-0.52

Scale ss = 2 in in

Page 61 of 76

M
2 104
, Scale sM =
per in
EI
EI
D4

Slope , Scale s = 4 10 4 D 4 rad in

y deflection, Scale s y = 8 10 4 D 4 in in

at R1 , A = 0.375 4 10 4 = 1.5 10 4 rad

at R2 , G = 0 rad
(b) Maximum deflection
at C, yC = 0.1875(8 10 4 ) = 1.5 10 4 in

Page 62 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

498.

(a) Determine the diameter of the steel shaft shown if the maximum deflection is
to be 0.01 in.; C = 1.5 kips , A = 1.58 kips , L = 24 in . (b) What is the slope of the
shaft at bearing D? See 479.

Problems 498, 505, 506.

Solution:
Vertical

[ M

=0

6(1.5) + 8(0.424) = 24 Ev
Ev = 0.516 kip

[ F

=0

Dv + 0.424 = 1.5 + Ev
Dv + 0.424 = 1.5 + 0.516
Dv = 1.592 kip
Shear Diagram

M C = 0 ; M D = 6(1.5) = 9 in kips
M B = 9 + 8(0.092) = 8.264 in kips

Page 63 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

M A = 8.264 + 11(0.516) = 2.588 in kips
M E = 2.588 + 5(0.516) = 0
M (in kips )
M
D 4 10 4
EI

C
0
0

D
-9
-61.1

Scale ss = 8 in in

M
120 10 4
, Scale sM =
per in
EI
EI
D4

Page 64 of 76

B
-8.264
-56.1

A
-2.588
-17.6

E
0
0

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

y deflection, Scale s y = 0.768 D 4 in in

Deflections.
0.384
yCv =
in
D4
0.288
y Bv =
in
D4
0.168
y Av =
in
D4
Slope
0.057
Dv =
D4
Horizontal

[ M

=0

8(0.424 ) + 24 Eh = 19(1.58)
Eh = 1.1095 kip

[ F

=0

Dh + Eh + 0.424 = 1.58
Dh + 1.1095 + 0.424 = 1.58

Page 65 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Dh = 0.0465 kip
Shear Diagram

Moments
MC = 0
MD = 0
M B = 8( 0.0465) = 0.372 in kip
M A = 0.372 + 11( 0.4705) = 5.5475 in kips
M E = 5.5475 + 5(1.1095) = 0
M (in kips )
M
D 4 10 4
EI

C
0
0

D
0
0

Scale ss = 8 in in

M
4 104
, Scale sM =
per in
EI
EI
D4

Page 66 of 76

B
-0.372
-2.53

A
-5.5475
-37.7

E
0
0

y deflection, Scale s y = 0.256 D 4 in in

Deflections.
0.064
yC h =
in
D4
0.072
y Bh =
in
D4
0.096
y Ah =
in
D4
Slope
0.012
Dh =
D4
Resultant deflection:

y = yh2 + yv2

1
2

1
2 2

[(0.064) + (0.384) ]
2

yC =

[(0.072) + (0.288) ]
D

[(0.096) + (0.168) ]

Slope:
Page 67 of 76

0.297
D4

0.194
D4

1
2 2

yA =

0.390
D4

1
2 2

yB =

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

= ( +
2
h

1
2 2
v

1
2 2

[(0.012) + (0.057) ]
=
2

0.05823
D4

(a) Diameter D.
Maximum deflection = yC =

0.390
= 0.01 in
D4

D = 2.50 in

(b) slope of the shaft at bearing D

0.05823 0.05823
D =
=
D4
(2.5)4

CRITICAL SPEED
499.

A small, high-speed turbine has a single disk, weighing 0.85 lb., mounted at the
midpoint of a 0.178-in. shaft, whose length between bearings is 6 in. What is
the critical speed if the shaft is considered as simply supported?
Solution:

Table AT 2
3
WL3
(
0.85)(6.5)
y=
=
= 0.052634 in
4
3EI
6 (0.178 )
3 30 10

64

30 g o ( Wy ) 2 30 g o 2 30 386 2
nc =
=
= 818 rpm

=
Wy 2
y
0.052634

500.

The bearings on a 1 -in. shaft are 30 in. apart. On the shaft are three 300-lb
disks, symmetrically placed 7.5 in. apart. What is the critical speed of the shaft?

Solution:

Page 68 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Table AT 2
Deflection of B.
y B = y B1 + y B2 + y B3
y B1 =

(300)(22.5)(7.5)([ 30)2 (22.5)2 (7.5)2 ] = 0.01273 in

4
6 (1.5 )
6(30 10 )
(30)

64
(300)(15)(7.5)(30)2 (15)2 (7.5)2 = 0.01556 in
y B2 =
(1.5)4
6 30 106
(30)
64
2
2
2
(
300)(7.5)(7.5)(30) (7.5) (7.5)
y B3 =
= 0.00990 in
4
6 (1.5 )
6 30 10
(30)
64

y B = 0.01273 + 0.00990 + 0.01556 = 0.03819 in

Deflection of C.
yC = yC1 + yC2 + yC3
yC1

2
2
2
(
300)(7.5)(30 15)(
[
30) (7.5) (30 15) ]
=
= 0.01556 in
4
6 (1.5 )
6(30 10 )
(30)

64
(300)(15)(30 15)(30)2 (15)2 (30 15)2 = 0.02264 in
yC2 =
4
6 (1.5 )
6 30 10
(30)
64
(300)(7.5)(15)(30)2 (7.5)2 (15)2 = 0.01556 in
yC3 =
(1.5)4
6 30 106
(30)
64
yC = 0.01556 + 0.02264 + 0.01556 = 0.05376 in
Deflection of D.
y D = y D1 + y D2 + y D3

Page 69 of 76

y D1 =

(300)(7.5)(30 22.5)([ 30)2 (7.5)2 (30 22.5)2 ] = 0.00990 in

4
6 (1.5 )
6(30 10 )
(30)

64
(300)(15)(30 22.5)(30)2 (15)2 (30 22.5)2 = 0.01556 in
y D2 =
4
6 (1.5 )
6 30 10
(30)
64
(300)(7.5)(22.5)(30)2 (7.5)2 (22.5)2 = 0.01273 in
y D3 =
(1.5)4
6 30 106
(30 )
64
y D = 0.00990 + 0.01556 + 0.01273 = 0.03819 in

1
2

30 g o ( Wy )
30 g o ( y B + yC + y D ) 2
nc =
=

Wy 2
y B2 + yC2 + y D2
1

30 386(0.03819 + 0.05376 + 0.03819) 2

nc =
= 888 rpm
(0.03819)2 + (0.05376)2 + (0.03819)2

501.

A fan for an air-conditioning unit has two 50-lb. rotors mounted on a 3-in. steel
shaft, each being 22 in. from an end of the shaft which is 80 in. long and simply
supported at the ends. Determine (a) the deflection curve of the shaft considering
its weight as well as the weight of the rotors, (b) its critical speed.

Solution:

W1 = 50 lb
W3 = 50 lb
2
W2 = (0.284 ) (3) (80 ) = 160 lb weight of shaft
4
160
w2 =
= 2 lb in
80
Deflection of B.
y B = y B1 + y B2 + y B3

Page 70 of 76

y B1 =

(50)(50)(22)([ 80)2 (58)2 (22)2 ] = 0.002844 in

4
6 (35 )
6(30 10 )
(80)

64
(50)(22)(22)(80)2 (22)2 (22)2 = 0.002296 in
y B3 =
4
6 (3)
6 30 10
(80)
64
(2)(22)(80)3 2(80)(22)2 (22)3 = 0.006843 in
y B2 =
(3)4
6 30 106

64
y B = 0.002844 + 0.006843 + 0.002296 = 0.011983 in

Deflection of C.
yC = yC1 + yC2 + yC3
yC1

2
2
2
(
50)(22)(80 40)(
[
80) (22) (80 40) ]
=
= 0.003317 in
4
6 (35)
6(30 10 )
(80)

64
2
2
2
(
50)(22 )(40)(80) (22) (40)
yC3 =
= 0.003317 in
4
6 (3)
6 30 10
(80)
64
(2)(40)(80)3 2(80)(40)2 (40)3 = 0.008942 in
yC2 =
4
6 (3)
6 30 10

64
yC = 0.003317 + 0.008942 + 0.003317 = 0.015576 in

By symmetry
y D = y B = 0.011983 in
(a) Deflection curve

Page 71 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

(b) Critical speed
1

30 g o ( Wy ) 2
nc =

Wy 2

Wy = (50)(0.011983) + (160)(0.015576) + (50)(0.011983) = 3.69046

Wy = (50)(0.011983) + (160)(0.015576) + (50)(0.011983) = 0.053177
2

30 386(3.69046) 2
nc =
= 1563 rpm
0.053177
ASME CODE
502.

A cold-rolled transmission shaft, made of annealed AISI C1050, is to transmit a

torque of 27 in-kips with a maximum bending moment of 43 in-kips. What
should be the diameter according to the Code for a mild shock load?

Solution:
For AISI C1050, annealed
s y = 53 ksi
su = 92 ksi
0.3s y = 15.9 ksi
0.18su = 16.56 ksi
use d = 0.3s y = 15.9 ksi
M = 43 in kips
T = 27 in kips
1

2 2

16
FD 1 + B 2
2
3

(K sT ) + K m M +
D =
8
d 1 B 4

Reduce to
1
16
2
2 2
3
D =
(K sT ) + ( K m M )
d 1 B 4
For mild shock load, rotating shafts
K m = 1.75
K s = 1.25
B=0
1
16
2
2 2
3
D =
[(1.25)(27,000)] + [(1.75)(43,000)]
(15,900)
D = 2.98 in
say D = 3 in

)[

Page 72 of 76

503.

A machinery shaft is to transmit 82 hp at a speed of 1150 rpm with mild shock.

The shaft is subjected to a maximum bending moment of 7500 in-lb. and an axial
thrust load of 15,000 lb. The material is AISI 3150, OQT 1000 F. (a) What
should be the diameter when designed according to the Code? (b) Determine the
corresponding conventional factor of safety (static-approach and maximum-shear
theory).

Solution:
For AISI 3150, OQT 1000 F
s y = 130 ksi
su = 151 ksi
0.3s y = 39 ksi
0.18su = 27.18 ksi
use d = 0.18su = 27.18 ksi
63000(82 )
T=
= 4492 in lb
1150
M = 7500 in lb
F = 15,000 lb

16
FD 1 + B 2
2
3
(K sT ) + K m M +
(a) D =
d 1 B 4
8

For mild shock load

K m = 1.75
K s = 1.25
B=0
=1
1

(
16
1)(15,000)D 2

2
3
D =
[(1.25)(4492)] + (1.75)(7500) +

(27180)
8

1
2 2

D 3 = 0.1874 31.53 + [13.125 + 1.875D ]

D = 1.4668 in
say D = 1.5 in

(b) s =

32 M
4F
32(7500 ) 4(15,000 )
+
=
+
= 31,124 psi = 31.124 ksi
3
2
D D
(1.5)3
(1.5)2

Page 73 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

ss =

16T 16(4492 )
=
= 6778.5 psi = 6.7785 ksi
D 3 (1.5)3

2
2
1 s ss
=
+
N s y s ys

Maximum shear theory

s ys = 0.5s y
2
2
1 31.124 6.7785

=
+
N 130 0.5(130)
N = 3.83

504.

short stub shaft, made of SAE 1035, as rolled, receives 30 hp at 300 rpm via a
12-in. spur gear, the power being delivered to another shaft through a flexible
coupling. The gear is keyed midway between the bearings and its pressure angle
= 20o . See the figure for 471. (a) Neglecting the radial component of the tooth
load, determine the shaft diameter for a mild shock load. (b) Considering both
tangential and radial components, compute the shaft diameter. (c) Is the
difference in the foregoing results enough to change your choice of the shaft
size?

Solution:

For SAE 1035, as rolled

s y = 55 ksi
su = 85 ksi
0.3s y = 16.5 ksi
0.18su = 15.3 ksi
use d = 0.18su = 15.3 ksi

Page 74 of 76

Data are the same as 471.

From Problem 471.
(a) M = 4200 in lb = 4.2 in kips
T = 6300 in lb = 6.3 in kips

16
FD 1 + B 2
2

(
)
D3 =
K
T
+
K
M
+
s
m
d 1 B 4
8

Reduce to
1
16
2
2 2
D3 =
K
T
+
K
M
(
)
(
)
s
m
d 1 B 4
For mild shock load, rotating shafts
K m = 1.75
K s = 1.25
B=0
1
16
D3 =
[(1.25)(6.3)]2 + [(1.75)(4.2)]2 2
(15.3)
D = 1.5306 in
9
say D = 1 in
16

)[

(b) M = 4472 in lb = 4.472 in kips

T = 6300 in lb = 6.3 in kips
16
D =
[(1.25)(6.3)]2 + [(1.75)(4.472)]2
(15.3)
D = 1.5461 in
9
say D = 1 in
16

1
2

505.

Two bearings D and E, a distance D = 24 in . Apart, support a shaft for a punch

press on which are an 8-in. gear A, a 44-in. pulley B, and a flywheel C, as
indicated (498). Weight of flywheel is 1500 lb.; pulley B receives the power at an
angle of 45o to the right of the vertical; gear A delivers it horizontally to the right.
The maximum power is 25 hp at 250 rpm is delivered, with heavy shock. For
cold-finish AISI 1137, find the diameter by the ASME Code.

Solution:

Page 75 of 76

SECTION 7 SHAFT DESIGN

Data and figure is the same as in Problem 479. Also figure is the same as in Problem 498.
For AISI 1137, cold-finished
s y = 93 ksi
su = 103 ksi
0.3s y = 27.9 ksi
0.18su = 18.54 ksi
use d = 0.18s u = 18.54 ksi
From Problem 479
M = M B = 14,343 in lb = 14.343 in kips
T = TA = 12,600 in lb = 12.6 in kips
For heavy shock load
K m = 2.5
K s = 1.75
B=0

16
FD 1 + B
2
(K sT ) + K m M +
4
d 1 B
8

1
16
2
2 2
(
)
(
)
D3 =
K
T
+
K
M
s
m
d 1 B 4
D3 =

)[

16
[(1.75)(12.6)]2 + [(2.5)(14.343)]2
(18.54)
D = 2.2613 in
5
say D = 2 in
16
D3 =

1
2

- end -

Page 76 of 76

)
2

1
2

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

FLAT AND SQUARE KEYS
DESIGN PROBLEMS
521.
A 2-in. shaft, of cold-drawn AISI 1137, has a pulley keyed to it. (a) Compute the length of square
key and the length of flat key such that a key made of cold-drawn C1020 has the same yield
strength as the shaft does in pure torsion. (b) The same as (a), except that the key material is
AISI 2317, OQT 1000 F. (c) Would you discard either of these keys? Explain.
Solution:
For AISI 1137 shaft, Table AT 8, sy = 93 ksi
Yield Strength of Shaft
sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(93) = 55.8 ksi
sysD 3 (55.8)( )(2)3
T=
=
= 87.65 in kips
16
16

(a) Key Material, cold-drawn, C1020, Table AT 7

sy = 66 ksi
sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(66) = 39.6 ksi
Table AT 19, use b = in , t = 3/8 in.
For square key, b = t = in.
By shear, ss = sys
2T
2(87.65)
L=
=
= 4.43 in
ss bD 39.6(1 2 )(2 )
By compression, sc = sy. Key has lowest yield strength.
4T
4(87.65)
L=
=
= 5.32 in
sc tD 66(1 2)(2)
Use L = 5.32 in
For Flat key, b = in , t = 3/8 in.
By shear, ss = sys
2T
2(87.65)
L=
=
= 4.43 in
ss bD 39.6(1 2 )(2 )
By compression, sc = sy. Key has lowest yield strength.
4T
4(87.65)
L=
=
= 7.09 in
sc tD 66(3 8)(2)
Use L = 7.09 in
(b) Key Material, AISI 2317, QOT 1000 F. Table AT 8
sy = 71 ksi
sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(71) = 42.6 ksi
Table AT 19, use b = in , t = 3/8 in.
For square key, b = t = in.
By shear, ss = sys
2T
2(87.65)
L=
=
= 4.12 in
ss bD 42.6(1 2)(2)
By compression, sc = sy. Key has lowest yield strength.

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

4T
4(87.65)
=
= 4.94 in
sc tD 71(1 2 )(2 )
Use L = 4.94 in
L=

For Flat key, b = in , t = 3/8 in.

By shear, ss = sys
2T
2(87.65)
L=
=
= 4.12 in
ss bD 42.6(1 2)(2)
By compression, sc = sy. Key has lowest yield strength.
4T
4(87.65)
L=
=
= 6.59 in
sc tD 71(3 8)(2 )
Use L = 6.59 in
(c) Either of the above is not to be discarded since they are designed based on yield strength with
the same factor of safety.
522.

A cast-iron pulley transmits 65.5 hp at 1750 rpm. The 1045 as-rolled shaft to which it is to be
keyed is 1 in. in diameter; key material, cold-drawn 1020. Compute the length of flat key and
of square key needed.
Solution:
For shaft: 1045 as-rolled, Table AT 7, sy = 59 ksi
For key: Cold-drawn 1020, sy = 66 ksi
D = 1 in = 1.75 in
hp = 65.5 hp, n = 1750 rpm

63,000hp 63,000(65.5)
=
= 2358 in lb = 2.358 in kips
n
1750
Table AT 19, use b = 3/8 in, t = 1/4 in for D = 1 in
Assume smooth load, N = 1.5

T=

For Flat key, b = 3/8 in, t = 1/4 in.

By shear,
sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(66) = 39.6 ksi
sys 39.6
ss =
=
= 26.4 ksi
N
1. 5
2T
2(2.358)
L=
=
= 0.272 in
ss bD 26.4(3 8)(1.75)
By compression, use sy of shaft the lowest. Pulley has the highest compressive strength (Cast iron).
sy 59
sc = =
= 39.3 ksi
N 1. 5
4T
4(2.358)
L=
=
= 0.549 in
sc tD 39.3(1 4)(1.75)
Use L = 0.549 in - answer

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

For Square key, b = 3/8 in, t = 3/8 in.
By shear, ss = sys
sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(66) = 39.6 ksi
sys 39.6
ss =
=
= 26.4 ksi
N
1. 5
2T
2(2.358)
L=
=
= 0.272 in
ss bD 26.4(3 8)(1.75)
By compression, use sy of shaft the lowest. Pulley has the highest compressive strength (Cast iron).
sy 59
sc = =
= 39.3 ksi
N 1. 5
4T
4(2.358)
L=
=
= 0.366 in
sc tD 39.3(3 8)(1.75)
Use L = 0.366 in - answer
523.

A 3 -in. shaft transmits with medium shock 85 hp at 100 rpm. Power is received through a
sprocket (annealed nodular iron 60-45-10) keyed to the shaft of cold-rolled AISI 1040 (10%
work), with a key of cold-finished B1113. What should be the length of (a) a square key? (b) a
flat key?

Solution:
For sprocket, annealed nodular iron, 60-45-10, Table AT 6, sy = 55 ksi
For shaft, cold-rolled AISI 1040 (10% work), Table AT 10, sy = 85 ksi
For key, cold-finished B1113, Table AT 7, sy = 72 ksi
D = 3 in = 3.25 in
hp = 85 hp
n = 100 rpm
63,000hp 63,000(85)
=
= 53,550 in lb = 53.55 in kips
n
100
Table AT 19, use b = in, t = 1/2 in for D = 3 in
For medium shock, N = 2.25
(a) Square key,
b = in, t = in.
By shear,
sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(72) = 43.2 ksi
sys 43.2
ss =
=
= 19.2 ksi
N 2.25
2T
2(53.55)
L=
=
= 2.29 in
ss bD 19.2(3 4)(3.25)
By compression, use sy of sprocket the lowest.
sy
55
sc = =
= 24.4 ksi
N 2.25
4T
4(53.55)
L=
=
= 3.60 in
sc tD 24.4(3 4)(3.25)
T=

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

Use L = 3.60 in. - answer
(b) Flat key,
b = in, t = in.
By shear, ss = sys
sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(72) = 43.2 ksi
sys 43.2
ss =
=
= 19.2 ksi
N 2.25
2T
2(53.55)
L=
=
= 2.29 in
ss bD 19.2(3 4)(3.25)
By compression, use sy of sprocket the lowest.
sy
55
sc = =
= 24.4 ksi
N 2.25
4T
4(53.55)
L=
=
= 5.40 in
sc tD 24.4(1 2)(3.25)
Use L = 5.40 in. - answer
524.

A cast-steel gear (SAE 0030), with a pitch diameter of 36 in., is transmitting 75 hp at 210 rpm to
a rock crusher, and is keyed to a 3-in. shaft (AISI 1045, as rolled); the key is made of AISI C1020,
cold drawn. For a design factor of 4 based on yield strength, what should be the length of (a) a
square key, (b) flat key? (c) Would either of these keys be satisfactory?
Solution:
For cast-steel gear (SAE 0030), Table AT 6, sy = 35 ksi
For shaft, AISI 1045, as rolled, Table AT 7, sy = 59 ksi
For key, AISI C1020, cold-drawn, Table AT 7, sy = 66 ksi
D = 3 in
hp = 75 hp
n = 210 rpm
63,000hp 63,000(75)
=
= 22,500 in lb = 22.5 in kips
n
210
Table AT 19, use b = in, t = 1/2 in for D = 3 in
Design factor, N = 4
(a) Square key,
b = in, t = in.
By shear,
sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(66) = 39.6 ksi
sys 39.6
ss =
=
= 9.9 ksi
N
4
2T
2(22.5)
L=
=
= 2.02 in
ss bD 9.9(3 4)(3)
By compression, use sy of cast-steel gear the lowest.
sy 35
sc = =
= 8.75 ksi
N 4
T=

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

4T
4(22.5)
=
= 4.57 in
sc tD 8.75(3 4)(3)
Use L = 4.57 in. - answer
(b) Flat key,
b = in, t = in.
By shear, ss = sys
sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(66) = 39.6 ksi
sys 39.6
ss =
=
= 9.9 ksi
N
4
2T
2(22.5)
L=
=
= 2.02 in
ss bD 9.9(3 4)(3)
By compression, use sy of cast-steel gear the lowest.
sy 35
sc = =
= 8.75 ksi
N 4
4T
4(22.5)
L=
=
= 6.86 in
sc tD 8.75(1 2)(3)
Use L = 6.86 in. - answer
L=

525.

An electric motor delivers 50 hp at 1160 rpm to a 1 5/8 in. shaft (AISI 13B45, OQT 1100 F). Keyed
to this shaft is a cast-steel (SAE 080, N & T) pulley whose hub is 2 in. long. The loading may be
classified as mild shock. Decide upon a key for this pulley (material), investigating both flat and
square keys.
Solution:
hp = 50 hp
n = 1160 rpm
D = 1 5/8 in = 1.625 in
Shaft material AISI 13B45, OQT 1100 F, Table AT 10, sy = 112 ksi
Pulley material SAE 080, N & T, Table AT 6, sy = 40 ksi
L = 2 in
N = 2.0 to 2.25 for mild shock
From Table AT 19 for D = 1 5/8 in
b = 3/8 in, t = in
63,000hp 63,000(50)
T=
=
= 2,716 in lb = 2.716 in kips
n
1160
For flat key: b = 3/8 in, t = in
Check for compression:
4T
4(2.716)
sc =
=
= 13.37 ksi
LtD (2 )(1 4)(1.625)
sy
40
= 2.99 > 2.25
Based on pulley material, N = =
sc 13.37
Therefore safe in compression.
Determine the yield stress on the key
2T
2(2.716)
ss =
=
= 4.457 ksi
LbD (2)(3 8)(1.625)
5

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

N = 2.25
s ys = 0.6 sy = Nss
0.6 sy = (2.25 )(4.457 )
s y = 16.7 ksi

Min. s y = (13.37 )(2.25) = 30 ksi - Minimum yield strength of key material required.
Select SAE 003, Table AT 6, sy = 35 ksi Answer.
For square key: b = t = 3/8 in
Check for compression:
4T
4(2.716)
sc =
=
= 8.914 ksi
LtD (2 )(3 8)(1.625)
sy
40
= 4.49 > 2.25
Based on pulley material, N = =
sc 8.914
Therefore safe in compression.
Determine the yield stress on the key
2T
2(2.716)
ss =
=
= 4.457 ksi
LbD (2)(3 8)(1.625)
N = 2.25
s ys = 0.6 sy = Nss
0.6 sy = (2.25 )(4.457 )
s y = 16.7 ksi

Min. s y = (8.914)(2.25) = 20 ksi - Minimum yield strength of key material required.

Select SAE 003, Table AT 6, sy = 35 ksi Answer.

CHECK PROBLEMS
526. A cast-steel (SAE 080, N & T) pulley, attached to a 2-in. shaft, is transmitting 40 hp at 200 rpm,
and is keyed by a standard square key, 3 in. long, made of SAE 1015, cold drawn; shaft material,
C1144, OQT 1000 F. (a) What is the factor of safety of the key? (b) The same as (a) except a flat
key is used.
Solution:
Pulley, Cast steel, SAE 080, N & T, Table AT 6, sy = 40 ksi
Key, SAE 1015, cold drawn, Table AT 7, sy = 63 ksi
Shaft, C1144, OQT 1000 F, sy = 83 ksi
hp = 40 hp
N = 200 rpm
D = 2 in
L = 3 in

63,000hp 63,000(40)
=
= 12,600 in lb = 12.6 in kips
n
200
Table AT 19, D = 2 in
b = in, t = 3/8 in
T=

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

a) Square key, b = in, t = in
By shear:
2T
2(12.6 )
ss =
=
= 8.4 ksi
LbD (3)(1 2)(2)
sys 0.6sy 0.6(63)
N=
=
=
= 4.50 < 6.21
ss
ss
8.4
By compression:
4T
4(12.6)
sc =
=
= 16.8 ksi
LtD (3)(1 2)(2)
sy (pulley ) 40
N=
=
= 2.38 < 6.21
sc
16.8
Answer N = 2.38
b) Flat key, b = in, t = 3/8 in
By shear:
2T
2(12.6 )
ss =
=
= 8.4 ksi
LbD (3)(1 2)(2)
sys 0.6sy 0.6(63)
N=
=
=
= 4.50 < 6.21
ss
ss
8.4
By compression:
4T
4(12.6)
sc =
=
= 22.4 ksi
LtD (3)(3 8)(2)
sy (pulley ) 40
N=
=
= 1.78 < 6.21
sc
22.4
Answer N = 1.78
527.

A cast-steel (SAE 080, N & T) pulley is keyed to a 2 1/2-in. shaft by means of a standard square
key, 3 -in. long, made of cold-drawn SAE 1015. The shaft is made of cold-drawn AISI 1045. If
the shaft is in virtually pure torsion, and turns at 420 rpm, what horsepower could the assembly

Solution:
Pulley, Cast steel, SAE 080, N & T, Table AT 6, sy = 40 ksi
Key, SAE 1015, cold drawn, Table AT 7, sy = 63 ksi
Shaft, AISI 1045, cold drawn, Table AT 7, sy = 85 ksi
N = 420 rpm
L = 3 in = 3.5 in
D = 2 in
Table AT 19, D = 2 in
b = 5/8 in, t = 7/16 in
Square Key, b = t = 5/8 in
For shaft:

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

3
ssD 3 0.6 syD
0.6(85)( )(2.5)3
T=
=
=
= 104.31 in kips
16
N(16)
1.5(16)

Key:
By shear:
s LbD
T= s
2
sys 0.6 sy 0.6(63)
ss =
=
=
= 25.2 ksi
N
N
1. 5
(25.2 )(3.5)(5 8)(2.5)
T=
= 68.9 in kips < 104.31 in-kips
2
By compression:
s LtD
T= c
4
sy (pulley ) 40
sc =
=
= 26.67 ksi
N
1.5
(26.67 )(3.5)(5 8)(2.5)
T=
= 36.46 in kips < 104.31 in-kips
4
Use T = 36.46 in kips = 36,460 in kips
Tn
36,460(420)
hp =
=
= 243 hp
63,000
63,000
528.

The same as 527, except that the diameter is 3 in. and the length of the key is 5 in.

Solution:
Pulley, Cast steel, SAE 080, N & T, Table AT 6, sy = 40 ksi
Key, SAE 1015, cold drawn, Table AT 7, sy = 63 ksi
Shaft, AISI 1045, cold drawn, Table AT 7, sy = 85 ksi
N = 420 rpm
L = 5 in
D = 3 in
Table AT 19, D = 3 in
b = 3/4 in, t = 1/2 in
Square Key, b = t = 3/4 in
For shaft:
3
s D 3 0.6 sy D
0.6(85)( )(3)3
T= s
=
=
= 180.25 in kips
16
N(16 )
1.5(16 )
Key:
By shear:
s LbD
T= s
2

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

0.6(63)
= 25.2 ksi
N
N
1. 5
(25.2)(5)(3 4)(3)
T=
= 141.75 in kips < 180.25 in-kips
2
By compression:
s LtD
T= c
4
sy (pulley ) 40
=
= 26.67 ksi
sc =
N
1.5
(26.67 )(5)(3 4)(3)
T=
= 75 in kips < 180.25 in-kips
4
ss =

sys

0.6 sy

Use T = 75 in kips = 75,000 in kips

Tn
75,000(420)
hp =
=
= 500 hp
63,000
63,000
MISCELLANEOUS KEYS
529. Two assemblies, one with one feather keys, are shown, with the assumed positions of the
normal forces N. Each assembly is transmitting a torque T. Derive an equation for each case
giving the axial force needed to slide the hub along the shaft (f = coefficient of friction). Does
either have an advantage in this respect?

Solution:
ND
2
2T
N=
D

a) T =

Axial force = F = fN =

2 fT
D

2ND
= ND
2
T
N=
D

b) T =

fT
D
Assembly (b) is stronger than assembly (a) which has an axial force half that of assembly (b).
Axial force = F = fN =

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

530.

A 1 11/16-in. shaft rotating at 200 rpm, carries a cast-iron gear keyed to it by a x 1 -in.
Woodruff key; shaft material is cold-finished SAE 1045. The power is transmitted with mild
shock. What horsepower may be safely transmitted by the key, (a) if it is made of cold-drawn
SAE 1118? (b) if it is made of SAE 2317, OQT 1000 F? (c) How many keys of each material are
needed to give a capacity of 25 hp? Specify a choice.
Solution:
Only shear is used.
D = 1 11/16 in
n = 200 rpm
Woodruff key = x 1 in
N = 2 for mild shock
Shear force for key
2T
F=
= ss As
D
T= s s
2
Table 10.1, x 1 in Woodruff Key is Key No. 810
Shear area, As = 0.296 sq. in.
(a) Key, cold-drawn 1118, Table AT 7, sy = 75 ksi
sys 0.6 sy 0.6(75)
=
=
= 22.5 ksi < 24.06 ksi
ss =
N
N
2
(22.5)(0.296)1 11
16 = 5.62 in kips = 5620 in lb
T=
2
(5620)(200)
Tn
hp =
=
= 17.84 hp
63,000
63,000
(b) Key, SAE 2317, OQT 1000F, Table AT 7, sy = 79 ksi
sys 0.6 sy 0.6(79)
ss =
=
=
= 23.7 ksi < 24.06 ksi
N
N
2
(23.7 )(0.296 )1 11
16 = 5.92 in kips = 5920 in lb
T=
2
(5920)(200)
Tn
hp =
=
= 18.79 hp
63,000
63,000
(c) Number of keys for (a) = 25 / 17.84 = 1.4 or 2 keys
Number of keys for (b) = 25 / 18.79 = 1.33 or 2 keys
Select (b) which is stronger.
531.

A 3/16 x 1-in. Woodruff key is used in a 1 3/16-in. shaft (cold-drawn SAE 1045). (a) If the key is
made of the same material, will it be weaker or stronger than the shaft in pure torsion? (b) If the
key is made of SAE 4130, WQT 1100 F, will it be weaker or stronger? For the purposes here, the
weakening of the shaft by the keyway is ignored.

10

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

Solution:
Woodruff key, 3/16 x 1 in.
D = 1 3/16 in
Shaft: Cold drawn, SAE 1045 (Table AT 8) sy = 85 ksi
T= s s
2
Table 10.1, 3/16 x 1 in., Woodruff key is Key no. 608.
Shear area = As = 0.178 sq. in.
(a) Key material = Shaft Material
In yield: For key
3
0.6(85)(0.178)1
ss As D 0.6sy As D
16 = 5.39 in kips
T=
=
=
2
2
2
For shaft:
3

3
0.6(85)( )1
3
ssD 3 0.6 syD
16 = 16.77 in kips
T=
=
=
16
16
16
Therefore the key is weaker.
(b) Key material = SAE 4130, WQT 1100, Table AT 7, sy = 114 ksi
In yield: For key
3
0.6(114)(0.178)1
ss As D 0.6 sy As D
16 = 7.23 in kips
T=
=
=
2
2
2
For shaft:
3

3
0.6(85)( )1
3
ssD 3 0.6 syD
16 = 16.77 in kips
T=
=
=
16
16
16
Therefore the key is weaker.
532.

