The link shown, made of AISI C1045 steel, as rolled, is subjected to a tensile load
of 8000 lb. Let h = 1.5b . If the load is repeated but not reversed, determine the
dimensions of the section with the design based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield
strength. (c) If this link, which is 15 in. long., must not elongate more than 0.005
in., what should be the dimensions of the cross section?
Problems 1 3.
Solution:
For AISI C1045 steel, as rolled (Table AT 7)
su = 96 ksi
s y = 59 ksi
E = 30 106 psi
F
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2
sd =
h = 1.5b =
15
in
16
(c) Elongation = =
FL
AE
where,
= 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb
E = 30106 psi
L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,
FL
=
AE
(8000)(15)
0.005 =
(1.5b 2 )(30 106 )
3
b = 0.730 in say in .
4
1
h = 1.5b = 1 in
8
2.
The same as 1 except that the material is malleable iron, ASTM A4752, grade 35
018.
Solution:
For malleable iron, ASTM A4752, grade 35 018(Table AT 6)
su = 55 ksi
s y = 36.5 ksi
E = 2510 6 psi
(c) Elongation = =
FL
AE
where,
= 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb
E = 2510 6 psi
L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,
4
FL
AE
0.005 =
(8000)(15)
(1.5b )(25 10 )
2
b = 0.8 in say
h = 1.5b = 1
3.
7
in .
8
5
in
16
The same as 1 except that the material is gray iron, ASTM 30.
Solution:
For ASTM 30 (Table AT 6)
su = 30 ksi , no s y
E = 14.5 106 psi
Note: since there is no s y for brittle materials. Solve only for (a) and (c)
F
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2
sd =
(8000)(15)
(1.5b )(14.5 10 )
2
b = 1.050 in say 1
h = 1.5b = 1
4.
1
in .
16
19
in
32
A piston rod, made of AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 2), is subjected to a
repeated, reversed load. The rod is for a 20in. air compressor, where the
maximum pressure is 125 psig. Compute the diameter of the rod using a design
factor based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield strength.
Solution:
From Fig. AF 2 for AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F
su = 152.5 ksi
s y = 132.5 ksi
F = force =
4
From Table 1.1, page 20
Nu = 8
Ny = 4
d2 =
(4)(39.27 )
132.5
5.
Solution:
su = 65 ksi
Nu = 8
F = 1500 kips
A=
(D
4
2
o
Di2 =
(4D
4
2
i
Di2 =
3Di2
4
3Di2 N u F (8)(1500 )
A=
=
=
4
su
65
7
Di = 8.85 in say 8 in
8
3
7
Do = 2 Di = 2 8 = 17 in
4
8
6.
Solution:
From Table AT 7 for 4130, WQT 1100 F
su = 127 ksi
s y = 114 ksi
From Table 1.1 page 20, for dead load
N u = 3 ~ 4 , say 4
N y = 1.5 ~ 2 , say 2
Area, A =
(D
4
2
o
Di2 =
(4D
4
2
i
Di2 =
3Di2
4
F = 25 tons = 50 kips
(a) Based on yield strength
3Di2 N y F (2 )(50)
A=
=
=
4
sy
114
Di = 0.61 in say
7.
Solution:
(a) =
FL
FL
or A =
AE
E
where,
F = 7000 lb
L = 55 in
= 0.030 in
E = 30 10 6 psi
A=
d2 =
(7000)(55)
(0.030)(30 106 )
3
in
4
(b) For gradually applied and repeated (not reversed) load
Ny = 3
d = 0.74 in say
sy =
N yF
A
(0.75)2
4
s y 48 ksi
A centrifuge has a small bucket, weighing 0.332 lb. with contents, suspended on a
manganese bronze pin (B138A, hard) at the end of a horizontal arm. If the pin
is in double shear under the action of the centrifugal force, determine the diameter
8
3
in and
4
1
h = 1 in . (a) What force will cause breakage? (b) For a design factor of 4 based
2
on the ultimate strength, what is the maximum allowable load? (c) If N = 2.5
based on the yield strength, what is the allowable load?
Problem 9.
9
Solution:
For AISI C1020 annealed steel, from Table AT 7
su = 57 ksi
s y = 42 ksi
(a) F = su A
3 1
A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2
4 2
F = (57 )(1.125) = 64 kips
s A
(b) F = u
Nu
Nu = 4
3 1
A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2
4 2
(57 )(1.125) = 16 kips
F=
4
(c) F =
sy A
Ny
N y = 2. 5
3 1
A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2
4 2
(42 )(1.125) = 18.9 kips
F=
2
10.
A in.bolt, made of coldfinished B1113, has an effective stress area of 0.334 sq.
in. and an effective grip length of 5 in. The bolt is to be loaded by tightening until
the tensile stress is 80 % of the yield strength, as determined by measuring the
total elongation. What should be the total elongation?
Solution:
sL
=
E
from Table AT 7 for coldfinished B1113
s y = 72 ksi
then, s = 0.80 s y = 0.8(72 ) = 57.6 ksi
E = 30 106 psi = 30,000 ksi
sL (57.6)(5)
=
=
= 0.0096 in
E
30,000
10
A 4lb. weight is attached by a 3/8in. bolt to a rotating arm 14in. from the center
of rotation. The axis of the bolts is normal to the plane in which the centrifugal
force acts and the bolt is in double shear. At what speed will the bolt shear in two
if it is made of AISI B1113, cold finish?
Solution:
From Table AT 7, sus = 62 ksi = 62,000 psi
2
1 3
A = 2 ( ) = 0.2209 in 2
4 8
W
F = 2 r = sus A
g
4
2 (14) = (62,000)(0.2209)
32.2
= 88.74 rad sec
2 n
=
= 88.74
60
n = 847 rpm
12.
How many in. holes could be punched in one stroke in annealed steel plate of
AISI C1040, 3/16in. thick, by a force of 60 tons?
Solution:
For AISI C1040, from Figure AF 1
su = 80 ksi
sus = 0.75su = 0.75(80) ksi = 60 ksi
3 3
A = d t = = 0.4418 in2
4 16
13.
F
120
=
= 5 holes
Asus (0.4415)(60 )
What is the length of a bearing for a 4in. shaft if the load on the bearing is 6400
lb. and the allowable bearing pressure is 200 psi of the projected area?
Solution:
pDL = W
where
p = 200 psi
D = 4 in
11
Problem 14.
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled, Table AT 7
su = 65 ksi
s y = 49 ksi
Design factors for gradually applied and reversed load
Nu = 8
Ny = 4
th 3
, moment of inertial
12
but h = 3t
h4
I=
36
I=
12
Mc Fac
=
I
I
h
2
F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips
(2)(13) h
65
2
s=
=
4
8
h
36
h = 3.86 in
h 3.86
t= =
= 1.29 in
3
3
say
1
h = 4.5 in = 4 in
2
1
t = 1.5 in = 1 in
2
c=
(b) s =
Mc Fbc
=
I
I
h
2
F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips
(2)(4) h
65
2
s=
=
4
8
h
36
h = 2.61 in
h 2.61
t= =
= 0.87 in
3
3
say
h = 3 in
t = 1 in
c=
(c)
13
3 h 4. 5 3
=
4
13 4
h = 2.33 in
1 t 1.5 1
=
4
13 4
t = 0.78 in
say
5
h = 2.625 in or h = 2 in
8
15.
A simple beam 54 in. long with a load of 4 kips at the center is made of cast steel,
SAE 080. The cross section is rectangular (let h 3b ). (a) Determine the
dimensions for N = 3 based on the yield strength. (b) Compute the maximum
deflection for these dimensions. (c) What size may be used if the maximum
deflection is not to exceed 0.03 in.?
Solution:
For cast steel, SAE 080 (Table AT 6)
s y = 40 ksi
E = 30 106 psi
14
From Table AT 2
FL (4)(54 )
Max. M =
=
= 54 kips in
4
4
bh 3
I=
12
but h = 3b
h4
I=
36
(a) s =
c=
sy
Ny
Mc
I
h
2
(54) h
40
2
=
3
h4
36
h = 4.18 in
h 4.18
b= =
= 1.39 in
3
3
h 4. 5
1
1
= 1.5 in = 1 in
say h = 4 in , b = =
2
3
3
2
FL3
(b) =
=
48 EI
(c) =
(4000)(54)3
= 0.0384 in
3
6 (1.5 )(4.5 )
48(30 10 )
12
FL3
h4
48E
36
3
(
4000)(54 ) (36 )
0.03 =
1
h 5.25
3
say h = 5.25 in = 5 in , b = =
= 1.75 in = 1 in
4
3
3
4
15
16.
The same as 15, except that the beam is to have a circular cross section.
Solution:
s
Mc
(a) s = y =
Ny
I
I=
d4
64
d
c=
2
d
M
32 M
2
s= 4 =
d d3
64
40 32(54 )
=
3
d3
d = 3.46 in
1
say d = 3 in
2
(b) =
I=
FL3
48 EI
d4
64
3
64 FL3
64(4000 )(54)
=
=
= 0.0594 in
48 E ( d 4 ) 48(30 106 )( )(3.5)4
(c) =
64 FL3
48 E ( d 4 )
64(4000)(54 )
0.03 =
48(30 106 )( )d 4
d = 4.15 in
1
say d = 4 in
4
3
17.
A simple beam, 48 in. long, with a static load of 6000 lb. at the center, is made of
C1020 structural steel. (a) Basing your calculations on the ultimate strength,
determine the dimensions of the rectangular cross section for h = 2b . (b)
Determine the dimensions based on yield strength. (c) Determine the dimensions
using the principle of limit design.
16
Solution:
17
b=
h 3.76
=
= 1.88 in
2
2
3
h 3.75
7
say h = 3.75 in = 3 in , b = =
= 1.875 in = 1 in
4
2
2
8
18.
The bar shown is subjected to two vertical loads, F1 and F2 , of 3000 lb. each, that
are L = 10 in apart and 3 in. ( a , d ) from the ends of the bar. The design factor is 4
based on the ultimate strength; h = 3b . Determine the dimensions h and b if the
bar is made of (a) gray cast iron, SAE 111; (b) malleable cast iron, ASTM A4752, grade 35 018; (c) AISI C1040, as rolled (Fig. AF 1). Sketch the shear and
moment diagrams approximately to scale.
18
Problems18, 19.
Solution:
F1 = F2 = R1 = R2 = 3000 lb
Moment Diagram
I=
=
12
36
I=
Solution:
[ M
=0
R1 = R2 = 1875 lb
20
Moment Diagram
su 18M
= 3
N
h
55 18(5.625)
=
4
h3
h = 1.95 in
h 1.95
b= =
= 0.65 in
3
3
7
5
say h = 1 in , b = in
8
8
s=
21
20.