A 2-in. shaft (cold-finished SAE 1137) is connected to a hub by a 3/8-in. radial taper pin made of
4150, OQT 1000 F. (a) What horsepower at 1800 rpm would be transmitted when the pin is
about to be sheared off? (b) For this horsepower, what peak torsional stress may be repeated in
the shaft? Is the shaft safe from fatigue at this stress?

Solution:
D = 2 in
d = 3/8 in
n = 1800 rpm
(a) For pin material , 4150, OQT 1000 F, Table AT9, su = 193.5 ksi
d 2
d 2
= ss

F = ss (2 As ) = ss (2)
4
2
d 2 D 1
FD
= ssd 2D
T=
= ss
2
2 2 4
s s = sus = 0.75 su = 0.75(193.5 ) = 145.1 ksi

11

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

2

1
3
T = (145.1)( ) (2 ) = 32.05 in kips = 32,050 in lb
4
8
(32,050 )(1800)
Tn
hp =
=
= 915.7 hp
63,000
63,000
(b) For shaft, cold-finished, SAE 1137, Table AT 8, su = 103 ksi
s
103
sns = 0.6 sn = 0.6 u = 0.6
= 30.96 ksi
2
2
But,
16T 16(32,050)
ss = 3 =
= 20,404 psi = 20.4 ksi < 30.96 ksi
D
(2)3
s
30.96
N = ns =
= 1.52 > 1.5, therefore safe from fatigue at this stress.
ss
20.4
533.

A 20-in. lever is keyed to a 1 7/8-in. shaft (cold-finished SAE 1141) by a radial taper pin whose
mean diameter is 0.5 in.; pin material, C1095, OQT 800 F. The load on the lever is repeatedly
reversed; N = 2 on endurance strength. What is the safe lever load (a) for the shaft, (b) for the
pin key (shear only), (c) for the combination?
Solution:
T = FL where F = safe lever load.
L = 20 in
D = 1 7/8 in = 1.875 in
Shaft Material, cold finished, SAE 1141, Table AT 10.
sy = 90 ksi
sy
sn

= 1.8

90
= 50 ksi
1.8
Pin Material, C1095, OQT 800 F, Table AT 9.
su = 176 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(176 ) = 88 ksi
(a) For the shaft.
0.6sy 0.6(50)
ss =
=
= 15 ksi
N
2
s D 3 15( )(1.875)3
T= s
=
= 19.414 in kips = 19,414 in lbs
16
16
T = FL
19,414 = F (20 )
F = 970.7 lb
(b) For the pin.
0.6 sy 0.6(88)
ss =
=
= 26.4 ksi
N
2
sn =

12

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

2T d
T
4T
=
= 3
2
2 As
d (d ) d
4
s d 3 26.4( )(0.5)3
T= s
=
= 2.592 in kips = 2592 in lbs
4
4
T = FL
2592 = F (20 )
F = 129.6 lb
(c) For the combination.
Use F = 129.6 lb
ss =

534.

A lever is keyed to a 2 -in. shaft made of SAE 1035, as rolled, by a radial taper pin, made of SAE
1020, as rolled. A load of 200 lb. is applied to the lever 22 in. from the center of the shaft. (a)
What size pin should be used for N = 3 based on the yield strength in shear? (b) Let the hub
diameter be 5 in. and assume that the part of the pin in the hub is uniformly loaded cantilever
beam. Compute the bending stress and comment on the bending strength (especially if the
Solution:
Shaft material, SAE 1035, as rolled, Table AT 7, sy = 55 ksi
Pin material, SAE 1020, as rolled, Table AT 7, sy = 48 ksi
F = 200 lb, L = 22 in, N = 3
D = 2 in, Dh = 5 in
T = FL = (200)(22) = 4400 in-lb = 4.4 in-kips
(a) For the pin:
0.6 sy 0.6(48)
ss =
=
= 9.6 ksi
N
3
2T d
T
4T
ss =
=
= 3
2
2 As
d (d ) d
4
4(4.4)
9.6 =
d 3
d = 0.836 in
7
Use d = in = 0.875 in
8
(b) For the bending stress.
As cantilever beam let
1
L = (Dh D )
2
1
L = (5 2.5) = 1.25 in
2
From Table AT 2.
wL2 FL
M=
=
2
2
Where F is the uniform load.

13

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

2T
4T
4(4400)
=
=
= 2347 lb
Dm Dh + D 5 + 2.5
F = 1174 lb
FL (1174)(1.25)
M= =
= 734 lb
2
2
Bending stress
32M 32(734)
sb = 3 =
= 11,160 psi = 11.16 ksi
d
(0.875)3
If the loading varies and factor of safety of 3.
sn = Nsb = 3(11.16 ) = 33.48 ksi
Pin material, SAE 1020, as rolled, Table AT 7, sy = 48 ksi, su = 65 ksu.
sn = 0.5 su = 0.5(65 ) = 32.5 ksi
The bending stress is nearly safe as the load varies.
2F =

535.

A sprocket, transmitting 10 hp at 100 rpm, is attached to a 1 7/16 in. shaft as shown in Fig.
10.15, p. 290., Text; E = 3-1/2 in. What should be the minimum shear pin diameter if the
computed stress is 85% of the breaking stress mentioned in the Text?
Solution:
hp = 10 hp, n = 100 rpm, D = 1 7/16 in = 1.4375 in, E = 3 in = 3.5 in
63,000hp 63,000(10)
T=
=
= 6300 in lb
n
100
T 6300
F= =
= 1800 lb
E
3.5
From text, Page 290. Breaking stress = 50,000 psi
s s = 0.85(50 ,000 ) = 42 ,500 psi
4F
ss = 2
d
4(1800 )
42,500 =
d 2
d = 0.2322 in use in.
536.

A gear is attached to a 2-in. shaft somewhat as shown in Fig. 10-15, p. 290, Text; E = 3 5/16 in.;
minimum shear-pin diameter = 3/8 in. with a rated torque of 22 in-kips. (a) For this torque,
compute the stress in the shear pin. (b) From the ferrous metals given in the Appendix, select
those that would give a resisting torque of about 110% of the rated value. Choose one,
specifying its heat treatments or other conditions.
Solution:
D = 2 in
E = 3 5/16 in = 3.3125 in
d = 3/8 in
T = 22 in-kips
(a) Stress in shear-pin
T
22
F= =
= 6.64 lb
E 3.3125

14

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

4(6.64)
= 60.12 ksi
(3 8)2
(b) Select material. sus = 1.1(60.12 ) = 66.13 ksi
From appendix, Table AT 7, select Cold drawn, C1020 with sus = 66 ksi
ss =

SPLINES
537.
A shaft for an automobile transmission has 10 splines with the following dimensions: D = 1.25
in., d = 1.087 in., and L = 1.000 in. (see Table 10.2, p. 287, Text). Determine the safe torque
capacity and horsepower at 3600 rpm of this sliding connection.
Solution:
D = 1.25 in, d = 1.087 in, L = 1.000 in, Nt = 10, n = 3600 rpm
T = (1000 )(hL )(rm )(Nt ) in lb
D +d
rm =
4
Table 10.2 for 10 splines, sliding connection
h = 0.095D
Then
h = 0.095(1.25 ) = 0.11875 in
But
D d 1.25 1.087
h=
=
= 0.0815 in actual
2
2
1.25 + 1.087
rm =
= 0.58425 in
4
T = (1000 )(0.0815)(1.000 )(0.58425 )(10 ) = 476.2 in lb - ans
Tn
(476.2 )(3600)
hp =
=
= 27.2 hp - ans
63000
63000

538.

The rear axle of an automobile has one end splined. For this fitting there are ten splines, and D =
1.31 in., d = 1.122 in., and L = 1 15/16 in. The minimum shaft diameter is 1 3/16 in. (a)
Determine the safe torque capacity of the splined connection, sliding under load. (b) Determine
the torque that would have the splines on the point of yielding if the shaft is AISI 8640, OQT
1000 F, if one fourth of the splines are in contact. (c) Determine the torsional stress in the shaft
corresponding to each of these torques.
Solution:
D = 1.31 in, d = 1.122 in, L = 1 15/16 = 1.9375 in, Nt = 10
Dr = 1 3/16 in = 1.1875 in
T = (1000 )(hL )(rm )(Nt ) in lb
D +d
rm =
4
Table 10.2 for 10 splines, sliding connection
h = 0.095D
Then
h = 0.095(1.31) = 0.12445 in
15

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

But

D d 1.31 1.122
=
= 0.094 in (actual)
2
2
1.31 + 1.122
rm =
= 0.608 in
4
(a) Safe Torque
T = (1000 )(0.094 )(1.9375)(0.608 )(10 ) = 1107.32 in lb - ans
(b) Torque by splines required on the point of yielding with one fourth of splines in contact (Page
288).
From Table AT-7, AISI 8640, OQT 1000 F. sy = 150 ksi, ss = sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(150) = 90 ksi
s DL D (90)( )(1.31)(1.9375) 1.31
T = s
=
2 = 58.76 in kips
8
8 2
T = 58,760 in lbs
(c) Torsional stress in the shaft
From safe torque of 1107.32 in-lb
16T 16(1107.32 )
ss = 3 =
= 3368 psi - ans
Dr (1.1875)3
From torque at the point of yield
16T 16(58,760)
ss = 3 =
= 178,711 psi - ans (too high)
Dr (1.1875)3
h=

539.

An involute splined connection has 10 splines with a pitch Pd of 12/24 (a) Determine the
dimension of this connection. (b) Compute the length of spline to have the same torsional
strength as the shaft when one fourth the splines carry the load; minimum shaft diameter is
9/16 in. (no sliding). Check for compression.
Solution:
Nt = 10, Pd = 12, Dr = 9/16 in = 0.5625 in
(a) Dimension D
N 10
D = t = = 0.8333 in
Pd 12
(b) Length of spline (same torsional strength as the shaft when one fourth the splines carry the load
(Page 288).
D 3 (0.5625)3
L= r =
= 0.2136 in
D
0.8333
Check for compression.
Failure in compression is not likely (Page 289) and can be checked by using the projected
contact area.
Projected contact area:
Ac = 0.2LD = 0.2(0.2136 )(0.8333) = 0.0356 in 2 based on one-fourth of the teeth being under load.
COUPLINGS
540.
A flange coupling has the following dimensions (Fig. 10.19, p. 291, Text): d = 5, D = 8 5/8, H = 12
, g = 1 , h = 1, L = 7 in.; number of bolts = 6; 1 x 1 -in. square key. Materials: key, colddrawn AISI 1113; shaft, cold-rolled, AISI 1045; bolts, SAE grade 5 (5.8). Using the static

16

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

approach with N = 3.3 on yield strengths, determine the safe horsepower that this connection
may transmit at 630 rpm.
Solution:

d = 5 in
D = 8 5/8 in = 8.625 in
H = 12 in = 12.25 in
g = 1 in = 1.5 in
h = 1 in
L = 7 in = 7.25 in
N = 3.3
nb = 630 rpm
Square key = 1 in x 1 in
Materials:
Key: cold-drawn AISI 1113, Table AT 7, sy = 72 ksi, sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(72) = 43.2 ksi
Shaft: cold-rolled, AISI 1045, Table AT 8, sy = 85 ksi, sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(85) = 51 ksi
Bolt: SAE Grade 5, h = 1 in. sy = 81 ksi, sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(81) = 48.6 ksi
No given material for the flange.
Bolts in shear:
sys 48.6
ss =
=
= 14.73 ksi
N
3. 3
h 2
F=
N b ss
4
FH h 2 Nb ss H
T=
=
2
8
2
(1) (6 )(14.73)(12.25)
T=
= 425.158 in kips
8
T = 425,158 in lbs
(425,158)(630)
Tn
hp =
=
= 4252 hp
63,000
63,000
Bolts in compression:
sy 81
sc = =
= 24.55 ksi
N 3.3
F = Nb hgs c

17

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

FH Nb hgsc H
=
2
2
(6)(1)(1.5)(24.55)(12.25)
T=
= 1353.319 in kips
2
T = 1,353,319 in lbs
(1,353,319)(630)
Tn
hp =
=
= 13,533 hp
63,000
63,000
T=

Key in shear:
sys 43.2
ss =
=
= 13.09 ksi
N
3. 3
s bdL (13.09 )(1.25)(5)(7.25)
T= s
=
= 296.570 in kips
2
2
T = 296,570 in lbs
(296,570)(630)
Tn
hp =
=
= 2966 hp
63,000
63,000
Key in compression:
sy 72
sc = =
= 21.82 ksi
N 3.3
s tdL (21.82)(1.25)(5)(7.25)
T= c
=
= 247.180 in kips
4
4
T = 247 ,180 in lbs
(247,180 )(630)
Tn
hp =
=
= 2472 hp
63,000
63,000
Shaft in shear:
sys 51
ss =
=
= 15.45 ksi
N 3.3
d 3 ss (5)3 (15.45)
T=
=
= 379.200 in kips
16
16
T = 379,200 in lbs
(379,200)(630)
Tn
hp =
=
= 3792 hp
63,000
63,000
The safest horsepower is the lowest which is 2472 hp.
541.

A cast-iron (ASTM 25) jaw clutch with 4 jaws transmits 50 hp at 60 rpm. The inside diameter of
the jaws is 3 in. Considering rough handling, choose N = 8 on ultimate strengths. Make
reasonable and conservative assumptions and compute (a) the outside diameter of the jaws, (b)
the length of jaws h.

18

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

Solution:
For ASTM 25, suc = 97 ksi, in shear sus = 35 ksi (Table AT 6)
63,000hp 63,000(50)
T=
=
= 52,500 in lbs
n
60
T = 52.5 in kips
(a) The outside diameter of the jaws
s
35
ss = us = = 4.375 ksi
N
8
Assume Dm as the average diameter, t = thickness = Do Di , Nj = number of jaws
Shear area,
1 D
1 D + Di Do Di
As = m (t ) = o

2 Nj
2 N j 2 2
1 D 2 Di2 2
=
As = o
Do Di2
2 4 4 32
2T
4T
F=
=
Dm Do + Di
F
4T
32
128T
ss = =

=
2
2
(Do + Di ) Do2 Di2
As Do + Di Do Di
128(52.5)
4.375 =
(Do + 3) Do2 9
By trial and error.
Do = 7.466 in or D o = 7.5 in
(b) The length of jaws h.
s
97
sc = uc =
= 12.125 ksi
N
8
N j h(Do Di )
Ac =
2
F
2F
2F
F
sc =
=
=
=
Ac N j h(Do Di ) 4h(Do Di ) 2h(Do Di )

sc =

4T (Do + Di )
2T
=
2
2h(Do Di ) h Do Di2

)
19

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

2(52.5)
h (7.5)2 (3)2
3
h = 0.1833 in or h = in
16

12.125 =

542.

The universal joint shown is made of AISI 3150, OQT 1000 F; a = 2 7/16 in., D = 9/16; n = 400
rpm. (a) What torque may be transmitted for shear of the pin (N = 5 on ultimate)? (b)
Considering the pin as a simply supported beam of length a with the load distributed from a
maximum at the outer (triangular), compute the safe transmitted torque (Same N). (c) In order
not to have excessive wear on the pin, the average bearing pressure should not excced 3 ksi.
Compute this transmitted torque. (d) What is the safe power?

Solution:
For AISI 3150, OQT 1000 F, Table AT 7, su = 151 ksi, sus = 113 ksi
N=5
pb = 3 ksi
a = 2 7/16 in = 2.4375 in
D = 9/16 in = 0.5625 in
n = 400 rpm
(a) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin.
s
113
ss = us =
= 22.6 ksi
N
5
Each shear area
D 2 (22.6)( )(0.5625)2
=
F = ss
= 5.616 kips
4
4
Fa
T = 2 = Fa = (5.616)(2.4375) = 13.687 in kips
2
T = 13,687 in lbs

(b) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin (simply supported beam)
Fa
T =M=
3
(5.616)(2.4375)
T=
= 4.563 in kips
3
T = 4,563 in lbs

20

(c) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin (pb = 3 ksi)

F
F
F
pb =
=
=
Ab D(a 2) 2Da
F
3=
2(0.5625)(2.4375)
F = 8.23 ksi
Fa
T =M=
3
(8.23)(2.4375)
T=
= 6.687 in kips
3
T = 6,687 in lbs
(d) Safe power
(4,563)(400)
Tn
hp =
=
= 28.97 hp
63,000
63,000
544.

A diagrammatic representation of a universal joint is shown, two yoke parts, the type being
similar to Figs. 10.28 and 12.10, Text. The pin extensions have a diameter D = in.; a = 11/16 in.,
material of all parts is 4340, OQT 800. Let N = 4 on ultimate stresses; n = 2400 rpm. Compute the
safe torque for (a) shear of pins, (b) the pin extensions in bending, assuming that the load
distribution is from zero at the outside pin ends to a maximum at the inside yoke surfaces, (c) an
average bearing pressure on pins of 4 ksi. (d) What is the corresponding horsepower capacity?

Solution:
For AISI 4340, OQT 800 F, Table AT 7, su = 221 ksi, sus = 0.75su = 0.75(221) = 166 ksi
N=4
pb = 4 ksi
a = 11/16 in = 0.6875 in
D = 3/4 in = 0.75 in
n = 2400 rpm
(a) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin.
s
166
ss = us =
= 41.5 ksi
N
4
Each shear area
D 2 (41.5)( )(0.75)2
=
F = ss
= 18.33 kips
4
4
T = M = Fa = (18.33)(0.6875) = 12.602 in kips
T = 12,602 in lbs
21

SECTION 8 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

(b) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin (simply supported beam)
2Fa
T =M=
3
2(18.33)(0.6875)
T=
= 8.401 in kips
3
T = 8,401 in lbs
(c) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin (pb = 4 ksi)
F
F
pb =
=
Ab Da
F
4=
(0.75)(0.6875)
F = 2.063 ksi
2Fa
T =M=
3
2(2.063)(0.6875)
T=
= 0.9455 in kips
3
T = 945.5 in lbs
(d) Safe power
(945.5)(2400)
Tn
hp =
=
= 36.02 hp
63,000
63,000
-

End -

22

551.

(a) A 3 x 3 in. full bearing supports a load of 900 lb., c d D = 0.0015 ,

n = 400 rpm . The temperature of the SAE 40 oil is maintained at 140 oF.
Considering the bearing lightly loaded (Petroff), compute the frictional torque,
fhp, and the coefficient of friction. (b) The same as (a) except that the oil is
SAE 10W.

Solution.
(a) T f =

DLvips D

2

(cd 2)

L = 3 in
D = 3 in
Dn (3)(400)
vips =
=
= 20 ips
60
60
c d D = 0.0015
SAE 40 oil, 140 oF, Figure A16.
= 7.25 reyns
DLvips 7.25 10 6 ( )(3)(3)(20 )
F=
=
= 17.173 lb
(cd 2)
(0.0015 2)

D
3
T f = F = (17.173) = 25.76 in lb
2
2
Fvm
fhp =
33,000
Dn (3)(400 )
vm =
=
= 314.16 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(17.173)(314.16) = 0.1635 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
F 17.173
f =
=
= 0.0191
W
900

(b) SAE 10W oil, 140 oF, Figure A16.

= 2.2 reyns = 2.2 10 6 reyn
DLvips 2.2 10 6 ( )(3)(3)(20 )
F=
=
= 5.211 lb
(cd 2)
(0.0015 2)

D
3
T f = F = (5.211) = 7.817 in lb
2
2
Fvm
fhp =
33,000

Page 1 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

vm =

Dn

(3)(400 )

= 314.16 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(5.211)(314.16) = 0.0496 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
F 5.211
f =
=
= 0.00579
W
900

553.

The average pressure on a 6-in. full bearing is 50 psi, cd = 0.003 in. , L D = 1 .

While the average oil temperature is maintained at 160 oF with n = 300 rpm ,
the frictional force is found to be 13 lb. Compute the coefficient of friction
and the average viscosity of the oil. To what grade of oil does this
correspond?

Solution:
W
p=
LD
D = 6 in.
L D =1
L = 6 in.
W = pLD = (50)(6)(6 ) = 1800 lb
F = 13 lb
Coefficient of Friction
F
13
f =
=
= 0.0072
W 1800
DLvips
F=
(cd 2)
Dn (6)(300)
vips =
=
= 30 ips
60
60
DLvips ( )(6)(6)(30 )
F=
=
= 13 lb
(cd 2)
(0.003 2)

= 1.8 10 6 reyn = 1.8 reyns

Figure AF 16, 160 oF use SAE 10W or SAE 20W
FULL BEARINGS
554.

The
on
a
4-in.
full
bearing
is
2000
lb.,
n = 320 rpm ; L D = 1 ; cd D = 0.0011 ; operating temperature = 150 oF;
ho = 0.00088 in . (a) Select an oil that will closely accord with the started
conditions. For the selected oil determine (b) the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (c)
the hydrodynamic oil flow through the bearing, (d) the amount of end leakage,

Page 2 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

(e) the temperature rise as the oil passes through the bearing, (f) the maximum
pressure.
Solution:
(a) D = 4 in
L D =1
L = 4 in
cd = 0.0011D = 0.0011(4) = 0.0044 in
ho = 0.00088 in
2h
2(0.00088)
= 1 o = 1
= 0 .6
cd
0.0044
Table AT 20
= 0.6 , L D = 1
Sommerfield Number

ns D

p cd
320
ns =
= 5.333 rps
60
W
2000
p=
=
= 125 psi
LD (4)(4)
cd D = 0.0011
S=

(5.333)

1
0.121 =

125 0.0011
= 3.4 10 6 reyn = 3.4 reyns
Figure AF-16, 150 oF, use SAE 30 or SAE 20 W
Select SAE 30, the nearest
= 3.9 106 reyn

(b) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , = 0.6

r
f = 3.22
cr
r
D
1
=
=
cr cd 0.0011
1

f = 3.22
0.0011
f = 0.003542
F = f W = (0.003542)(2000 ) = 7.084 lb

Page 3 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

vm =

Dn

(4)(320)

= 335.1 fpm
12
12
Frictional loss = Fvm = (7.084 )(335.1)2374 ft lb min

(c) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , = 0.6

q
= 4.33
rcr ns L
D
r = = 2.0 in
2
c
0.0044
cr = d =
= 0.0022 in
2
2
ns = 5.333 rps
L = 4 in
q = 4.33rcr ns L = 4.33(2.0 )(0.0022 )(5.333)(4 ) = 0.4064 in 3 sec
(d) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , = 0.6
qs
= 0.680
q
qs = 0.680q = 0.680(0.4064 ) = 0.2764 in 3 sec
(e) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , = 0.6
cto
= 14.2
p
c = 112 , p = 125 psi
14.2 p 14.2(125)
to =
=
= 15.85 o F
c
112
(f) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , = 0.6
p
= 0.415
pmax
125
pmax =
= 301.2 psi
0.415
555.

A 4-in., 360o bearing, with L D = 1.1 (use table and chart values for 1), is to
support 5 kips with a minimum film thickness 0.0008 in.; cd = 0.004 in. ,
n = 600 rpm . Determine (a) the needed absolute viscosity of the oil .(b)
Suitable oil if the average film temperature is 160 F, (c) the frictional loss in
hp. (d) Adjusting only ho to the optimum value for minimum friction,
determine the fhp and compare. (e) This load varies. What could be the
magnitude of the maximum impulsive load if the eccentricity ration
becomes 0.8? Ignore squeeze effect.

Page 4 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Solution:
D = 4 in
L = 1.1D = 1.1(4) = 4.4 in
W
5000
p=
=
= 284 psi
LD (4.4)(4)
ho = 0.0008 in
cd = 0.004 in.
2h
2(0.0008)
= 1 o = 1
= 0 .6
cd
0.004
600
=
= 10 rps
60
(a)

S = 0.121

r
S =
cr

ns n s D

=
p cd
p

(10)

4
0.121 =

284 0.004
= 3.4 106 reyn

(b) Figure AF16, 160 F

Use SAE 30, = 3.2 106 reyn
(c) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , = 0.6
r
f = 3.22
cr
D
f = 3.22
cd

f = 3.22
0.004
f = 0.00322
F = f W = (0.00322)(5000 lb ) = 16.1 lb
Dn (4)(600)
vm =
=
= 628.3 fpm
12
12

Page 5 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

fhp =

(16.1)(628.3) = 0.3065 hp
Fvm
=
33,000
33,000

(d) adjusting ho , cd = 0.004 in.

Table AT 20, L D = 1
ho cr = 0.30 optimum value for minimum friction
r
f = 2.46
cr
D
f = 2.46
cd
4

f = 2.46
0.004
f = 0.00246
F = f W = (0.00246)(5000 lb ) = 12.3 lb
Dn (4)(600)
vm =
=
= 628.3 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(12.3)(628.3) = 0.234 hp < fhp (c )
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000

(e) = 0.8 , Table AT 20, L D = 1

S = 0.0446

r
S =
cr

ns n s

=
p
p

D

cd

(3.2 10 )(10)
0.0446 =
6

0.004

p = 717.5 psi
W = pDL = (717.5)(4)(4.4) = 12,628 lb

556.

For an 8 x 4 in. full bearing, cr = 0.0075 in. , n = 2700 rpm , average

= 4 10 6 reyn . (a) What load may this bearing safely carry if the minimum
film thickness is not to be less than that given by Norton, i11.14, Text? (b)
Compute the corresponding frictional loss (fhp). (c) Complete calculations for
the other quantities in Table AT 20, , q , qs , to , pmax . Compute the
maximum load for an optimum (load) bearing (d) if cr remains the same, (e)
if ho remains the same.

Page 6 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Solution:
D L = 8 4
L D =1 2
cr = 0.0075 in
r = D 2 = 4 in
= 4 10 6 reyn
(a) by Norton, ho = 0.00025D = 0.00025(8) = 0.002 in
ho
0.002
=
= 0.27
cr 0.0075
h
Table AT 20, L D = 1 2 , o = 0.27
cr
S = 0.172
2

r ns
S =
cr p
2700
ns =
= 45 rps
60
2

6
4 4 10 (45)
S = 0.172 =

p
0.0075
p = 298 psi
W = pDL = (298)(8)(4) = 9536 lb

(b) Table AT 20, L D = 1 2 ,

ho
= 0.27
cr

= 38.5o
r
f = 4.954
cr
D
f = 4.954
cd

f = 4.954
0.004
f = 0.0093
F = f W = (0.0093)(9536 lb ) = 88.7 lb
Dn (8)(2700)
vm =
=
= 5655 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(88.7 )(5655) = 15.2 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000

Page 7 of 63

(c) Table AT 20, L D = 1 2 ,

ho
= 0.27
cr

= 38.5o
q
= 5.214
rcr ns L
q = 5.214rcr ns L = 5.214(4 )(0.0075)(45)(4 ) = 28.2 in 3 sec
qs
= 0.824
q
qs = 0.824(28.2 ) = 23.2 in 3 sec
ct
= 20.26
p
20.26(298)
t =
= 54 o F
112
p
= 0.3013
pmax
298
pmax =
= 989 psi
0.3013
h
To solve for maximum load, Table AT 20, L D = 1 2 , o = 0.43
cr

r
S =
cr

ns

= 0.388
p

(d) cr = 0.0075 in
2

6
4 4 10 (45)
S = 0.388 =

p
0.0075
p = 132 psi
W = pDL = (132)(8)(4) = 4224 lb

(e) ho = 0.002 in
ho
= 0.43
cr
0.002
cr =
= 0.00465 in
0.43
2

6
4

4 10 (45)
S = 0.388 =

p
0.00465
p = 343.3 psi
W = pDL = (343.3)(8)(4) = 10,986 lb

Page 8 of 63

557.

A 6 x 6 in full bearing has a frictional loss of fhp = 11 when the load is

68,500 lb. and n = 1600 rpm ; cr r = 0.001 . (a) Compute the minimum film
thickness. Is this in the vicinity of that for an optimum bearing? (b) What is
the viscosity of the oil and a proper grade for an operating temperature of 160
F? (c) For the same ho , but for the maximum-load optimum, determine the
permissible load and the fhp.

Solution:
L = 6 in
D = 6 in
L D =1
r = D 2 = 3 in
cr r = 0.001
n = 1600 rpm
Dn (3)(1600)
vm =
=
= 2513 fpm
12
12
Fvm
fhp =
33,000
33,000(11)
F=
= 144.45 lb
2513
F 144.45
f =
=
= 0.00211
W 68,500
r
1
(a)
f =
(0.00211) = 2.11
cr
0.001
r
Table AT 20, L D = 1 ,
f = 2.11
cr
Near the vicinity of optimum bearing
cr = 0.001r = 0.001(3) = 0.003 in
ho = 0.254cr = 0.254(0.003) = 0.0008 in
(b) Table AT 20, L D = 1 ,

r
f = 2.11
cr

S = 0.0652
2

r ns
S =
= 0.388
cr p
1600
ns =
= 26.67 rps
60
W
68,500
p=
=
= 1902.8 psi
LD (6)(6)

Page 9 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

2

1 ( )(26.67 )
S = 0.0652 =

0.001 1902.8
= 4.7 10 6 reyn
Figure AF 16, 160 F, use SAE 40.

(c) Table AT 20, L D = 1

optimum bearing, maximum load,

ho
= 0.53
cr

ho
0.0008
=
= 0.0015 in
0.53
0.53
ho
r
= 0.53 , S = 0.214 , f = 4.89
cr
cr

ho the same, cr =

r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

6
3 4.7 10 (26.67 )
S = 0.214 =

p
0.0015
p = 2343 psi
W = pDL = (2343)(6)(6) = 84,348 lb
r
f = 4.89
cr

f = 4.89
0.0015
f = 0.00245
F = f W = 0.00245(84,348) = 206.65 lb
vm = 2513 fpm
(206.65)(2513) = 15.74 hp
Fvm
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000

558.

The maximum load on a 2.25 x 1.6875 in. main bearing of an automobile is

3140 lb. with wide-open throttle at 1000 rpm. If the oil is SAE 20W at 210 F,
compute the minimum film thickness for a bearing clearance of (a) 0.0008 in.
and (b) 0.0005 in. Which clearance results in the safer operating conditions?
Note: Since a load of this order exists for only 20-25o of rotation, the actual
ho does not reach this computed minimum (squeeze effect).

Solution:
D L = 2.25 1.6875 in
L 1.6875
=
= 0.75
D
2.25

Page 10 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

SAE 20 W at 210 oF
= 0.96 10 6 reyn
W = 3140 lb
n = 1000 rpm
W
3140
p=
=
= 827 psi
DL (2.25)(1.6875)
1000
ns =
= 16.67 rps
60
D
r = = 1.125 in
2

ns r

p cr
(a) cr = 0.0008 in
S=

(0.96 10 )(16.67 ) 1.125

S=
6

= 0.038
827
0.0008
Table AT 20, L D = 3 4 , S = 0.038

L D
1

ho cr
0.2
0.2

S
0.0446
0.0923

0.2

0.0685

L D
1

ho cr
0.1
0.1

S
0.0188
0.0313

0.1

0.0251

At L D = 3 4
ho 0.038 0.0251
=
(0.2 0.1) + 0.1 = 0.13
cr 0.0685 0.0251
ho = 0.13cr = 0.13(0.0008) = 0.0001 in
(b) cr = 0.0005 in

S=
6

827

0.0005

= 0.098

Page 11 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

L D
1

ho cr
0.2
0.2

S
0.0446
0.0923

0.2

0.0685

L D
1

ho cr
0.4
0.4

S
0.121
0.319

0.4

0.220

At L D = 3 4
ho 0.098 0.0685
=
(0.4 0.2) + 0.2 = 0.239
cr 0.220 0.0685
ho = 0.239cr = 0.239(0.0005) = 0.00012 in
use cr = 0.0005 in , ho = 0.00012 in
A 360o bearing supports a load of 2500 lb.; D = 5 in. , L = 2.5 in. ,
cr = 0.003 in. , n = 1800 rpm ; SAE 20 W oil entering at 100 F. (a) Compute
the average temperature t av of the oil through the bearing. (An iteration
procedure. Assume ; compute S and the corresponding to ; then the
average oil temperature t av = ti + to 2 . If this t av and the assumed do not
locate a point in Fig. AF 16 on the line for SAE 20 W oil, try again.) Calculate
(b) the minimum film thickness, (c) the fhp, (d) the amount of oil to be
supplied and the end leakage.

561.

Solution:
D = 5 in
L = 2.5 in
L 2 .5
=
= 0 .5
D
5
cr = 0.003 in
(a) Table AT 20
cto
Parameter,
, c = 112
p
r
S =
cr

ns

Page 12 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

W
2500
=
= 200 psi
DL (5)(2.5)
1800
ns =
= 30 rps
60
D
r = = 2.5 in
2
cr = 0.003 in
Fig. AF 16, SAE 20 W, Table AT 20, L D = 0.5 , ti = 100 o F
cto
to o F
Trial ( t o F ), reyns
S
p
3.5 x 10-6 (130 F)
0.365
36.56
65
-6
3.2 x 10 (134 F)
0.333
34.08
61
-6
3.4 x 10 (132 F)
0.354
35.71
64
p=

Therefore, use t av = 132 o F , S = 0.354

(b) Table AT 20, L D = 0.5 , S = 0.354
ho
= 0.415
cr
ho = 0.415(0.003) = 0.00125 in
(c) Table AT 20, L D = 0.5 , S = 0.354
r
f = 8.777
cr
2 .5

f = 8.777
0.003
f = 0.0105
F = f W = 0.0105(2500 ) = 26.25 lb
Dn (5)(1800)
vm =
=
= 2356 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(26.25)(2356) = 1.874 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000

(d) Table AT 20, L D = 0.5 , S = 0.354

q
= 4.807
rcr ns L
q = 4.807 rcr ns L = 4.807(2.5)(0.003)(30 )(2.5) = 2.704 in 3 sec
qs
= 0.7165
q

Page 13 of 63

t av = ti + to 2 o F

132.5
130.5
132.0

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

qs = 0.7165(2.704 ) = 1.937 in 3 sec

PARTIAL BEARINGS
562.