The bar shown, supported at A and B , is subjected to a static load F of 2500 lb.
at = 0 . Let d = 3 in , L = 10 in and h = 3b . Determine the dimensions of the
section if the bar is made of (a) gray iron, SAE 110; (b) malleable cast iron,
ASTM A4752, grade 32 510; (c) AISI C1035 steel, as rolled. (d) For economic
reasons, the pins at A, B, and C are to be the same size. What should be their
diameter if the material is AISI C1035, as rolled, and the mounting is such that
each is in double shear? Use the basic dimensions from (c) as needed. (e) What
sectional dimensions would be used for the C1035 steel if the principle of limit
design governs in (c)?
22
[ M
[ M
=0
=0
3RB = 13(2500 )
RB = 10,833 lb
3RA = 10(2500)
RA = 8333 lb
Shear Diagram
Moment Diagram
h
M
Mc
18M
2
s=
= 4 = 3
I
h
h
36
(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 110
su = 20 ksi , Table AT 6
N = 5 ~ 6 , say 6 for cast iron, dead load
s 18M
s= u = 3
N
h
20 18(25)
=
6
h3
23
A = 2 D 2 = D 2
4
2
64 10.833
=
ss =
2
4
D
2
D = 0.657 in
24
say D =
b=
h
3
h 2
h
3
M = 25 = (55)
4
h = 1.76 in
h
b = = 0.59 in
3
7
5
say h = 1.875 in = 1 in , b = in
8
8
The same as 20, except that = 30o . Pin B takes all the horizontal thrust.
21.
Solution:
FV = F cos
[ M
[ M
=0
=0
3RB = 13FV
Shear Diagram
25
Moment Diagram
26
RB = 9465 lb
s
R
s s = su = B
N
A
A = 2 D 2 = D 2
4
2
64 9.465
ss =
=
4 D2
2
D = 0.614 in
5
say D = in
8
(e) Limit Design
bh 2
M = sy
4
For AISI C1035 steel, s y = 55 ksi
b=
h
3
h 2
h
3
M = 21.65 = (55)
4
h = 1.68 in
h
b = = 0.56 in
3
7
5
say h = 1.875 in = 1 in , b = in
8
8
27
22.
A castiron beam, ASTM 50, as shown, is 30 in. long and supports two gradually
applied, repeated loads (in phase), one of 2000 lb. at e = 10 in from the free end,
and one of 1000 lb at the free end. (a) Determine the dimensions of the cross
section if b = c 3a . (b) The same as (a) except that the top of the tee is below.
Problem 22.
Solution:
For cast iron, ASTM 50
su = 50 ksi , suc = 164 ksi
For gradually applied, repeated load
N = 7 ~ 8 , say 8
M = F1d + F2 (d + e )
where:
F1 = 2000 lb
F2 = 1000 lb
d = 30 10 = 20 in
d + e = 30 in
M = (2000 )(20 ) + (1000)(30 ) = 70,000 lb in = 70 kips in
Mc
I
Solving for I , moment of inertia
s=
y=
3a
2
28
I=
(3a )(a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) + (a )(3a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) = 17a 4
12
12
(a)
3a
2
5a
cc =
2
Based on tension
s
Mct
st = u =
N
I
(70) 3a
50
2
=
8
17a 4
2
a = 1.255 in
Based on compression
s
Mcc
sc = uc =
N
I
(70) 5a
164
2
=
8
17 a 4
2
a = 1.001 in
Therefore a = 1.255 in
1
Or say a = 1 in
4
And b = c = 3a = 3(1.25) = 3.75 in
ct =
29
5a
2
3a
cc =
2
17a 4
I=
2
M = 70 kips in
ct =
Based on tension
s
Mct
st = u =
N
I
(70) 5a
50
2
=
8
17 a 4
2
a = 1.488 in
Based on compression
s
Mcc
sc = uc =
N
I
(70) 3a
164
2
=
8
17a 4
2
a = 0.845 in
Therefore a = 1.488 in
1
Or say a = 1 in
2
1
And b = c = 3a = 4 in
2
CHECK PROBLEMS
30
Problems 23 25.
Solution:
[ M
[ F
=0
=0
5 F1 + 20(2 F1 ) = 25RB
RB = 1.8 F1
F1 + 2 F1 = RA + RB
RA = 3F1 1.8F1 = 1.2 F1
Shear Diagram
Moment Diagram
31
(a) s y =
sy
Mc
N
I
48 (9 F1 )(1.5)
s=
=
3
2.9
F1 = 3.44 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 6.88 kips
(b) s =
(c)
L
25
=
= 9.96 < 15 (page 34)
b 2.509
y max
Fb a( L + b ) 2
=
, a > b
3EIL
3
or
3
y max
Fa b(L + a ) 2
=
, b > a
3EIL
3
32
F a b(L + a1 ) 2
y max1 = 1 1 1
, b1 > a1
3EIL
3
where E = 30,000 ksi
a1 = 5 in
b1 = 20 in
L = 25 in
I = 2.9 in 4
3
y max1
F1 (5)
20(25 + 5) 2
=
= 0.0022 F1
3(30,000 )(2.9 )(25)
3
y max caused by F2
3
F b a (L + b2 ) 2
y max 2 = 2 2 2
, a2 > b2
3EIL
3
where b2 = 5 in
a2 = 20 in
3
y max 2
2 F1 (5)
20(25 + 5) 2
=
= 0.0043F1
3(30,000 )(2.9 )(25)
3
Total deflection =
= ymax1 + ymax 2 = 0.022 F1 + 0.0043F1 = 0.0065 F1
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (a)
a = 0.0065(10.31) = 0.067 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b)
b = 0.0065(3.44) = 0.022 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c)
c = 0.0065(4.30 ) = 0.028 in
24.
The same as 23, except that the material is aluminum alloy, 2024T4, heat treated.
Solution:
For aluminum alloy, 2024T4, heat treated
s y = 47 ksi
(a) s y =
Mc
I
33
s y = 47 =
(9 F1 )(1.5)
2. 9
F1 = 10.10 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 20.20 kips
sy
Mc
N
I
47 (9 F1 )(1.5)
s=
=
3
2.9
F1 = 3.36 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 6.72 kips
(b) s =
(c)
L
25
=
= 9.96 < 15 (page 34)
b 2.509
A light Ibeam is 80 in. long, simply supported, and carries a static load at the
midpoint. The cross section has a depth of d = 4 in , a flange width of b = 2.66 in ,
and I x = 6.0 in 4 (see figure). (a) What load will the beam support if it is made of
C1020, asrolled steel, and flange buckling (i1.24) is considered? (b) Consider the
stress owing to the weight of the beam, which is 7.7 lb/ft, and decide whether or
not the safe load should be less.
34
Solution:
(a) For C1020, as rolled, su = 65 ksi
Consider flange buckling
L
80
=
= 30
b 2.66
L
since 15 < < 40
b
22.5
22.5
sc =
=
= 15 ksi
2
2
(
30 )
L
1 + 1800 1 +
1800
b
Mc
s=
I
d 4
c = = = 2 in
2 2
From Table AT 2
FL F (80)
M=
=
= 20 F
4
4
Mc
s = sc =
I
(
20 F )(2)
15 =
6
F = 2.25 kips , safe load
(b) Considering stress owing to the weight of the beam
wL2
(Table AT 2)
8
where w = 7.7 lb ft
addl M =
35
8
12 8
M = 20 F + 0.513 = total moment
Mc
s = sc =
I
(20 F + 0.513)(2 )
15 =
6
F = 2.224 kips
Therefore, the safe load should be less.
2
addl M =
26.
What is the stress in a bandsaw blade due to being bent around a 13 in. pulley?
The blade thickness is 0.0265 in. (Additional stresses arise from the initial tension
and forces of sawing.)
Solution:
t
= 0.0265 = 0.01325 in
2
r = 13.75 + 0.01325 = 13.76325 in
Using Eq. (1.4) page 11 (Text)
Ec
s=
r
where E = 30 106 psi
c=
13.76325
27.
A cantilever beam of rectangular cross section is tapered so that the depth varies
uniformly from 4 in. at the fixed end to 1 in. at the free end. The width is 2 in. and
the length 30 in. What safe load, acting repeated with minor shock, may be
applied to the free end? The material is AISI C1020, as rolled.
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi (Table AT 7)
Designing based on ultimate strength,
N = 6 , for repeated, minor shock load
36
4 1 h 1
=
30
x
h = 0.10 x + 1
wh 3
I=
12
h
c=
2
M = Fx
(Fx ) h
Mc
3Fx
2 = 6 Fx = 3Fx =
=
2
2
3
I
2h
h
wh
(0.10 x + 1)2
12
Differentiating with respect to x then equate to zero to solve for x giving maximum
stress.
(0.10 x + 1)2 (1) 2( x )(0.10 x + 1)(0.10 )
ds
= 3F
=0
dx
(0.10 x + 1)4
0.10 x + 1 2(0.10 x ) = 0
x = 10 in
h = 0.10(10 ) + 1 = 2 in
s
3Fx
s= u = 2
N
h
3F (10 )
10.8 =
(2)2
F = 1.44 kips
s=
TORSIONAL STRESSES
DESIGN PROBLEMS
37
Solution:
For C1045 as rolled,
s y = 59 ksi
sus = 72 ksi
Designing based on ultimate strength
s
s = us , N = 6 (Table 1.1)
N
72
s=
= 12 ksi
6
33,000hp 33,000(15)
Torque, T =
=
= 45 ft lb = 540 in lb = 0.540 in kips
2 n
2 (1750)
For diameter,
16T
s=
d3
16(0.540)
12 =
d3
d = 0.612 in
5
say d = in
8
29.
A shaft in torsion only is to transmit 2500 hp at 570 rpm with medium shocks. Its
material is AISI 1137 steel, annealed. (a) What should be the diameter of a solid
shaft? (b) If the shaft is hollow, Do = 2 Di , what size is required? (c) What is the
weight per foot of length of each of these shafts? Which is the lighter? By what
percentage? (d) Which shaft is the more rigid? Compute the torsional deflection
of each for a length of 10 ft.
Solution:
33,000hp 33,000(2500 )
T=
=
= 23,036 ft lb = 276 in kips
2 n
2 (570 )
For AISI 1137, annealed
s y = 50 ksi (Table AT 8)
s ys = 0.6s y = 30 ksi
38
Design stress
s
30
= 10 ksi
s = ys =
N
3
(a) Let D = shaft diameter
Tc
J
D4
J=
32
D
c=
2
16T
s=
D3
16(276)
10 =
D3
D = 5.20 in
1
say D = 5 in
4
s=
(b) J =
32
Do 2 Di
c=
=
= Di
2
2
TDi
32T
s=
=
4
15 Di 15 Di3
32
32(276 )
10 =
15 Di3
Di = 2.66 in
32
] = 15 D
4
i
32
Do = 2 Di = 5.32 in
say
5
Di = 2 in
8
1
Do = 5 in
4
(c) Density, = 0.284 lb in 3 (Table AT 7)
39
2
w = 12 D 2 = 3D 2 = 3 (0.284)(5.25) = 73.8 lb ft
4
D4
32
(276)(120 )
180
o
= 0.039 rad = (0.039)
= 2.2
4
3
(5.25) (11.5 10 )
32
(Do4 Di4 )
32
(276 )(120)
180
o
= 0.041 rad = (0.041)
= 2.4
4
4
3
[(5.25) (2.625) ](11.5 10 )
32
Therefore, solid shaft is more rigid, 2.2o < 2.4o
30.
The same as 29, except that the material is AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F.
Solution:
33,000hp 33,000(2500 )
T=
=
= 23,036 ft lb = 276 in kips
2 n
2 (570 )
For AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F
s y = 130 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(130 ) = 78 ksi
Design stress
s
78
= 26 ksi
s = ys =
N
3
(a) Let D = shaft diameter
Tc
J
D4
J=
32
D
c=
2
16T
s=
D3
16(276)
26 =
D3
D = 3.78 in
3
say D = 3 in
4
s=
(b) J =
32
Do 2 Di
c=
=
= Di
2
2
TDi
32T
s=
=
4
15 Di 15 Di3
32
32(276)
26 =
15 Di3
Di = 1.93 in
32
] = 15 D
4
i
32
Do = 2 Di = 3.86 in
say
Di = 2 in
Do = 4 in
(c) Density, = 0.284 lb in 3 (Table AT 7)
41
2
w = 12 D 2 = 3D 2 = 3 (0.284)(3.75) = 37.6 lb ft
4
D4
32
(276)(120)
180
o
=
= 0.148 rad = (0.148)
= 8.48
4
3
(3.75) (11.5 10 )
32
(Do4 Di4 )
32
(276)(120 )
180
o
= 0.122 rad = (0.122 )
= 6.99
4
4
3
[(4) (2 ) ](11.5 10 )
32
Therefore, hollow shaft is more rigid, 6.99o < 8.48o .
31.
A steel shaft is transmitting 40 hp at 500 rpm with minor shock. (a) What should
be its diameter if the deflection is not to exceed 1o in 20 D ? (b) If deflection is
primary what kind of steel would be satisfactory?
Solution:
33,000hp 33,000(40 )
(a) T =
=
= 420 ft lb = 5.04 in kips
2 n
2 (500 )
G = 11.5 103 ksi
L = 20 D
42
= 1o =
=
180
TL
JG
rad
(5.04)(20 D )
D4
11.5 103
32
D = 1.72 in
3
say D = 1 in
4
180
(b) s =
16T 16(5.04 )
=
= 4.8 ksi
D 3 (1.75)3
14.4
= 24 ksi
0.6 0.6
Use C1117 normalized steel s y = 35 ksi
sy =
32.
A square shaft of coldfinish AISI 1118 transmits a torsional moment of 1200 inlb. For medium shock, what should be its size?
Solution:
For AISI 1118 coldfinish
s y = 75 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 45 ksi
N = 3 for medium shock
s
T
s = ys =
N Z
where, h = b
2b 2 h 2b 3
Z =
=
(Table AT 1)
9
9
T = 1200 in lb = 1.2 in kips
45 1.2(9)
s=
=
3
2b 3
b = h = 0.71 in
3
say b = h = in
4
43
CHECK PROBLEMS
33.
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
sus = 49 ksi
F = sus ( Dt )
15
where D = in
16
1
t = in
2
15 1
F = 49( ) = 72.2 kips
16 2
T = Fr
3
where r = in
4
3
T = (72.2 ) = 54.2 in kips
4
16T
d3
where d = 3.5 in
16(54.2)
s=
= 6.44 ksi
3
(3.5)
(a) s =
sus
64
=
= 9.94 , the design is safe ( N 10 )
s 6.44
Solution:
44
(a) s =
sus
64
=
= 4.8 , the design is not safe ( N < 10 )
s 13.3
A hollow annealed Monel propeller shaft has an external diameter of 13 in. and
an internal diameter of 6 in.; it transmits 10,000 hp at 200 rpm. (a) Compute the
torsional stress in the shaft (stress from bending and propeller thrust are not
considered). (b) Compute the factor of safety. Does it look risky?
35.
Solution:
For Monel shaft,
s us = 98 ksi (Table AT 3)
N = 3 ~ 4 , for dead load, based on ultimate strength
Tc
J
Do4 Di4 (13.5)4 (6.5)4
J=
=
= 3086 in 4
32
32
Do 13.5
c=
=
= 6.75 in
2
2
33,000hp 33,000(10,000)
T=
=
= 262,606 ft lb = 3152 in kips
2 n
2 (200)
(3152)(6.75) = 6.9 ksi
s=
3086
(b) Factor of safety,
(a) s =
N=
sus 98
=
= 14.2 , not risky
s 6. 9
45
STRESS ANALYSIS
DESIGN PROBLEMS
36.
A hook is attached to a plate as shown and supports a static load of 12,000 lb. The
material is to be AISI C1020, as rolled. (a) Set up strength equations for
dimensions d , D , h , and t . Assume that the bending in the plate is negligible.
(b) Determine the minimum permissible value of these dimensions. In estimating
the strength of the nut, let D1 = 1.2d . (c) Choose standard fractional dimensions
which you think would be satisfactory.
Problems 36 38.
Solution:
s = axial stress
s s = shear stress
(a)
s=
F
4F
=
2
1
d2 d
4
Equation (1) d =
4F
s
46
s=
F
1
D 2 D12
4
Equation (2) D =
ss =
4F
4F
4F
=
=
2
2
2
2
2
D D1
D 1.44d 2
D (1.2d )
] (
4F
+ 1.44d 2
s
F
F
=
D1h 1.2 dh
Equation (3) h =
ss =
F
1.2 ds s
F
Dt
Equation (4) t =
F
Dss
F = 12,000 lb = 12 kips
From Equation (1)
4F
4(12 )
d=
=
= 0.98 in
s
(16 )
From Equation (2)
4F
4(12 )
2
D=
+ 1.44d 2 =
+ 1.44(0.98) = 1.53 in
s
(16)
From Equation (3)
F
12
h=
=
= 0.27 in
1.2 ds s 1.2 (0.98)(12 )
From Equation (4)
F
12
t=
=
= 0.21 in
Dss (1.53)(12 )
47
The same as 36, except that a shock load of 4000 lb. is repeatedly applied.
Solution:
(a) Same as 36.
(b) N = 10 ~ 15 for shock load, based on ultimate strength
say N = 15 , others the same.
s
65
s= u =
= 4 ksi
N 15
s
49
s s = us =
= 3 ksi
N 15
F = 4000 lb = 4 kips
From Equation (1)
4F
4(4 )
d=
=
= 1.13 in
s
(4)
From Equation (2)
4F
4(4)
2
D=
+ 1.44d 2 =
+ 1.44(1.13) = 1.76 in
s
(4 )
From Equation (3)
F
4
h=
=
= 0.31 in
1.2 ds s 1.2 (1.13)(3)
From Equation (4)
F
4
t=
=
= 0.24 in
Dss (1.76)(3)
48
38.
The connection between the plate and hook, as shown, is to support a load F .
Determine the value of dimensions D , h , and t in terms of d if the connection
is to be as strong as the rod of diameter d . Assume that D1 = 1.2d , sus = 0.75su ,
and that bending in the plate is negligible.
Solution:
s=
1
d2
4
1
F = d 2s
4
1
s
(1) F = d 2 u
4
N
49
s=
1
1
D 2 D12
D 2 1.44d 2
4
4
1
F = (D 2 1.44d 2 )s
4
1
s
(2) F = D 2 1.44d 2 u
4
N
F
F
ss =
=
D1h 1.2 dh
F = 1.2 dhss
s
0.75su
F = 1.2 dh us = 1.2 dh
N
N
5s
(3) F = 0.9 dh u
N
F
ss =
Dt
F = Dtss
s
0.75su
F = Dt us = Dt
N
N
s
(4) F = 0.75 Dt u
N
Equate (2) and (1)
1
s 1
s
F = D 2 1.44d 2 u = d 2 u
4
N 4
N
D 2 = 2.44d 2
D = 1.562d
Equate (3) and (1)
s 1
s
F = 0.9 dh u = d 2 u
N 4
N
d
h=
= 0.278d
4(0.9)
Equate (4) and (1)
s 1
s
F = 0.75 Dt u = d 2 u
N 4
N
s 1
s
F = 0.75 (1.562d )(t ) u = d 2 u
N 4
N
d
t=
= 0.214d
4(0.75)(1.562 )
50
39.
(a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various
methods by which it might fail. Neglect bending effects. (b) Design this
connection for a load of 2500 lb. Both plates and rivets are of AISI C1020, as
rolled. The load is repeated and reversed with mild shock. Make the connection
equally strong on the basis of yield strengths in tension, shear, and compression.
Problems 39, 40
Solution:
(a) s s =
F
1
5 D 2
4
4F
5 s s
Equation (1) D =
s=
F
t (b 2 D )
Equation (2) b =
s=
F
+ 2D
ts
F
5 Dt
Equation (3) t =
F
5Ds
51
D=
4F
5 s s
where
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
D=
4F
4(2.5)
5
in
=
= 0.30 in say
5 s s
5 (7 )
16
The same as 39, except that the material is 2024T4, aluminum alloy.
Solution:
(a) Same as 39.
(b) ) For 2024T4, aluminum alloy
s y = 47 ksi (Table AT 3)
s ys = 0.55s y = 25 ksi
N = 4 for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength
47
= 12 ksi
s=
4
25
ss =
= 6 ksi
4
From Equation (1)
4F
D=
5 s s
where
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
D=
4F
4(2.5)
3
=
= 0.33 in say in
5 s s
5 (6)
8
t=
F
2.5
1
=
= 0.11 in say in
8
5Ds
3
5 (12)
8
(a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various
methods by which it might fail. (b) Design this connection for a load of 8000 lb.
Use AISI C1015, as rolled, for the rivets, and AISI C1020, as rolled, for the
plates. Let the load be repeatedly applied with minor shock in one direction and
make the connection equally strong on the basis of ultimate strengths in tension,
shear, and compression.
Problem 41.