A 2 x 2-in. bearing has a clearance cr = 0.001 in , and ho = 0.0004 in. ,

n = 2400 rpm , and for the oil, = 3 106 reyn . Determine the load, frictional
horsepower, the amount of oil to enter, the end leakage of oil, and the
temperature rise of the oil as it passes through for : (a) a full bearing, partial
bearings of (b) 180o, (c) 120o, (d) 90o, (e) 60o.

Solution:
D = L = 2 in
L D =1
cr = 0.001 in
r = D 2 = 1 in
n = 2400 rpm
ns = 40 rps

= 3 106 reyn
ho = 0.004 in.
ho 0.0004
=
= 0. 4
0.001
cr
Dn (2)(2400)
vm =
=
= 1257 fpm
12
12
(a) Full bearing
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4
S = 0.121
rf
= 3.22
cr
q
= 4.33
rcr ns L
qs
= 0.680
q
cto
= 14.2
p
p
= 0.415
pmax

Page 14 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

6
1 3 10 (40 )
0.121 =

p
0.001
p = 992 psi
W = pDL = (992)(2)(2) = 3968 lb
fhp:
F = fW
rf
= 3.22
cr

f = 3.22
0.001
f = 0.00322
F = f W = (0.00322)(3968) = 12.78 lb
(12.78)(1257 ) = 0.4868 hp
Fvm
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
Oil flow, q
q
= 4.33
rcr ns L
q
= 4.33
(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)
q = 0.3464 in3 sec
End leakage
qs
= 0.680
q
qs = 0.68(0.3464 ) = 0.2356 in3 sec

Temperature rise, to
cto
= 14.2
p
(112)to = 14.2
992
to = 126 o F
(b) 180o Bearing
Table AT 21, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4
S = 0.128

Page 15 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

rf
= 2.28
cr
q
= 3.25
rcr ns L
qs
= 0.572
q
cto
= 12.4
p

r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

6
1 3 10 (40 )
0.128 =

p
0.001
p = 937.5 psi
W = pDL = (937.5)(2)(2) = 3750 lb
fhp:
F = fW
rf
= 2.28
cr

f = 2.28
0.001
f = 0.00228
F = f W = (0.00228)(3750) = 8.55 lb
(8.55)(1257) = 0.3257 hp
Fvm
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
Oil flow, q
q
= 3.25
rcr ns L
q
= 3.25
(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)
q = 0.26 in3 sec
End leakage
qs
= 0.572
q
qs = 0.572(0.26 ) = 0.1487 in3 sec

Temperature rise, to

Page 16 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

cto

= 12.4
p
(112)to = 12.4
937.5
to = 104 o F
(c) 12o Bearing
Table AT 22, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4
S = 0.162
rf
= 2.16
cr
q
= 2.24
rcr ns L
qs
= 0.384
q
cto
= 15
p
r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

6
1 3 10 (40 )
0.162 =

p
0.001
p = 741 psi
W = pDL = (741)(2 )(2) = 2964 lb
fhp:
F = fW
rf
= 2.16
cr

f = 2.16
0.001
f = 0.00216
F = f W = (0.00216)(2964) = 6.4 lb
Fvm
(6.4)(1257 ) = 0.2438 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
Oil flow, q

Page 17 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

q
= 2.24
rcr ns L
q
= 2.24
(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)
q = 0.1792 in3 sec
End leakage
qs
= 0.384
q
q s = 0.384(0.1792 ) = 0.0688 in 3 sec

Temperature rise, to
cto
= 15
p
(112)to = 15
741
to = 99 o F
(d) 60o Bearing
L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4
S = 0.450
rf
= 3.29
cr
q
= 1.56
rcr ns L
qs
= 0.127
q
cto
= 28.2
p
r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

6
1 3 10 (40 )
0.450 =

p
0.001
p = 267 psi
W = pDL = (267 )(2)(2) = 1068 lb
fhp:
F = fW

Page 18 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

rf
= 3.29
cr

f = 3.29
0.001
f = 0.00329
F = f W = (0.00329)(1068) = 3.514 lb
Fvm
(3.514)(1257) = 0.1339 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
Oil flow, q
q
= 1.56
rcr ns L
q
= 1.56
(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)
q = 0.1248 in3 sec
End leakage
qs
= 0.127
q
qs = 0.127(0.1248) = 0.0158 in3 sec

Temperature rise, to
cto
= 28.2
p
(112)to = 28.2
267
to = 67 o F
563.

A 2 x 2 in. bearing sustains a load of W = 5000 lb. ; cr = 0.001 in. ;

n = 2400 rpm ; = 3 106 reyn . Using Figs. AF 17 and AF 18, determine the
minimum film thickness and the frictional loss (ft-lb/min.) for (a) a full
bearing, and for partial bearings of (b) 180o, (c) 120o, (d) 90o, (e) 60o.

Solution:
L = 2 in
D = 2 in
W = 5000 lb
cr = 0.001 in.
n = 2400 rpm
ns = 40 rps

= 3 106 reyn
r = D 2 = 1 in

Page 19 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

p=

W
5000
=
= 1250 psi
LD (2)(2)
2

r ns 1 3 10 6 (40 )
S =
=
= 0.10

1250
cr p 0.001
Dn (2)(2400)
vm =
=
= 1257 fpm
12
12
Using Fig. AF 17 and AF 18

(a) Full Bearing

ho
= 0.346
cr
r
f = 2 .8
cr
ho = 0.346(0.001) = 0.000346 in

f = 2 .8
0.001
f = 0.0028
F = f W = (0.0028)(5000) = 14 lb
Fvm = (14)(1257 ) = 17,600 ft lb min

(b) 180o Bearing

ho
= 0.344
cr
r
f = 2 .0
cr
ho = 0.344(0.001) = 0.000344 in

f = 2 .0
0.001
f = 0.0020
F = f W = (0.0020)(5000) = 10 lb
Fvm = (10)(1257 ) = 12,570 ft lb min

ho
= 0.302
cr

Page 20 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

r
f = 1 .7
cr
ho = 0.302(0.001) = 0.000302 in

f = 1 .7
0.001
f = 0.0017
F = f W = (0.0017 )(5000) = 8.5 lb
Fvm = (8.5)(1257 ) = 10,685 ft lb min

(d) 60o Bearing

ho
= 0.20
cr
r
f = 1 .4
cr
ho = 0.20(0.001) = 0.0002 in

f = 1 .4
0.001
f = 0.0014
F = f W = (0.0014)(5000) = 7 lb
Fvm = (7 )(1257 ) = 8,800 ft lb min

564.

A 120o partial bearing is to support 4500 lb. with ho = 0.002 in. ; L D = 1 ;

D = 4 in. ; cd = 0.010 in. ; n = 3600 rpm . Determine (a) the oils viscosity,(b)
the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (c) the eccentricity angle, (d) the needed oil
flow, (e) the end leakage, (f) the temperature rise of the oil as it passes
through, (g) the maximum pressure. (h) If the clearance given is the average,
what approximate class of fit (Table 3.1) is it? (i) What maximum impulsive
load would be on the bearing if the eccentricity ratio suddenly went to 0.8?
Ignore squeeze effect.

Solution:
W = 4500 lb
ho = 0.002 in
L D =1
D = 4 in
L = 4 in
r = D 2 = 2 in
cd = 0.010 in.
n = 3600 rpm

Page 21 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

3600
= 60 rps
60
Dn (2)(3600)
vm =
=
= 3770 fpm
12
12
W
4500
p=
=
= 281.25 psi
LD (4 )(4)
ho 2ho 2(0.002 )
=
=
= 0 .4
cr
cr
0.010
Table AT 22, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4
S = 0.162
= 35.65o
r
f = 2.16
cr
q
= 2.24
rcr ns L
qs
= 0.384
q
cto
= 15.0
p
p
= 0.356
pmax
ns =

r
(a) S =
cr

ns

D ns
S =
cd p
2

4 (60 )
0.162 =

0.010 281.25
= 4.75 106 reyn

(b)

r
f = 2.16
cr

D
f = 2.16
cd

f = 2.16
0.010
f = 0.0054
F = f W = 0.0054(4500) = 24.30 lb

Page 22 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Fvm = (24.30)(3770) = 91,611 ft lb min
(c) = 35.65o
q
4q
=
= 2.24
rcr ns L Dcd ns L
4q
= 2.24
(4)(0.010)(60)(4)
q = 5.4 in3 sec

(d)

qs
= 0.384
q
qs = 0.384(5.4 ) = 2.07 in3 sec

(e)

(f)

cto

= 15.0
p
(112)to = 15.0
281.25
to = 38 o F

(g)

= 0.356
pmax
281.25
pmax =
= 790 psi
0.356

(h) cd = 0.010 in , D = 4 in
Table 3.1
RC 8, Hole, average = + 0.0025
Shaft, average = - 0.00875
cd = 0.0025 + 0.00875 = 0.01125 0.010 in
Class of fit = RC 9
(i) = 0.80
Table AT 22, , L D = 1
S = 0.162
2

D ns
S =
cd p
2

6
4 3 10 (60 )
0.0531 =

p
0.010
p = 542 psi

Page 23 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

W = pDL = (542)(4)(4) = 8672 lb
565.

A 120o partial bearing is to support 4500 lb., D = 3 in. , cd = 0.003 in. ;

n = 3600 rpm ; SAE 20W entering at 110 F. Calculate (a) the average
temperature of the oil as it passes through,(b) the minimum film thickness, (c)
the fhp, (d) the quantity of oil to be supplied. HINT: In (a) assume and
determine the corresponding values of S and to ; then tav = ti + to 2 . If
assumed and tav do not locate a point in Fig. AF 16 that falls on line for
SAE 20W, iterate.

Solution:
W = 4500 lb
D = 3 in
L = 3 in
L D =1
cd = 0.003 in.
2

D ns
S =
cd p
3600
ns =
= 60 rps
60
W
4500
p=
=
= 500 psi
DL (3)(3)
cto
, (SAE 20W)
p

Trial

t , oF

3.5 x 10-6
2.0 x 10-6
2.6 x 10-6
2.35 x 10-6
2.4 x 10-6

130
160
145
150
149

0.42
0.24
0.312
0.282
0.288

Page 24 of 63

cto
p
19.8
15.4
17.7
17.2
17.3

to

tav = ti + to 2

88
68
79
76
78

154
144
149.5
148
149

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

ho
= 0.513
cr
2ho
= 0.513
cd
2ho = 0.513(0.003)

ho = 0.00077 in
(c) Table At 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.288
r
f = 2.974
cr
D
3
f =
f = 2.974
cr
0.003
f = 0.002974
F = f W = (0.002974)(4500) = 13.383 lb
Fvm
fhp =
33,000
Dn (3)(3600)
vm =
=
= 2827 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(13.383)(2827 ) = 1.15 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000

(d) Table At 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.288

q
= 2.528
rcr ns L
4q
= 2.528
Dcd ns L
4q
= 2.528
(3)(0.003)(60)(3)
q = 1.024 in3 sec

566.

The 6000-lb. reaction on an 8 x 4 in., 180o partial bearing is centrally

applied; n = 1000 rpm ; ho = 0.002 in . For an optimum bearing with minimum
friction determine (a) the clearance, (b) the oils viscosity, (c) the frictional
horsepower. (d) Choose a cd D ratio either smaller or larger than that
obtained in (a) and show that the friction loss is greater than that in the
optimum bearing. Other data remain the same.

Solution:
W = 6000 lb

Page 25 of 63

D = 8 in
L = 4 in
n = 1000 rpm
1000
ns =
= 16.67 rps
60
L D =1 2
ho = 0.002 in

(a) Table AT 21, L D = 1 2

Optimum value (minimum friction)
ho cr = 0.23
0.002
cr =
= 0.0087 in
0.23
(b) Table AT 21, L D = 1 2 , ho cr = 0.23
S = 0.126
2

r ns
S =
cr p
W
6000
p=
=
= 187.5 psi
DL (4)(8)
D
r = = 4 in
2
2

4 (16.67 )
S = 0.126 =

0.0087 187.5
= 6.70 106 reyn

(c) Table AT 21, L D = 1 2 , ho cr = 0.23

r
f = 2.97
cr

f = 2.97
0.0087
f = 0.00646
F = f W = (0.00646 )(6000) = 38.76 lb
Dn (8)(1000)
vm =
=
= 2094 fpm
12
12

Page 26 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

fhp =

Fvm
(38.76)(2094) = 2.46 hp
=
33,000
33,000

For (a)

cd 2cr 2(0.0087 )
=
=
= 0.0022
D
D
8

cd
> 0.0022
D
cd
= 0.0030
D
cd = 0.0030(8) = 0.0240 in

cr = 0.0120 in
ho 0.002
=
= 0.1667
cr 0.012
Table AT 21, L D = 1 2
r
f = 1.67
cr
4

f = 1.67
0.0016
f = 0.00668
F = f W = (0.00668)(6000 ) = 40.08 lb
Dn (8)(1000)
vm =
=
= 2094 fpm
12
12
(40.08)(2094) = 2.54 hp > 2.46 hp
Fvm
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
cd
< 0.0022
D
cd
= 0.0020
D
cd = 0.0020(8) = 0.0160 in

cr = 0.0080 in
ho 0.002
=
= 0.25
cr 0.008
Table AT 21, L D = 1 2
r
f = 3.26
cr
4

f = 3.26
0.0016
f = 0.00652

Page 27 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

F = f W = (0.00652 )(6000) = 39.12 lb
Dn (8)(1000)
vm =
=
= 2094 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(39.12)(2094) = 2.48 hp > 2.46 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
A 120o partial bearing supports 3500 lb. when n = 250 rpm ; D = 5 in. ,
L = 5 in. ; = 3 106 reyn . What are the clearance and minimum film
thickness for an optimum bearing (a) for maximum load, (b) for minimum
friction? (c) On the basis of the average clearance in Table 3.1, about what
class fit is involved? Would this fit be on the expensive or inexpensive side?
(d) Find the fhp for each optimum bearing.

567.

Solution:
D = 5 in.
L = 5 in.
L
=1
D
n = 250 rpm
250
ns =
= 4.17 rps
60
= 3 106 reyn
W = 3500 lb
W
3500
p=
=
= 140 psi
DL (5)(5)

(a)

Table AT 22,

h
L
= 1 , max. load o = 0.46
D
cr

S = 0.229
2

r ns
S =
cr p
D
r = = 2.5 in
2
2

2.5 3.0 106 (4.17 )

S = 0.229 =
140
cr
cr = 0.00156 in
ho = 0.46cr = 0.46(0.00156) = 0.00072 in

Page 28 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

(b)

Table AT 22,

L
h
= 1 , min. friction o = 0.40
D
cr

S = 0.162
2

r ns
S =
cr p
D
r = = 2.5 in
2
2

2.5 3.0 106 (4.17 )

S = 0.162 =
140
cr
cr = 0.00186 in
ho = 0.46cr = 0.40(0.00186) = 0.00074 in

(c) cd 1 = 2(0.00156) = 0.00312 in

cd 2 = 2(0.00186) = 0.00372 in
Use Class RC4, ave. cd = 0.00320 in , expensive side
(d) Table AT 22,

L
h
= 1 , max. load o = 0.46
D
cr

r
f = 2.592
cr

2 .5

f = 2.592
0.00156
f = 0.00162
F = f W = (0.00162 )(3500 ) = 5.67 lb
Dn (5)(250)
vm =
=
= 327.25 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(5.67)(327.25) = 0.0562 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000

For minimum friction,

ho
= 0.40
cr

r
f = 2.16
cr

2 .5

f = 2.16
0.00186
f = 0.00161
F = f W = (0.00161)(3500) = 5.635 lb

Page 29 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Dn

(5)(250)

= 327.25 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(5.635)(327.25) = 0.0559 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000

vm =

570.

A 180o partial bearing is to support 17,000 lb. with p = 200 psi ,

n = 1500 rpm , ho = 0.003 in , L D = 1 . (a) Determine the clearance for an
optimum bearing with minimum friction. (b) Taking this clearance as the
average, choose a fit (Table 3.1) that is approximately suitable. (c) Select an
oil for an average temperature of 150 F. (d) Compute fhp.

Solution:
W = 17,000 lb
p = 200 psi
n = 1500 rpm
1500
ns =
= 25 rps
60
L D =1
L=D
W
p=
DL
17,000
200 =
D2
D = L = 9.22 in
D 9.22
r= =
= 4.61 in
2
2
(a) For optimum bearing with minimum friction

Table AT 21, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.44

ho cr = 0.44
0.003
= 0.44
cr
cr = 0.00682 in
(b) Table 3.1, D = 9.22 in
cd = 2cr = 2(0.00682 ) = 0.01364 in
Use Class RC7, average cd = 0.01065 in
Or use Class RC8, average cd = 0.01575 in
(c) Table AT 21, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.44
S = 0.158
Page 30 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

4.61 (25)
0.158 =

0.00682 200
= 2.8 106 reyn
Fig. AF 16, at 150 F
Use Either SAE 20W or SAE 30.

(d)
Table AT 21, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.44
r
f = 2.546
cr
4.61

f = 2.546
0.00682
f = 0.00377
Dn (9.22)(1500)
vm =
=
= 3621 fpm
12
12
F = f W = (0.00377 )(17,000) = 64.09 lb
Fvm
(64.09)(3621) = 7.0 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000

571.

The reaction on a 120o partial bearing is 2000 lb. The 3-in journal turns at
1140 rpm; cd = 0.003 in. ; the oil is SAE 20W at an average operating
temperature of 150 F. Plot curves for the minimum film thickness and the
frictional loss in the bearing against the ratio L D , using L D = 0.25, 0.5, 1,
and 2. (Note: This problem may be worked as a class problem with each
student being responsible for a particular L D ratio.)

Solution:
W = 2000 lb
D = 3 in.
n = 1140 rpm
1140
ns =
= 19 rps
60
cd = 0.003 in
cr = 0.0015 in
For SAE 20W, 150 F
= 2.75 106 reyn
(a)

L
= 0.25
D

Page 31 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

L = 0.25D = 0.25(3) = 0.75 in
W
2000
p=
=
= 889 psi
DL (3)(0.75)
L
Table AT 22,
= 0.25
D
D
r = = 1.5 in
2
2

r ns 1.5 2.75 10 6 (19 )

S =
=
= 0.0588

c
p
0
.
0015
889

r
ho
= 0.083
cr
ho = 0.083(0.0015) = 0.000125 in
r
f = 2.193
cr
1 .5

f = 2.193
0.0015
f = 0.002193
F = f W = (0.002193)(2000) = 4.386 lb
Dn (3)(1140)
vm =
=
= 895 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(4.386)(895) = 0.119 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
L
(b)
= 0 .5
D
L = 0.5 D = 0.5(3) = 1.5 in
W
2000
p=
=
= 444 psi
DL (3)(1.5)
L
Table AT 22,
= 0 .5
D
D
r = = 1.5 in
2
2

r ns 1.5 2.75 106 (19 )

S =
=
= 0.1177

444
cr p 0.0015
ho
= 0.2159
cr
ho = 0.2159(0.0015) = 0.000324 in
r
f = 2.35
cr

Page 32 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

1 .5

f = 2.35
0.0015
f = 0.00235
F = f W = (0.00235)(2000) = 4.7 lb
Dn (3)(1140)
vm =
=
= 895 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(4.7 )(895) = 0.1275 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
L
(c)
=1
D
L = D = 3 in
W
2000
p=
=
= 222 psi
DL (3)(3)
L
Table AT 22,
=1
D
D
r = = 1.5 in
2
2

r ns 1.5 2.75 106 (19 )

S =
=
= 0.2354

222
cr p 0.0015
ho
= 0.4658
cr
ho = 0.4658(0.0015) = 0.000699 in
r
f = 2.634
cr
1 .5

f = 2.634
0.0015
f = 0.002634
F = f W = (0.002634)(2000 ) = 5.268 lb
Dn (3)(1140)
vm =
=
= 895 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(5.268)(895) = 0.1429 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
L
(d)
=2
D
L = 2 D = 2(3) = 6 in
W
2000
p=
=
= 111 psi
DL (3)(6)
L
Table AT 22,
=2
D

Page 33 of 63

r=

D
= 1.5 in
2
2

r ns 1.5 2.75 106 (19 )

S =
=
= 0.47

111
cr p 0.0015
ho
= 0.718
cr
ho = 0.718(0.0015) = 0.00108 in
r
f = 3.8118
cr
1 .5

f = 3.8118
0.0015
f = 0.003812
F = f W = (0.003812)(2000) = 7.624 lb
Dn (3)(1140)
vm =
=
= 895 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(7.624)(895) = 0.2068 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
L
D
0.25
0.5
1.0
2.0

Page 34 of 63

ho , in

fhp

0.000125
0.000324
0.000699
0.001080

0.119
0.128
0.143
0.207

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

A 180o partial bearing is subjected to a load of 12,000 lb.; D L = 8 8 in. ,
cr r = 0.0015 , ho 0.0024 in. , n = 500 rpm . The air speed about the bearing
is expected to be in excess of 1000 fpm (on moving vehicle) and the effective
radiating area is 20 DL . Determine: (a) the eccentricity factor, (b) reyns, (c)
the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (d) the estimated temperature of oil and bearing
( a self-contained oil-bath unit) for steady-state operation, and a suitable
oil.(e) Compute to of the oil passing through the load-carrying area, remark
on its reasonableness, and decide upon whether some redesign is desirable.

572.

Solution:
D = 8 in.
L = 8 in.
L D =1
W = 12,000 lb
D
r = = 4 in
2
cr = 0.0015r = 0.0015(4) = 0.0060 in
ho 0.0024
=
= 0. 4
cr 0.0060
n = 500 rpm
500
ns =
= 8.33 rps
60
Table AT 21, ho cr = 0.4 , L D = 1
S = 0.128
r
f = 2.28
cr
cto
= 12.4
p
W 12,000
p=
=
= 187.5 psi
DL (8)(8)
(a) = 1

ho
= 1 0 .4 = 0 .6
cr

r
(b) S =
cr

ns

p
2

4 (8.33)
S = 0.128 =

0.0060 187.5
= 6.5 106 reyn

Page 35 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

(c)

r
f = 2.28
cr

f = 2.28
0.0060
f = 0.00342
F = f W = (0.00342 )(12,000) = 41.04 lb
Dn (8)(500)
vm =
=
= 1047 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(41.04)(1047) = 1.302 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
Frictional loss = 43,000 ft-lb/min

(d) Q = hcr Ab tb ft-lb/min

Q = 43,000 ft lb min
hcr = hc + hr
hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F
va0.6
, va 1000 fpm
D 0.4
0.6
(
1000 )
hc = 0.017
= 0.467 ft lb min sq.in. F
(8)0.4
hcr = 0.467 + 0.108 = 0.575 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 20 DL = 20(8)(8) = 1280 sq.in.
Q = hcr Ab tb
43,000 = (0.575)(1280)(tb )
tb = 58.42 F
Oil-bath, 1000 fpm
toa (1.2)(1.3)(tb )
toa = (1.2)(1.3)(58.42) = 91.1 F
assume 100 F ambient temperature
tb = 100 + 58.42 F = 158.42 F
tb = 100 + 91.1 F = 191.1 F
hc = 0.017

(c)

cto

= 12.4
p
(112)to = 12.4
187.5
to = 20.8 F
Solve for to 2

Page 36 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

to1 + to 2 = 2(191.1) = 382.2 F
to1 = 382.2 to 2
to 2 to1 = 20.8 F
to 2 362.2 + to 2 = 20.8
to 2 = 201.5 F 200 F
not reasonable since the oil oxidizes more rapidly above 200 F, a redesign is
desireable.
573.

A 2 x 2-in. full bearing (ring-oiled) has a clearance ratio cd D = 0.001 . The

journal speed is 500 rpm, = 3.4 106 reyn , and ho = 0.0005 in. The ambient
temperature is 100 F; Ab = 25DL , and the transmittance is taken as
hcr = 2 Btu hr sq. ft. F . Calculate (a) the total load for this condition; (b)
the frictional loss, (c) the average temperature of the oil for steady-state
operation. Is this temperature satisfactory? (d) For the temperature found,
what oil do you recommend? For this oil will ho be less or greater than the
specified value? (e) Compute the temperature rise of the oil as it passes
through the bearing. Is this compatible with other temperatures found? (f)
What minimum quantity of oil should the ring deliver to the bearing?

Solution:
L = 2 in.
D = 2 in.
cd D = 0.001
cd = (0.001)(2) = 0.0020 in

= 3.4 106 reyn

ho = 0.0005 in.
cr = 0.0010 in
ho cr = 0.0005 0.0010 = 0.5
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.5 , Full Bearing
S = 0.1925
r
f = 4.505
cr
q
= 4.16
rcr ns L
cto
= 19.25
p
(a) S = 0.1925
Page 37 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

2

r ns
S =
cr p
D
r = = 1 in
2
500
ns =
= 8.33 rps
60
2

6
1 3.4 10 (8.330 )
S = 0.1925 =

p
0.0010
p = 147 psi
W = pDL = (147 )(2)(2) = 588 lb

(b)

r
f = 4.505
cr

f = 4.505
0.001
f = 0.004505
F = f W = (0.004505)(588) = 2.649 lb
Dn (2)(500)
vm =
=
= 261.8 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (2.649 )(261.8) = 693.5 ft lb min

(c) Q = hcr Ab tb
hcr = 2 Btu hr sq. ft. F = 0.18 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 25DL = 25(2)(2) = 100 sq.in.
Q =Uf

(0.18)(100)(tb ) = 693.5
tb = 38.53 F
toa = 2tb = 2(38.53) = 77 F
to = 77 + 100 = 177 F , near 160 F
satisfactory.
(d) to = 177 F , = 3.4 106 reyn
Figure AF 16
Use SAE 40 oil, = 3.3 106 reyn
r
S =
cr

ns

Page 38 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

2

6
1 3.3 10 (8.33)
S =
= 0.187

147
0.0010
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.187
ho cr = 0.4923

ho = 0.4923(0.0010) = 0.00049 in < ho (= 0.0005 in )

cto
(e)
= 19.25
p
(112)to = 19.25
147
to = 25.3 F
to1 + to 2 = 2(177 ) = 354 F
t o 2 t o1 = 25.3 F
2to 2 = 354 + 25.3
to 2 = 190 F < 200 F

compatible.
q
= 4.16
rcr ns L
q
= 4.16
(1)(0.001)(8.33)(2)
q = 0.0693 in3 sec

(f)

574.

An 8 x 9-in. full bearing (consider L D = 1 for table and chart use only)
supports 15 kips with n = 1200 rpm ; cr r = 0.0012 ; construction is medium
heavy with a radiating-and-convecting area of about 18 DL ; air flow about the
bearing of 80 fpm may be counted on (nearby) pulley; ambient temperature is
90 F. Decide upon a suitable minimum film thickness. (a) Compute the
frictional loss and the steady state temperature. Is additional cooling needed
for a reasonable temperature? Determine (b) the temperature rise of the oil as
it passes through the load-carrying area and the grade of oil to be used if it
enters the bearing at 130 F, (c) the quantity of oil needed.

Solution:
D = 8 in.
L = 9 in.
W = 15,000 lb.
n = 1200 rpm.
1200
ns =
= 20 rps
60
cr r = 0.0012

Page 39 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

r = D 2 = 4 in
cr = 0.0012(4) = 0.0048 in
By Norton: ho = 0.00025 D = 0.00025(8) = 0.002 in
ho
0.002
=
= 0 .4
cr 0.0048
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4
S = 0.121
r
f = 3.22
cr
q
= 4.33
rcr ns L
cto
= 14.2
p
(a)

r
f = 3.22
cr

f = 3.22
0.0048
f = 0.003864
F = f W = (0.003864)(15,000) = 57.96 lb
Dn (8)(1200)
vm =
=
= 2513 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (57.96 )(2513) = 145,654 ft lb min

Q = hcr Ab tb
hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F
va0.6
ft lb min sq.in. F
D 0.4
(80)0.6 = 0.103 ft lb min sq.in. F
hc = 0.017
(8)0.4
hcr = hc + hr = 0.103 + 0.108 = 0.211 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 18DL = 18(8)(9 ) = 1296 sq.in.
Uf =Q
hc = 0.017

145,654 = (0.211)(1296)tb
tb = 533 F , very high, additional cooling is necessary.
(b)

cto
p

= 14.2

Page 40 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

W 15,000
=
= 208 psi
DL (8)(9)
(112)to = 14.2
208
to = 26 F
ti = 130 F
to = 156 F
tave = 12 (130 + 156) = 143 F
p=

r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

4 (20 )
S = 0.121 =

0.0048 208
= 1.8 106 reyn
Figure AF 16, = 1.8 reyns , 143 F
Use SAE 10W
q
= 4.33
rcr ns L
q
= 4.33
(4)(0.0048)(20)(9)
q = 14.96 in3 sec

(c)

575.

A 3.5 x 3.5-in., 360o bearing has cr r = 0.0012 ; n = 300 rpm ; desired

minimum ho 0.0007 in . It is desired that the bearing be self-contained (oilring); air-circulation of 80 fpm is expected; heavy construction, so that
Ab 25DL . For the first look at the bearing, assume = 2.8 106 reyn and
compute (a) the frictional loss (ft-lb/min), (b) the average temperature of the
bearing and oil as obtained for steady-state operation, (c) to as the oil passes
through the load-carrying area (noting whether comparative values are
reasonable). (d) Select an oil for the steady-state temperature and decide
whether there will be any overheating troubles.

Solution:
D = 3.5 in.
L = 3.5 in.
cr r = 0.0012
r = D 2 = 1.75 in.
cr = (0.0012)(1.75) = 0.0021 in
ho 0.0007 in

Page 41 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

ho cr = 0.0007 0.0021 = 0.333
Table AT 20, 360o Bearing, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.333
S = 0.0954
r
f = 2.71
cr
cto
= 12.12
p
2

r ns
(a) S =
cr p
300
ns =
= 5 rps
60
= 2.8 106 reyn
2

6
1.75 2.8 10 (5)
S = 0.0954 =

p
0.0021
p = 102 psi
W = pDL = (102)(3.5)(3.5) = 1250 lb
r
f = 2.71
cr

1.75

f = 2.71
0.0021
f = 0.00325
F = f W = (0.00325)(1250) = 4.0625 lb
Dn (3.5)(300 )
vm =
=
= 275 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (4.0625)(275) = 1117 ft lb min

(b) Q = hcr Ab tb
hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F
va0.6
ft lb min sq.in. F
D 0.4
0.6
(
80 )
hc = 0.017
= 0.143 ft lb min sq.in. F
(3.5)0.4
hcr = hc + hr = 0.143 + 0.108 = 0.251 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 25DL = 25(3.5)(3.5) = 306.25 sq.in.
Uf =Q
hc = 0.017

1117 = (0.251)(306.25)tb

Page 42 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

tb = 14.5 F
toa = 2tb = 2(14.5) = 29 F
assume ambient temperature of 100 F
tb = 114.5 F
to = 129 F
(c)

cto

= 12.12
p
(112)to = 12.12
102
to = 11 F
to1 + to 2 = 2(129) = 258 F
to 2 to1 = 11 F
2to 2 = 269 F
to 2 = 135 F < 140 F
reasonable

(d) to = 129 F , = 2.8 106 reyn

use SAE 10W
Figure AF 16, to = 126 F
toa = 126 100 = 26 F
toa = 2tb
26
tb =
= 13 F
2
Q = hcr Ab tb = (0.251)(306.25)(13) = 999 ft lb min < U f
there is an overheating problem.
576.

A 10-in. full journal for a steam-turbine rotor that turns 3600 rpm supports a
20-kip load with p = 200 psi ; cr r = 0.00133 . The oil is to have
= 2.06 106 reyn at an average oil temperature of 130 F. Compute (a) the
minimum film thickness (comment on its adequacy), (b) the fhp, (c) the
altitude angle, the maximum pressure, and the quantity of oil that passes
through the load-carrying area (gpm).(d) At what temperature must the oil be
introduced in order to have 130 F average? (e) Estimate the amount of heat
lost by natural means from the bearing (considered oil bath) with air speed of
300 fpm. If the amount of oil flow computed above is cooled back to the
entering temperature, how much heat is removed? Is this total amount of heat
enough to care for frictional loss? If not, what can be done (i11.21)?