Solution:
(a)
F
sP =
t (b D )
3
F
sP = 4
t (b 2 D )
or
s sR =
F
1
4 D 2 (2 )
4
53
Equation (1)
Equation (2)
sR =
F
4 Dt
Equation (3)
54
42.
Give the strength equations for the connection shown, including that for the shear
of the plate by the cotter.
Problems 42 44.
Solution:
Axial Stresses
s=
F
1
D12
4
s=
55
4F
D12
F
(L D2 )e
Equation (1)
Equation (2)
s=
s=
s=
F
D2 e
Equation (3)
F
1
a 2 D22
4
F
1
D22 D2e
4
4F
Equation (4)
a 2 D22
4F
Equation (5)
D 4 D2e
2
2
Shear Stresses
ss =
F
2eb
ss =
F
2(L D2 + e )t
56
Equation (6)
Equation (7)
43.
ss =
F
at
Equation (8)
ss =
F
D1m
Equation (9)
ss =
F
2 D2 h
Equation (10)
A steel rod, asrolled AISI C1035, is fastened to a 7/8in., asrolled C1020 plate
by means of a cotter that is made of asrolled C1020, in the manner shown. (a)
Determine all dimensions of this joint if it is to withstand a reversed shock load
F = 10 kips , basing the design on yield strengths. (b) If all fits are freerunning
fits, decide upon tolerances and allowances.
2 L 2 + (0.875)
8
L = 2.80 in
say L = 3 in
From Equation (6)
s sy
F
ss = 2 =
N
2eb
28
10
=
7
5
2 b
8
b = 2 in
From Equation (10)
s sy
F
ss = 2 =
N
2 D2 h
28
10
=
7 2(2 )h
5
h = 0.625 in = in
8
Summary of Dimensions
L = 3 in
5
h = in
8
b = 2 in
7
t = in
8
59
60
Ultimate strength
Use Equation (1)
1
1 2
Fu = su1 D12 = (85) (1) = 66.8 kips
4
4
Equation (9)
Fu = sus1 D1m
66.8 = (64 )( )(1)m
m = 0.33 in
3
say m = in
8
From Equation (3)
Fu = su1 D2e
66.8 = (85)D2e
D2 e = 0.7859
From Equation (5)
1
D2 = 1.42 in
3
say D2 = 1 in
8
3
D2 e = 1 e = 0.7859
8
e = 0.57 in
9
say e = in
16
From Equation (4)
1
Fu = su2 a 2 D22
4
2
1
3
66.8 = (65) a 2 1
4
8
a = 1.79 in
3
say a = 1 in
4
From Equation (8)
61
66.8 = (65) L 1
8 16
L = 3.20 in
1
say L = 3 in
4
From Equation (7)
Fu = 2 sus2 (L D2 e )t
3 9
L = 1.51 in
1
say L = 1 in
2
1
use L = 3 in
4
From Equation (6)
Fu = 2 sus1 eb
9
66.8 = 2(64 ) b
16
b = 0.93 in
say b = 1 in
From Equation (10)
Fu = 2 sus1 D2 h
3
66.8 = 2(64 ) 1 h
8
h = 0.38 in
3
say h = in
8
Dimensions
1
L = 3 in
4
62
Give all the simple strength equations for the connection shown. (b) Determine
the ratio of the dimensions a , b , c , d , m , and n to the dimension D so that the
connection will be equally strong in tension, shear, and compression. Base the
calculations on ultimate strengths and assume sus = 0.75su .
63
Problems 45 47.
Solution:
(a) Neglecting bending
Equation (1): F = s D 2
4
Equation (2): F = ss 2 c 2
4
Equation (3): F = s (2bc )
Equation (4): F = s (ac )
Equation (5): F = s[2(d c )b]
Equation (6): F = ss (4mb )
Equation (7): F = ss (2nb )
Equation (8): F = s (d c )a
su
s
and s s = us
N
N
Therefore
s s = 0.75s
Equate (2) and (1)
1
1
F = ss 2 c 2 = s D 2
4
(b) s =
1 1
0.75s c 2 = s D 2
2 4
c = 0.8165 D
Equate (3) and (1)
1
F = s (2bc ) = s D 2
4
1
2b(0.8165D ) = D 2
4
b = 0.4810 D
64
F = sac = s D 2
4
1
a(0.8165 D ) = D 2
4
a = 0.9619 D
Equate (5) and (1)
1
F = s[2(d c )b] = s D 2
4
1
2(d 0.8165 D )(0.4810 ) = D 2
4
d = 1.6329 D
Equate (6) and (1)
1
F = s s (4mb ) = s D 2
4
1
0.75(4m )(0.4810 D ) = D 2
4
m = 0.5443D
Equate (7) and (1)
1
F = ss (2nb ) = s D 2
4
1
0.75(2n )(0.4810 D ) = D 2
4
n = 1.0886 D
Equate (8) and (1)
1
F = s (d c )a = s D 2
4
(1.6329 D 0.8165D )a = 1 D 2
4
a = 0.9620 D
Summary
a = 0.9620 D
b = 0.4810 D
c = 0.8165 D
d = 1.6329 D
m = 0.5443D
n = 1.0886 D
65
The same as 45, except that the calculations are to be based on yield strengths. Let
s sy = 0.6s y .
Equation (1): F = s D 2
4
Equation (2): F = ss 2 c 2
4
Equation (3): F = s (2bc )
Equation (4): F = s (ac )
Equation (5): F = s[2(d c )b]
Equation (6): F = ss (4mb )
Equation (7): F = ss (2nb )
Equation (8): F = s (d c )a
(b) s =
sy
and s s =
s sy
N
N
Therefore
s s = 0.6 s
Equate (2) and (1)
1
1
F = ss 2 c 2 = s D 2
4
4
1 1
0.6 s c 2 = s D 2
2 4
c = 0.9129 D
Equate (3) and (1)
1
F = s (2bc ) = s D 2
4
1
2b(0.9129 D ) = D 2
4
b = 0.4302 D
Equate (4) and (1)
1
F = sac = s D 2
4
1
a(0.9129 D ) = D 2
4
a = 0.8603D
66
F = s[2(d c )b] = s D 2
4
1
2(d 0.9129 D )(0.4302) = D 2
4
d = 1.8257 D
Equate (6) and (1)
1
F = s s (4mb ) = s D 2
4
1
0.6(4m )(0.4302 D ) = D 2
4
m = 0.7607 D
Equate (7) and (1)
1
F = ss (2nb ) = s D 2
4
1
0.6(2n )(0.4302 D ) = D 2
4
n = 1.5214 D
Equate (8) and (1)
1
F = s (d c )a = s D 2
4
(1.8257 D 0.9129 D )a = 1 D 2
4
a = 0.8604 D
Summary
a = 0.8604 D
b = 0.4302 D
c = 0.9129 D
d = 1.8257 D
m = 0.7607 D
n = 1.5214 D
47.
Design a connection similar to the one shown for a gradually applied and reversed
load of 12 kips. Base design stresses on yield strengths and let the material be
AISI C1040 steel, annealed. Examine the computed dimensions for proportion,
making changes that you deem advisable.
sy
47
= 11.75 ksi
N
4
1
F = s D 2
4
12 = 11.75 D 2
4
D = 1.14 in
1
say D = 1 in
8
1
a = 0.8604 D = 0.86041 = 0.97 in
8
but a > D
1
say a = 1 in
4
1
b = 0.43021 = 0.48 in
8
1
say b = in
2
1
c = 0.91291 = 1.030 in
8
say c = 1 in
1
d = 1.82571 = 2.05 in
8
say d = 2 in
1
m = 0.76071 = 0.86 in
8
7
say m = in
8
1
n = 1.52141 = 1.71 in
8
3
say n = 1 in
4
s=
Dimension:
1
a = 1 in
4
68
b=
48.
Give all the strength equations for the union of rods shown.
Problems 48 68.
Solution:
F = s d 2
4
Equation (1)
F = s s ( ad )
Equation (2)
F = ss (2tc )
Equation (3)
69
F = ss [2(D e )b]
Equation (4)
Equation (5)
F = set
F = s (D e )t
Equation (6)
F = s k 2 e2
4
Equation (7)
F = s m 2 e 2 (m e )t
4
F = s s (2ef )
Equation (9)
70
Equation (8)
F = s e 2 et
4
Equation (10)
4968. Design a unionofrods joint similar to that shown for a reversing load and
material given in the accompanying table. The taper of cotter is to be in. in 12
in. (see 172). (a) Using design stresses based on yield strengths determine all
dimensions to satisfy the necessary strength equations. (b) Modify dimensions as
necessary for good proportions, being careful not to weaken the joint. (c) Decide
upon tolerances and allowances for loose fits. (d) Sketch to scale each part of the
joint showing all dimensions needed for manufacture, with tolerances and
allowances.
Prob. No.
Load, lb.
49
50
51
52
3000
3500
4000
4500
1020
1030
1117
1020
52
54
55
56
5000
5500
6000
6500
1015
1035
1040
1020
57
58
59
60
7000
7500
8000
8500
1015
1118
1022
1035
61
62
63
64
9000
9500
10,000
10,500
1040
1117
1035
1022
65
66
67
68
11,000
11,500
12,000
12,500
1137
1035
1045
1030
71
F = s d 2
4
3 = 12 d 2
4
d = 0.5642 in
9
say d = in
16
Equation (2)
F = s s ( ad )
9
3 = 7.2( a )
16
a = 0.236 in
1
say a = in
4
Equation (5)
F = set
3 = 12et
et = 0.25
Equation (10)
1
F = s e 2 et
4
3 = 12 e 2 0.25
4
e = 0.798 in
13
say e = in
16
et = 0.25
72
13
t = 0.25
16
t = 0..308 in
5
say t = in
16
Equation (6)
F = s (D e )t
13 5
3 = 12 D
16 16
D = 1.6125 in
5
say D = 1 in
8
Equation (4)
F = ss [2(D e )b]
5 13
3 = 7.2 21 b
8 16
b = 0.256 in
1
say b = in
4
Equation (7)
1
F = s k 2 e2
4
2
1
13
3 = 12 k 2
4
16
k = 0.989 in
say k = 1 in
Equation (9)
F = s s (2ef )
13
3 = 7.2(2) f
16
f = 0.256 in
1
say f = in
4
Equation (8)
1
F = s m 2 e 2 (m e )t
4
2
1
13 5
13
3 = 12 m 2 m
16 16
16
4
73
5
3 = 7.2(2) c
16
c = 0.667 in
11
say c = in
16
DIMENSIONS:
9
d = in
16
1
a = in
4
1
b = in
4
11
c = in
16
1
f = in
4
13
e = in
16
5
t = in
16
k = 1 in
5
D = 1 in
8
m = 1 in
(b)
Modified dimensions
9
in
16
1
a = in
4
3
b = in
4
11
c = in
16
d=
74
b = 0.750
Male
b = 0.750
0.0045
in
0.0065
c = 0.6875
0.0035
in
0.0051
e = 0.8125
0.0045
in
0.0065
t = 0.3125
75
0.0030
in
0.0040
COTTER
76
CHECK PROBLEMS
69.