Page 43 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Solution:
D = 10 in.
n = 3600 rpm
3600
ns =
= 60 rps
60
W = 20,000 lb
p = 200 psi
W
p=
DL
20,000
200 =
10 L
L = 10 in
L D =1
D
r = = 5 in
2
cr r = 0.00133
cr = 0.00133(5) = 0.00665 in
= 2.06 106 reyn
tave = 130 F
r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

6
5

2.06 10 (60 )
S =
= 0.35

200
0.00665
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.35
ho cr = 0.647

= 65.66o
r
f = 7.433
cr
q
= 3.90
rcr ns L
p
= 0.495
pmax
cto
= 30.8
p
qs
= 0.446
q

Page 44 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Nortons recommendation = 0.00025D = 0.00025(10) = 0.00250 in < 0.00430 in
(b)

r
f = 7.433
cr

f = 7.433
0
.
00665

f = 0.0099
F = f W = (0.0099)(20,000) = 198 lb
Dn (10)(3600)
vm =
=
= 9425 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(198)(9425) = 56.55 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000

(c) = 65.66o
p
200
pmax =
=
= 404 psi
0.495 0.495
q = 3.90rcr ns L
q = 3.90(5)(0.00665)(60)(10) = 77.805 in3 sec
q = (77.805 in3 sec )(1 gpm 231 in3 )(60 sec min ) = 0.21 gpm
(d)

cto

= 30.8
p
(112)to = 30.8
200
to = 55 F
t
tave = ti + o
2
55
130 = ti +
2
ti = 102.5 F
(e) Q = hcr Ab tb
hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F

va0.6
ft lb min sq.in. F
D 0.4
0.6
(
300 )
hc = 0.017
= 0.207 ft lb min sq.in. F
(3.5)0.4
hcr = hc + hr = 0.207 + 0.108 = 0.315 ft lb min sq.in. F
Assume
hc = 0.017

Page 45 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Ab = 25DL = 25(10 )(10) = 2500 sq.in.
toa = 130 100 = 30 F
toa = 1.3tb
30
tb =
= 23 F
1 .3
Q = (0.315)(2500)(23) = 18,113 ft lb min
Qr = c(q qs )to in lb sec
Qr = (112 )(1 0.446)(77.805)(55)(1 12)(60) = 1,327,602 ft lb min
QT = Q + Qr = 18,113 + 1,327,602 = 1,345,735 ft lb min
U f = Fvm = (198)(9425) = 1,866,150 ft lb min > QT
not enough to care for frictional loss, use pressure feed (i11.21).
DESIGN PROBLEMS
578.

A 3.5-in. full bearing on an air compressor is to be designed for a load of 1500

lb.; n = 300 rpm ; let L D = 1 . Probably a medium running for would be
satisfactory. Design for an average clearance that is decided by considering both
Table 3.1 and 11.1. Choose a reasonable ho , say one that gives ho cr 0.5 .
Compute all parameters that are available via the Text after you have decided on
details. It is desired that the bearing operate at a reasonable steady-state
temperature (perhaps ring-oiled medium construction), without special cooling.
Specify the oil to be used and show all calculations to support your conclusions.
What could be the magnitude of the maximum impulsive load if the eccentricity
ration becomes 0.8, squeeze effect ignored?

Solution:
L D =1
D = 3.5 in
L = 3.5 in
W = 1500 lb
n = 300 rpm
300
ns =
= 5 rps
60
W
1500
p=
=
= 122.45 psi
DL (3.5)(3.5)
Table 3.1, medium running fit,
D = 3.5 in
RC 5 or RC 6
Use RC 6
Average cd = 0.0052 in

Page 46 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Table 11.1, air-compressor
General Machine Practice
Average cd = 0.0055 in
Using cd = 0.0055 in
cr = 0.00275 in
ho = 0.5cr = 0.5(0.00275) = 0.001375 in
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.5
= 0.5
S = 0.1925
= 56.84o
r
f = 4.505
cr
q
= 4.16
rcr ns L
cto
= 19.25
p
p
= 0.4995
pmax
Specifying oil:
Q = hcr Ab tb
U f = Fvm
r
f = 4.505
cr

1.75

f = 4.505
0.00275
f = 0.00708
F = f W = (0.00708)(1500) = 10.62 lb
Dn (3.5)(300 )
vm =
=
= 275 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (10.62 )(275) = 2921 ft lb min

Q = hcr Ab tb
Assume hcr = 0.516 ft lb min sq.in. F
Medium construction
Ab = 15.5DL = 15.5(3.5)(3.5) = 189.875 sq.in.
Oil-ring bearing
toa = 2tb
Q =Uf

(0.516)(189.875)(tb ) = 2921
Page 47 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

tb = 30 F
toa = 2tb = 2(30) = 60 F
assume ambient temperature = 90 F
t o = 150 F
r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

1.75 (5)
S = 0.1925 =

0.00275 122.45
= 11.6 106 reyn

Figure AF 16, 150 F, 11.6 106 reyn

Use SAE 70 oil
Maximum load, W with = 0.8
Table AT 20, L D = 1
S = 0.0446
r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

6
1.75 11.6 10 (5)
S = 0.0446 =

p
0.00275
p = 527 psi
W = pDL = (527 )(3.5)(3.5) = 6456

580.

A 2500-kva generator, driven by a water wheel, operates at 900 rpm. The weight
of the rotor and shaft is 15,100 lb. The left-hand, 5 in, full bearing supports the
larger load, R = 8920 lb . The bearing should be above medium-heavy
construction (for estimating Ab ). (a) Decide upon an average clearance
considering both Table 3.1 and 11.1, and upon a minimum film thickness
( ho cr 0.5 is on the safer side). (b) Investigate first the possibility of the
bearing being a self-contained unit without need of special cooling. Not much air
movement about the bearing is expected. Then make final decisions concerning
oil-clearance, and film thickness and compute all the parameters given in the text,
being sure that everything is reasonable.

Solution:
n = 900 rpm
900
ns =
= 15 rps
60
D = 5 in
W = R = 8920 lb

Page 48 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

(a) Table 3.1, D = 5 in
RC 5, average cd = 0.0051 in
cr = 0.00255 in
ho = 0.5cr = 0.5(0.00255) = 0.00128 in
(b) Use L D = 1
L = 5 in
D
r = = 2.5 in
2
W
8920
p=
=
= 356.8 psi
DL (5)(5)
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.5
S = 0.1925
r
f = 4.505
cr
q
= 4.16
rcr ns L
cto
= 19.25
p
r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

2.5 (15)
S = 0.1925 =

0.00255 356.8
= 4.8 106 reyn
r
f = 4.505
cr
2 .5

f = 4.505
0.00255
f = 0.00460
F = f W = (0.00460 )(8920) = 41.032 lb
Dn (5)(900)
vm =
=
= 1178 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (41.032 )(1178) = 48,336 ft lb min

Q = hcr Ab tb
Medium-Heavy
Ab = 20.25DL = 20.25(5)(5) = 506.25 sq.in.
Assume hcr = 0.516 ft lb min sq.in. F
Q =Uf
Page 49 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

(0.516)(506.25)(tb ) = 48,336
tb = 185 F , very high
Therefore, special cooling is needed.
cto
= 19.25
p
(112)to = 19.25
356.8
to = 61 F
Assume ti = 100 F
61
tave = 100 + 130 F
2
Figure AF 16, = 4.8 reyns , 130 F
Select SAE 30 oil. = 6.0 reyns
r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

6
2.5 6.0 10 (15)
S =
= 0.242

356.8
0.00255
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.242
SAE 30 oil at 130 F
ho
= 0.569
cr

= 61.17o
r
f = 5.395
cr
q
= 4.04
rcr ns L
cto
= 22.75
p
p
= 0.4734
pmax
Oil, SAE 30
cr = 0.00255 in
ho = 0.569(0.00255) = 0.00145 in

PRESSURE FEED
581.

An 8 x 8-in. full bearing supports 5 kips at 600 rpm of the journal; cr = 0.006 in. ;
let the average = 2.5 106 reyn . (a) Compute the frictional loss U f . (b) The

Page 50 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

oil is supplied under a 40-psi gage pressure with a longitudinal groove at the
point of entry. Assuming that other factors, including U f , remain the same and
that the heat loss to the surrounding is negligible, determine the average
temperature rise of the circulating oil.
Solution:
L = 5 in
D = 5 in
W = 5000 lb
n = 600 rpm
600
ns =
= 10 rps
60
cr = 0.006 in
= 2.5 106 reyn
L D =1
W
5000
p=
=
= 78.125 psi
DL (8)(8)
r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

6
4 2.5 10 (10 )
S =
= 0.1422

78.125
0.006

(a) Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.1422

r
f = 3.6 , = 0.57
cr
4

f = 3 .6
0.006
f = 0.0054
F = f W = (0.0054)(5000) = 27 lb
Dn (8)(600)
vm =
=
= 1257 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (27 )(1257 ) = 33,940 ft lb min

(b) Longitudinal Groove.

c3 p
2 r
2
3
q = 2.5 r i tan 1
1 + 1.5 in sec
3
L
pi = 40 psi

3
(
0.006) (40) 1 2 (4)
q = 2.5
tan
[1 + 1.5(0.57)2 ]in3

3(2.5 106 )

Page 51 of 63

sec

q = 5.41 in3 sec
U f = cqto

(33,940 ft lb

min )(12 in ft )(1min 60sec ) = (12)(5.41)to

to = 11.2 F
583.

A 4-in. 360o bearing, with L D = 1 , supports 2.5 kips with a minimum film of
ho = 0.0008 in. , cd = 0.01 in. , n = 600 rpm. The average temperature rise of the oil
is to be about 25 F. Compute the pressure at which oil should be pumped into the
bearing if (a) all bearing surfaces are smooth, (b) there is a longitudinal groove at
the oil-hole inlet. (c) same as (a) except that there is a 360o circumferential
groove dividing the bearing into 2-in. lengths.

Solution:
D = 4 in
L = 4 in
r = 2 in
W = 2500 lb
cd = 0.010 in
cr = 0.005 in
n = 600 rpm
600
ns =
= 10 rps
60
to = 25 F
W
2500
p=
=
= 156.25 psi
DL (4)(4)
ho = 0.00080 in
ho 0.0008
=
= 0.16
cr
0.005
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.16
r
f = 1.44 , = 0.84
cr
2

f = 1.44
0.005
f = 0.0036
F = f W = (0.0036)(2500) = 9 lb
Dn (4)(600)
vm =
=
= 628 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (9 )(628) = 5652 ft lb min = 1130 in lb sec
S = 0.0343

Page 52 of 63

r
S =
cr

ns

p
2

2 (10 )
S = 0.0343 =

0.005 156.25
= 3.35 106 reyn
U f = cqto

1130 = (112)(q )(25)

q = 0.404 in3 sec
(a) Smooth
q=

cr3 pi 1 2 r
2
3
tan
1 + 1.5 in sec
3
L

0.404 =

(0.005)3 ( pi ) tan 1 2 (2) [1 + 1.5(0.84)2 ] in3

3(3.35 106 )
pi = 12.5 psi
(b) Longitudinal groove
q=

sec

2.5cr3 pi 1 2 r
2
3
tan
1 + 1.5 in sec
3
L

2.5(0.005) ( pi ) 1 2 (2)
2
tan
1 + 1.5(0.84) in3 sec
6

3 3.35 10
4

pi = 5 psi
(c) Circumferential groove
0.404 =

2 rcr3 pi
q=
1 + 1.5 2 in3 sec
3L

2 (2)(0.005) ( pi )
2
0.404 =
1 + 1.5(0.84) in3 sec
6
3 3.35 10 (4 )
pi = 5 psi

) [

BEARING CAPS
584.

An 8-in. journal, supported on a 150o partial bearing, is turning at 500 rpm;

bearing length = 10.5 in., c d = 0.0035 in ., ho = 0.00106 in . The average
temperature of the SAE 20 oil is 170 F. Estimate the frictional loss in a 160o cap
for this bearing.

Solution:

Page 53 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

ho = 0.00106 in
c d = 0.0035 in
c r = 0.00175 in
2

ho
hav = cr 1 + 0.741 in

cr
2

0.00106
hav = (0.00175)1 + 0.741
= 0.00195 in
0.00175

For SAE 20, 170 F

= 1.7 106 reyn
Avips
F=
hav
1
A = DL
2
D = 8 in
L = 10.5 in
160
8
= 160o =
=
180
9
1 8
A = (8)(10.5) = 117.3 sq.in.
2 9
500
vips = Dns = (8)
= 209.5 ips
60
1.7 106 (117.3)(209.5)
= 21.424 lb
F=
0.00195
Dn (8)(500)
vm =
=
= 1047 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (21.424 )(1047 ) = 22,430 ft lb min = 1130 in lb sec

585.

A
partial
160o
bearing
has
a
160o
L = 2 in ., cd = 0.002 in ., ho = 0.0007 in ., n = 500 rpm , and
For the cap only, what is the frictional loss?

Solution:
c d = 0.002 in
c r = 0.001 in
ho = 0.0007 in
ho 0.0007
=
= 0 .7
cr
0.001

Page 54 of 63

cap;
D = 2 in .,
= 2.5 106 reyn .

= 1

ho
= 1 0 .7 = 0 .3
cr

hav = cr 1 + 0.74 2 = (0.001) 1 + 0.74(0.3) = 0.001067 in

Avips
F=
hav
Dn (2)(500)
vm =
=
= 261.8 fpm
12
12
12
vips = (261.8) = 52.36 ips
60
1 160
1 160
A=
DL =
( )(2 )(2 ) = 5.585 sq.in.
2 180
2 180
(2.5 106 )(5.585)(52.36) = 0.685 lb
F=
0.001067
U f = Fvm = (0.685)(261.8) = 179.3 ft lb min
586.

The central reaction on a 120o partial bearing is 10 kips; D = 8 in .,

L D = 1 ., cr r = 0.001 . Let n = 400 rpm and = 3.4 106 reyn . The bearing has
a 150o cap. (a) For the bearing and the cap, compute the total frictional loss by
adding the loss in the cap to that in the bearing. (b) If the bearing were 360o,
instead of partial, calculate the frictional loss and compare.

Solution:
2

r ns
S =
cr p
400
ns =
= 6.67 rps
60
W 10,000
p=
=
= 156.25 psi
DL (8)(8)
2

6
1 3.4 10 (6.67 )
S =
= 0.145

156.25
0.001
(a) Table AT 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.145
r
f = 2.021
cr
= 0.6367
r
f = 2.021
cr

f = 2.021
0.001
f = 0.002021

Page 55 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

F = f W = (0.002021)(10,000) = 20.21 lb
Dn (8)(400)
vm =
=
= 838 fpm
12
12
U f 1 = Fvm = (20.21)(838) = 16,936 ft lb min
CAP:
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )
cr = 0.001r
D
r = = 4 in
2
cr = 0.001(4) = 0.004 in

hav = cr 1 + 0.74 2 = (0.004) 1 + 0.74(0.6367 ) = 0.0052 in

Avips
F=
hav
12
vips = (838) = 167.6 ips
60
1 150
1 150
A=
DL =
( )(8)(8) = 83.78 sq.in.
2 180
2 180
3.4 106 (83.78)(167.6)
F=
= 9.18 lb
0.0052
U f 2 = Fvm = (9.18)(838) = 7693 ft lb min
Total Frictional Loss
= U f 1 + U f 2 = 16,936 + 7693 = 24,629 ft lb min

(b) 360o Bearing, L D = 1 , S = 0.145

r
f = 3.65
cr
= 0.5664
BEARING:
1

f = 3.65
0.001
f = 0.00365
F = f W = (0.00365)(10,000) = 36.5 lb
Dn (8)(400)
vm =
=
= 838 fpm
12
12
U f 1 = Fvm = (36.5)(838) = 30,587 ft lb min
CAP:
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )

Page 56 of 63

F=

Avips
hav

(3.4 10 )(83.78)(167.6) = 9.645 lb

F=
6

0.00495
U f 2 = Fvm = (9.645)(838) = 8083 ft lb min
Total Frictional Loss
= U f 1 + U f 2 = 30,587 + 8083 = 38,670 ft lb min
587.

The central reaction on a 120o partial bearing is a 10 kips; D = 8 in. , L D = 1 ,

cr r = 0.001 ; n = 1200 rpm . Let = 2.5 106 reyn . The bearing has a 160o cap.
(a) Compute ho and fhp for the bearing and for the cap to get the total fhp. (b)
Calculate the fhp for a full bearing of the same dimensions and compare.
Determine (c) the needed rate of flow into the bearing, (d) the side leakage qs .
(e) the temperature rise of the oil in the bearing both by equation (o), i11.13,
Text, and by Table AT 22. (f) What is the heat loss from the bearing if the oil
temperature is 180 F? Is the natural heat loss enough to cool the bearing? (g) It is
desired to pump oil through the bearing with a temperature rise of 12 F. How
much oil is required? (h) For the oil temperature in (f), what is a suitable oil to
use?

Solution:
2

r ns
S =
cr p
1200
ns =
= 20 rps
60
W 10,000
p=
=
= 156.25 psi
DL (8)(8)
6
1 (2.5 10 )(20 )
S =
= 0.32

156.25
0.001
(a) Table AT 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.32
= 0.5417
ho
= 0.4583
cr
r
f = 3.18
cr
q
= 2.60
rcr ns L

Page 57 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

qs
= 0.305
q
cto
= 17.834
p
p
= 0.38434
pmax
ho = 0.4583cr = 0.4583(0.001)(4) = 0.00183 in
BEARING:
r
f = 3.18
cr
1

f = 3.18
0.001
f = 0.00318
F = f W = (0.00318)(10,000) = 31.8 lb
Dn (8)(1200)
vm =
=
= 2513 fpm
12
12
U f 1 = Fvm = (31.8)(2513) = 79,913 ft lb min , 2.42 hp
CAP:
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )

cr = 0.001r
D
r = = 4 in
2
cr = 0.001(4) = 0.004 in

hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 ) = (0.004) 1 + 0.74(0.5417 ) = 0.00487 in

Avips
F=
hav
2

12
vips = (2513) = 503 ips
60
1 160
1 160
A=
DL =
( )(8)(8) = 89.36 sq.in.
2 180
2 180
2.5 106 (89.36)(5036)
F=
= 23.1 lb
0.00487
U f 2 = Fvm = (23.1)(2513) = 58,050 ft lb min , 1.76 hp
Total Frictional Loss
= U f 1 + U f 2 = 79,913 + 58,050 = 137,963 ft lb min

Uf

137,963
= 4.18 hp
33,000 33,000
(b) Full Bearing, L D = 1 , S = 0.32
fhp =

Page 58 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

Table AT 20
ho
= 0.6305
cr
r
f = 6.86
cr
= 0.3695
ho = 0.6305(0.004 ) = 0.002522 in
BEARING:
r
f = 6.86
cr
1

f = 6.86
0.001
f = 0.00686
F = f W = (0.00686)(10,000) = 68.6 lb
U f 1 = Fvm = (68.6 )(2513) = 172,392 ft lb min , 5.224 hp
CAP:
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )

Avips
F=
hav

(2.5 10 )(89.36)(503) = 25.54 lb

F=

0.00440
U f 2 = Fvm = (25.54 )(2513) = 64,182 ft lb min , 1.946 hp
Total Frictional Loss
= U f 1 + U f 2 = 172,392 + 64,182 = 236,574 ft lb min
fhp =

Uf

33,000

236,574
= 7.17 hp
33,000

(c) 120o Bearing

q
= 2.60
rcr ns L
q
= 2.60
(4)(0.004)(20)(8)
q = 6.656 in3 sec
q
(d) s = 0.305
q
qs
= 0.305
6.656

Page 59 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

qs = 2.03 in 3 sec

(e) Equation(o)
U f 1 = cqto
12
U f 1 = 79,913 ft lb min = 79,913 in lb sec = 15,983 in lb sec
60
U f 1 = 15,983 = (112 )(6.656 )to

to = 21.4 F
Table 22.
cto
= 17.834
p
112to
= 17.834
156.25
to = 24.9 F
(f) Q = hcr Ab tb
assume hcr = 0.516 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 25DL = 25(8)(8) = 1600 sq.in.
t
tb = oa
2
assume ambient = 100 F
180 100
tb =
= 40 F
2
Q = (0.516 )(1600 )(40 ) = 33,024 ft lb min < U f 1
Therefore not enough to cool the bearing.
(g) Qr + Q = U f 1 + U f 2
Qr + 33,024 = 137,963
Qr = 104,939 ft lb min
Qr = 20,988 in lb sec
Qr = cqto
20,988 = (112)q(12)
q = 15.62 in3 sec
(h) Fig. AF 16, 180 F, = 2.5 106 reyn
use SAE 30 oil

Page 60 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

IMPERFECT LUBRICATION:
588.

A 0.5 x 0.75-in. journal turns at 1140 rpm. What maximum load may be
supported and what is the frictional loss if the bearing is (a) SAE Type I, bronze
base, sintered bearing, (b) nylon (Zytel) water lubricated, (c) Teflon, with
intermittent use, (d) one with carbon graphite inserts.

Solution:
(a) f = 0.12
Dn (0.5)(1140)
vm =
=
= 149.23 fpm
12
12
pvm = 50,000
p(149.23) = 50,000
p = 335 psi
W = pDL = (335)(0.5)(0.75) = 126 lb
F = f W = (0.12)(126) = 15.12 lb
U f = Fvm = (15.12 )(149.23) = 2256 ft lb min
(b) f = 0.14 ~ 0.18 , use f = 0.16
pvm = 2500 , water
p(149.23) = 2500
p = 16.75 psi
W = pDL = (16.75)(0.5)(0.75) = 6.28 lb
F = f W = (0.16)(6.28) = 1.005 lb
U f = Fvm = (1.005)(149.23) = 150 ft lb min
(c) vm > 100 fpm
f = 0.25
pvm = 20,000 , intermittent
p(149.23) = 20,000
p = 134 psi
W = pDL = (134)(0.5)(0.75) = 50.25 lb
F = f W = (0.25)(50.25) = 12.5625 lb
U f = Fvm = (12.5625)(149.23) = 1875 ft lb min
(d) pvm = 15,000
p(149.23) = 15,000
p = 100.5 psi
W = pDL = (100.5)(0.5)(0.75) = 37.69 lb
assume f = 0.20
Page 61 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

F = f W = (0.20)(37.69) = 7.54 lb
U f = Fvm = (7.54 )(149.23) = 1125 ft lb min
590.

A bearing to support a load of 150 lb at 800 rpm is needed; D = 1 in. ; semilubricated. Decide upon a material and length of bearing, considering sintered
metals, Zytel, Teflon, and graphite inserts.

Solution:
Dn (1)(800)
vm =
=
= 209.44 fpm
12
12
assume, L = D = 1 in
W
150
p=
=
= 150 psi
DL (1)(1)
pvm = (150)(209.44) = 31,416
Use sintered metal, limit pvm = 50,000
THRUST BEARINGS
592.

A 4-in. shaft has on it an axial load of 8000 lb., taken by a collar thrust
bearing made up of five collars, each with an outside diameter of 6 in. The
shaft turns 150 rpm. Compute (a) the average bearing pressure, (b) the
approximate work of friction.

Solution:
(a) p =

4W 4(8000 )
=
= 283 psi
Do2
(6)2

(b) assume f = 0.065 , average

F = f W = (0.065)(8000) = 520 lb
Dn (3)(150)
vm =
=
= 117.81 fpm
12
12
U f = nFvm = (5)(520 )(117.81) = 306,306 ft lb min
593.

A 4-in. shaft, turning at 175 rpm, is supported on a step bearing. The bearing
area is annular, with a 4-in. outside diameter and a 3/4 in. inside diameter.
Take the allowable average bearing pressure as 180 psi. (a) What axial load
may be supported? (b) What is the approximate work of friction?

Solution:
Dn
vm =
12

Page 62 of 63

SECTION 9 JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS

1
(4 + 0.75) = 2.375 in
2
Dn (2.375)(175)
vm =
=
= 108.81 fpm
12
12
assume f = 0.065 , average
D=

(a) p =

4W
Do2 Di2

2 3
W = (4) (180) = 2182 lb
4
4
(b) U f = f Wvm = (0.065)(2182 )(108.81) = 15,433 ft lb min
2

- end -

Page 63 of 63

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

601.

The radial reaction on a bearing is 1500 lb.; it also carries a thrust of 1000 lb.;
shaft rotates 1500 rpm; outer ring stationary; smooth load, 8-hr./day service, say
15,000 hr. (a) Select a deep-groove ball bearing. (b) What is the rated 90 % life
of the selected bearing? (c) For b = 1.34 , compute the probability of the selected
bearing surviving 15,000 hr.

Solution:
Fx = 1500 lb
Fy = 1000 lb

( )

B10 = (15,000 )(60 )(1500 ) 106 = 1350 mr

F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
C r = 1.2 , outer ring stationary
assume Ct = 1.8
F e = 0.56(1.2)(1500) + (1.8 )(1000) = 2808 lb
1
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe = (1350) 3 (2808) = 31,034 lb
Br

(a) Table 12.3

use 321, Fr = 31,800 lb
Fs = 32,200 lb

To check:
Fz
1000
=
= 0.03125
Fs 32,000
Table 12.2, Ct = 1.96 , Q = 0.2246
Fz
1000
=
= 0.556 > Q
C r Fx (1.2)(1500)

F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
F e = 0.56(1.2)(1500) + (1.96)(1000) = 2968 lb
1
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe = (1350 ) 3 (2968 ) = 32,803 lb
Br

3.2 % higher than 31,800 lb. Safe.

Therefore use Bearing 321, Deep-Groove Ball Bearing.
(b) Fr = 31,800 lb
F e = 2968 lb
1

B 3
31,800 = 10 (2968 )
1 mr
B10 = 1230 mr

HR 13,700 hr

628

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

1 b
ln
B P
(c)
=
B10 1
ln
P10
1
1
ln = ln

0.9
P10
B10 = 1230 mr

B = 1350 mr
1

1 1.34
ln
1350 P

=
1230 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.8875

602.

A certain bearing is to carry a radial load of 500 lb. and a thrust of 300 lb. The
load imposes light shock; the desired 90 % life is 10 hr./day for 5 years at
n = 3000 rpm . (a) Select a deep-groove ball bearing. What is its bore? Consider
all bearings that may serve. (b) What is the computed rated 90 % life of the
selected bearing? (c) What is the computed probability of the bearing surviving
the specified life? (d) If the loads were changed to 400 and 240 lb., respectively,
determine the probability of the bearing surviving the specified life, and the 90 %
life under the new load.

Solution:
Fx = 500 lb
Fz = 300 lb
Assume Cr = 1
Fz
300
=
= 0.6
Cr Fx (1.0)(500 )
Fz
Table 12.2,
>Q
Cr Fx
(a) F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
Cr = 1
Assume Ct = 1.8
F e= 0.56(1)(500) + (1.93)(300) = 820 lb
For light shock, service factor ~ 1.1
F e= (1.1)(820 ) = 902 lb

629

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

1

1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe = (1350 )3 (2770) = 30,614 lb
Br
B10 = (5)(365)(10)(60 )(3000)(106 ) = 3285 mr
1

1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe = (3285)3 (902 ) = 13,409 lb
Br
Table 12.3,
Bearing No. Fr , lb
Fs , lb
217
14,400
12,000
312
14,100
10,900

Bore
85 mm
60 mm

Select, Bearing No. 312

Fr = 14,100 lb
Fs = 10,900 lb
(b) Table 12.2
Fz
300
=
= 0.0285
Fs 10,900
Ct = 1.99
Q = 0.22
F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
F e= 0.56(1)(500) + (1.99)(300 ) = 877 lb
F e= (1.1)(877 ) = 965 lb
1

B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1

B 3
14,100 = 10 (965)
1
B10 = 3119 mr

( )

YR = 4.75 years
1

1 b
ln
B P
(c)
=
B10 1
ln
P10
use b = 1.125
B10 = 3119 mr

630

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

B = 3285 mr

1
ln
3285 P

=
3119 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.8943

1
1.125

(d) Fx = 400 lb
Fz = 240 lb
Cr = 1
Fz
240
=
= 0.6
Cr Fx (1.0)(400)
Table 12.2
Ct = 2.15
Q = 0.21 < 0.6
F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
F e= 0.56(1)(400 ) + (2.15)(240) = 740 lb
F e= (1.1)(740) = 814 lb
1

B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1

B 3
14,100 = 10 (814)
1
B10 = 5197 mr
1

1 b
ln
B
P
=
B10 1

ln
P10

1 1.125
ln
3285 P

=
5197 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.939
Life:
B10 = (YR )(365)(10 )(60)(3000 )(106 ) = 5197
YR = 8 years

631

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

603.

The smooth loading on a bearing is 500-lb radial, 100 lb. thrust; n = 300 rpm . An
electric motor drives through gears; 8 hr./day, fully utilized. (a) Considering
deep-groove ball bearings that may serve, choose one end specify its bore. For
the bearing chosen, determine (b) the rated 90 % life and (c) the probability of
survival for the design lufe.

Solution:
Fx = 500 lb
Fz = 100 lb
Table 12.1, 8 hr./day fully utilized, assume 25,000 hr
B10 = (25,000 )(60)(300 )(106 ) = 450 mr
(a) assume Cr = 1
Fz
100
=
= 0.2
Cr Fx (1.0)(500 )
F
consider Q > z
Cr Fx
Fe = Cr Fx = (1.0 )(500) = 500 lb
1

1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe = (450)3 (500) = 3832 lb
Br
Table 12.3
Bearing No. Fr , lb
Fs , lb
207
4440
3070
306
4850
3340
305
3660
2390
Select 305, Fr = 3660 lb , Fs = 2390 lb
Bore (Table 12.4) = 25 mm

Fz 100
=
= 0.0418
Fs 2390
Table 12.2, 0.22 < Q0.26
F
Q> z
Cr Fx
Fe = Cr Fx = (1.0 )(500) = 500 lb
(a)

B 3
3660 = 10 (500)
1
B10 = 392 mr
Rated Life:
B10 = (HR )(60)(300 )(106 ) = 392
HR 22,000 hr
632

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

1 b
ln
B
P
(c)
=
B10 1

ln
P10
b = 1.125
1

1 1.125
ln
450 P

=
392 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.884
605.

A No. 311, single-row, deep-groove ball bearing is used to carry a radial load of
1500 lb. at a speed of 500 rpm. (a) What is the 90 % life of the bearing in hours?
What is the approximate median life? What is the probability of survival if the
actual life is desired to be (b) 105 hr., (c) 104 hr.?

Solution:
Table 12.3, No. 311
Fs = 9400 lb
Fr = 12400 lb
Fx = 1500 lb
assume Cr = 1
Fe = Cr Fx = (1)(1500 ) = 1500 lb
1

B 3
(a) Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1

B 3
12400 = 10 (1500 )
1
B10 = 565 mr

( )

HR 18,800 hr

( )

( )

633

1
ln
B
P
=

B10
1

ln
P10
b = 1.125

1
b

1 1.125
ln
3000 P

=
565 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.502
(c) 104 hr

( )

( )

1
ln
B
P
=

B10
1

ln
P10
b = 1.125

1
b

1 1.125
ln
300 P

=
565 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.950
606.

The load on an electric-motor bearing is 350 lb., radial; 24 hr. service,

n = 1200 rpm ; compressor drive; outer race stationary. (a) Decide upon a deepgroove ball bearing, giving its significant dimensions. Then compute the selected
bearings 90 % life, and the probable percentage of failures that would occur
during the design life. What is the approximate median life of this bearing? (b)
The same as (a), except that a 200 series roller bearing is to be selected.

Solution:
Fx = 350 lb
Fe = Cr Fx
outer race stationary, Cr = 1
Fe = (1)(350 ) = 350 lb
Table 12.1
634

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

90 % Life, hrs = 50,000 hrs
B = (50,000 )(60 )(1200 ) 106 = 3600 mr

( )

1
B 3
(a) Fr = 10 Fe = (3600 )3 (350 ) = 5364 lb
Br
Table AT 12.3
earing No.
Fr , lb
Fs , lb
208
5040
3520
209
5660
4010
306
4850
3340
307
5750
4020
Use No. 209 Fr = 5660 lb
Table 12.4, Dimension
Bore = 45 mm
O.D. = 85 mm
Width of Races = 19 mm
Max. Fillet r = 0.039 mm

90 % Life:
1

B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1

B 3
5660 = 10 (350)
1
B10 = 4229 mr

( )

B10 = (HR )(60 )(1200 ) 106 = 4229

HR 58,740 hr
Probability.
1

1 b
ln
B
P
=
B10 1

ln
P10
b = 1.125

1 1.125
ln
3600 P

=
4229 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.916
% failures = 1 0.916 = 0.084 = 8.4 %
Median Life = 5(58,740) = 293,700 hrs
635

(b) Table 12.3, Fr = 5364 lb

use No. 207, Fr = 5900 lb
Bore = 35 mm
O.D. = 72 mm
Width of Races = 17 mm
90 % life:
1

B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1

B 3
5900 = 10 (350)
1
B10 = 4790 mr

( )

B10 = (HR )(60 )(1200 ) 106 = 4790

HR 66,530 hr
Probability.
1

1 b
ln
B
P
=
B10 1

ln
P10
b = 1.125

1 1.125
ln
3600 P

=
4790 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.926
% failures = 1 0.926 = 0.074 = 7.4 %
Median Life = 5(66,530) = 332,650 hrs
608.

A deep-groove ball bearing on a missile, supporting a radial load of 200 lb., is to

have a design life of 20 hr.; with only a 0.5 % probability of failure while
n = 4000 rpm . Using a service factor of 1.2 , choose a bearing. ( A 5- or 6- place
log table is desirable.)

Solution: No need to use log table.

Fx = 200 lb
assume Cr = 1
Fe = Cr Fx = (1.0 )(200 ) = 200 lb
636

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Fe = (1.2 )(200 ) = 240 lb

( )

B10 = (20 )(60)(4000) 10 6 = 4.8 mr

P = 1 0.005 = 0.995
1

1 b
ln
B
P
=
B10 1

ln
P10
b = 1.125

1
ln

4.8 0.995

=
B10 1
ln
0.9
B10 = 72 mr

1
1.125

1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe = (72 )3 (240) = 998.4 lb
Br
Table 12.3
Select No. 201, Fr = 1180 lb

610.
A certain bearing is to carry a radial load of 10 kip at a speed of 10 rpm for 20 %
of the time, a load of 8 kips at a speed of 50 rpm for 50 % of the time, and a load
of 5 kips at 100 rpm during 30 % of the time, with a desired life of 3000 hr.; no
thrust. (a) What is the cubic mean load? (b) What ball bearings may be used?
What roller bearings?
Solution:
1

F13n1 + F23n2 + F33n3 + L 3

(a) Fm =

n = n + n
1

+ n3

For 1 min.
n1 = (0.2 )(10 ) = 2 rev
n 2 = (0.5)(50 ) = 25 rev
n3 = (0.3)(100 ) = 30 rev

n = 2 + 25 + 30 = 57 rev
F1 = 10 kips
F2 = 8 kips
637

F3 = 5 kips
1

Fm =
= 6.88 kips
57

(b) Fx = 6.88 kips = 6880 lb

assume Cr = 1
Fe = (1.0 )(6880 ) = 6880 lb
1 min = 57 rev
B10 = (3000 )(60 )(57 )(106 ) = 10.26 mr
1
3

1
B
Fr = 10 Fe = (10.26 )3 (6880) = 14,950 lb
Br
Table 12.3, Ball Bearing
Use Bearing No. 217, Fr = 14,400 lb

(c) Table 12.3 (Roller Bearing)

Use Bearing No. 213, Fr = 14,900 lb
612.

A deep-groove ball bearing No. 215 is to operate 30 % of the time at 500 rpm
with Fx = 1200 lb and Fz = 600 lb , 55 % of the time at 800 rpm with
Fx = 1000 lb and Fz = 500 lb , and 15 % of the time at 1200 rpm with
Fx = 800 lb and Fz = 400 lb . Determine (a) the cubic mean load; (b) the 90 % life
of this bearing in hours, (c) the average life in hours.

Solution:
Bearing No. 215, Fr = 11,400 lb , Fs = 9,250 lb
Table 12.2, Fz Fs
At 30 % of the time, 500 rpm
Fz
600
=
= 0.065
Fs 9250
Ct = 1.66
Q = 0.266
Fz
600
=
= 0.5 > Q
Cr Fx (1)(1200 )
Fe1 = 0.56Cr Fc + Ct Fz = 0.56(1)(1200 ) + (1.66)(600 ) = 1668 lb
At 55 % of the time, 800 rpm
Fz
500
=
= 0.054
Fs 9250
Ct = 1.73
638

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Q = 0.257
Fz
500
=
= 0.5 > Q
Cr Fx (1)(1000 )
Fe 2 = 0.56Cr Fc + Ct Fz = 0.56(1)(1000 ) + (1.73)(500 ) = 1425 lb
At 15 % of the time, 1200 rpm
Fz
400
=
= 0.043
Fs 9250
Ct = 1.84
Q = 0.242
Fz
400
=
= 0.5 > Q
Cr Fx (1)(800 )
Fe1 = 0.56Cr Fc + Ct Fz = 0.56(1)(800) + (1.84)(400) = 1184 lb
1

F 3n + F23n2 + F33n3 + L 3
(a) Fm = 1 1

n = n + n
1

+ n3

F1 = 1668 lb
F2 = 1425 lb
F3 = 1184 lb
For 1 min.
n1 = (0.3)(500 ) = 150 rev
n 2 = (0.55)(800) = 440 rev
n3 = (0.15)(1200) = 180 rev

1

(1668)3 (150 ) + (1425)3 (440) + (1184)3 (180 ) 3

Fm =
= 1434 kips
770

(b) Fe = Fm = 1434 lb
1

B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1

B 3
11,400 = 10 (1434 )
1
B10 = 503 mr
For 1 min = 770 rev
639

( )

HR 11,000 hr

(c) Average life = 5(11,000) = 55,000 hrs

MANUFACTURERS CATALOG NEEDED
614.

A shaft for the general-purpose gear-reduction unit described in 489 has radial
bearing reactions of RC = 613 lb and RD = 1629 lb ; n = 250 rpm . Assume that
the unit will be fully utilized for at least 8 hr./day, with the likelihood of the same
uses involving minor shock. (a) Select ball bearings for this shaft. (b) Select
roller bearings. (c) What is the probability of both bearings C and D surviving for
the design life?

Solution:
3
Problem 489, D = 1 in = 1.375 in
8
Ref: Design of Machine Members, Doughtie and Vallance
Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr

at C. Fr = RC = 613 lb
K t = 1.0
K p = 1. 0
K o = 1.0
Ks = 3

Kr Na
Nc

N a = 250 rpm
N c = 500 rpm
K r = 1.5
Ks = 3

(1.5)(250) = 0.90856
500

K a = 1.0
Ha
H c K rel
Table 12.1, 8 hr/day, fully utilized, Text
H a = 25,000 hr
Kl = 3

H c = 10,000 hr
assume K rel = 1.0 for 90 % reliability
Kl = 3

25,000
= 1.3572
10,000

640

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr

Fc = (1.0 )(1.3572)(1.0)(1.0 )(0.90856)(1.0 )(613) = 756 lb

Table 9-7, Doughtie and Vallance,
Two-row spherical Type, No. 207
Bore = 1.3780 in, Fc = 880 lb
At D. Fr = RD = 1629 lb
Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr
Fc = (1.0 )(1.3572)(1.0)(1.0 )(0.90856)(1.0 )(1629) = 2009 lb
Table 9-7, Doughtie and Vallance,
Two-row spherical Type, No. 407
Bore = 1.3780 in, Fc = 2290 lb
(b) at C, Fc = 756 lb
Table 9.8, Doughtie and Vallance
Use No. 207, Bore = 1.3780 in, Fc = 1540 lb
at C, Fc = 2009 lb
Table 9.8, Doughtie and Vallance
Use No. 307, Bore = 1.3780 in, Fc = 2660 lb
(c) For probability:
(c.1) at C, Bearing No. 207, Two-row spherical bearing, Fc = 880 lb
Fc = 880 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856)(1)(613)
K l = 1.58
Kl = 3

Ha
H c K rel

1.58 = 3

25,000
10,000 K rel

K rel = 0.634
Table 9-3, Reference
Probability = 95.8 %
at D, Bearing No. 407, Deep-groove bearing, Fc = 2290 lb
Fc = 2290 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856)(1)(1627 )
K l = 1.547
Kl = 3

Ha
H c K rel

641

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

1.547 = 3

25,000
10,000 K rel

K rel = 0.675
Table 9-3, Reference
Probability = 93.3 %
(c.2) at C, Roller Bearing No. 207, Fc = 1540 lb
Fc = 1540 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856)(1)(613)
K l = 2.765
Kl = 3

Ha
H c K rel

2.765 = 3

25,000
10,000 K rel

K rel = 0.118
Table 9-3, Reference
Probability = 98.8 %
at D, Roller Bearing No. 407, Fc = 2660 lb
Fc = 2660 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856 )(1)(1627 )
K l = 1.80
Kl = 3

Ha
H c K rel

1.80 = 3

25,000
10,000 K rel

K rel = 0.43
Table 9-3, Reference
Probability = 95.7 %
615.

A shaft similar to that in 478 has the following radial loads on the bearings, left
to right: 803 lb, 988 lb, 84 lb, and 307 lb; no thrust. The minimum shaft diameter
at the bearings are 1.250 in, 1.125 in, 1.000 in, and 1.0625 in. Assume that the
service will not be particularly gentle; intermittently used, with n = 425 rpm . (a)
Select ball bearing for this shaft. (b) Select roller bearings.

Solution:
Ref: Design of Machine Members by Doughtie and Vallance
Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr
K a = 1.0
642

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Kl = 3

Ha
H c K rel

H c = 10,000 hr
Table 12.1, Text, H a = 10,000 hr (intermittent)
90 % reliability, K rel = 1.0
Kl = 3

10,000
= 1. 0
10,000

K o = 1.0
K p = 1. 0
K r = 1.5 assumed
Ks = 3

Kr Na
Nc

N a = 425 rpm
N c = 500 rpm
Ks = 3

(1.5)(425) = 1.0844
500

K t = 1.0
(a) Ball Bearing
(a.1) 803 lb, D = 1.250 in
Fc = (1.0 )(1.0 )(1.0)(1.0)(1.0844)(1.0)(803) = 870 lb
Table 9-7, Ref.
Two-row spherical type, 207
Fc = 880 lb
Bore = 1.3780 in
(a.2) 988 lb, D = 1.125 in
Fc = (1.0 )(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0844)(1.0 )(988) = 1071 lb
Table 9-7, Ref.
Two-row spherical type, 306
Fc = 1050 lb
Bore = 1.1811 in
(a.3) 84 lb, D = 1.000 in
Fc = (1.0 )(1.0 )(1.0)(1.0)(1.0844)(1.0)(84) = 91 lb
643

SECTION 10 - BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

Table 9-7, Ref.
Deep-groove type, 106
Fc = 544 lb
Bore = 1.1811 in
(a.4) 307 lb, D = 1.0625 in
Fc = (1.0 )(1.0 )(1.0)(1.0)(1.0844)(1.0)(307 ) = 333 lb
Table 9-7, Ref.
Deep-groove type, 106
Fc = 544 lb
Bore = 1.1811 in
(b) Roller Bearing
(b.1) 803 lb, D = 1.250 in
Fc = 870 lb , Bore = 1.3780 in
use No. 207, Fc = 1540 lb
(b.2) 988 lb, D = 1.125 in
Fc = 1071 lb , Bore = 1.1811 in
use No. 206, Fc = 1320 lb
(b.3) 84 lb, D = 1.000 in
Fc = 91 lb , Bore = 1.1811 in
use No. 206, Fc = 1320 lb
(b.4) 307 lb, D = 1.0625 in
Fc = 333 lb , Bore = 1.1811 in
use No. 206, Fc = 1320 lb
- end -

644

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

INTERMITTENT SERVICE
DESIGN PROBLEMS
631.

A pair of gears with 20o full-depth teeth are to transmit 10 hp at 1750 rpm of the
3-in. pinion; velocity ratio desired is about 3.8; intermittent service. Use a
strength reduction factor of about 1.4, with theload at the tip and teeth
commercially cut. Determine the pitch, face width, and tooth numbers if the
material is cast iron, class 20.

Solution:
D p n p (3)(1750)
vm =
=
= 1374 fpm < 2000 fpm
12
12
10 hp < 20 hp
Commercially cut gears, vm < 2000 fpm
600 + vm
Fd =
Ft
600
33,000hp 33,000(10 )
Ft =
=
= 240 lb
vm
1374
600 + 1374
Fd =
(240 ) = 790 lb
600

Fs =

sbY
K f Pd

For cast-iron, class 20, sn = 0.4 su

s = 0.4(20 ) = 8 ksi = 8000 psi
K f = 1 .4
10
Pd
Table AT 24, Load at tip, 20o F.D.
Assume Y = 0.33

assume b =

Fs = Fd
(8000)(10)(0.33) = 790
(1.4)Pd2
Pd = 4.89
use Pd = 5
N p = Pd D p = (5)(3) = 15
Y = 0.289
Page 1 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Fs = Fd
(8000)(b )(0.33) = 790
(1.4)(5)
b = 2.4 in
8
12.5
<b<
Pd
Pd
use
12.5 12.5
b=
=
= 2.5 in
Pd
5
1
b = 2 in
2
Pd = 5
1
b = 2 in
2
N p = 15
N g = 3.8(15) = 57

633.

A pair of gears with 20o full-depth teeth are to transmit 5 hp at 1800 rpm of the
pinion; mw = 2.5 ; N p = 18 teeth; commercially cut teeth; intermittent service;
K f 1.45 . (a) Determine the pitch, face width, and tooth numbers if the material
is cast iron, class 25. (b) The same as (a) except that the pinion is to be made of
phosphor gear bronze (SAE 65, Table AT 3).

Solution:
Load at tip, Table AT 24, 20o F.D.
N p = 18 , Y = 0.308
N g = (2.5)(18) = 45 , Y = 0.399

vm =

D p n p

12
N p 18
Dp =
=
Pd
Pd
n p = 1800 rpm

(18)(1800 )

2700
12 Pd
Pd
Commercially cut teeth
vm =

Page 2 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

600 + vm
Fd =
Ft
600
33,000(5) 550 Pd
Ft =
=
9
2700

Pd
2700
8482.3

600 +

600 +

Pd 550 Pd
Pd
(19.4523Pd )
Fd =
=

600
600

14.1372

Fd = 19.4523Pd 1 +
Pd

Fs =

sbY
K f Pd

10
Pd
(a) Cast iron, class 25,
sn = 0.4su = 0.4(25) = 10 ksi = 10,000 psi

assume b =

Fs = Fd
Pinion is weaker
(10,000)(10)(0.308) = 19.4523P 1 + 14.1372
d
Pd
(1.45)(Pd )2

14.1372
21,241

= 19.4523Pd 1 +
2
Pd
Pd

Pd = 7.16
use Pd = 7
Face width b
(10,000 )(b )(0.308) = 19.4523(7 )1 + 14.1372

(1.45)(7 )
7

b = 1.355 in
8
12.5
<b<
Pd
Pd
1.143 < b < 1.786
say b = 1.5 in
Pd = 7
1
b = 1 in
2

Page 3 of 57

N p = 18
N g = 45

(b) Phosphor gear bronze , (SAE 65, Table AT 3)

su = 80 ksi
sn = 0.4su = 0.4(80) = 32 ksi
or sn = 31 ksi (Table AT 3)
use sn = 31 ksi
Pinion, bronze
sY = (31,000)(0.308) = 9548
Gear, cast iron
sY = (10,000)(0.399) = 3990
Therefore gear is weaker
(10,000)(10)(0.399) = 19.4523P 1 + 14.1372
d
Pd
(1.45)(Pd )2

14.1372
27,517

= 19.4523Pd 1 +
2
Pd
Pd

Pd = 8
use Pd = 8
Face width b
(10,000 )(b )(0.399) = 19.4523(8)1 + 14.1372

(1.45)(8)
8

b = 1.252 in
8
12.5
<b<
Pd
Pd
1 < b < 1.5625
1
say b = 1.25 in = 1 in
4
Pd = 8
1
b = 1 in
4
N p = 18
N g = 45

Page 4 of 57

634.

It is desired to transmit 120 hp at 1800 rpm of the pinion; intermittent service;

with light shock (13.18); preferably not less than 18, 20o-full-depth teeth on the
pinion; K f = 1.5 should be conservative; mw = 1.5 . Decisions must be made
concerning the material and quality of cutting the teeth. Since the design is for
strength only, it will be convenient to express Ft , Fd , vm , b in terms of Pd and
arrange an equation containing s and Pd convenient for iteration. Weak material
results in a relatively large pinion with high peripheral speed. A very strong
material may be unnecessarily expensive. On a production basesm carefully cut
teeth should have a reasonable cost. Specify material, accuracy of cutting, pitch,
face width, and tooth numbers.

Solution:
N
18
Dp = p =
Pd
Pd
18
(1800 )
D p n p
Pd
8482.3

vm =
=
=
12
12
Pd
33,000hp 33,000(120 )
Ft =
=
= 466.85Pd
vm
8482.3

Pd
120 hp > 20 hp
use Buckinghams equation
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Assume a material of steel, as rolled AISI 1050,
su = 102 ksi
For carefully cut teeth, Fig. AF 20, e = 0.001 in (min.)
Table AT 25, steel on steel, 20o F.D.
C = 1660

Try b =

10
Pd

Fd = 466.85Pd +

8482.3
10
1660 + 466.85 Pd
0.05
Pd
Pd

2
8482.3
10
+ 1660 + 466.85Pd
0.05
Pd
Pd

Page 5 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

424 16,600

+ 466.85Pd
Pd Pd

Fd = 466.85Pd +

424 16,600
+
+ 466.85Pd
Pd Pd

1
2

sbY
K f Pd
Weak pinion
Table AT 24, N p = 18 , Y = 0.522 (Load near middle, 20o F.D.)
Fs =

s = 0.5su = 0.5(102) = 51 ksi = 51,000 psi

K f = 1 .5

(51,000) 10 (0.522)
Pd
(1.5)Pd

Fs =

177,480
Pd2

Fs = N sf Fd

(13.18), light shock, N sf = 1.25

Iteration:
Pd
5
4
Use Pd = 5
10 10
b=
=
= 2 in
Pd
5
N p = 18
Ng
Np

= mw

N g = (1.5)(18) = 27
Summary of first computation
Material, AISI 1050, as rolled
Accurately cut gears
Pd = 5
b = 2.0 in
N p = 18
N g = 27

Page 6 of 57

Fd
5331
5342

Fs
7099
11093

N sf ( 1.25)

1.33
2.08

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

CHECK PROBLEMS
A pair of carefully cut, full depth, 20o involute gears, made of cast iron, ASTM
30, is transmitting 5 hp at 1150 rpm of the pinion; N p = 24 , N g = 32 , Pd = 8 ,

636.

1
b = 1 in . For the teeth, determine (a) the endurance , (b) the dynamic load, (c)
2
the service factor (13.18).

Solution: 5 hp < 20 hp
N p = 24 , 20o F.D.
Y = 0.337 , Load at tip
assume K f = 1.45 average

(a) Fs =

sbY
K f Pd

cast-iron, s = 0.4su = 0.4(30) = 12 ksi = 12,000 psi

(12,000)(1.5)(0.337 ) = 523 lb
Fs =
(1.45)(8)
1200 + vm
(b) Fd =
Ft
1200
For carefully cut gears
D p n p
vm =
12
N
24
Dp = p =
= 3 in
Pd
8
n p = 1150 rpm
vm =

(3)(1150)

= 903.2 fpm
12
33,000hp 33,000(5)
Ft =
=
= 182.7 lb
vm
903.2

1200 + vm
1200 + 903.2
Fd =
Ft =
(182.7 ) = 320 lb
1200
1200

(c) N sf =

637.

Fs 523
=
= 1.63
Fd 320

A manufacturers catalog for cut-tooth spur gears rates a 25-tooth, cast-iron

(ASTM 25) pinion with 5-pitch, 20o full-depth involute teeth at 16.5 hp at 900

Page 7 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

1
rpm; b = 2 in and mg = 2 ; let K f = 1.5 ; intermittent service; smooth load. (a)
2
What horsepower may these gears transmit? Do you consider the catalog rating
too high or too low? (b) The same as (a) except that the teeth are carfully cut. (c)
The same as (a) except that the pinion is to be made of phosphor bronze (SAE 65,
Table AT 3).

Solution:
16.5 hp < 20 hp
D p n p
vm =
12
N p 25
Dp =
=
= 5 in
Pd
5
n p = 900 rpm
vm =

(5)(900)
12

= 1178 fpm

(a) Using commercially cut.

600 + vm
Fd =
Ft , vm 2000 fpm
600
Table AT 24, Load at tip, 20o F.D.
N p = 25 , Y = 0.340
N g = mg N p = 2(25) = 50 , Y = 0.408

use Y = 0.340 , weaker pinion

Cast iron, s = 0.4su = 0.4(30) = 12 ksi = 12,000 psi
K f = 1 .5
Pd = 5
1
b = 2 in
2
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
(12,000)(2.5)(0.340) = 1360 lb
Fs =
(1.5)(5)
Fs = N sf Fd
smooth load, N sf = 1
600 + 1178
1360 = (1)
Ft
600

Ft = 459 lb

Page 8 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Ft vm
(459)(1178) = 16.4 hp
=
33,000
33,000
The rating is not too low or too high.
hp =

(b) Carefully cut, [1000 fpm < vm < 4000 fpm]

1200 + vm
Fd =
Ft
1200
Fs = N sf Fd
1200 + 1178
1360 = (1)
Ft
1200

Ft = 686 lb

hp =

Ft vm
(686 )(1178) = 24.5 hp
=
33,000
33,000

(c) Phosphor bronze, (SAE 65, Table AT 3)

sn = 24 ksi = 24,000 psi
Pinion
sY = (24,000 )(0.340) = 8160
Gear
sY = (12,000)(0.408) = 4896
Therefore , gear is weaker
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
(12,000)(2.5)(0.408) = 1632 lb
Fs =
(1.5)(5)
Fs = N sf Fd
600 + 1178
1632 = (1)
Ft
600

Ft = 551 lb

hp =
638.

Ft vm
(551)(1178) = 19.7 hp
=
33,000
33,000
A pair of commercially cut spur gears transmits 10 hp at 1750 rpm of the 25tooth pinion. The teeth are 20o full depth with 6 pitch; material , cast iron, class
9
30; face width is 1 in .; N g = 40 . Allow for stress concentration. (a) Compute
16

Page 9 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

the service factor for the teeth (13.18). (b) If the drive is for a single-cylinder
compressor, would carefully cut teeth be advisable? Show calculations.
Solution:
10 hp < 20 hp
Dp =
vm =

Np

Pd
D p n p

25
= 4.167 in
6

12
(4.167 )(1750)
vm =
= 1909 fpm
12
For commercially cut gears
600 + vm
Fd =
Ft
600
33,000hp 33,000(10 )
Ft =
=
= 173 lb
vm
1909
600 + 1909
Fd =
(173) = 723.4 lb
600

sbY
Fs =
K f Pd

Assume K f = 1.45 , average, load near tip

Table AT 24, 20o F.D.
N p = 25 , Y = 0.340
Cast iron, s = 0.4su = 0.4(30) = 12 ksi = 12,000 psi

(12,000)1 9 (0.340)
Fs =

16
(1.45)(6)

= 732.8 lb

Fs 732.8
=
1 .0
Fd 723.4
(b) Carefully cut gears
1200 + vm
1200 + 1909
Fd =
Ft =
(173) = 448.2 lb
1200
1200

F
732.8
N sf = s =
= 1.635
Fd 448.2
(13.18) Single-cylinder compressore
1.5 < N sf < 1.75

(a) N sf =

Page 10 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

1.5 < 1.635 < 1.75

CONTINUOUS SERVICE
DESIGN PROBLEMS
NOTE: When using Buckinghams Fd equation and a K f is used, as intended in design
for continuous service, use Y for load near middle.
639.

The pinion of a pair of steel gears, transmitting 110 hp at 2300 rpm, is to have a
1
diameter of about 4 in .; mg 2.3 ; 20o full-depth teeth; the drive is to a
3
centrifugal pump, continuous service. (a) Decide upon Pd , b , N p , N g , and the
material to be used. Consider the strength with the load near the middle of the
profile. (b) The same as (a) except that it is not expected that the maximum
loading will occur for more than 107 cycles, can you justify changes in your

Solution:
110 hp > 20 hp
1
D p = 4 in
3
n p = 2300 rpm
1
D p n p
3
vm =
=
= 2609 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(110 )
Ft =
=
= 1391 lb
vm
2609
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Fig. AF 19, vm = 2609 fpm
Maximum permissible error = 0.0012 in
Fig. AF 20
Use carefully cut gears
Expected errors = 0.001 in
Table AT 25, steel on steel, 20o F.D.
C = 1660
10
Try b =
Pd

4 (2300)

Page 11 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

10
0.05(2609)1660 + 1391
Pd

Fd = 1391 +
1

2
10
0.05(2609) + 1660 + 1391
Pd

16600

130.45
+ 1391
Pd

Fd = 1391 +
1
16600
2
130.45 +
+ 1391
Pd

Fw = D pbQK g
Q=

2m g
mg + 1

2(2.3)
= 1.394
2 .3 + 1

with Pd = 5 , Fd = 4478 lb
Pd = 4 , Fd = 4919 lb
1 10
Pd = 5 , Fw = 4 (1.394 )K g = 4478
3 5
K g = 371
1 10
Pd = 4 , Fw = 4 (1.394 )K g = 4919
3 4
K g = 326

Table AT 26, 20o F.D.

Use sum of BHN = 800. K g = 366
22,109
1 10
Fw = 4 (1.394)(366) =
Pd
3 Pd
Iteration: Fw Fd
Pd
5
4
8
12.5
<b<
Pd
Pd
1.6 in < b < 2.5 in
use b = 2.5 in

Use Pd = 5 ,

Page 12 of 57

Fd
4478
4919

Fw
4422
5527

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

To check for strength
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
1
Load near middle, N p = Pd D p = (5) 4 = 21.67
3
N g = mg N p = (2.3)(21.67 ) = 49.84

use N g = 50 , N p = 22
D p = 4.4 in

50
= 10 in
5
For s , average BHN = 400
Dg =

Use

8630 WQT 800 F, BHN = 375 gear

2330 WQT 600 F, BHN = 429 pinion

Sum of BHN = 375 + 429 = 804 800

Table AT 24, Load near middle, 20o F.D.
N p = 22
Y = 0.559
N g = 50

Y = 0.694

Pinion:

s = 250(429) = 107,250 psi

sY = (107,250)(0.559) = 59,953 psi
s = 250(375) = 93,750 psi
sY = (93,750)(0.694) = 65,062 psi

Gear:

Pinion is weaker
sbY
(59,953)(2.5) = 17,633 lb > F
Fs =
=
d
(1.7)(5)
K f Pd

Pd = 5
b = 2.5 in
N p = 22
N g = 50
Material:
Pinion:
Gear:

2330 WQT 600 F, BHN = 429

8630 WQT 800 F, BHN = 375

Page 13 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Tables AT 26, K g =< 306 for the less stronger material available, therefore cant be
justify to change the previous answer. ( N p will become less than minimum). Using
stronger material is expensive.

640.

A pinion with 20o full-depth teeth, transmitting 60 hp at 2400 rpm, is part of a

gear reduction for a lobeblower. It is to be about 3.2 in. in diameter; mg 1.56 .
(a) Decide upon a material for the mating gears (and its treatment), Pd , b , N p ,
and N g . Determine the strength with the load near the middle of the profile. (b)
The same as (a), except that the maximum loading will occur for no more than
107 cycles.

Solution:
D p = 3.2 in
n p = 2400 rpm

vm =

D p n p

(3.2)(2400)

= 2011 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(160 )
Ft =
=
= 2626 lb
vm
2011
160 hp > 20 hp
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Fig. AF 19, vm = 2011 fpm
Maximum permissible error = 0.0015 in
Fig. AF 20
carefully cut gears
Expected errors = 0.001 in
Table AT 25, steel on steel, 20o F.D.
C = 1660
10
Try b =
Pd

10
0.05(2011)1660 + 2626
Pd

Fd = 2626 +
1

2
10
0.05(2011) + 1660 + 2626
Pd

Page 14 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

16600

100.55
+ 2626
Pd

Fd = 2626 +
1
16600
2
100.55 +
+ 2626
Pd

Fw = D pbQK g
Q=

2(1.56 )
= 1.22
m g + 1 1.56 + 1
2m g

39.04 K g
10
Fw = (3.2) (1.22)K g =
Pd
Pd
Fw = Fd
For Pd = 5
Fd = 5991 lb
39.04 K g
Fw =
= 5991
5
K g = 767

For Pd = 4
Fd = 6532 lb
39.04 K g
Fw =
= 6532
4
K g = 651
Table AT 26,
Use Steel (600), carburized case hardened, and same 1010 cycles, 20o F.D.
K g = 750
Using Pd = 5 , b =

10
= 2 in
5

1
Say b = 2 in
2

To check for strength

sn = 250 BHN = 250(600) = 150,000 psi
Table AT 24, Load near middle
N p = Pd D p = (5)(3.2 ) = 16
Y = 0.503
N g = mg N p = (1.56 )(16 ) = 25 Y = 0.580

Page 15 of 57

assume K f = 1.7
Fs =

sbY
=
d
(1.7)(5)
K f Pd

Pd = 5
b = 2.5 in
N p = 16
N g = 25

(b) 107 cycles

Table AT 26, K g = 1680
Fw =

39.04(1680 ) 65,587
=
Pd
Pd

Iteration: Fw Fd
Pd
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Fd
5560
5421
5311
5222
5148
5086
5033

Use Pd = 13
10
b = in
13
N p = D p Pd = (3.2 )(13) = 42 , Y = 0.667
To check for strength
sbY
(150,000)(10)(0.667) = 3482 lb < F
Fs =
=
d
K f Pd
(1.7)(13)2
Therefore use Fs N sf Fd
For lobe blower, 1.25 < N sf < 1.5
Assume Y = 0.50

Page 16 of 57

Fw
9370
8198
7287
6559
5962
5466
5045

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

(150,000)(10)(0.50) = 441,177
sbY
=
K f Pd
Pd2
(1.7 )(Pd )2
Iteration:
Pd
Fs
7
9004
8
6894
Fs =

Use Pd = 8
10 10
b=
=
= 1.25 in
Pd
8
N p = Pd D p = (8)(3.2 ) = 25.6

Fd
5560
5421

N sf

1.619
1.272>1.25

say 26

N g = mg N p = (1.56 )(25.6 ) = 40
Pd = 8
1
b = 1 in
4
N p = 26
N g = 40

641.

Gears with 20o full-depth teeth are to transmit 100 hp continuously at 5000 rpm
with mg = 4 ; pinion D p = 3 in. ; the drive is subjected to minor shocks with
frequent starts. First calculations are to be made for carburized pinion teeth of
AISI E3310, SOQT 450F, and the gear of cast steel, SAE 0175, WQT. Decide
upon Pd , b , N p , and N g .

Solution:
D p n p (3)(5000)
vm =
=
= 3927 fpm
12
12
Fig. AF 19, max. per/ error. e = 0.00075 in
Use precision gears, error, e = 0.0005 in
Table AT 25, steel on steel, 20o F.D.
C = 0.5(1660) = 830
33,000hp 33,000(100 )
Ft =
=
= 840 lb
vm
3927
10
b=
Pd
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2

Page 17 of 57

10

0.05(3927 )830 + 840

Pd

Fd = 840 +
1
10
2
0.05(3927 ) + 830 + 840
Pd

8300

196.35
+ 840
Pd

Fd = 840 +
1
8300
2
196.35 +
+ 840
Pd

For minor shock with frequent start

1.25 < N sf < 1.5
sbY
K f Pd
Pinion: AISI E3310, SOQT 450 F, Rc = C 57.5 , BHN = 600
sn = 250(600) = 150,000 psi
Gear: Cast Steel, SAE 0175, WQT
sn = 77 ksi = 77,000 psi (Table AT 6)
Fs =

use s = sn = 77,000 psi

sbY
(77,000)(10)(0.50) = 226,471
Fs =
=
K f Pd
Pd2
(1.7 )(Pd )2
F
Iteration: N sf = s , 1.25 < N sf < 1.5
Fd
Pd
5
6
7
8

Fd
2833
2633
2488
2378

Use Pd = 8
Check for wear
Fw = Fd
Fw = D pbQK g
Q=

2m g
mg + 1

2(4 )
= 1 .6
4 +1

Page 18 of 57

Fs
9059
6291
4622
3539

N sf

3.2
2.4
1.9
1.49

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

10
= 1.25 in
8
Fw = (3)(1.25)(1.6 )K g = 2378

b=

K g = 396
K g = 396 < for carburized teeth
Therefore
Pd = 8
1
b = 1 in
4
N p = D p Pd = (3)(8) = 24
N g = mg N p = (4 )(24 ) = 96

Pd = 8
1
b = 1 in
4
N p = 24
N g = 96

A 20-tooth (20o F.D.) pinion is to transmit 50 hp at 600 rpm, the service being
indefinitely continuous in a conveyor drive; mw = 2.5 . The original pplan is to
use a nodular-iron casting, 80-60-03, for each gear. Determine suitable values for
the pitch, face width, and diameters. (Warning: compute C .)

642.

Solution:
N p = 20
Dp =

Np
Pd

20
Pd

20
(600 )
D p n p
Pd
3142

=
=
vm =
12
12
Pd
33,000hp 33,000(50)
Ft =
=
= 525Pd
vm
3142

Pd

b=

10
Pd

Fd = Ft +

0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
1

0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2

Page 19 of 57

Fd = 525Pd +

Fd = 525Pd +

3142 10
C + 525Pd
0.05
Pd Pd

2
3142 10
+ C + 525Pd
0.05
Pd Pd

157.1 10C

+ 525Pd
Pd Pd

157.1 10C
+
+ 525Pd
Pd
Pd

1
2

Fs N sf Fd

Conveyor drive, 1 < N sf < 1.25

sbY
K f Pd
assume Y = 0.50 load near middle
K f = 1 .7
For nodular-iron, 80-60-03
sn = 40,000 psi
Fs

E = 23 106 psi

(
(

)
)

k 23 106
= k 11.5 106
C=
=
6
Eg + E p
2 23 10
k = 0.111e for 20o full depth
kE p E g

Fs =

(40,000)(10)(0.50) = 117,647
(1.7 )Pd2
Pd2

Fs
Fd
Iteration: Use Fig. AF 19 and Fig AF 20.
3142
vm =
Pd
e
C
Pd
5
628.4
0.00225
2872
4
785.5
0.002625
3351
N sf =

8
12.5
<b<
Pd
Pd
2 < b < 3.125
use b = 3.0 in

Page 20 of 57

Fd

Fs

4765
5005

4706
7353

Fs
Fd
0.99
1.46

N sf =

Fw = D pbQK g

Table AT 26, K g = 248 20o F.D.