1
1
The connection shown has the following dimensions: d = 1 in , D = 2 in ,
4
2
1
5
1
D1 = 1 in , h = in , t = in ; it supports a load of 15 kips. Compute the tensile,
2
8
2
compressive, and shear stresses induced in the connection. What is the
corresponding design factor based on the yield strength if the rod and nut are
made of AISI C1045, as rolled, and the plate is structural steel (1020)?
77
Problem 69.
Solution:
Tensile Stresses
F
15
=
= 12.22 ksi
(1) s1 =
2
1
2
1
1
d
1
4
4 4
F
15
(2) s 2 =
=
= 8.4 ksi
2
1
2
1
1
D1
1
4
4 2
Compressive Stress
F
15
(3) s3 =
=
= 4.78 ksi
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
(D D1 )
2 1
4
4 2 2
Shear Stresses
F
15
(4) s s4 =
=
= 3.82 ksi
Dt
1 1
2
2 2
F
15
(5) s s5 =
=
= 5.09 ksi
D1h
1 5
1
2 8
For AISI C1045, as rolled (rod and nut)
s y1 = 59 ksi
s ys1 = 0.6 s y = 0.6(59 ) = 35.4 ksi
For structural steel plate (1020)
s y2 = 48 ksi
s ys1 = 0.6 s y = 0.6(48) = 28.8 ksi
Solving for design factor
78
(1) N1 =
(2) N 2 =
(3) N 3 =
(4) N 4 =
(5) N 5 =
s y1
s1
s y1
s2
s y2
s3
s ys2
s s4
s ys1
s s5
59
= 4.83
12.22
59
= 6.95
8.49
48
= 10.04
4.78
28.8
= 7.54
3.82
35.4
= 6.96
5.09
3
7
3
in , t = in , b = 3 in , and let the load, which is applied
4
16
4
centrally so that it tends to pull the plates apart, be 15 kips. (a) Compute the
stresses in the various parts of the connection. (b) If the material is AISI C1020,
as rolled, what is the design factor of the connection based on yield strengths?
Problem 70.
Solution:
(a) Tensile stresses
F
15
s1 =
=
= 11.43 ksi
t (b D ) 7 3 3
3
16 4 4
3
3
(15)
F
4
4
s2 =
=
= 11.43 ksi
t (b 2 D ) 7 3 3
3 2
16 4 4
Compressive bearing stress
F
15
s3 =
=
= 11.43 ksi
4 Dt
3 7
4
4 16
79
4 D (2) (2 )
4
4
(b) For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 28.8 ksi
N=
sy
s
or N =
Using N =
s ys
ss
sy
s
s
48
= 4.2
N= y =
s 11.43
s
Using N = ys
ss
s ys 28.8
N=
=
= 6.8
s s 4.24
Therefore the design factor is N = 4.2
71.
15
9
3
1
in , b = in , c = in , d = 1 in ,
16
16
4
2
3
15
in , m = n = in . The material is AISI C1040, annealed (see Fig. AF 1).
4
16
(a) For a load of 7500 lb., compute the various tensile, compressive, and shear
stresses. Determine the factor of safety based on (b) ultimate strength, (c) yield
strengths.
D=
Problem 71.
Solution:
(a) Tensile stresses
80
s1 =
F
1
D2
4
7.5
1 3
4 4
= 16.98 ksi
F
7. 5
=
= 8.89 ksi
2b(d c )
9 1 3
2 1
16 2 4
F
7. 5
s3 =
=
= 10.67 ksi
a(d c ) 15 1 3
1
16 2 4
Compressive Stresses (Bearing)
F
7.5
s4 =
=
= 8.89 ksi
2bc
9 3
2
16 4
F
7. 5
s5 =
=
= 10.67 ksi
ac 15 3
16 4
Shearing Stresses
F
7.5
s s6 =
=
= 3.56 ksi
4mb
15 9
4
16 16
F
7.5
s s7 =
=
= 7.11 ksi
2nb
15 9
2
16 16
For AISI C1040, annealed,Fig. AF 1
s y = 47 ksi
s2 =
su = 79 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 28 ksi
sus = 0.6su = 47.4 ksi
72.
Problem 72.
Solution:
F = 60,000 lbs
(a) sc =
(b) sb =
(c) sc =
(60,000 2)
2
1 1
3 (3)2
4 2
(60,000 2 )
2
1 2 1
(4) 3
4
2
DEFORMATIONS
73.
A load of 22,000 lb. is gradually applied to a 2in. round rod, 10 ft. long. The total
elongation is observed to be 0.03 in. If the stretching is entirely elastic, (a) what is
the modulus of elasticity, and (b) what material would you judge it to be, wrought
iron or stainless steel (from information available in the tables)? (c) How much
energy is absorbed by the rod? (d) Suppose that the material is aluminum alloy
3003H14; compute its elongation for the same load. Is this within elastic action?
Solution:
F = 22,000 lbs
D = 2 in
L = 10 ft = 120 in
= 0.03 in
82
(a) =
E=
FL
EA
FL
4 FL
4(22,000 )(120)
=
=
= 28 10 6 psi
2
2
A D
(0.03)( )(2)
(b) Use both stainless steel, Table AT 4, E = 28 10 6 psi and wrought iron , Table AT 7,
E = 28 10 6 psi .
1
1
(c) Energy absorbed = F = (22,000 )(0.03) = 330 lb in
2
2
(d) For Aluminum alloy, 3003H14
E = 10 106 psi
s y = 21 ksi
FL
4 FL
4(22,000 )(120)
=
=
= 0.084 in
2
2
EA E D
10 10 6 ( )(2 )
4F
4(22,000 )
s=
=
= 7003 psi = 7.0 ksi < s y , within the elastic limit.
2
D
( )(2)2
74.
The same as 73, except that F = 88 kips and total = 0.112 in . Is the
computation for part (d) valid? Explain.
Solution:
(a) F = 88 kips
= 0.112 in
FL
4 FL
4(88,000 )(120)
E=
=
=
= 30 10 6 psi
2
2
A D
(0.112)( )(2)
(b) Use wrought steel, Table AT 4, E = 30 106 psi
1
1
(c) Energy absorbed = F = (88,000 )(0.112) = 4928 lb in
2
2
(d) For Aluminum alloy, 3003H14
E = 10 106 psi
s y = 21 ksi
FL
4 FL
4(88,000)(120 )
=
=
= 0.336 in
2
2
EA E D
10 10 6 ( )(2 )
83
75.
(a) A square bar of SAE 1020, as rolled, is to carry a tensile load of 40 kips. The
bar is to be 4 ft. long. A design factor of 5 based on the ultimate stress is desired.
Moreover, the total deformation should not exceed 0.024 in. What should be the
dimensions of the section? (b) Using SAE 1045, as rolled, but with the other data
the same, find the dimensions. (c) Using SAE 4640, OQT 1000 F, but with other
data the same as in (a), find the dimensions. Is there a change in dimensions as
compared with part (b)? Explain the difference or the lack of difference in the
answers.
Solution:
L = 4 ft = 48 in
(a) For SAE 1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi , E = 30,000 ksi
s
F
s= u =
N A
65 40
=
5 x2
x = 1.754 in
FL
=
EA
(40)(48)
0.024 =
(30,000)x 2
x = 1.633 in
3
Therefore say x = 1 in
4
(b) For SAE 1045, as rolled
su = 96 ksi , E = 30,000 ksi
s
F
s= u =
N A
96 40
=
5 x2
x = 1.443 in
FL
=
EA
(40)(48)
0.024 =
(30,000)x 2
x = 1.633 in
84
There is lack of difference in the answers due to same dimensions required to satisfy the
required elongation.
76.
The steel rails on a railroad track are laid when the temperature is 40 F. The rails
are welded together and held in place by the ties so that no expansion is possible
due to temperature changes. What will be the stress in the rails when heated by
the sun to 120 F (i1.29)?
Solution:
s Lt
= =
E L
L
For steel = 0.000007 in in F
E = 30 106 psi
s = tE = (0.000007 )(120 40 ) 30 10 6
s = 16,800 psi
77.
Two steel rivets are inserted in a riveted connection. One rivet connects plates that
have a total thickness of 2 in., while the other connects plates with a total
thickness of 3 in. If it is assumed that, after heading, the rivets cool from 600 F
and that the coefficient of expansion as given in the Text applies, compute the
stresses in each rivet after it has cooled to a temperature of 70 F, (no external
load). See i1.29. Also assume that the plates are not deformed under load. Is such
a stress likely? Why is the actual stress smaller?
85
Three flat plates are assembled as shown; the center one B of chromium steel,
AISI 5140 OQT 1000 F, and the outer two A and C of aluminum alloy 3003H14,
are fastened together so that they will stretch equal amounts. The steel plate is 2 x
in., the aluminum plates are each 2 x 1/8 in., L = 30 in ., and the load is 24,000
lb. Determine (a) the stress in each plate, (b) the total elongation, (c) the energy
absorbed by the steel plate if the load is gradually applied, (d) the energy
absorbed by the aluminum plate. (e) What will be the stress in each plate if in
addition to the load of 24,000 lb. the temperature of the assembly is increased by
100 F?
A = B
PA L
PL
= B
A2 E2 A1 E1
PA
PB
=
(0.25)(10,000) (1)(30,000)
(2) PB = 12 PA
(1) 2 PA + 12 PA = 24 kips
PA = 1.714 kips
PB = 12(1.714) = 20.568 kips
Stresses:
Aluminum plate
P 1.714
s A = sC = A =
= 6.856 ksi
A2 0.25
Chromium steel plate
P
20.568
sB = B =
= 20.568 ksi
A1
1
(1.714)(30) = 0.021 in
PA L
=
A2 E2 (0.25)(10,000 )
1
1
(c) Energy absorbed by steel plate = PB = (20.568)(0.021) = 0.216 kips in
2
2
1
1
(d) Energy absorbed by aluminum plate = PA = (1.714 )(0.021) = 0.018 kips in
2
2
(e) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips
TA + A = TB + B
(b) =
T
T
T
T
= 2 L t
= 1 Lt
PA L
PA (30)
=
= 0.012 PA
A2 E2 (0.25)(10,000)
PL
PB (30)
B = B =
= 0.001PB
A1E1 (1)(30,000 )
Then
0.0387 + 0.012 PA = 0.021 + 0.001PB
0.0177 + 0.012 PA = 0.001(24 2 PA )
0.0177 + 0.012 PA = 0.024 0.002 PA
A =
87
The same as 78, except that the outer plates are aluminum bronze, B1501,
annealed.
Solution:
For aluminum bronze, B1501, annealed (Table AT 3)
E2 = 15,000 ksi
2 = 0.0000092 in in F
(a)
(1) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips
A = B
PA L
PL
= B
A2 E2 A1 E1
PA
PB
=
(0.25)(15,000) (1)(30,000)
(2) PB = 8 PA
2 PA + 8PA = 24 kips
PA = 2.4 kips
PB = 8(2.4) = 19.2 kips
Stresses:
Aluminum plate
P
2.4
s A = sC = A =
= 9.6 ksi
A2 0.25
Chromium steel plate
P 19.2
sB = B =
= 19.2 ksi
A1
1
88
T = 2 L t
T = 1 Lt
T = (0.0000092 )(30)(100 ) = 0.0276 in
A
PA L
PA (30 )
=
= 0.008 PA
A2 E2 (0.25)(15,000)
PL
PB (30)
B = B =
= 0.001PB
A1E1 (1)(30,000 )
Then
0.0276 + 0.008PA = 0.021 + 0.001PB
0.0066 + 0.008PA = 0.001(24 2 PA )
0.0066 + 0.008PA = 0.024 0.002 PA
PA = 1.74 kips
PB = 24 2(1.74 ) = 20.52 kips
Stresses:
Aluminum plate
P 1.74
sA = A =
= 6.96 ksi
A2 0.25
Chromium steel plate
P
20.52
sB = B =
= 20.52 ksi
A1
1
A =
80.
89
Problems 80, 81
Solution:
For AISI C1040, annealed steel
E = 30 106 psi
(a) = 1 + 2
FL
(6000)(15) = 0.0068 in
1 = 1 =
A1 E 3 2
6
30 10
4 4
FL
(6000)(6)
= 0.0061 in
2 = 2 =
A2 E 1 2
6
30 10
4 2
= 1 + 2 = 0.0068 + 0.0061 = 0.0129 in
A rod as shown is made of AISI 2340 steel, OQT 1000 F, and has the following
7
3
dimensions: L1 = 20 in ., L2 = 12 in ., D1 = in ., and D2 = in . The unit strain at
8
4
point A is measured with a strain gage and found to be 0.0025 in./in. Determine
(a) the total elongation, and (b) the force on the rod.
Solution:
F
(a) 2 = =
L2
A2 E
90
A
D
1 =
= 2 L1 = 2 L1
A1E
A1
D1
D 2
3
T = 1 + 2 = 2 L1 + L2 = 0.0025
D1
A2 EL1
4
(20) + 12 = 0.067 in
8
3
(b) F = A2 E = 0.0025 (30,000) = 33.13 kips
4 4
82.
Problem 82.
Solution:
For aluminum 2024T4 (Table AT 3)
s y1 = 47 ksi , E1 = 10,600 ksi
For steel AISI 1045, as rolled (Table AT 7)
s y2 = 59 ksi , E2 = 30,000 ksi
[ M
=0
91
24 12
1 = 2 2
RL
1 = 1 1
E1 A1
RL
2 = 2 2
E2 A2
L1 = 8 ft = 96 in
L2 = 12 ft = 144 in
A1 = 0.5 in 2
1 = 2 2
R1 L1 2 R2 L2
=
E1 A1 E2 A2
R1 (96)
2R2 (144)
=
(10,600)(0.5) (30,000)A2
0.53R2
R1 =
A2
But s 2 =
R2 s y2
=
A2 N
R2 59
=
= 29.5
A2
2
R1 = 0.53(29.5) = 15.64 kips
R1 s y1
=
A1 N
R1 47
=
0. 5 2
R1 = 11.75 kips
use R1 = 11.75 kips
R2 = 40 2(11.75) = 16.5 kips
R
16.5
A2 = 2 =
= 0.56 in 2
29.5 29.5
s1 =
92
83.
Problem 83.
Solution:
[ M
[ M
=0
=0
dRB = (d + L )F
3RB = (3 + 10 )(2.5)
RB = 10.83 kips
dRA = LF
3RA = 10(2.5)
RA = 8.33 kips
93
M = RA x RB x 3
d2y
M = EI 2 = 8.33 x 10.83 x 3
dy
dy
2
EI
= 4.165 x 2 5.415 x 3 + C1
dy
3
EI (0 ) = 1.388(0) 1.805 0 + C1 (0 ) + C2
3
C2 = 0
When x = 3 , y = 0
3
C1 = 12.492
3
bh 3 (1)(2.75)
=
= 1.7331 in 4
12
12
EIy = 1082
(30,000)(1.7331)y = 1082
y = 0.021 in , upward.
3
I=
94
Solution:
For C1020 annealed
su = 57 ksi
su 57
=
= 14.25 ksi
N
4
Solving for plate thickness
pD
s=
2 t
p = 200 psi = 0.2 ksi
D = 36 in
(5.2)(36)
s = 14.25 =
2 t (0.9)
t = 0.281 in
5
say t = in
16
Stress on diametral section
(0.2 )(36) = 6.40 ksi
pD
s=
=
4 t
5
4 (0.9)
16
Stress on longitudinal section
(0.2 )(36) = 12.80 ksi
pD
s=
=
2 t
5
2 (0.9)
16
Stress on diametral section < stress on longitudinal section
s=
85.
A spherical air tank stores air at 3000 psig. The tank is to have an inside diameter
of 7 in. (a) What should be the wall thickness and weight of the tank if it is made
of 301, hard, stainless steel, with a design factor of 1.5 based on the yield
strength and a joint efficiency of 90 %. (b) Compute the wall thickness and
weight if annealed titanium (B265, gr. 5) is used? (c) What is the additional
saving in weight if the titanium is hardened? Can you think of circumstances for
which the higher cost of titanium would be justified?
95
75
= 50 ksi
N 1.5
p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi
pD
s=
4 t
(3)(7)
50 =
4t (0.90)
t = 0.117 in
s=
= 0.286 lb in 3
2
W = 4 r 2t = D 2t = (7 ) (0.117 )(0.286 ) = 5.2 lb
(b) For annealed titanium B265, gr. 5
s y = 130 ksi (Table AT 3)
sy
130
= 86.67 ksi
N 1.5
p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi
pD
s=
4 t
(3)(7)
86.67 =
4t (0.90)
t = 0.061 in
s=
= 0.160 lb in 3
2
W = 4 r 2t = D 2t = (7 ) (0.061)(0.160) = 1.5 lb
(c) For hardened titanium
s y = 158 ksi (Table AT 3)
sy
158
= 105 ksi
N 1.5
p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi
pD
s=
4 t
(3)(7 )
105 =
4t (0.90 )
s=
96
= 0.160 lb in 3
2
W = 4 r 2t = D 2t = (7 ) (0.056)(0.160 ) = 1.38 lb
1.50 1.38
(100%) = 8%
1.50
Circumstances: less in weight and small thickness.
Savings in weight =
86.
Decide upon a material and estimate a safe wall thickness of a cylindrical vessel
to contain helium at 300 F and 2750 psi. The welded joint should have a relative
strength 87 %, and the initial computations are to be for a 12in.diameter, 30ft.long tank. (Note: Mechanical properties of metals at this low temperature are
not available in the Text. Refer to INCO Nickel Topics, vol. 16, no. 7, 1963, or
elsewhere.)
Solution:
From Kents Handbook, Table 8
Material Hot Rolled Nickel
At 300 F, su = 100 ksi , N = 4 (Table 1.1)
s 100
s= u =
= 25 ksi
N
4
pD
s=
2 t
p = 2750 psi = 2.75 ksi
D = 12 in
= 87%
(2.75)(12)
s = 25 =
2 t (0.87 )
t = 0.759 in
3
say t = in
4
CONTACT STRESSES
87.
(a) A 0.75in. diameter roller is in contact with a platecam surface whose width is
0.5in. The maximum load is 2.5 kips where the radius of curvature of the cam
surface is 3.333 in. Compute the Hertz compressive stress. (b) The same as (a)
except that the follower has a plane flat face. (c) The same as (a) except that the
roller runs in a grooved face and contacts the concave surface. (d) What is the
maximum shear stress for part (a) and how far below the surface does it exist?
Solution:
97
1 1 2
+
0
.
35
F
r1 r2
sc max =
1
1
b +
E1 E2
E = 30,000 ksi
1
sc max
1 2
1
+
0.35(2.5)
0.375 3.333
=
= 279 ksi
0.5
30,000
(b) sc max
1 2
1
(
)
0
.
35
2
.
5
+
3
.
333
3
.
333
= 126 ksi
=
0.5
30,000
(c) sc max
1 2
1
(
)
0
.
35
2
.
5
0.375 3.333
=
= 249 ksi
0.5
30,000
E1 E2
30,000
w=
=
= 0.023 in
1
1 1
1
+
+
0.375 3.333
r1 r2
88.
Two 20o involute teeth are in contact along a line where the radii of curvature
of the profiles are respectively 1.03 and 3.42 in. The face width of the gears is 3
in. If the maximum permissible contact stress for carburized teeth is 200 ksi, what
normal load may these teeth support?
98
1 1 2
+
0
.
35
F
r1 r2
sc max =
1
1
b +
E1 E2
E = 30,000 ksi
1
1 2
1
+
0.35 F
1.03 3.42
sc max = 200 =
30,000
F = 18 kips
TOLERANCES AND ALLOWANCES
89.
The pin for a yoke connection has a diameter of D of in., a total length of 2
in., with a head that is 1 in. in diameter and 3/8 in. thick. The tolerance on D
(both pin and hole) is 0.003 in., with an allowance of 0.001 in., basichole system.
Sketch the pin showing all dimensions with appropriate tolerances.
Solution:
D = 0.75 in
For pin
+ 0.000
D = 0.749
in
0.003
For hole
+ 0.003
D = 0.750
in
0.000
Sketch
99
90.
A shaft with a nominal diameter of 8 in. is to fit in a hole. Specify the allowance,
tolerances, and the limit diameters of the shaft and hole on a sketch for: (a) a close
sliding fit, (b) a precisionrunning fit, (c) mediumrunning fit, (d) a looserunning
fit.
Solution: D = 8 in
(a) For closesliding fit, RC 1
Hole, in
+0.0008
0.0000
Shaft, in
 0.0006
0.0012
Allowance = 0.0006 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0008
Hole D = 8.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9994
in
0.0006
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0008 in
Shaft D = 7.9994 to 7.9988 in
Sketch
100
Shaft, in
0.0040
0.0058
Allowance = 0.0040 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0018
Hole D = 8.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9960
in
0.0018
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0018 in
Shaft D = 7.9960 to 7.9942 in
Sketch
101
Shaft, in
0.0100
0.0145
Allowance = 0.010 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0070
Hole D = 8.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9900
in
0.0045
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0070 in
Shaft D = 7.9900 to 7.9855 in
Sketch
91.