Np

20
= 5 in
Pd
4
2mw
2(2.5)
Q=
=
= 1.43
m w + 1 2 .5 + 1
Fw = (5)(3.0)(1.43)(248) = 5320 lb > Fd
Pd = 4 , commercially cut gears
b = 3 in
D p = 5 in
Dp =

Dg = mw D p = (2.5)(5) = 12.5 in

643.

A 4.8-in. (approximate) pinion with 20o full-depth teeth is to transmit 40 hp at

1000 rpm; indefinitely continuous service with smooth load; mg = 3.5 ; carefully
cut teeth to reduce the chance of an explosive spark, the use of a phosphor0gearbronze (SAE 65, Table AT 3) pinion and a cast-iron (class 35) gear is a tentative
decision. Decide upon an appropriate Pd and b , using Buckinghams average

Solution:
Dd = 4.8 in
n p = 1000 rpm
vm =

D p n p

(4.8)(1000)

= 1257 fpm
12
12
Fig. AF 19, max. permissible error, e = 0.00225 in
Carefully-cut, e = 0.001 in
kE g E p
C=
Eg + E p
k = 0.111e for 20o full depth
Phosphor-bronze pinion SAE 65
sn = 24,000 psi

E p = 16106 psi
Cast iron gear, class 35
sn = 0.4su = 0.4(35,000) = 14,000 psi
E g = 14.5 106 psi

Page 21 of 57

C=

14.5 106 + 16 106

Assume Pd = 4
e = 0.00125 in
C = 1.25(844) = 1055
33,000hp 33,000(40 )
Ft =
=
= 1050 lb
vm
1257
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
10 10
b=
=
= 2.5 in
Pd 4 d
0.05(1257 )[1055(2.5) + 1050]
Fd = 1050 +
= 2926 lb
1
2
0.05(1257 ) + [1055(2.5) + 1050]
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
assume K f = 1.7 , load near middle, gear, 20o F.D.
N p = D p Pd = (4.8)(4 ) = 19 , Y = 0.534

use s = 14,000 psi , gear

N g = mg N p = (3.5)(19 ) = 66 , Y = 0.7224
Fs =

(14,000)(2.5)(0.7224) = 3718 lb
(1.7 )(4)

Fs N sf Fd

smooth load, N sf = 1.0

Fs > Fd
3718 lb > 2926 lb
Summary
Pd = 4
b = 2.5 in
644.

The 20o full-depth teeth for a pair of steel gears are to transmit 40 hp at 1200 rpm
of the 20-tooth pinion; mg = 3 ; continuous service and indefinite life: The driven
machine is an off-and-on reciprocating compressor. (a) Determine the pitch, face
width, and steel (with treatment), considering at least three alternatives, including
carefully cut teeth. For the gear teeth decided on, what would be the power
capacity if only intermittent service (wear not considered) were required? (c) If a
limited life of 107 cycles were satisfactory?

Solution:
Page 22 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

N p = 20

Np

20
Pd
Pd
n p = 1200 rpm
Dp =

20
(1200 )
D p n p
P
6283
vm =
= d
=
12
12
Pd

Ft =

33,000hp 33,000(40)
=
= 210 Pd
vm
6283

P
d

Fd = Ft +

0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
1

0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
For carefully cut, e = 0.001 in
Table AT 25, steel on steel, 20o F.D.
C = 1660
Fw = Fd
Fw = D pbQK g
assume b =

10
Pd

Fd = 210 Pd +

Fd = 210 Pd +

6283
10
1660 + 210 Pd
0.05
Pd
Pd

314 16600
+
+ 210 Pd
Pd Pd

2mw
2(3)
Q=
=
= 1 .5
mw + 1 3 + 1
20 10
300
Fw = (1.5)(K g ) = 2 K g
Pd
Pd Pd

Pd = 5

Page 23 of 57

2
6283
10
+ 1660 + 210 Pd
0.05
Pd
Pd

314 16600

+ 210 Pd
Pd Pd

1
2

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Fd = 3179 lb
300
Fw = 2 K g = 3179
(5)
K g = 265
Pd = 6
Fd = 3079 lb
300
Fw = 2 K g = 3079
(6)
K g = 369
(a) For indefinite life, Table AT 26
use Sum of BHN = 700, K g = 270 , Pd = 5
10 10
=
= 2 in
Pd
5
N
20
Dp = p =
= 4 in
Pd
5
Dg = m g D p = (3)(4 ) = 12 in

b=

Material combination. (Sum of BHN = 700)

Alternatives:
(1)
4150 OQT 1200 F, gear, BHN = 331
6152 OQT 1000 F, pinion, BHN = 375
(2)
5150 OQT 1000 F, gear, BHN = 321
8620 OQT 800 F, pinion, BHN = 375
(3)
4150 OQT 1200 F, gear, BHN = 331
C1095 OQT 800 F, pinion, BHN = 363
Using Pinion: C1095, OQT 800 F, BHN = 363
sn = 250(363) = 90,750 psi
Gear: 4150, OQT 1200 F, BHN = 331
sn = 250(331) = 82,750 psi
Table AT 24, Load near middle, 20o F.D.
N p = 20
Y = 0.544
N g = 3(20 ) = 60 , Y = 0.713

Pinion: sY = (90,750)(0.544) = 49,368

Gear: sY = (82,750)(0.713) = 59,000
Therefore, pinion is weaker

Page 24 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

K f = 1 .7

Fs =

(90,750)(2)(0.544) = 11,616 lb
sbY
=
(1.7)(5)
K f Pd

Fs = N sf Fd

Reciprocating compressor, N sf = 1.4

Fd = Ft +

0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
1

0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
D p n p (4)(1200)
vm =
=
= 1257 fpm
12
12
C = 1660
b = 2 in
0.05(1257 )[1660(2) + Ft ]
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05(1257 ) + [1660(2) + Ft ]2
62.85(3320 + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
62.85 + (3320 + Ft )2
Fs = N sf Fd
11,616 = 1.4 Fd
Fd = 8297 lb
By trial and error method
Ft = 4900 lb
Fv
(4900)(1257 ) = 186.6 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(b) 107 cycles, Table AT 26
Use Pd = 4 , K g = 252
Sum of BHN = 500
e = 0.00125 in
C = 1.25(1660)
314 1.25(1660)(10)

0.05
+ 210 Pd
Pd
Pd

Fd = 210 Pd +
1
314 1.25(1660)(10)
2
+
0.05
+ 210 Pd
Pd
Pd

Pd = 4
Fd = 3870 lb

Page 25 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

300
(252) = 4725 > Fd
(4)2
Therefore Pd = 4
Fw =

10 10
=
= 2.5 in
Pd
4
N
20
Dp = p =
= 5 in
Pd
4
Dg = mg D p = (3)(5) = 15 in

b=

Material combination. (Sum of BHN = 600)

(1) 8630 WQT 1100 F, gear, BHN = 285
9261 OQT 1200 F, pinion, BHN = 311
(2) 6152 OQT 1200 F, gear, BHN = 293
9840 OQT 1000 F, pinion, BHN = 302
(3) 5150 OQT 1200 F, gear, BHN = 269
4150 OQT 1200 F, pinion, BHN = 331
Using Pinion: 4150, OQT 1200 F, BHN = 331
sn = 250(331) = 82,750 psi
Gear: 5150, OQT 1200 F, BHN = 269
sn = 250(269 ) = 62,250 psi
Table AT 24, Load near middle, 20o F.D.
Y = 0.544
N p = 20
N g = 3(20 ) = 60 , Y = 0.713

Pinion: sY = (82,750)(0.544) = 45,016

Gear: sY = (62,750)(0.713) = 47,949
Therefore, pinion is weaker
K f = 1 .7
sbY
(82,750)(2.5)(0.544) = 16,550 lb
=
(1.7 )(4)
K f Pd
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
D p n p (5)(1200)
vm =
=
= 1571 fpm
12
12
C = 1.25(1660) = 2075
b = 2.5 in
Fs =

Page 26 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Fd = Ft +

0.05(1571)[2075(2.5) + Ft ]
1

0.05(1571) + [2075(2.5) + Ft ]2
78.55(5187.5 + Ft )

Fd = Ft +

78.55 + (5187.5 + Ft )2
Fs = N sf Fd
16,550 = 1.4 Fd
Fd = 11,821 lb
By trial and error method
Ft = 6800 lb
Fv
(6800)(1571) = 324 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000

645.

A pair of spur gears, delivering 100 hp to a reciprocating pump at a pinion speed

of 600 rpm, is to serve continuously with indefinite life; minimum number of 20o
full-depth teeth is 18; mw = 2.5 . Since low weight is highly important, it is
decided that the initial design be for carburized case-hardened teeth. (a)
Determine a suitable pitch, face width, diameters, and specify the material and its
heat treatment. (b) Use the same size teeth as determined in (a), but let the
material be flame-hardened 4150, OQT 1100 F. Compute Fs and Fw . If it were
decided that the maximum (specified) loading would be imposed only
occasionally, would these gears transmit more or less power than the carburized
teeth? Explain.

Solution:
N p = 18
Dp =

Np
Pd

18
Pd

18
(600 )
D p n p
Pd
2827

vm =
=
=
12
12
Pd
33,000hp 33,000(100)
Ft =
=
= 1167 Pd
vm
2827

P
d

Fd = Ft +

0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
1

0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2

Page 27 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

10
Pd
assume first class commercial gears
e = 0.002 in
Table AT 25,
C = 2(1660) = 3320
b=

2827
10
3320 + 1167 Pd
0.05
Pd
Pd

Fd = 1167 Pd +

Fd = 1167 Pd +

2
2827
10
+ 3320 + 1167 Pd
0.05
Pd
Pd

141.35 33200

+ 1167 Pd
Pd Pd

2
141.32 33200
+
+ 1167 Pd
Pd
Pd

Fw = D pbQK g

2(2.5)
= 1.43
m g + 1 2 .5 + 1
Table AT 26, 20o F.D., carburized, indefinite
K g = 750
Q=

2m g

18 10
193,050
Fw = (1.43)(750) =
Pd2
Pd Pd
Fw Fd
Iteration:

Pd
5
6
Will not equal
Using precision cut gears
C = 0.5(1660) = 830

Page 28 of 57

Fd
8355
9181

Fw
7722
5363

141.35 8300

+ 1167 Pd
Pd Pd

Fd = 1167 Pd +

141.32 8300
+
+ 1167 Pd
Pd
Pd

Pd
5

1
2

Fd
7680

Use Pd = 5 , precision cut

To check for strength
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
BHN = 600
sn = 250 BHN = 250(600) = 150,000 psi
10 10
b=
=
= 2 in
Pd
5
Table AT 24m Load near middle, 20o F.D.
N p = 18 ,
Y = 0.522
K f = 1 .7

Fs =

d
(1.7 )(5)

BHN = 600 , Rc = 57.5

E3310, SOQT 450 F

Pd = 5 , precision cut
b = 2 in
N
18
D p = p = = 3.6 in
Pd
5
Dg = mw D p = (2.5)(3.6 ) = 9 in
Material, E3310, SOQT 450 F
(b) Flame hardened, 4150 OQT 1100 F
BHN 359
Sum of BHN = 718
K g = 287
Fw = D p bQK g = (3.6 )(2 )(1.43)(287 ) = 2955 lb

Page 29 of 57

Fw
7722

Fs =

sbY
K f Pd

s = 250(359) = 89,750 psi

Y = 0.522
(89,750)(2)(0.522) = 11,023 lb
Fs =
(1.7 )(5)
For (a) Fd = 7680 lb < 11,023 lb
Therefore, these gears would transmit more power than carburized teeth for occasional
CHECK PROBLEMS
646.

A 6-ft. ball mill runs at 24.4 rpm, the drive being through 14 1/2o involute spur
gears; Pd = 2 , N p = 15 , N g = 176 , b = 5 in ., and hp = 75 . The material of the
pinion is SAE 1040, BHN = 180; of the gear, 0.35% C cast steel, BHN = 180. (a)
Check for strength and wear and give your decision as to the service to be
expected. (b) The foregoing pinion wore out. Actually, the first step was to
replace it with one made of SAE 3140, OQT 1000 F. Would you expect this to
cure the trouble? (c) The drive in (b) also wore out. The following solution which
maintained the same gear diameters, pitch and face, was proposed: 20o full-depth
teeth; pinion of SAE 3140 with BHN = 350; gear of SAE 1045 with BHN = 280.
Would you predict that these gears will give long service? What are the
approximate tempering temperatures to get the specified hardness?

Solution:
n g = 24.4 rpm

vm =

Dg ng

12
N
176
Dg = g =
= 88 in
Pd
2
(88)(24.4)
vm =
= 3373 fpm
12
33,000hp 33,000(75)
Ft =
=
= 734 lb
vm
3373
Fig. AF 19, max. per. Error = 0.0008 in for vm = 3373 fpm
Fig. AF 20, precision cut, Pd = 2 , e = 0.0010 in 0.0008 in
Table AT 25, e = 0.0010 in
C = 1600 , 14 1/2o F.D.

Page 30 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Fd = Ft +

0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
1

0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2

b = 5 in

Fd = 734 +

0.05(3373)[1600(5) + 734]
1
2

0.05(3373) + [1600(5) + 734]

= 6354 lb

Fw = D pbQK g
Dp =

Np

15
= 7.5 in
2

Pd
b = 5 in
2N g
2(176 )
Q=
=
= 1.843
N p + N g 15 + 176
Sum of BHN = 180 + 180 = 360, 14 1/2o F.D.
Table At 26, K g = 46.3
Fw = (7.5)(5)(1.843)(46.3) = 3200 lb
Strength:
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
s = 250 BHN = 250(180) = 45,000 psi
Pinion is weaker, N p = 15 , 14 1/2o F.D. (involute)
Y = 0.415 , Load near middle
K f = 1 .7

Fs =

(45,000)(5)(0.415) = 27,463 lb
(1.7 )(2)

Fw < Fd , service is intermittent.

(b) Pinion, SAE 3140, OQT 1000 F, BHN = 311
sn = 250 BHN = 250(311) = 77,750 psi
sY = (77,750)(0.415) = 32,266 psi
Gear, s n = 250 BHN = 250(180) = 45,000 psi
N g = 176 , Y = 0.6376 , 14 1/2o F.D.
sY = (45,000)(0.6376) = 28,692 psi
Strength,

Page 31 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Fs =

(45,000)(5)(0.6376) = 42,194 lb
sbY
=
(1.7)(2)
K f Pd

Wear, Fw = D pbQK g
Sum of BHN = 180 + 311 = 491, 14 1/2o F.D.
Table AT 26, K g = 92.4
Fw = (7.5)(5)(1.843)(92.4) = 6386 lb
Fw Fd , this will cure the trouble.
(c) Pinion, SAE 3140, BHN = 350
sn = 250 BHN = 250(350) = 87,500 psi
Gear, SAE 1045, BHN = 280
s n = 250 BHN = 250(280) = 70,000 psi
Table AT 25, 20o F.D., e = 0.001 in
C = 1660
Fd = 734 +

0.05(3373)[1660(5) + 734]
1
2

= 6512 lb

Wear load, sum of BHN = 350 + 280 = 630

Table At 26, K g = 218.8 , 20o F.D.
Fw = D pbQK g

Fw = (7.5)(5)(1.843)(218.8) = 15,122 lb > Fd

Tempering temperatures:
Pinion: SAE 3140, BHN = 350
Fig. AF 2, OQT 995 F
Gear: SAE 1045, BHN = 280
Table AT 8, WQT 900 F, rod. Diameter = in.
647.

A 22-tooth pinion, transmitting 110 hp at 2300 rpm, drives a 45-tooth gear, both
steel; 20o full depth; Pd = 5 , b = 1.5 in .; The manufacturing process is expected
to result in a maximum effective error of e = 0.0016 in . (a) Compute
Buckinghams average dynamic load. Compute Fs and Fw if the material is (b)
case-carburized AISI 8620, DOQT 300 F, (c) AISI 8742, OQT 950 F, (d)
induction-hardened AISI 8742. (e) Suppose your company carries a stock of the
foregoing materials. For a minimum-service factor of 1.2, which material do you

Page 32 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

recommend for (i) intermittent service, (ii) indefinitely continuous service, (iii)
cycles of loading not to exceed 107?
Solution:
N p = 22
N g = 45

Dp =
vm =

Np

Pd
D p n p

22
= 4.4 in
5
=

(4.4)(2300)

= 2649 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(110 )
Ft =
=
= 1370 lb
vm
2649
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
For e = 0.0016 in , Table AT 25, steel, 20o F.D.
C = 1.6(1660) = 2656
b = 1.5 in
0.05(2649)[2656(1.5) + 1370]
Fd = 1370 +
= 4819 lb
1
0.05(2649) + [2656(1.5) + 1370]2
(b) AISI 8620, DOQT 300 F carborized
Table AT 26, 20o F.D.
K g = 750 , 1010 cycles indefinite
Table AT 11, Rc = C 64
Figure AF 4, BHN = 700
sn = 250(700) = 175,000 psi
N p = 22
Table AT 24, Load near middle, 20o F.D.
Y = 0.559
K f = 1 .7

Strength
sbY
(175,000)(1.5)(0.559) = 17,263 lb
Fs =
=
(1.7)(5)
K f Pd
Wear
Fw = D pbQK g

Page 33 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Q=

2N g
N p + Ng

2(45)
= 1.3433
22 + 45

Fw = (4.4)(1.5)(1.3433)(750) = 6649 lb
(c) AISI 8742, OQT 950 F
BHN = 358.5
sum of BHN = 2(358.5) = 717
Table AT 26, 20o F.D.
K g = 286
sn = 250(358.5) = 89,625 psi
Strength
sbY
(89,625)(1.5)(0.559) = 8841 lb
Fs =
=
(1.7 )(5)
K f Pd
Wear
Fw = D pbQK g
Fw = (4.4)(1.5)(1.3433)(286) = 2536 lb
(d) Induction hardened, AISI 8742
Table AT 26, 20o F.D.
K g = 555 at 1010 cycles
sn = 250(500) = 125,000 psi
Strength
sbY
(125,000)(1.5)(0.559) = 12,331 lb
Fs =
=
(1.7 )(5)
K f Pd
Wear
Fw = D pbQK g
Fw = (4.4)(1.5)(1.3433)(555) = 4921 lb
(e)

N sf F d = (1.2 )(4819 ) = 5783 lb

use AISI 8742, OQT 950 F
FS N sf F d

FS = 8841 lb
(ii) indefinitely continuous service
Fw F d
Fd = 4819 lb
use AISI 8620, DOQT 300 F
Page 34 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Fw = 6649 lb
(iii) 107 cycles
Use AISI 8742, induction hardened
K g = 1190
Fw = (4.4)(1.5)(1.3433)(1190) = 10,550 lb > Fd
Two mating steel gears have 16 and 25 teeth, respectively, 20o F.D.; b = 2 in ,
Pd = 5 ; pinion speed, 2400 rpm. The maximum effective error in the profiles is
planned to be 0.0012 in. The drive is for heavy-duty conveyer, continuous
service. Compute and specify a reasonable rated horsepower if the gear teeth are:
(a) Case carburized AISI 8620, SOQT 300 F, (b) AISI 8742, OQT 950 F and the
flame-hardened, (c) AISI 8742, OQT 800 F.

648.

Solution:
N p = 16
N g = 25

Dp =
vm =

Np

Pd
D p n p
12

Fd = Ft +

16
= 3.2 in
5
=

(3.2)(2400)

12
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )

= 2011 fpm
1

0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
error, e = 0.0012 in
Table AT 25, 20o F.D.
C = 1.2(1660) = 1992
0.05(2011)[1992(1.5) + Ft ]
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05(2011) + [1992(1.5) + Ft ]2
100.55(2988 + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
100.55 + (2988 + Ft )2
(a) Case carburized AISI 8620, SOQT 300 F
K g = 750
BHN = 700
sn = 250(700) = 175,000 psi
N p = 16 , Y = 0.503 , Table AT 24, 20o F.D., Load near middle

Page 35 of 57

Q=

2N g

N p + Ng
Wear:
Fw = D pbQK g

2(25)
= 1.22
16 + 25

Fw = (3.2 )(2)(1.22)(750) = 5856 lb

Strength
sbY
(175,000)(2)(0.503) = 20,712 lb
Fs =
=
(1.7 )(5)
K f Pd
Use Fw = Fd
5856 = Ft +

100.55(2988 + Ft )
1

100.55 + (2988 + Ft )2
Ft = 2635 lb
(2635)(2011) = 160 hp
Fv
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000

(b) AISI 8742, OQT 950 F, flame-hardened

K g = 555
sn = 250(500) = 125,000 psi
Strength
sbY
(125,000)(2)(0.503) = 14,794 lb
Fs =
=
(1.7)(5)
K f Pd
Wear:
Fw = D pbQK g
Fw = (3.2 )(2)(1.22)(555) = 4333 lb
Use Fw = Fd
100.55(2988 + Ft )
4333 = Ft +
1
100.55 + (2988 + Ft )2
Ft = 1590 lb
Fv
(1590)(2011) = 97 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(c) AISI 8742, OQT 800 F, BHN = 416.4 (Table AT 9)
Sum of BHN = 2(416.4) = 832.8
Table AT 26, K g = 397.5
sn = 250 BHN = 250(416.4) = 104,100 psi
Strength
(104,100)(2)(0.503) = 12,320 lb
sbY
Fs =
=
(1.7)(5)
K f Pd

Page 36 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Wear:
Fw = D pbQK g
Fw = (3.2 )(2)(1.22)(397.5) = 3104 lb
Use Fw = Fd
100.55(2988 + Ft )
3104 = Ft +
1
100.55 + (2988 + Ft )2
Ft = 770 lb
Fv
(770)(2011) = 47 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
649.

3
The data for a pair of gears are: 20o F.D. teeth, b = 1 in , Pd = 6 , N p = 26 ,
4
N g = 60 , n p = 2300 rpm ; as-rolled AISI 1050; carefully cut teeth; N sf = 1.2 . (a)
Strength alone considered, find the horsepower that may be transmitted. (b)
Determine the required surface hardness in order for Fw = Fd , and specify a
treatment that would make the gears long lasting in continuous service.

Solution:
N
26
Dp = p =
= 4.333 in
Pd
6
D p n p (4.333)(2300)
vm =
=
= 2609 fpm
12
12
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
For carefully cut teeth, Pd = 6 , 20o F.D.
C = 1660
0.05(2609)[1660(1.75) + Ft ]
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05(2609 ) + [1660(1.75) + Ft ]2
130.45(2905 + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
130.45 + (2905 + Ft )2
(a) Strength
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
For as rolled AISI 1050, BHN = 229
sn = 250(229 ) = 57,250 psi
or sn = 0.5su = 0.5(102.000) = 51,000 psi
use s = 51,000 psi

Page 37 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

N p = 26
Table AT 26, 20 o F.D., load near middle
Y = 0.588
K f = 1 .7

Fs =

(51,000)(1.75)(0.588) = 5145 lb
(1.7)(6)

Fs = N sf Fd

5145 = 1.2 Fd
Fd = 4288 lb
Fd = 4288 = Ft +

130.45(2905 + Ft )
1

130.45 + (2905 + Ft )2

Ft = 1400 lb
Fv
(1400)(2609) = 110 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(b) Fw = Fd = 1400 lb
Wear
Fw = D pbQK g
Q=

2N g
N p + Ng

2(60 )
= 1.395
26 + 60

Fw = (4.333)(1.75)(1.395)K g = 4288 lb
K g = 405
Table of BHN = 838

BHN1 = 229
BHN 2 = 838 229 = 609
Therefore use carburized teeth.
650.

Gears with carefully cut, 20o F.D. teeth have Pd = 5 , b = 2 , mg = 5 , N p = 24 .

Pinion material is manganeses gear bronze (heading of Table AT 3); gear is cast
iron, class 25. Gear speed ng = 200 rpm ; smooth load. They are to transmit 18
hp. (a) Are the teeth strong enough for intermittent service? (b) Does the limiting
wear load indicate long life? Suggestion: Compute C for equation (13.7).

Solution:
N
24
Dp = p =
= 4.8 in
Pd
5

Page 38 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

n p = mg ng = (5)(200 ) = 1000 rpm

vm =

D p n p

(4.8)(1000)

= 1257 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(18)
Ft =
=
= 473 lb
vm
1257
Carefully cut:
kE g E p
C=
Eg + E p
k = 0.111e for 20o full-depth
Fig. AF 20, e = 0.001 in , Pd = 5
C=

Fd = Ft +

11.5 106 + 16 106

0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
1

0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
0.05(1257 )[743(2) + 473]
Fd = 473 +
= 1622 lb
1
0.05(1257 ) + [743(2) + 473]2
(a) Fs N sf Fd
N sf = 1.0 , smooth load

sbY
K f Pd
Gear: cast-iron, class 25, 20o F.D.
N g = mg N p = (5)(24 ) = 120
Fs =

Y = 0.7646 , load near middle

sn = 0.4(25) = 10 ksi = 10,000 psi

snY = (10,000)(0.7646) = 7646 psi

Pinion: manganese gear bronze, 20o F.D.
N p = 24
Y = 0.572 , load near middle
sn = 17 ksi = 17,000 psi

Gear is weaker
K f = 1 .7

Fs =

sf d
(1.7 )(5)

Page 39 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Therefore, enough for intermittent service
(b) Fw = D pbQK g
Q=

2m g
mg + 1

2(5)
= 1.667
5 +1

s 2 sin 1
1

+
K g =

1.4 E p E g
Pinion, manganese gear bronze
s = su = 75 ksi

= 20o
(75,000 )2 sin 20 1
1

Kg =
+
= 205

6
6
1 .4

16 10 11.5 10
Fw = (4.8)(2)(1.667 )(205) = 3281 lb > Fd
Therefore, indicates long life.

A 20-tooth pinion. 20o F.D., drives a 100-tooth gear. The pinion is made of SAE
1035, heat treated to Rockwell C15; the gear is cast iron class 35, HT; Pd = 3 ,
b = 2.5 in .; carefully cut teeth; pinion speed n p = 870 rpm , smooth load. (a) For
a continuous service, indefinite life, what is a safe horsepower? (b) For
intermittent service (wear unimportant), compute the safe horsepower.

651.

Solution:
N p = 20
N g = 100

Dp =
vm =

Np

Pd
D p n p
12

Fd = Ft +

20
= 6.667 in
3
=

(6.667 )(870)

12
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
1

= 1519 fpm

0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Carefully cut gears, steel and cast iron, 20o F.D.
Pd = 3 , Fig. AF 20, Table AT 25
e = 0.0016 in
C = 1.6(1140) = 1824
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2

Page 40 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Fd = Ft +
Fd = Ft +

0.05(1519)[1824(2.5) + Ft ]
1

0.05(1519) + [1824(2.5) + Ft ]2
75.95(4560 + Ft )
1

75.95 + (4560 + Ft )2
(a) Continuous ser vice
Strength:
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
Pinion: SAE 1035, Rc = C15
Fig. AF 4, BHN = 200
sn = (250)(200) = 50,000 psi
N p = 20
Table AT 24, 20o F.D., load near middle
Y = 0.544
snY = (50,000)(0.544) = 27,200 psi
Gear: Cast iron, class 35
sn = 0.4su = 0.4(35,000) = 14,000 psi
N g = 100
Table AT 24, 20o F.D., load near middle
Y = 0.755
snY = (14,000)(0.755) = 10,570 psi
Gear is weaker
K f = 1 .7
Fs =

(14,000)(2.5)(0.755) = 5181 lb
(1.7)(3)

Wear:
Fw = D pbQK g
Q=

2N g
N p + Ng

2(100 )
= 1.667
20 + 100

s 2 sin 1
1

K g =
+

1.4 E p E g
= 20o
s = 0.4 BHN 10 = 0.4(200) 10 = 70 ksi = 70,000 psi

E p = 30106 psi

Page 41 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

E g = 14.5 106 psi
(70,000 )2 sin 20 1
1

Kg =
+
= 122

6
6
1 .4

30 10 14.5 10
Fw = (6.667 )(2.5)(1.667 )(122) = 3390 lb

Fw = Fd
3390 = Ft +

75.95(4560 + Ft )
1

75.95 + (4560 + Ft )2

Ft = 700 lb
Fv
(700)(1519) = 32 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(b) Fs = N sf Fd
N sf = 1.0 , smooth load

5181 = Ft +

75.95(4560 + Ft )
1

75.95 + (4560 + Ft )2
Ft = 2000 lb
Fv
(2000)(1519) = 92 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000

652.

A pair of steel gears is defined by Pd = 8 , b = 1.5 in , N p = 25 , N g = 75 ,

e = 0.001 in , 20o F.D. If these gears may transmit continuously and without
failure 75 hp at 1140 rpm of the pinion, what horsepower would be satisfactory
for n p = 1750 rpm ?

Solution:
N
25
Dp = p =
= 3.125 in
Pd
8
D p n p (3.125)(1140 )
vm =
=
= 933 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(75)
Ft =
=
= 2653 lb
vm
933
Table AT 25, e = 0.001 in , 20o F.D.
C = 1660
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2

Page 42 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Fd = 2653 +

0.05(933)[1660(1.5) + 2653]
1
2

= 4680 lb

For n p = 1750 rpm

vm =

D p n p

(3.125)(1750 )

= 1432 fpm
12
0.05(1432)[1660(1.5) + Ft ]
Fd = Ft +
= 4680 lb
1
0.05(1432 ) + [1660(1.5) + Ft ]2
Ft = 2260 lb
Fv
(2260)(1432) = 98 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000

654.

12

A gear manufacturer recommends that the following gears can transmit 25 hp at

600 rpm of the pinion during continuous 24-hr. service, indefinite life, moderate
shock: N p = 31 , N g = 70 , b = 3.25 in , Pd = 6 , 20o F.D.; pinion material is SAE
2335 with BHN = 300; gear material is SAE 1040 with BHN = 250. At what
horsepower would you rate them?

Solution:
N
31
D p = p = = 5.167 in
Pd
6
D p n p (5.167 )(600)
vm =
=
= 812 fpm
12
12
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Commercial cut, e = 0.001 in , 20o F.D., Pd = 6
Table AT 25
C = (2)(1660) = 3320
0.05(812)[3220(3.25) + Ft ]
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05(812) + [3220(3.25) + Ft ]2
40.6(10,465 + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
40.6 + (10,465 + Ft )2
Strength:
Pinion: SAE 2335, bhn = 300
sn = 250(300) = 75,000 psi
N p = 31 , Table AT 24, Load near middle, 20o F.D.
Y = 0.6115

Page 43 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

snY = (75,000)(0.6115) = 45,862 psi
Gear: SAE 1040, BHN = 250
sn = 250(250 ) = 62,500 psi
N g = 70 , Table AT 24, Load near middle, 20o F.D.
Y = 0.728
snY = (62,500)(0.728) = 45,500 psi
Gear is weaker, K f = 1.7
Fs =

(62,500)(3.25)(0.728) = 14,498 lb
sbY
=
(1.7 )(6)
K f Pd

Fw = D pbQK g
Q=

2N g
N p + Ng

2(70 )
= 1.386
31 + 70

Sum of BHN = 300+250 = 550

Table AT 26, 20o F.D.
K g = 162
Fw = (5.167 )(3.25)(1.386)(162) = 3770 lb
Fw = Fd
40.6(10465 + Ft )
3770 = Ft +
1
40.6 + (10465 + Ft )2
Ft = 675 lb
(675)(812) = 16.6 hp
Fv
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
For carefully cut, C = 1660
Cb = (1660)(3.25) = 5395
40.6(5395 + Ft )
3770 = Ft +
1
40.6 + (5395 + Ft )2
Ft = 1500 lb
Fv
(1500)(812) = 36.9 hp carefully cut
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
use hp = 36.9 hp , carefully cut.

Page 44 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

NONMETALLIC GEARS
655.

A 4-in. Bakelite pinion meshing with a cast-iron gear, is to be on the shaft of a 12

hp induction motor that turns at 850 rpm; mw = 5 , 20o F.D. teeth. (a) Determine
Pd , b , N p , N g for indefinitely continuous service with a smooth load. Is there
serious interference in the gears you have designed? (b) Are the teeth of your
design strong enough to taje without damage an occasional 60 % overload?

Solution:
Pinion as weaker
(200 + vm )Ft
Fd =
v
200 + m
4
D p n p (4)(850)
vm =
=
= 890 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(12 )
Ft =
=
= 445 lb
vm
890
(200 + 890)(445) = 1148 lb
Fd =
890
200 +
4
Strength: s = 6000 psi
sbY
Fs =
Pd
10
and Y = 0.33 , 20o F.D. Load at tip.
assume b =
Pd
Fs = Fd (smooth load)
(6000)(10)(0.33) = 1148 lb
Fs =
Pd2
Pd = 4.15
use Pd = 4
10 10
b=
=
= 2.5 in
Pd
4
say b = 3 in
N p = D p Pd = (4 )(4 ) = 16

Table At 24, Y = 0.295 , 20o F.D. Load at tip.