Solution:
D = 4 in
(a) For closesliding fit, RC 1
102
Hole, in
+0.0006
0.0000
Shaft, in
0.0005
0.0009
Allowance = 0.0005 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0006
Hole D = 4.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9995
in
0.0004
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0006 in
Shaft D = 3.9995 to 3.9991 in
Sketch
103
Shaft, in
0.0030
0.0052
Allowance = 0.0030 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0022
Hole D = 4.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9970
in
0.0022
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0022 in
Shaft D = 3.9970 to 7.9948 in
Sketch
Shaft, in
0.0100
0.0150
Allowance = 0.0100 in
104
92.
A castiron gear is to be shrunk onto a 3in, steel shaft. (a) Determine the
tolerance and the maximum, minimum, and average interferences of metal for
class FN 1 fit. (b) Sketch and dimension the shaft and hole with proper tolerances.
(c) Compute the stresses by the method given in the Text (i3.8) for the maximum
and minimum interferences of metal.
Solution: D = 3 in
(a) For class FN 1 fit, Table 3.2
Tolerances
Hole, in
Shaft, in
+0.0007
+0.0019
0.0000
+0.0014
Max. interference = 0.0019 in
Min. interference = 0.0014 0.0007 = 0.0007 in
Ave. interference = 0.5(0.0019 + 0.0007) = 0.0013 in
(b)
105
93.
The same as 92, except that the gear hub is C1035 steel and class of fit is FN 3.
Solution: D = 3 in
(a) For class FN 3fit, Table 3.2
Tolerances
Hole, in
Shaft, in
+0.0012
+0.0037
0.0000
+0.0030
Max. interference = 0.0037 in
Min. interference = 0.0030 0.0012 = 0.0018 in
Ave. interference = 0.5(0.0037 + 0.0018) = 0.0028 in
(b)
106
(c)
94.
(30,000)(0.0018) = 18 ksi
3
For a No. 7 ball bearing, the New Departure Handbook states that the maximum
bore should be 1.3780 in. and the minimum, 1.3775 in.; for average conditions,
the shaft should have a maximum diameter of 1.3784 in. and a minimum of
1.3779 in. (a) Determine the corresponding tolerances and allowances. (b) What
class of fit is this? (c) New Departure states: . . . bearing bores are held
uniformly close, . . . averaging within 1.3778 in. to 1.3776 in. What will be the
maximum and minimum interference of metal with these diameters (if maximum
and minimum sizes are deliberately chosen for assembly)?
Solution:
(a) Tolerances:
For No. 7 ball bearing
Bore, 1.3780 1.3775 in = 0.0005 in
+ 0.0005
Therefore, D = 1.3775
in
0.0000
107
Shaft, in
+0.0009
+0.0004
Shaft, in
+0.0003
+0.0001
For a roller bearing having a bore of 65 mm. an SKF catalog states that the largest
diameter should be 2.5591 in. and the smallest, 2.5585 in. If this bearing is to be
used in a gear transmission, it is recommended for the shaft (where the bearing
fits) to have a maximum diameter of 2.5600 in. and a minimum of 2.5595 in. (a)
Determine the tolerances and allowances (or interferences of metal) for this
installation. (b) What class of fit would this be?
Solution:
(a) 65 mm = 2.5591 in
2.5591 2.5585 = 0.0006 in
2.5600 2.5585 = 0.0015 in
2.5595 2.5585 = 0.0010 in
108
Shaft, in
+0.0015
+0.0010
(a) A machine tool is capable if machining parts so that the standard deviation of
one critical dimension is 0.0006 in. What minimum tolerance may be specified for
this dimension if it is expected that practically all of the production be acceptable?
Assume that it is possible to center the process. (b) The same as (a), except that
it has been decided to tolerate approximately 4.56 % scrap.
Solution:
(a)
T = NS = 6 = 6(0.0006 ) = 0.0036 in
(b)
A=
0.0456
= 0.0228 in
2
109
z = 2
T = 2 z = 4
T = 4(0.0006 ) = 0.0024 in
97.
A pin and the hole into which it fits have a nominal diameter of 1 in. The pin
tolerance has been set to 0.002 in., the bore tolerance at 0.003 in., and the
allowance at 0.001 in., basic hole system. The parts are to be a natural spread of
0.0015 in. for the pin and 0.002 in. for the hole. Assuming that the processes are
centered, determine the expected minimum clearance and the maximum
clearance. What is the most frequent clearance?
Solution:
110
A rod and the hole into which it fits has a nominal diameter of 2 in. The
tolerances are 0.003 in. for both rod and hole, and the allowance as 0..001 in.,
basic hole system. The natural spread of the process of manufacturing the hole is
0.002 in., and for the rod, 0.0015 in. What are the probable maximum and
minimum clearances, provided that the tolerances are met, but assuming that the
processes might simultaneously operate at their extreme permissible position?
Solution:
NS1 0.0015
=
= 0.00025 in
6
6
NS
0.0020
2 ( pin ) = 2 =
= 0.00033 in
6
6
D2 = 12 + 22 = (0.00025)2 + (0.00033)2
D = 0.00041 in
1 (rod ) =
111
NS = 6 D = 6(0.00041) = 0.00246 in
2.0020 1.99675 = 0.00525 in
It is desired that the clearance in a 4in. bearing neither exceed 0.004 in. nor be
less than 0.002 in. Assume that the natural spread of the processes by which the
journal and the bearing surfaces are finished is the same. (a) What should be the
natural spread of these processes? (b) Assuming this natural spread to be equal to
the tolerance, determine the corresponding allowance. (c) If the foregoing
conditions are not practical decide upon practical tolerances and allowances for
the computed natural spread.
Solution:
(a) NS = 6 D
NS 0.002
D =
=
= 0.00033 in
6
6
(b) D = 2
0.00033
= D =
= 0.000233 in
2
2
112
100.
A 4in, journalbearing assembly is made for class RC 6 fit. Assume that the
natural spread of the manufacturing process will be about 75 % of the tolerance.
Compute the probable maximum and minimum clearances (which occur when the
processes are not centered) and compare with the allowance. Make a sketch of the
journal and hole properly dimensioned.
113
NS = 6
0.00165
=
= 0.00028 in
6
D = 2 = 2 (0.00028) = 0.0004 in
NS D = 6 D = 6(0.0004 ) = 0.0024 in
114
Sketch
101.
Solution:
From Table RC 3, Table 3.1, D = 4 in
Hole
Shaft
+0.0009
0.0014
0.0000
0.0023
or
+ 0.0009
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
D (shaft ) = 3.9986
in
0.0009
D(hole ) = 4.000
115
102.
Solution:
116
D = 0.00067 in
12 + 22 = D2
2
2 12 = (0.00067 )
2 = 0.00047 in
NS = 0.70 NS1
NS = 0.70(6)(0.00047 ) = 0.00197 in
T = NS1 = (6)(0.00047 ) = 0.00282 in
117
103.
If the tolerances shown are maintained during manufacture, say with the processes
centered, what would be the approximate overall tolerances and limit dimensions?
118
Problem 103.
Solution:
T1 = 4.004 4.000 = 0.004 in
T2 = 5.008 5.000 = 0.008 in
T3 = 6.707 6.700 = 0.007 in
T 2 = T12 + T22 + T32 = (0.004) + (0.008) + (0.007 )
T = 0.0114 in
2
Limit dimensions
4.000 to 4.0114 in
5.000 to 5.0114 in
6.700 to 6.7114 in
104.
If a cylindrical part needs to have the following tolerances, what process would
you recommend for finishing the surface in each instance? (a) 0.05 in., (b) 0.01
in., (c) 0.005 in., (d) 0.001 in., (e) 0.0001 in., (f) 0.00005 in.?
Solution:
Use fi. 3.9, page 95., Text.
(a) 0.05 in
Surface finishes = 500 or greater
Processes:
1. Flame cuttingmachine
2. Rough turning
3. Contour sawing
4. Rough grinding
5. Shaping and planning
6. Drilling
7. Milling high speed steel
8. Boring
(b) 0.01 in
Surface finishes = 63 to 250
119
If it cost $100 to finish a certain surface to 500 microinches rms, what would be
the approximate cost to finish it to the following roughness: (a) 125, (b) 32, (c) 8,
(d) 2 in. rms?
Solution:
From Fig. 3.9
Relative cost of 500 in rms = 1.75
(a) Relative cost of 125 in rms = 3
3
Cost = $100
= $171
1.75
121
Load F1
L1
106
107
108
109
700
650
600
550
12
14
15
18
C1020
C1020
C1022
C1035
1.5
2
2.5
3
110
111
112
113
500
800
750
750
20
12
14
14
C1040
C1020
C1020
C1020
4
1.5
2
2.5
114
115
116
117
650
600
900
850
18
20
12
14
C1035
C1040
C1020
C1020
3
4
1.5
2
122
800
750
700
1000
15
18
20
12
C1022
C1035
C1040
C1020
2.5
3
4
1.5
122
123
124
125
950
900
850
800
14
15
18
20
C1020
C1022
C1035
C1040
2
2.5
3
4
123
ss =
F1
2 d12
4
0.7
8=
1
d12
2
d1 = 0.24 in
1
say d1 = in
4
F1
1
d12
2
F1
a1d1
0. 7
10 =
1
a1
4
a1 = 0.28 in
5
say a1 = in
16
since t1 < a1
1
say t1 = in
4
F1
s=
D1t1
0. 7
10 =
1
D1
4
D1 = 0.28 in
5
say D1 = in
16
Consider yoke connection B.