(6000)(3)(0.295) = 1328 lb > 1148 lb
Fs =
4
Check:

Page 45 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Wear:
Fw = D pbQK g
2mw
2(5)
=
= 1.667
mw + 1 5 + 1
Table AT 26,
Use K g = 64 , 20o F.D.
Q=

Fw = (4)(3)(1.667 )(64) = 1280 lb > Fd , o.k.

Then
Pd = 4
b = 3 in
N p = 16
N g = mw N p = (5)(16 ) = 80
N p < 18 , there is interference.

(b) Ft = (1.6)(445) = 712 lb

Fd > 712 lb , strong enough.
656.

A Zytel pinion with molded teeth is to transmit 0.75 hp to a hardened-steel gear;

n p = 1750 rpm , D p 1.25 in . Determine the pitch, face, and number of teeth on
the pinion for intermittent service.

Solution:
D p n p (1.25)(1750)
vm =
=
= 573 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(0.75)
Ft =
=
= 43 lb
vm
573
Fd = (VF )Ft
For molded teeth, vm < 4000 fpm
VF = 1
Fd = (1)(43) = 43 lb
Load near middle, assume Y = 0.50
Fs = Fd
say s = 4.6 ksi = 4600 psi , 13.27
10
b=
Pd
sbY (4600 )(10 )(0.50 )
Fs =
=
= 43
Pd
Pd2

Page 46 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Pd = 23
use Pd = 20
10
= 0.5 in
b=
20
N p = D p Pd = (1.25)(20 ) = 25 teeth
657.

A 10-in. Textolite pinion, driving a hardened steel gear, transmits power at 400
rpm; Pd = 2.5 , b = 5 in ., 14 1/2o F.D. teeth. Determine the safe horsepower (a)
for smooth, continuous, indefinite service, and also (b) for limited-life
intermittent service.

Solution:
D p = 10 in
n p = 400 rpm

vm =

D p n p

(10)(400)

= 1047 fpm
12
12
(200 + vm )Ft
Fd =
v
200 + m
4
Strength
sbY
Fs =
Pd
s = 6000 psi
b = 5 in
Pd = 2.5
N p = Pd D p = (2.5)(10 ) = 25
Table At 24, 14 1/2o F.D. Load at tip.
Y = 0.305
(6000)(5)(0.305) = 3660 lb
Fs =
2 .5
Wear load, Table At 26, 14 1/2o F.D.
K g = 46
Fw = D pbQK g
Q 1 .5
Fw = (10)(5)(1.5)(46) = 3450 lb

Fw = Fd (smooth)

Page 47 of 57

3450 =

(200 + 1047 )Ft

200 +

1047
4

Fs = 1277 lb
Fv
(1277)(1047) = 40 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(b) Intermittent service
Fs = Fd
(200 + 1047 )Ft
3660 =
1047
200 +
4
Fs = 1355 lb
Fv
(1355)(1047) = 43 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
658.

5
in .
8
(a) What safe horsepower may be transmitted for long-life? (b) For 107 cycles?

A 16-pitch Zytel pinion, with 26, 20o F.D. cut teeth, rotates at 600 rpm; b =

Solution:
D p n p
vm =
12
N
26
Dp = p =
= 1.625 in
Pd 16
(1.625)(600)
vm =
= 255 fpm
12
Cut-teeth, vm < 4000 fpm
VF = 1.2
Fd = (VF )Ft
Fd = Ft
(a) Long life, 5 108 cycles
Pd = 16
s = 2.3 ksi = 2300 psi
sbY
Fs =
Pd
For N p = 26 , 20o F.D., Load near middle
Y = 0.588

Page 48 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

(2300) 5 (0.588)

8
= 53 lb
16
Fs = 53 = 1.2 Ft
Ft = 44 lb
(44)(255) = 0.34 hp
Fv
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000

Fs =

(b) 107 cycles. s = 4.2 ksi = 4200 psi , Pd = 16

(4200) 5 (0.588)

8
= 96.5 lb
16
Fs = 96.5 = 1.2 Ft
Ft = 80 lb
Fv
(44)(255) = 0.34 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000

Fs =

CAST-TOOTH GEARS
659.

A pair of cast-iron spur gears, ASTM 20, with cast teeth, transmits 10 hp at 125
rpm of the pinion; mw = 5 , D p 8 in . Determine Pc , b , N p , N g .

Solution:
D p n p (8)(125)
vm =
=
= 262 fpm
12
12
600 + vm
Fd =
Ft
600
33,000hp 33,000(10 )
Ft =
=
= 1260 lb
vm
262
600 + 262
Fd =
(1260) = 1810 lb
600
Fs = 0.054sbPc
say b = 2.5Pc
s = 0.4su = 0.4(20) = 8 ksi = 8000 psi
Fs = 0.054(8000 )(2.5)Pc2 = 1080 Pc2

Fs = Fd
1080 Pc2 = 1810

Pc = 1.29 in

Page 49 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

1
say Pc = 1 in
4
b = 2.4 Pc = 2.4(1.25) = 3 in
D p (8)
Np =
=
= 20
Pc
1.25
N g = mw N p = (5)(20 ) = 100

660.

Design the cast teeth for a pair of cast-iron spur gears to transmit 35 hp at 50 rpm
of the pinion; mw 2.5 . Decide upon a suitable grade of cast iron and find Pc , b ,
D p , Dg , and center distance.

Solution:
Using cast-iron, class 35
sn = 0.4su = 0.4(35) = 14 ksi = 14,000 psi
33,000hp 33,000(35) 1,155,000
Ft =
=
=
vm
vm
vm
600 + vm
Fd =
Ft
600
Try N p = 20
Dp =
vm =

Pc N p

D p n p
12

=
=

20 Pc

= 6.366 Pc

(6.366 Pc )(50)
12

Ft =

1,155,000 13,860
=
83.33Pc
Pc

Fd =

600 + 83.33Pc
600

= 83.33Pc

13,860 23.1(600 + 83.33Pc )

=
P
Pc
c

Fs = 0.054sbPc
b = 2.5Pc
Fs = 0.054(14,000 )(2.5)Pc2 = 1890 Pc2

Fs = Fd
23.1(600 + 83.33Pc )
Pc
Pc = 2.117 in

1890 Pc2 =

use Pc = 2 in
PN
20(2)
Dp = c p =
= 12.73 in

Page 50 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Dg = mw D p = (2.5)(12.73) = 31.83 in

b = 2.5Pc = 2.5(2) = 5 in
1
1
C = (D p + Dg ) = (12.73 + 31.83) = 22.28 in
2
2
Summary:
Pc = 2 in
D p = 12.73 in
Dg = 31.83 in
b = 5 in
C = 22.28 in

661.

A manufacturers catalog specifies that a pair of gray cast-iron spur gears with
cast teeth will transmit 7.01 hp at a pitch-line speed of 100 fpm; N p = 20 ,
Pc = 1.5 in ., b = 4 in . Compute the stress and specify the grade of cast iron that
should be used.

Solution:
vm = 100 fpm
33,000hp 33,000(7.01)
Ft =
=
= 2313.3 lb
vm
100
600 + vm
600 + 100
Fd =
Ft =
(2313.3) = 2699 lb
600
600
Fs = 0.054sbPc
Fs = Fd
0.054s (4)(1.5) = 2699
s = 8330 psi
s 0.4su
8330 0.4su
su = 20,825 psi = 21 ksi
use Cast Iron, ASTM 25, su = 25 ksi
ARMS AND RIMS
662.

A 24-in. cast-iron gear transmits 30 hp at 240 rpm; 14 1/2o F.D. teeth, Pd = 4 ,

b = 2.5 in . The gear is on a 2 -in. shaft. Determine (a) the hub diameter, rim
thickness, and bead, (b) the dimensions of the arms at the hub and at the pitch
circle for an elliptical-shaped section, (c) the arm dimensions for a cross shape.

Page 51 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

Solution:
1
1
(a) Hub diameter = 2 Ds = 2 2 = 4 in , for cast iron
2
4
7

Rim thickness = 0.56 Pc = 0.56 = 0.44 in in
16
4
7

Bead = 0.56 Pc = 0.56 = 0.44 in in
16
4
(b) Elliptical section

use no. of arms = N a = 4 , D = 24 in < 120 in

FL
M=
Na
1
24 4
D Dh
2 = 9.75 in
L=
=
2
2
F = Fd
M
s=
Z
h3
Z=
64
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
D p n p (24)(240)
vm =
=
= 1506 fpm
12
12
assume C = 800 , 14 1/2o F.D.
33,000hp 33,000(30 )
Ft =
=
= 660 lb
vm
1506
0.05(1506)[800(2.5) + 660]
Fd = 660 +
= 2238 lb
1
0.05(1506 ) + [1800(2.5) + 660]2
M
FL
64 FL
s=
=
= 3
Z N a Z h N a
use s = 8000 psi

Page 52 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

64(2238)(9.75)
h3 (4)
h = 2.4 in

8000 =

At the hub
h = 2.4 in
h
h1 = = 1.2 in
2
At the pitch circle
h
h = = 1.2 in
2
h
h1 = = 1.2 in
2
(c) Cross shape

6Z
h2
G1 = 0.75G
h = 2.4 in
G=

Z=

h3

, 13.32
64
(2.4)3
Z=
= 0.6786 in 3
64
At the hub
6(0.6786 )
G=
= 0.71 in
(2.4)2
G1 = 0.75(0.71) = 0.53 in
h = 2.4 in
h
At the pitch circle, h = = 1.2 in
2
G = 0.71 in
G1 = 0.53 in

Page 53 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

INTERNAL GEARS
A 20-tooth pinion, with 20o F.D. teeth , drives a 75-tooth internal gear ( Pd = 8 ,
b = 1.5 in , n p = 1150 rpm ; material, cast iron, class 20). What horsepower may
be transmitted continuously (a) if the teeth are commercially hobbed (AGMA
equation, 13.15), (b) if they are precision cut? There are minor irregularities in

664.

Solution:
(a) Commecially hobbed
1
2
m

50 + v
Ft
50
Fw = D pbQK g
Fd =

Q=

2N g
Ng N p

2(75)
= 2.727
75 20

From AT 26, K g = 112

Np

20
= 2.5 in
Pd
8
Fw = (2.5)(1.5)(2.727 )(112) = 1145 lb
Dp =

For strength:
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
N p = 20 , Y = 0.320 at the tip

Let K f = 1.3 , s = 8000 psi

(8000)(1.5)(0.320) = 369 lb
(1.3)(8)
D p n p (2.5)(1150 )
=
=
= 753 fpm

Fs =
vm

12
Fs = Fd

12
1

50 + (753)2
Fd = 369 =
Ft
50
Ft = 238 lb
hp =

Ft vm
(238)(753) = 5.43 hp
=
33,000
33,000

Page 54 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

78 + vm2
Fd =
Ft
78
1
2

Fd = 369 =

78 + (753)
Ft
78

Ft = 273 lb
hp =
666.

Ft vm
(273)(753) = 6.23 hp
=
33,000
33,000
A planetary gear train is composed of four gears the sun gear B , two planet
gears C , as shown. Gears B and C have 20 teeth each, gear D has 60; Pd = 10 ,
1
b = 1 in ., 20o F.D. teeth, cast iron, class 20, nB = 1750 rpm . (a) Determine the
4
speed of the arm. (b) What horsepower may be transmitted continuously? Note
that the dynamic load (AGMA equation , 13.15) depends on the speed of tooth
engagement, which is not the absolute pitch line speed of B (pitch-line speed
relative to arm for B C ). Check the speed of tooth engagement of both B C
and C D . (c) If the designer wishes to increase the power transmitted by using
three planet gears, instead of two, what changes must be made in tooth numbers
so that the gears can be assembled with the planets 120o apart?

Solution:
nL = enF + na (1 e )
(20)(20)
1
e=
=
(20)(60)
3
nF = nB = 1750 rpm
nL = 0 = nD
1
1
0 = (1750 ) + na 1 +
3
3
na = 437.5 rpm

(assumed)

(a) Speed pf arm = 437.5 rpm

(b) For BC

vm =

D p nB A
12

Page 55 of 57

Np
(nB n A ) 20 (1750 437.5)

D p
10

=
=
= 687 fpm
12
12

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

For BC

vm =

Dg nD A
12

N
g
Dp

(nD n A ) 60 (0 437.5)

10
=
= 687 fpm
12
12

vm = 687 fpm < 1000 fpm

Use commercial teeth
600 + vm
Ft
600
For cast-iron, continuous service
Fs N sf Fd
Fd =

For cast iron, assume N sf = 1

Fs =

sbY
K f Pd

Let K f = 1.2
s = 0.4su = 0.4(20) = 8 ksi = 8000 psi
For N = 20 , Y = 0.32 , load at tip, 20o F.D.

(8000)1 1 (0.32)
Fs =

4
(1.2)(10)

= 267 lb

Fs = Fd
600 + 687
267 =
Ft
600
Ft = 124 lb
hp =

Ft vm
(124)(687) = 2.6 hp
=
33,000
33,000

(c) For each planet gear,

2 .6
hp =
(1.15) = 1.495 hp
2
For 3 planet gears
1.495
hp =
(3) = 3.9 hp
1.15
sbY
600 + vm
Fs =
=
Ft
K f Pd
600

Page 56 of 57

SECTION 11 SPUR GEARS

33,000(3.9 )
= 187 lb
687
assume Y = 0.3
(8000)1 1 (0.30)
600 + 687
4
Fs =
=
(187)
600
(1.2)(Pd )
Pd = 6.65
Ft =

use Pd = 7
N = DPd = (2)(7 ) = 14 teeth
- end -

Page 57 of 57

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

DESIGN PROBLEMS
701.

For continuous duty in a speed reducer, two helical gears are to be rated at 7.4 hp
at a pinion speed of 1750 rpm; m w 2.75 ; the helix angle 15o ; 20o F.D. teeth in
the normal plane; let N p = 21 teeth, and keep b < 2 D p . Determine the pitch, face,
N g , and the material and heat treatment. Use through-hardened teeth with a
maximum of 250 BHM (teeth may be cut after heat treatment).

Solution:
= 15o
n = 20o
D p n p
vm =
12
N p 21
Dp =
=
Pd
Pd
n p = 1750 rpm
21
(1750)
Pd
9621

vm =
=
12
Pd
33,000hp (33,000 )(7.4 )
Ft =
=
= 25.38 Pd
vm
9621

P
d

b 2 Dp

21 42
b = 2 =
Pd Pd
0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos
Fd = Ft +
lb
1
2
2
0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos )
Table AT 25
Assume C = 1660
= 15o

Fd = 25.38Pd +

9621
42
25.38Pd + 1660 cos 2 15 cos15
0.05
Pd
Pd

9621
42
+ 25.38Pd + 1660 cos 2 15
0.05
Pd
Pd

Page 1 of 14

1
2

lb

Fd = 25.38 Pd +

465
65050
25.38 Pd +

Pd
Pd
481
65050

+ 25.38 Pd +
Pd
Pd

For continuous service: Fw Fd

bD pQK g
Fw =
cos 2
2mg
2(2.75)
Q=
=
= 1.467
mg + 1 2.75 + 1
Table At 26, Bhn = 250
Sum of BHN = 500, n = 20o
K g = 131

42 21 (1.467 )(131) 181,670

Fw =
=
2
Pd2
Pd Pd cos 15
Fw Fd
By trial and error method
Pd
7
6

Fd
3967
4758

Fw
3708
5046

use Pd = 6
21 21
Dp =
=
= 3.5 in
Pd
6
42 42
b=
=
= 7 in
Pd
6
9621 9621
vm =
=
= 1604 fpm
Pd
6
Fig. AF 19, permissible error = 0.0018 in
Fig. AF 20
Use carefully cut gears, Pd = 6
Error = 0.001 in is o.k.
For material
Strength
sbY cos
Fs =
K f Pd

Page 2 of 14

1
2

lb

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

Np

21
= 23
cos cos3 15
Table AT 24, Load near middle
N ep = 23 , n = 20o FD
N ep =

Y = 0.565
assume K f = 2.0
Fs = N sf Fd

assume N sf = 2.0
s (7 )(0.565) cos15
= (4758)(2)
(2 )(6)
s = 29,892 psi
s
use sn = u
3
su = 3(29,892) = 89,676 psi
Use C1050, OQT 1100 F,
su = 122 ksi , BHN = 248 < 250
Ans.
Pd = 6
b = 7 in
N g = mw N p = (2.75)(21) = 58
Material. C1050, OQT 1100 F
703.

A pair of helical gears, subjected to heavy shock loading, is to transmit 50 hp at

3
1750 rpm of the pinion.; mg = 4.25 ; = 15o ; minimum D p = 4 in. ; continuous
4
o
service, 24 hr/day; 20 F.D. teeth in the normal plane, carefully cut; throughhardened to a maximum BHN = 350. Decide upon the pitch, face width, material
and its treatment.

Solution:
(4.75)(1750)
vm =
= 2176 fpm
12
33,000hp (33,000 )(50 )
Ft =
=
= 758 lb
vm
(2176)
0.05vm Ft + Cb cos 2 cos
Fd = Ft +
lb
1
2
2
0.05vm + Ft + Cb cos
Fig. AF 19, vm = 2176 fpm
Permissible error = 0.0014 in

Page 3 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

Use carefully cut gears, e = 0.001 in , Pd = 5 as standard
Table AT 25,
Steel and steel, 20o FD
C = 1660
Fd = 758 +

0.05(2176) + 758 + 1660b cos 15

105.1(758 + 1548.8b )
Fd = 758 +
1 lb
108.8 + (758 + 1548.8b )2
bD pQK g
Fw =
cos 2
2mg
2(4.25)
Q=
=
= 1.619
mg + 1 4.25 + 1
Table At 26, 20o FD,
Sum of BHN =2(350)=700
K g = 270
2

b(4.75)(1.619 )(270 )
= 2225b
cos 2 15
2
Fw Fd , bmin = 2 Pa =
= 4.69 in.
Pd tan
By trial and error method
Fw =

b
5
6

Fd
5203
5811

Fw
11125
13350

use b = 5 in
Material:
Strength:
sbY
sbY cos
Fs =
=
K f Pdn
K f Pd
Np
N ep =
cos3
N p = Pd D p = (5)(4.375) = 22
22
= 25
cos3 15
Table AT 24, Load near middle
N ep =

Page 4 of 14

1
2

lb

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

N ep = 25 , n = 20o FD
Y = 0.580
assume K f = 1.7

s (5)(0.580) cos15
= 0.32955s
(1.7 )(5)
Fs = N sf Fd
for 24 hr/day service, heavy shock loading
N sf = 1.75
Fs =

0.32955s = (1.75)(5203)
s = 27,629 psi
s
use sn = u
3
su = 3(27,629) = 82,887 psi
Table AT 9
Use 4150, OQT 1200 F,
su = 159ksi , BHN = 331 < 350
Ans.
Pd = 5
b = 5 in
Material. 4150, OQT 1200 F
705.

Design the teeth for two herringbone gears for a single-reduction speed reducer
with mw = 3.80 . The capacity is 36 hp at 3000 rpm of the pinion; = 30o ; F.D.
teeth with n = 20o . Since space is at a premium, the initial design is for N p = 15
teeth and carburized teeth of AISI 8620; preferably b < 2 D p .

Solution:
N
15
Dp = p =
Pd
Pd
b 2Dp
b = 2 Dp =
vm =

30
Pd

D p n p

12
15
(3000)
P
11,781
vm = d
=
12
Pd

Page 5 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

33,000hp (33,000 )(36 )
=
= 101Pd
vm
11,781

Pd
0.05vm Ft + Cb cos 2 cos
Fd = Ft +
lb
1
2
0.05vm + Ft + Cb cos 2
Ft =

n = 20

= 30 o
Assume C = 1660 , Table AT 25, 20o FD

11,781
30
101Pd + 1660 cos 2 30 cos 30
0.05
Pd
Pd

Fd = 101Pd +
lb
1
2

11,781
30
+ 101Pd + 1660 cos 2 30
0.05
Pd
Pd

510
37,350
101Pd +

Pd
Pd
Fd = 101Pd +
lb
1
2
589
37,350

+ 101Pd +
Pd
Pd
bD pQK g
Fw =
cos 2
2 mg
2(3.80)
Q=
=
= 1.583
mg + 1 3.80 + 1
For AISI 8620, carburized, 20o FD
K g = 750 for 1010 cycles
30 15 (1.583)(750) 712,350
Fw =
=
2
Pd2
Pd Pd cos 30
By trial and error, Fw Fd
Pd
Fd
Fw
5
4433
28,494
4
5454
44,522
6
3817
19,788
8
3173
11,130
9
3008
8794

For carefully cut gears, e = 0.001

vmax = 1400 fpm (Fig. AF 9)

Page 6 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

Pd
5
4
6
8
9

11,781
Pd
2356.2
1963.5
1683
1473
1309 fpm
vm =

use Pd = 9
Fd = 3008 lb
Fw = 5794 lb > Fd
30 30
b=
=
= 3.3 in
Pd
9
use b = 3.0 in
To check for strength
sbY
sbY cos
Fs =
=
K f Pdn
K f Pd
Np
N ep =
cos3
N p = 15
15
= 23
cos3 30
Table AT 24, Load near middle
N ep = 23 , n = 20o FD
N ep =

Y = 0.565
assume K f = 1.7

8620, SOQT 450, su = 167 ksi

s
sn = u
3
su 167
sn = =
= 83.5
2
2
(83,500)(3.0)(0.565)cos 30 = 8011 lb > F (= 3008 lb )
Fs =
d
(1.7)(9)
Designed Data:
Pd = 9
b = 3.0 in
N p = 15
N g = mw N p = (3.8)(15) = 57

Page 7 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

N p 15
= = 1.67 in
Pd
9
N
57
Dg = g =
= 6.33 in
Pd
9
Dp =

CHECK PROBLEMS
707.

The data for a pair of carefully cut gears are: Pdn = 5 , n = 20o , = 12o ,
b = 3.5 in. , N p = 18 , N g = 108 teeth; pinion turns 1750 rpm. Materials: pinion,
SAE 4150, OQT to BHN = 350; gear, SAE 3150, OQT to BHN = 300. Operation
is with moderate shock for 8 to 10 hr./day. What horsepower may be transmitted
continuously?

Solution:
N
Dp = p
Pd
Pd = Pdn cos = (5)cos15 = 4.89
18
Dp =
= 3.681 in
4.89
bD pQK g
Fw =
cos 2
b = 3.5 in.
2Ng
2(108)
Q=
=
= 1.7143
N p + N g 18 + 108
Table AT 26, n = 20o
Sum of BHN = 350 + 300 = 650
K g = 233
Fw =

(3.5)(3.681)(1.7143)(233) = 5379 lb

cos 2 12
Strength of gear
sbY
Fs =
lb
K f Pdn
For gear: SAE 3150, OQT to BHN = 300
su = 151 ksi

Ng
108
N eg =
=
= 116
3
cos cos3 12

Page 8 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

Table AT 24, Load near middle, n = 20o
Y = 0.763
snY = (75.5)(0.763) = 57.6
For pinion: SAE 4150, OQT to BHN = 350
su = 0.5BHN = 0.5(350) = 175 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(175) = 87.5 ksi
Np
18
N ep =
=
= 19
3
cos cos3 12
Table AT 24, Load near middle, n = 20o
Y = 0.534
snY = (87.5)(0.534) = 46.7
Therefore use pinion as weak
Assume K f = 1.7
Fs =

(87,500)(3.5)(0.534) = 19,240 lb
(1.7 )(5)

For moderate shock, 8 to 10 hr./day

Use N sf = 1.5
Fs N sf Fd

19,240 = 1.5Fd
Fd 12,827 lb
Therefore use Fd = Fw = 5379 lb
Fd = Ft +

0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos

lb
1
0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos 2 )2
Fig. AF 20, carefully cut gears, Pdn = 5 , e = 0.001 in
Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20o FD
C = 1660
D p n p (3.681)(1750)
vm =
=
= 1686 fpm
12
12
0.05(1686) Ft + 1660(3.5) cos 2 12 cos12
Fd = Ft +
lb
1
2
0.05(1686) + Ft + 1660(3.5) cos 12 2
82.46[Ft + 5559]
Fd = Ft +
= 5379 lb
1
84.3 + [Ft + 5559]2
Trial and error
Ft = 1800 lb
Fv
(1800)(1686) = 92 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000

Page 9 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

708.

Two helical gears are used in a single reduction speed reducer rated at 27.4 hp at
a motor speed of 1750 rpm; continuous duty. The rating allows an occasional 100
% momentary overload. The pinion has 33 teeth. Pdn = 10 , b = 2 in. , n = 20o ,

= 20o , mw = 2.82 . For both gears, the teeth are carefully cut from SAE 1045
with BHN = 180. Compute (a) the dynamic load, (b) the endurance strength;
estimate K f = 1.7 . Also decide whether or not the 100 % overload is damaging.
(c) Are these teeth suitable for continuous service? If they are not suitable
suggest a cure. (The gears are already cut.)
Solution:
N
Dp = p
Pd
Pd = Pdn cos = (10) cos15 = 9.66
33
Dp =
= 3.42 in
9.66
D p n p (3.42)(1750)
vm =
=
= 1567 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(27.4 )
Ft =
=
= 577 lb
vm
1567
0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos
Fd = Ft +
lb
1
0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos 2 )2
Fig. AF 20, carefully cut gears, Pdn = 10 , e = 0.001 in
Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20o FD
C = 1660
b = 2 in
Fd = 577 +

(b) Endurance strength

sbY
Fs =
lb
K f Pdn
For SAE 1045, BHN = 180
su = 0.5BHN = 0.5(180) = 90 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(90) = 45 ksi
Np
33
N ep =
=
= 37
3
cos cos3 15
Table AT 24, Load near middle, n = 20o

Page 10 of 14

1
2

2

= 2578 lb

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

Y = 0.645
K f = 1 .7

sbY
(45,000)(2)(0.645) = 3415 lb
=
(1.7 )(10)
K f Pdn
For 100 % overload
Ft = 2(577 ) = 1154 lb
Fs =

Fd = Ft +

1
2

lb

2

Fd = 1154 +

(c) Fw =

1
2

0.05(1567 ) + 1154 + 1660(2) cos 15

Since Fs Fd , 100 % overload is not damaging
2

= 3475 lb

bD pQK g
cos 2

b = 2 in.
2mw
2(2.82 )
Q=
=
= 1.476
mw + 1 2.82 + 1

Table AT 26, n = 20o

Sum of BHN = 2(180) = 360
K g = 62.5
Fw =

(2)(3.42)(1.476)(62.5) = 676 lb < F (= 2578 lb )

d

cos 2 15
Therefore not suitable for continuous service.
Cure: Through hardened teeth
For Bhn
2578
Kg =
(62.5) = 238
676
min Bhn = 0.5(650) = 325

709.

Two helical gears are used in a speed reducer whose input is 100 hp at 1200 rpm,
from an internal combustion engine. Both gears are made of SAE 4140, with the
pinion heat treated to a BHN 363 415, and the gear to 321 363; let the teeth
be F.D.; 20o pressure angle in the normal plane; carefully cut; helix angle
= 15o ; N p = 22 , N g = 68 teeth; Pd = 5 , b = 4 in . Calculate the dynamic load,
the endurance strength load, and the limiting wear load for the teeth. Should these
gears have long life if they operate continuously? (Data courtesy of the Twin
Disc Clutch Co.)

Solution:

Page 11 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

N p 22
=
= 4.4 in
Pd
5
D p n p (4.4)(1200)
vm =
=
= 1382 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(100 )
Ft =
=
= 2388 lb
vm
1382
0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos
Fd = Ft +
lb
1
2
0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos )2
Fig. AF 20, carefully cut gears, Pdn = 5 , e = 0.001 in
Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20o FD
C = 1660
b = 4 in
Dp =

Fd = 2388 +

1
2

0.05(1382 ) + 2388 + 1660(4)cos 15

sbY cos
Fs =
lb
K f Pd
2

= 5930 lb

Assume K f = 1.7
Pinion
sn = 0.25BHN = 0.25(363) = 90.75 ksi
Np
22
N ep =
=
= 25
3
cos cos3 15
Table AT 24, Load near middle, n = 20o
Y = 0.580
sbY cos (90,750)(4 )(0.580) cos15
Fs =
=
= 23,925 lb
(1.7 )(5)
K f Pd
Gear
sn = 0.25BHN = 0.25(321) = 80.25 ksi
Np
68
N ep =
=
= 75
3
cos cos3 15
Table AT 24, Load near middle, n = 20o
Y = 0.735
sbY cos (80,250 )(4)(0.735)cos15
Fs =
=
= 26,811 lb
(1.7 )(5)
K f Pd
use Fs = 23,925 lb

Page 12 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

bD pQK g
Fw =
cos 2
Table AT 26, n = 20o
Sum of BHN = 684 to 778 use 700
K g = 270
Q=

2Ng
2(68)
=
= 1.511
N p + N g 22 + 68

Fw =

(4)(4.4)(1.511)(270) = 7696 lb

cos 2 15
Since Fw (= 7696 lb ) > Fd (= 5930 lb ) these gears have long life if they operate
continuously.

CROSSED HELICAL
710.

Helical gears are to connect two shafts that are at right angles
( N1 = 20 , N 2 = 40 , Pdn = 10 , 1 = 2 = 45o ). Determine the center distance.

Solution:
D cos 1
N1 = 1
= Pdn D1 cos 1
Pcn
20 = (10)(D1 )cos 45
D1 = 2.83 in
N 2 = Pdn D2 cos 2
40 = (10)(D2 )cos 45
D2 = 5.66 in
C = 12 (D1 + D2 ) = 12 (2.83 + 5.66) = 4.25 in
712.

Two shafts that are at right angles are to be connected by helical gears. A
tentative design is to use N1 = 20 , N 2 = 60 , Pdn = 10 , and a center distance of 6
in. What must be the helix angles?

Solution:
= 1 + 2 = 90o
N1
D1 =
Pdn cos 1
N2
D2 =
Pdn cos 2
1
C = 2 (D1 + D2 )

Page 13 of 14

SECTION 12 HELICAL GEARS

N1
N2
+
Pdn cos 1 Pdn cos 2
20
60
+
2(6 ) =
10 cos 1 10 cos 2
2
6
12 =
+
cos 1 cos 2
1
3
6=
+
cos 1 cos 2
By trial and error method
1
3
+
6=
cos 1 sin 1
2C =

1 = 39.5o
2 = 50.5o
- end -

Page 14 of 14

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

DESIGN PROBLEMS
751.

Decide upon the pitch, face, N g , material, and heat treatment of a pair of straight
bevel gears to transmit continuously and indefinitely a uniform loading of 5 hp at
900 rpm of the pinion, reasonable operating temperature, high reliability;
mg 1.75 ; D p 3.333 in . Pinion overhangs, gear is straddle mounted.

Solution:

L = rp2 + rg2

tan p =

1
2

1
1
=
mg 1.75

p = 29.75o
L sin p = rp
L sin 29.75 =

3.333
2

L = 3.358 in
33,000hp
Ft =
lb
vm
D p n p (3.333)(900)
vm =
=
= 785.4 fpm
12
12
33,000(5)
Ft =
= 210 lb
785.4
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
1

50 + vm2 50 + (785.4 ) 2
VF =
=
= 1.56
50
50
One gear straddle, one not
K m = 1.2
Table 15.2, uniform
N sf = 1.0

s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr

D p = 3.333 in

b = 0.3L = 0.3(3.358) = 1.0 in

Temperature factor
K t = 1.0 , reasonable operating temperature
Life factor for wear

Page 1 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Cl = 1.0 for indefinite life
Reliability factor for wear
Cr = 1.25 high reliability
Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.7
Assume I = 0.080
Elastic coefficient (Table 15.4)
Steel on steel , Ce = 2800
Fw = Fd
2
(3.333)(1.0)(0.08) (scd ) 2 1.0
(2800) (1.0)(1.25)

= 393

scd = 134,370 psi

Table 15.3, use Steel, (300)
scd = 135 ksi
Strength of bevel gears
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
Size factor, assume K s = 0.71
Life factor for strength
K l = 1 for indefinite life
Temperature factor,
K t = 1 good operating condition
Reliability factor
K r = 1.5 high reliability
Geometry factor for strength (Fig. 15.5)
Assume J = 0.240
b = 1.0 in
sd = design flexural stress
Min. BHN = 300
sd = 19 ksi

Fs = F d

(19,000)(1.0)(0.240)
Pd

1
(0.71)(1)(1.5) = 393

Pd = 11
say Pd = 10
10 10
so that b =
=
= 1.0 in
Pd 10
Dg = D p mg = (3.333)(1.75) = 5.833 in

Page 2 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

N g = Pd Dg = (10 )(5.833) = 58.33

say N g = 58
Use Pd = 10 , b = 1.0 in , N g = 58
Material = steel, min. Bhn = 300
752.

A pair of steel Zerol bevel gears to transmit 25 hp at 600 rpm of the pinion;
mg = 3 ; let N p 20 teeth; highest reliability; the pinion is overhung, the gear
straddle mounted. An electric motor drives a multi-cylinder pump. (a) Decide
upon the pitch, face width, diameters, and steel (with treatment) for intermittent
service. (b) The same as (a) except that indefinite life is desired.

Solution:
N
20
Dp = p =
Pd
Pd
20
(600)
D p n p
Pd
1000

vm =
=
=
fpm
12
12
Pd
10
Let b =
Pd
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft

33,000hp
lb
vm
33,000(25)
Ft =
= 262.6 Pd
1000

Pd
Ft =

1000

50 +
1
2
Pd
50 + vm
1.121
1.121

VF =
=
= 1 + 12 = 1 +
50
50
Pd
Pd
Table 15.2, electric motor drives a multi-cylinder pump
Service factor, N sf = 1.25
2

1.121

Fd = 1 +

Pd
Pd

(a) Strength of Bevel Gears

s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
Size factor, assume K s = 0.71

Page 3 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Life factor for strength
Intermittent service, use K l = 4.6
Temperature factor, say K t = 1.0
Reliability factor, highest reliability
K r = 3.0
Geometry factor for strength
N
mg = g
Np
N p = 20
N p = 3(20 ) = 60

Fig. 15.5, J = 0.205

10
b=
Pd
Design flexural stress, steel
Assume sd = 15 ksi
Fs = Fd

(15,000) 10 (0.205)(4.6)

1.121

= 394 Pd 1 +

P
d

1.121
66,408

=
394
P
d 1 +

Pd2
P
d

Pd = 4.814
say Pd = 5
10 10
b=
=
= 2.0 in
Pd
5
Pd
Pd (0.71)(1.0 )(3)

s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr

N p 20
=
= 4 in
Pd
5
K t = 1.0

Dp =

Life factor for wear, intermittent service

Cl = 1.5
Reliability factor for wear, highest reliability
Cr = 1.25
Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.7

Page 4 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

N p = 20 , N g = 60
I = 0.083
Elastic coefficient, steel on steel (Table 15.4)
Ce = 2800

Pd = 5
Fw = Fd
2

2
(4)(2)(0.083) scd 2 1.5 = 394(5)1 + 1.121
(2800) (1.0)(1.25)
5

scd = 155,730 psi

Table 15.3
Use steel, min. BHN = 360, scd = 160 ksi
Pd = 5
b = 2 in
D p = 4 in

Dg = mg D p = (3)(4 ) = 12 in
steel, min. BHN = 360

(b) For indefinite life,

K l = 1.0 , life factor for strength
Cl = 1.0 , life factor for wear
Strength:
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
Fs = Fd

(15,000) 10 (0.205)(1.0)

1.121

= 394 Pd 1 +

P
d

1.121
14,437

= 394 Pd 1 +
2

Pd
P
d

Pd = 2.799
say Pd = 3
10 10
b=
=
= 3.33 in
Pd
3
Pd
Pd (0.71)(1.0)(3)

Page 5 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

scd2 Cl

Fw = D pbI 2
C e K t Cr

N p 20
=
= 6.67 in
Pd
3
Fw = Fd

Dp =

2
(6.67 )(3.33)(0.083) scd 2 1.0 = 394(3)1 + 1.121
(2800) (1.0)(1.25)
3

scd = 113,744 psi

Table 15.3
Use steel, min. BHN = 240, scd = 115 ksi
Pd = 3
b = 3.33 in
D p = 6.67 in

Dg = mg D p = (3)(6.67 ) = 20 in
steel, min. BHN = 240

753.

Decide upon the pitch, face, and number of teeth for two spiral-bevel gears for a
speed reducer. The input to the pinion is 20 hp at 1750 rpm; mg 1.9 ; pinion
overhung, gear-straddle mounted. It is hoped not to exceed a maximum D p of 4
3/8-in.; steel gears with minimum 245 BHN on pinion and 210 BHN on gear.
The gear is motor-driven, subject to miscellaneous drives involving moderate
shock; indefinite life against breakage and wear with high reliability. If the gears
designed for the foregoing data are to be subjected to intermittent service only,
how much power could they be expected to transmit?

Solution:
(a) vm =

D p n p

(4.375)(1750)

= 2000 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(20 )
Ft =
=
= 330 lb
vm
2000
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
One gear straddle, one not
K m = 1.2
Table 15.2
Motor-driven, moderate shock

Page 6 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

N sf = 1.25
1

70 + vm2 2
VF =
, spiral
70
1

70 + (2000) 2
VF =
= 1.254
70

Fd = (1.254)(1.25)(1.2)(330) = 621 lb
1

s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr

D p = 4.375 in

Temperature Factor, K t = 1.0

Design contact stresses,
BHN = 245 , pinion
scd = 116 ksi
Life factor for wear
Cl = 1.0 , indefinite life
Reliability factor for wear
Cr = 1.25 , high reliability
Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.8
Assume I = 0.12
Elastic coefficient, steel on steel (Table 15.4)
Ce = 2800

(116,000)2 1.0
Fw = (4.375)(b )(0.12)
(2800)2 (1.0)(1.25)
Fw = Fd
721b = 621
b = 0.8613 in
7
say b = in = 0.875 in
8

Strength of gear
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
sd = design flexural stress
min. BHN = 210
sd = 15.4 ksi
Size factor, assume K s = 0.71

Page 7 of 17

= 721b

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Life factor for strength
K l = 1 for indefinite life
Temperature factor,
Kt = 1
Reliability factor
K r = 1.5 high reliability
Geometry factor Fig. 15.6
Assume J = 0.28
3543
(15,400)(0.875)(0.28)
1
Fs =

= P
Pd
(0.71)(1)(1.5)
d
Fs = Fd
3543
= 621
Pd
Pd = 5.7
say Pd = 6
7
Then, Pd = 6 , b = in , N p = D p Pd = (4.375)(6 ) = 26
8
N g = mw N p = (1.9 )(26 ) = 50
(b) Intermittent service only
Strength
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
sd = 15,400 psi (Gear)
For Pd = 6 , K s = 0.64
For indefinite service, K l = 4.6
K t = 1.0 , K r = 1.5
Geometry factor, Fig. 15.6, N p = 26 , N g = 50
J = 0.292
(15,400)(0.875)(0.292) 4.6 = 3142 lb
Fs =
(0.71)(1)(1.5)
6

s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
D p = 4.375 in

K t = 1.0
scd = 116 ksi
Ce = 2800

Page 8 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Cl = 1.5 intermittent service
Cr = 1.25
Geometry factor for wear, Fig. 15.8
N p = 26 , N g = 50
I = 0.116

(116,000)2 1.5
Fw = (4.375)(0.875)(0.116 )
(2800)2 (1.0)(1.25)

= 1098 lb

use Fw = Fd
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
1098 = (1.254)(125)(1.2)Ft
Ft = 584 lb
Fv
(584)(2000) = 35 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
CHECK PROBLEMS
755.

A pair of straight-bevel gears are to transmit a smooth load of 45 hp at 500 rpm

3
of the pinion; mg = 3 . A proposed design is Dg = 15 in. , b = 2 in. , Pd = 4 .
8
Teeth are carburized AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F. The pinion overhangs, the gear is
straddle-mounted. Would these gears be expected to perform with high reliability
in continuous service? If not would you expect more than 1 failure in 100?

Solution:
D 15
D p = g = = 5 in
mg
3
D p n p (5)(500)
vm =
=
= 655 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(45)
Ft =
=
= 2267 lb
vm
655
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
1

50 + vm2 50 + (655) 2
VF =
=
= 1.512
50
50
One gear straddle, one not
K m = 1.2

Smooth load, N sf = 1.0

Fd = (1.512)(1.0)(1.2 )(2267 ) = 4113 lb

Page 9 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Strength of bevel gears
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
Size factor, for Pd = 4 ,
K s = 0.71
Life factor for strength
Kl = 1
Temperature factor,
Kt = 1
Geometry factor for strength (Fig. 15.5)
N p = Pd D p = (4 )(5) = 20
N g = Pd Dg = (4 )(15) = 60
J = 0.205

sd = 30 ksi (55 63 Rc) for carburized teeth

Fs =

(30,000)(2.375)(0.205)

5143
1
(0.71)(1)(K ) = K
r
r

Fs = Fd
5143
= 4113
Kr
K r = 1.25 < 1.5 will not perform high reliability.
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr

D p = 5 in
b = 2.375 in
Table 15.3, scd = 225 ksi

Table 15.4, Ce = 2800

Geometry factor for wear, Figure 15.7
N p = 20 , N g = 60
I = 0.083
Kt = 1
life factor for wear Cl = 1

(225,000)2 1
Fw = (5)(2.375)(0.083)
(2800)2 (1)(Cr )
Fw = Fd

Page 10 of 17

6364
Cr2

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

6364
= 4113
Cr2
Cr = 1.244 1.25 , high reliability

Since K r < 1.5 ,this will not perform high reliability but 1 in 100, K r 1.12 < 1.25
756.

A gear catalog rates a pair of cast-iron, straight-bevel gears at 15.26 hp at 800

rpm of the 16-tooth pinion; mg = 3.5 , b = 3 in. , Pd = 3 ; pinion overhangs,
straddle-mounted gear. Assume the cast iron to be class 30. If the load is smooth
is this rating satisfactory, judging by the design approach of the Text for good
reliability (a) when strength alone is considered, (b) when long continuous
service is desired?

Solution:
N
16
Dp = p =
= 5.333 in
Pd
3
D p n p (5.333)(800)
vm =
=
= 1117 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(15.26 )
Ft =
=
= 451 lb
vm
1117
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
1

50 + vm2 50 + (1117 ) 2
VF =
=
= 1.668
50
50
One gear straddle, one not
K m = 1.2

Smooth load, N sf = 1.0

Fd = (1.668)(1.0)(1.2)(451) = 903 lb
(a) Strength
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
Pd = 3 ,
K s = 0.76
Kl = 1
Kt = 1
K r = 1.5
sd = 4.6 ksi , cast-iron class 30
N p = 16

Page 11 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

N g = mw N p = (3.5)(16 ) = 56
J = 0.184

(4,600)(3)(0.184)
1
Fs =

= 742 lb < 903 lb(= Fd )

3
(0.76)(1)(1.5)
with
K l = 1.4 for 106 cycles

Fs = (1.4)(742) = 1040 lb > 903 lb(= Fd )

Therefore satisfactory for 106 cycles.
(b) Continuous service
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr

D p = 5.333 in
b = 3 in
Table 15.3, scd = 50 ksi , cast-iron class 30

Table 15.4, cast-iron and cast-iron Ce = 2250

Cl = 1
Kt = 1
Cr = 1.25
Geometry factor for wear, Figure 15.7
N p = 16 , N g = 56
I = 0.077

(50,000)2 1
Fw = (5.333)(3)(0.077 )
(2250)2 (1)(1.25)

Therefore, not satisfactory for long continuous service.

757.

An 870-rpm motor drives a belt conveyor through bevel gears having 18 and 72
3
teeth; Pd = 6 , b = 1 in . Both gears are straddle-mounted. What horsepower may
4
these gears transmit for an indefinite life with high reliability if both gears are (a)
cast-iron, class 40; (b) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F; (c) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F,
flame hardened (d) AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F?

Solution:
N
18
D p = p = = 3 in
Pd
6
D p n p (3)(870)
vm =
=
= 683 fpm
12
12
Page 12 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
Both gears straddle mounted
K m = 1.0

Table 15.2, N sf = 1.0

1

50 + vm2 50 + (683) 2
=
= 1.523
50
50
Fd = (1.523)(1.0)(1.0)Ft = 1.523Ft

VF =

(a) Cast-iron, class 40

Strength
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
sd = 7 ksi , cast-iron class 40
3
b = 1 in
4
K l = 1 , indefinite life
Pd = 6
K s = 0.64
Kt = 1
K r = 1.5 , high reliability
Figure 15.5, N p = 18 , N g = 72
J = 0.204

(7000)(1.75)(0.204)
1
Fs =

= 434 lb
6
(0.64)(1)(1.5)
Wear:
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr

D p = 3 in
3
b = 1 in
4
Table 15.3, scd = 65 ksi , cast-iron class 40

Table 15.4, cast-iron and cast-iron Ce = 2250

Cl = 1 , indefinite life
Kt = 1
Cr = 1.25 , high reliability
Geometry factor for wear, Figure 15.7
N p = 18 , N g = 72
I = 0.082
Page 13 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

2
(
65,000) 1
Fw = (3)(1.75)(0.082 )
(2250)2 (1)(1.25)

= 230 lb

Fd = Fw
1.523Ft = 230
Ft = 151 lb
Fv
(151)(683) = 3 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(b) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F, BHN = 300
Strength
sd = 19,000 psi
Fs =

(19,000)(1.75)(0.204)

1
(0.64)(1)(1.5) = 1178 lb

Wear:
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr

Table 15.3, scd = 135 ksi

Table 15.4, steel and steel, Ce = 2800
2
(
135,000) 1
Fw = (3)(1.75)(0.082)
(2800)2 (1)(1.25)

= 640 lb

Fd = Fw
1.523Ft = 640
Ft = 420 lb
Fv
(420)(683) = 8.7 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(c) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F, Flame Hardened
Strength
sd = 13.5 ksi
Fs =

(13,500)(1.75)(0.204)

1
(0.64 )(1)(1.5) = 837 lb

Wear:
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr

Table 15.3, scd = 190 ksi

Table 15.4, steel and steel, Ce = 2800

Page 14 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

2
(
190,000) 1
Fw = (3)(1.75)(0.082)
(2800)2 (1)(1.25)

= 1269 lb

Fd = Fs
1.523Ft = 837
Ft = 550 lb
Fv
(550)(683) = 11.4 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(d) AISI 86200, SOQT 450 F, carburized
Strength
sd = 30 ksi (55 63 Rc)
Fs =

(30,000)(1.75)(0.204)

1
(0.64)(1)(1.5) = 1859 lb

Wear:
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr

Table 15.3, scd = 225 ksi

Table 15.4, steel and steel, Ce = 2800
2
(
225,000) 1
Fw = (3)(1.75)(0.082)
(2800)2 (1)(1.25)

= 1779 lb

Fd = Fw
1.523Ft = 1779
Ft = 1168 lb
Fv
(1168)(683) = 24.2 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
758.

A pair of straight-bevel gears transmits 15 hp at a pinion speed of 800 rpm;

Pd = 5 , N p = 20 , N p = 60 , b = 2 in . Both gears are made of AISI 4140 steel,
OQT 800 F. What reliability factor is indicated for these gears for strength and
for wear (a) for smooth loads, (b) for light shock load from the power source and
heavy shock on the driven machine?

Solution:
N
20
Dp = p =
= 4 in
Pd
5
D p n p (4)(800)
vm =
=
= 838 fpm
12
12

Page 15 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

33,000hp 33,000(15)
=
= 591 lb
vm
838
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft

Ft =

50 + vm2 50 + (838) 2
VF =
=
= 1.579
50
50
assume K m = 1.0
Fd = (1.579 )(N sf )(1.0 )(591) = 933 N sf
Strength of bevel gear
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
For AISI 4140, OQT 800 F, BHN = 429
sd = 24 ksi

assume K l = 1
Kt = 1
Pd = 5
K s = 0.675
Figure 15.5, N p = 20 , N g = 60
J = 0.205
2916
1
(24,000)(2)(0.205)
Fs =

= K
5
r
(0.675)(1)(K r )
Fs = Fd
2916
= 933 N sf
Kr
3.1254
Kr =
N sf
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr

BHN = 429
Table 15.3, scd = 190 ksi
Table 15.4, steel and steel, Ce = 2800
D p = 4 in
b = 2 in
Assume Cl = 1.0 , K t = 1.0
Fig. 15.7, N p = 20 , N g = 60
I = 0.083

Page 16 of 17

SECTION 13 BEVEL GEARS

2
(
190,000 ) 1
(
)(
)(
)
Fw = 4 2 0.083
(2800 )2 (1)(Cr )

3058
Cr2

Fd = Fw
3058
Cr2
1.810
Cr =
N sf
933 N sf =

(a) Table 15.2, smooth load

N sf = 1.0

For strength, K r =
For wear, Cr =

3.1254 3.1254
=
= 3.1254
N sf
1

1.810 1.810
=
= 1.810
N sf
1

(b) Table 15.2, light shock source, heavy shock driven

N sf = 2.0

3.1254 3.1254
=
= 1.5627
N sf
2
1.810 1.810
For wear, Cr =
=
= 1.2799
N sf
2
For strength, K r =

- end -

Page 17 of 17

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

DESIGN PROBLEMS
791.

(a) Determine a standard circular pitch and face width for a worm gear drive with
an input of 2 hp at 1200 rpm of the triple-threaded worm; the 1.58-in. ( Dw ) is
steel with a minimum BHN = 250; gear is manganese bronze (Table AT 3);
mw = 12 . Consider wear and strength only. Use a n to match the lead angle .
(See i16.13, Text.) (b) compute the efficiency.

Solution:
1200 + vmg
Ft lb
a) Fd =
1200
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
n
1200
ng = w =
= 100 rpm
mw
12
Dg = mw Dw tan
tan =

N t Pc
Dw

N P N m P (3)(12)Pc
Dg = mw Dw t c = t w c =
= 11.46 Pc

Dw
(11.45Pc )(100)
vmg =
= 300 Pc
12
33,000(2 ) 220
Ft =
=
300 Pc
Pc
1200 + 300 Pc 220 55(4 + Pc )
Fd =
=
lb

1200
Pc

Pc
Fw = Dg bK w
say b = 2 Pc ,
Dg = 11.46 Pc
Fw = Fd

Pc

22.92 Pc2 K w =

Page 1 of 19

55(4 + Pc )
Pc

Dg
11.46 Pc
=
= 0.60443Pc
mw Dw (12)(1.58)

tan =

Kw

Pc

Pc (std)

36
50

0.678
0.605

5/8

24.4
20.7

5
in
8

Fw = Fd

(11.46 Pc )(b )(K w ) = 55(4 + Pc )

Pc

55 4 +
(11.46) 5 (b)(50) = 5 8
8
8
b = 1.1365 in
5
say b = 1 in
32
To check for strength.
sYbPcn sYbPc cos
Fs =
=

For manganese bronze,

s = 30,000 psi

n = 20o
Y = 0.392
= 20.7o
5
Pc = in
8
5
b = 1 in
32

(30,000)(0.392)1 5

5
cos 20.7
32 8
= 2530 lb > Fd

Fs =

use Pc =
b =1

5
in
8

5
in
32

Page 2 of 19

max

i16.11

16
25

n
14
20

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

cos n f tan

(b) e = tan
cos n tan + f
n = 20o

= 20.7o
Dwnw (1.58)(1200 )
vr =
=
= 531 fpm > 70 fpm
12 cos
12 cos 20.7
0.32
0.32
=
= 0.0334
0.36
vr
(531)0.36
cos 20 0.0334 tan 20.7
e = tan 20.7
= 0.902 = 90.2%
cos 20 tan 20.7 + 0.0334
f =

792.

A high-efficiency worm-gear speed reducer is desired, to accept 20 hp from a

1750-rpm motor. The diameter Dw of the integral worm has been estimated to be
7
1 in. ; the next computations are to be for a steel worm with a minimum BHN =
8
250; phosphor-bronze gear (Table AT 3); mw = 11 . Probably, the worm should
not have less than 4 threads. (a) Considering wear and strength only (i16.13),
decide upon a pitch and face width that satisfies these requirements (i16.11,
Text); specifying the pressure angle, diameters, and center distance. How does
Dw used compare with that from equation (m), i16.11, Text? What addendum
and dedendum are recommended by Dudley? Compute a face length for the
worm. (b) Compute the efficiency. What do you recommend as the next trial for
a better reducer?

Solution:
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
n
1750
ng = w =
= 159.1 rpm
mw
11
PN
Pm N
P (11)(4 )
Dg = c g = c w t = c
= 14 Pc

vmg =

(14 Pc )(159.1)

= 583Pc
12
33,000(20 ) 1132
Ft =
=
583Pc
Pc

Page 3 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

1200 + vmg
Ft lb
Fd =
1200
1200 + 583Pc 1132 1132(1 + 0.4858 Pc )
=
Fd =
lb

1200
Pc

Pc
(a) Wear
Fw = Dg bK w
b = 2 Pc ,
Dg = 14 Pc
Fw = Fd

(14 Pc )(2 Pc )(K w ) = 1132(1 + 0.4858Pc )

Pc
1132(1 + 0.4858 Pc )
28 Pc2 K w =
Pc
Table AT 27, steel, min. BHN = 250, and bronze
And by trial and error ethod
NP
4(Pc )
tan = t c =
= 0.6791Pc
Dw ( )(1.875)

Kw

Pc

Pc (std)

36
50
60

1.213
1.071
1.000

1
1
1.0

40.33
40.33
34.18

Use n = 25o , = 34.18o , Pc = 1 in

Fw = Fd
(14 Pc )(b )(K w ) = 1132(1 + 0.4858Pc )
Pc
(14)(1)(b )(60) = 1132(1 + 0.4858)
1
b = 2 in
To check for strength
sYbPcn sYbPc cos
Fs =
=

For phosphor-bronze,
s = sn = 31,000 psi

Page 4 of 19

max

i16.11

16
25
35

n
14
20
25

For n = 25o , Y = 0.470

(31,000)(0.470 )(2.0)(1.0)cos 34.18 = 7674 lb > F , ok
Fs =
d

use Pc = 1.0 in
b = 2.0 in
n = 25o
7
Dw = 1 in
8
7
Dg = mw Dw tan = (11)1 tan 34.18 = 14.0 in
8
1
1 7

C = (Dw + Dg ) = 1 + 14 = 7.9375 in
2
2 8

Equation (m)
(7.9375)0.875 = 2.785 in > 1.875 in , ok
C 0.875
Dw =
in =
2 .2
2 .2
Addendum and dedendum (by Dudley)

Addendum = a = 0.3183Pcn = 0.3183Pc cos = 0.3183(1.0) cos 34.18 = 0.2633 in

Whole depth = 0.7 Pcn = 0.7 Pc cos = 0.7(1.0)cos 34.18 = 0.5791 in
Dedendum = whole depth addendum = 0.5791 in 0.2633 in = 0.3158 in
N

Face length = Pc 4.5 + g

50

N g = mw N p = (11)(4 ) = 44
44

50

Or

Dg = 14 in
a = 0.2633 in
1

Face length = 2{2(0.2633)[14 2(0.2633)]} 2 = 5.33 in

Use Face length = 5.38 in
cos n f tan

(b) e = tan
cos n tan + f
Dwnw (1.875)(1750 )
vr =
=
= 1038 fpm > 70 fpm
12 cos
12 cos 34.18

Page 5 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

f =

0.32
0.32
=
= 0.0263 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
0.36
vr
(1038)0.36

n = 25o , = 34.18o ,
cos 25 0.0263 tan 34.18
e = tan 34.18
= 0.94 = 94%
cos 25 tan 34.18 + 0.0263
recommendation for next trial
n = 30o

max = 45o
793.

The input to a worm-gear set is to be 25 hp at 600 rpm of the worm with

m w = 20 . The hardened-steel worm is to be the shell type with a diameter
approximately as given in i16.11, Text, and a minimum of 4 threads; the gear is
to be chilled phosphor bronze (Table AT 3). (a) Considering wear and strength
only determine suitable values of the pitch and face width. Let n be appropriate
to the value of . (b) Compute the efficiency. (c) Estimate the radiating area of
the case and compute the temperature rise of lubricant. Is special cooling needed?

Solution:
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
n
600
ng = w =
= 30 rpm
mw
20
PN
Pm N
P (20 )(4 ) 80 Pc
Dg = c g = c w t = c
=

80 Pc
(30)

vmg =
= 200 Pc
12
33,000(25) 4125
Ft =
=
200 Pc
Pc

1200 + vmg
Ft lb
Fd =
1200
1200 + 200 Pc 4125 687.5(6 + Pc )
Fd =
=
lb

1200
Pc

Pc

shell type: Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 in

(4)Pc
NP
4 Pc
tan = t c =
=
Dw ( )(2.4 Pc + 1.1) (2.4 Pc + 1.1)

Page 6 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

Fw = Dg bK w
b = 2 Pc ,
80 Pc
Dg =

Fw = Fd
687.5(6 + Pc )
80 Pc

(2 Pc )(K w ) =
Pc

687.5(6 + Pc )
50.93Pc2 K w =
Pc
Table AT 27, Hardened steel and chilled bronze
By trial and error method

Kw

Pc

Pc (std)

90
125

1.017
0.907

1.0
1.0

20
20

Use n = 20o , = 20o , Pc = 1 in

Fw = Fd
1687.5(6 + 1)
80
(b )(125) =
1

b = 1.512 in
5
say b = 1 in
8
cos n f tan

(b) e = tan
cos n tan + f

n = 20o
= 20o
Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 = 2.4 + 1.1 = 3.5 in
Dwnw (3.5)(600 )
vr =
=
= 585 fpm
12 cos
12 cos 20
0.32
0.32
f = 0.36 =
= 0.0323 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
vr
(585)0.36
cos 20 0.0323 tan 20
e = tan 20
= 0.9023 = 90.23%
cos 20 tan 20 + 0.0323

Page 7 of 19

max

i16.11

16
25

n
14
20

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

(c) Radiating area Amin = 43.2C 1.7 sq. in.
1
(Dw + Dg )
2
Dw = 3.5 in
80 Pc 80(1)
Dg =
=
= 25.5 in

C=

1
C = (3.5 + 25.5) = 14.5 in
2
1.7
Amin = 43.2(14.5) = 4072 sq.in.

Temperature rise = t
Qc = hcr At ft lb min
Q = (1 e )(hpi ) = (1 0.9023)(25) = 2.4425 hp(33,000 ft lb min hp ) = 80,600 ft lb min
Figure AF 21, A = 4072 sq.in. = 28.3 sq. ft.
hcr = 0.42 ft lb min sq.in. F
Q = Qc
80,600 = (0.42)(4072)(t )
t = 47 F
with t1 = 100 F
t2 = 147 F < 150 F
Therefore, no special cooling needed.
794.

A 50-hp motor turning at 1750 rpm is to deliver its power to a worm-gear

reducer, whose velocity ratio is to be 20. The shell-type worm is to be made of
high-test cast iron; since a reasonably good efficiency is desired, use at least 4
threads; manganese bronze gear (Table AT 3). (a) Decide upon Dw and n , and
determine suitable values of the pitch and face width. Compute (b) the efficiency,
(c) the temperature rise of the lubricant. Estimate the radiating area of the case. Is
special cooling needed?

Solution:
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
n
1750
ng = w =
= 87.5 rpm
mw
20
PN
Pm N
P (20 )(4 ) 80 Pc
Dg = c g = c w t = c
=

Page 8 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

80 Pc
(87.5)

vmg =
= 583Pc
12
33,000(50 ) 2830
Ft =
=
583Pc
Pc

1200 + vmg
Ft lb
(a) Fd =
1200
1200 + 583Pc 2830 1375(2.06 + Pc )
Fd =
=
lb

1200
Pc

Pc
Fw = Dg bK w

b = 2 Pc ,
80 Pc
Dg =

Fw = Fd
1375(2.06 + Pc )
80 Pc
(2 Pc )(K w ) =

Pc

1375(2.06 + Pc )
50.93Pc2 K w =
Pc
NP
tan = t c
Dw
Shell-type
Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 in
4 Pc
tan =
(2.4 Pc + 1.1)
Table AT 27, high-test cast-iron and manganese bronze
By trial and error and using Table AT 27 ( n )
Kw

Pc

Pc (std)

80
115

1.012
0.885

1.0
7/8

20
19.2

Use = 19.2o , n = 20o , Pc =

7
in
8

7
Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 = 2.4 + 1.1 = 3.2 in
8
Fw = Fd

Page 9 of 19

max

i16.11

16
25

n
14
20

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

7

1375 2.06 +
80 7
8

(b )(115) =
7
8
8
b = 1.80 in
7
say b = 1 in
8
cos n f tan

(b) e = tan
cos n tan + f
= 19.2o
n = 20o
Dwnw
vr =
12 cos
nw = 1750 rpm
Dw = 3.2 in
Dwnw (3.2 )(1750 )
vr =
=
= 1552 fpm
12 cos
12 cos19.2
0.32
0.32
f = 0.36 =
= 0.0227 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
vr
(1552)0.36
cos 20 0.0227 tan 19.2
e = tan 19.2
= 0.9273 = 92.73%
cos 20 tan 19.2 + 0.0227

(c) Q = (1 e )(hpi ) = (1 0.9273)(50 ) = 3.635 hp = 119,955 ft lb min

Qc = hcr At ft lb min
A = Amin = 43.2C1.7 sq.in.
1
C = (Dw + Dg )
2
Dw = 3.2 in
7
80
80 Pc
8
Dg =
= = 22.3 in

1
C = (3.2 + 22.35) = 12.75 in
2
1.7
A = 43.2(12.75) = 3272 sq.in.
Figure AF 1
3272
A=
= 22.7 ft 2
144
hcr = 0.43 ft lb min sq.in. F

Page 10 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

Q = Qc
119,955 = (0.43)(3272)(t )
t = 85 F
with t1 = 100 F
t2 = 185 F > 150 F
Therefore, special cooling is needed.
CHECK PROBLEMS
795.

A worm-gear speed reducer has a hardened-steel worm and a manganese-bronze

gear (Table AT 3); triple-threaded worm with Pc = 1.15278 in. , Dw = 3.136 in. ,
1
n = 25o , b = 2 in. , mw = 12 , nw = 580 rpm . The output is 16 hp. Compute (a)
4
the dynamic load, (b) the endurance strength of the teeth and the indicated
service factor on strength, (c) the limiting wear load (is it good for indefinitely
continuous service?), (d) the efficiency and input hp, (e) the temperature rise of
the oil (estimate case area as Amin , i16.6). (f) Determine the tangential and radial
components of the tooth load. (g) Is this drive self-locking?

Solution:
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
nw 580
ng =
=
= 48.3 rpm
mw 20
PN
P m N (1.15278)(12 )(3)
Dg = c g = c w t =
= 13.21 in

vmg =

(13.21)(48.3)
12

= 167 fpm

1200 + vmg
Ft
(a) Fd =
1200
1200 + 167
Fd =
Ft
1200
33,000(16 )
Ft =
= 3162 lb
167
1200 + 167
Fd =
(3162 ) = 3602 lb
1200

Page 11 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

(b) Fs =

sYbPcn

sYbPc cos

N P (3)(1.15278)
tan = t c =
Dw
(3.136 )

= 19.34o
For manganese-bronze, s = sn = 30,000 psi
For n = 25o , Y = 0.470

(30,000)(0.470) 2 1 (1.15278)cos19.34
Fs =

= 10,984 lb

Service factor
F 10,984
= 3.05
N sf = s =
3602
Fd
(c) Fw = Dg bK w
Dg = 13.21 in
b = 2.25 in
Table AT 27, hardened-steel worn and manganese bronze gear
n = 25o

K w = 100
Fw = (13.21)(2.25)(100) = 2972 lb < Fd (= 3602 lb )
Therefore, not good for indefinitely continuous service
cos n f tan

(d) e = tan
cos n tan + f
Dwnw (1.15278)(580 )
vr =
=
= 185.5 fpm
12 cos
12 cos19.34
0.32
0.32
f = 0.36 =
= 0.0488 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
vr
(185.5)0.36
cos 25 0.0488 tan 19.34
e = tan 19.34
= 0.85 = 85%
cos 25 tan 19.34 + 0.0488
hp 16 hp
hpi = o =
= 18.82 hp
e
0.85

(e) Temperature rise, t

Q = (1 e )(hpi ) = (1 0.85)(18.82)(33,000 ) = 93,159 ft lb min
Qc = hcr At ft lb min
A = Amin = 43.2C1.7 sq.in.

Page 12 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

1
(Dw + Dg )
2
1
C = (1.15278 + 13.21) = 7.18 in
2
1.7
A = 43.2(7.18) = 1233 sq.in.
Figure AF 1
1233
A=
= 8.6 ft 2
144
hcr = 0.47 ft lb min sq.in. F
C=

Q = Qc
93,159 = (0.47 )(1233)(t )
t = 161 F
(f) Tangential components on the worm
cos n sin + f cos
cos 25 sin 19.34 + 0.0488 cos19.34
= 3162
Wt = Ft
= 1305 lb
cos 25 cos19.34 0.0488 sin 19.34
cos n cos f sin
on the gear
Ft = 3162 lb
Ft sin n
3162 sin 25
S=
=
= 1593 lb
cos n cos f sin cos 25 cos19.34 0.0488 sin 19.34
(g) = 19.34o > 5o , not self-locking
797.

A worm-gear speed reducer has a hardened-steel worm and a phosphor-bronze

gear. The lead angle of the 5-threaded worm = 28o57' , Pc = 1.2812 in. ,
1
n = 25o , b = 2 in. , mw = 8 ; worm speed = 1750 rpm. The gear case is 35 3/8
2
in. high, 22 in. wide, 14 in. deep. Compute (a) the efficiency, (b) the limiting
wear load, the strength load, and the corresponding safe input and output
horsepowers. (c) The manufacturer rates this reducer at 53-hp input. Is this rating
conservative or risky? (d) What is the calculated temperature rise of the oil with
no special cooling? (e) The manufacturer specifies that for continuous service
power should not exceed 36.5 hp if there is to be no artificial cooling and if t is
to be less than 90 F. Make calculations and decide whether the vendor is on the
safe side. (Data courtesy of the Cleveland Worm Gear Co.)

Solution:

Page 13 of 19

SECTION 14 WORM GEARS

cos n f tan

(a) e = tan
cos n tan + f
= 28o57' = 28.95o