L1
= 1.5
L2
12
L2 =
= 8 in
1.5
F2
= 1.5
F1
F2 = 1.5(0.7 ) = 1.05 kip
F2
F2
ss =
=
1
1
d 22
2 d 22
2
4
s=
124
F2
a2 d 2
1.05
10 =
5
a2
16
a2 = 0.34 in
3
say a2 = in
8
since t 2 < a2
5
say t 2 = in
16
F1
s=
D1t1
1.05
10 =
5
D2
16
D2 = 0.34 in
3
say D2 = in
8
For shaft diameter
Assume torque, T1 = F1L1 = (0.70 )(12) = 8.4 in kips
16T1
ss =
d s3
16(8.4)
8=
d s3
3
d s = 1.75 in = 1 in
4
Tolerances and allowances, consider RC 4 (Table 3.1)
Hole
Shaft
+ 0.0006
+ 0.0000
d1 = 0.2500
in
d1 = 0.2495
in
0.0000
0.0006
allowance = 0.0005 in
s=
125
+ 0.0006
+ 0.0000
in
d 2 = 0.3120
in
0.0000
0.0006
allowance = 0.0005 in
+ 0.0010
+ 0.0000
d s = 1.7490
in
d s = 1.7500
in
0.0010
0.0000
allowance = 0.0010 in
d 2 = 0.3125
Female
Male
+ 0.0006
+ 0.0000
a1 = 0.3125
in
a1 = 0.3120
in
0.0000
0.0006
allowance = 0.0005 in
+ 0.0006
+ 0.0000
a2 = 0.3750
in
a2 = 0.3745
in
0.0000
0.0006
allowance = 0.0005 in
(b) For good proporion use the following dimension
D1 = D2 = 1 in
3
d1 = d 2 = in
4
3
t1 = t 2 = in
4
a1 = a2 = 1 in
d s = 2 in
Tolerances and allowances, consider RC 4 (Table 3.1)
Hole
Shaft
+ 0.0008
+ 0.0000
d1 = 0.7500
in
d1 = 0.7492
in
0.0000
0.0008
allowance = 0.0008 in
+ 0.0008
+ 0.0000
d 2 = 0.7500
in
d 2 = 0.7492
in
0.0000
0.0008
allowance = 0.0008 in
+ 0.0012
+ 0.0000
d s = 2.0000
in
d s = 1.9988
in
0.0000
0.0012
allowance = 0.0012 in
Female
Male
+ 0.0008
+ 0.0000
a1 = 1.0000
in
a1 = 0.9992
in
0.0008
0.0000
allowance = 0.0008 in
+ 0.0008
+ 0.0000
a2 = 1.0000
in
a2 = 0.9992
in
0.0000
0.0008
126
126.
Solution:
N = 2. 5
s=
Mc s y
=
I
N
127
(b) =
FL3
48 EI
(10)(144 )3
0.25 =
48(30,000)I
I = 82.9 in 4
From Table B3, Strength of Material by F. Singer, 2nd Edition
Select 10I35 Section Index
Unsupported length = 12 ft
Weight per foot = 35 lb
I = 145.8 in 4 , moment of inertia
Size (Depth) = 10.0 in
(c) =
127.
A 10in., 35lb. Ibeam is used as a simple beam, supported on 18ft. centers, and
carrying a total uniformly distributed load of 6000 lb. Determine the maximum
stress and the maximum deflection.
Solution:
128
6000 + 630
= 30.7 lb in
(18)(12)
Table B.3, From Strength of Materials, F.L. Singer, 2nd Edition
For 10in., 35lb. Ibeam
I = 145.8 in 4
Z = 29.2 in 3
w=
M max
Z
2
wL2 (30.7 )(216 )
M max =
=
= 179,042 lb in = 179 kips in
8
8
179
s max =
= 6.13 ksi
29.2
5FL3
max =
384 EI
E = 30,000 ksi
F = wL = (30.7 )(216) = 6631 lbs = 6.631 kips
s max =
5(6.631)(216 )
= 0.20 in
384(30,000)(145.8)
3
max =
128.
Solution:
M max =
s max
129
w=
6000 + 630
= 30.7 lb in
(18)(12)
max =
129.
Two equal angles, placed back to back as shown, act as a simple beam and are to
support a load of F = 2,000 lb .; L = 40 in .; a = 15 in . What size angles should
be used if the maximum stress is not to exceed 20 ksi? The stress due to the
weight of the angles is negligible.
Solution:
From Table AT 1, No. 6
130
aH 2 + bt 2
2(aH + bt )
c2 = H c1
c1 =
Bt 3
ah 3
+ (Bt )d 2 +
+ (ah )e 2
12
12
say a = t
h=B
B = 4t
H = h+t = B+t
b = Ba
2
t (B + t ) + (B t )t 2
c1 =
2[t (B + t ) + (B t )t ]
Ix =
t (B + t ) + (B t )t 2 t (5t ) + (3t )t 2
=
= 1.75t
2(2 Bt )
4 4t 2
c2 = H c1
H = B + t = 5t
c2 = 5t 1.75t = 3.25t
2
c1 =
Ix =
( )
Bt 3
ah 3
+ (Bt )d 2 +
+ (ah )e 2
12
12
d = c1
t
= 1.75t 0.5t = 1.25t
2
a=t
h = B = 4t
h
e = c2 = 3.25t 0.5(4t ) = 1.25t
2
(4t )t 3 + (4t )t (1.25t )2 + t (4t )3 + t (4t )(1.25t )2 = 18.17t 4
Ix =
12
12
Mc2
s=
I
M = 18.75 kips in
131
s = 20 =
(18.75)(3.25t )
18.17t 4
t = 0.55 in
9
say t = in
16
1
9
B = 4t = 4 = 2 in
4
16
1 9
H = B + t = 2 + = 2.8125 in
4 16
say H = 3 in
1
9
Size: 2 3
T section
4
16
 end 
132
Solution:
For AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F
su = 153 ksi
s y = 134 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(153) = 76.5 ksi
For axial loading, with size factor
sn = 0.5su = (0.8)(0.85)(76.5) = 52 ksi
Soderberg line
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
For doubleacting
2
Fmax = F = pA = (125) (20 ) = 39,270 lb = 39.27 kips
4
Fmin = F = 39.27 kips
sm = 0
4 F 4(39.27 ) 50
sa =
=
= 2
d2
d2
d
50
2
1
1
d
=
= 0+
N 1.75
52
d = 1.2972 in
5
say d = 1 in
16
comparative to Problem 4.
142.
A link as shown is to be made of AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F. The load F = 5 kips
is repeated and reversed. For the time being, ignore stress concentrations. (a) If
its surface is machined, what should be its diameter for N = 1.40 . (b) The same
as (a), except that the surface is mirror polished. What would be the percentage
saving in weight? (c) The same as (a), except that the surface is as forged.
Page 1 of 62
Page 2 of 62
9 1
16
2
Savings in weight = 2 (100% ) = 21%
9
16
(c) As forged surface
Surface factor = 0.40 (Fig. AF 5)
sn = 0.5su = (0.80)(0.85)(0.40 )(52.5) ksi = 14.28 ksi
20 14.28
sa =
=
D2
1 .4
D = 0.79 in
3
say D = in
4
143.
The same as 142, except that, because of a corrosive environment, the link is
made from colddrawn silicon bronze B and the number of reversals of the load
is expected to be less than 3 x 107.
Solution:
For colddrawn silicon bronze, Type B.
sn = 30 ksi at 3 x 108
s y = 69 ksi
su = 93.75 ksi
0.085
3 108
sn at 3 x 10 = (30 )
= 36.5 ksi
7
3
10
144.
The same as 142, except that the link is made of aluminum alloy 2024T4 with a
minimum life of 107 cycles.
Solution:
For AA 2024T4
s y = 47 ksi
su = 68 ksi
sn = 20 ksi at 5 x108
Page 3 of 62
0.085
5 108
sn at 10 (20 )
= 27.9 ksi
7
10
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(27.9) = 19 ksi
20
19
sa =
=
2
D 1 .4
D = 0.685 in
11
say D = in
16
7
145.
A shaft supported as a simple beam, 18 in. long, is made of carburized AISI 3120
steel (Table AT 10). With the shaft rotating, a steady load of 2000 lb. is appliled
midway between the bearings. The surfaces are ground. Indefinite life is desired
with N = 1.6 based on endurance strength. What should be its diameter if there
are no surface discontinuities?
Solution:
Page 4 of 62
146.
Soderberg line
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
1
s
= 0+ a
N
sn
s
sa = n
N
9.643 15.20
=
t3
2
t = 1.08 in
b = 2.8t = 2.8(1.08) = 3.0 in
1
say t = 1 in , b = 3.0 in
16
147.
The same as 146, except that the reversal of the load are not expected to exceed
105 (Table AT 10).
Solution:
sn = 32.5 ksi
0.085
106
sn at 10 = (32.5) 5
= 39.5 ksi
10
sn = (0.85)(0.55)(39.5) = 18.5 ksi
5
sn
N
9.643 18.5
=
t3
2
(a) sa =
Page 6 of 62
(b) sa =
t = 0.6678 in
b = 2.8t = 2.8(0.6678) = 1.870 in
11
7
say t = in , b = 1 in
16
8
148.
Solution:
For AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F
su = 152 ksi
s y = 134 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 76 ksi
For machined surface,
Surface factor = 0.78
Size factor = 0.85
sns = (0.6)(0.85)(0.78)(134) = 53.3 ksi
s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(134 ) = 80.4 ksi
1 sms sas
=
+
N s ys sns
sms = 0
16T
sas =
D3
T = 15 in kips
16(15) 240
sas =
=
D3 D3
1
s
= 0 + as
N
sns
s
sas = ns
N
Page 7 of 62
149.
The same as 148, except that the shaft is hollow with the outside diameter twice
the inside diameter.
Solution:
Do = 2 Di
16TDo
16(15)(2 Di )
32
sas =
=
=
4
4
4
4
(Do Di ) (2 Di ) Di
Di3
s
sas = ns
N
32 53.3
=
Di3 1.75
Di = 0.694 in
11
3
say Di = in , Do = 1 in
16
8
150.
The link shown is machined from AISI 1035 steel, as rolled, and subjected to a
repeated tensile load that varies from zero to 10 kips; h = 2b . (a) Determine these
dimensions for N = 1.40 (Soderberg) at a section without stress concentration.
(b) How much would these dimensions be decreased if the surfaces of the link
were mirror polished?
Page 8 of 62
151.
The same as 150, except that the link operates in brine solution. (Note: The
corroding effect of the solution takes precedence over surface finish.)
Page 9 of 62
152.
The simple beam shown, 30in. long ( = a + L + d ), is made of AISI C1022 steel,
as rolled, left a forged. At a = 10 in , F1 = 3000 lb. is a dead load. At
d = 10 in , F2 = 2400 lb. is repeated, reversed load. For N = 1.5 , indefinite life,
and h = 3b , determine b and h . (Ignore stress concentration).
Page 10 of 62
=0
10(3000) + 20(2400 ) = 30 R2
R2 = 2600 lb
=0
R1 + R2 = F1 + F2
R1 + 2600 = 3000 + 2400
R1 = 2800 lb
Shear Diagram
Then
Loading
=0
10(3000) + 30 R2 = 20(2400 )
R2 = 600 lb
=0
R1 + F2 = F1 + R2
R1 + 2400 = 3000 + 600
R1 = 1200 lb
Page 11 of 62
Then using
M max = M C1 = 28 in kips
M min = M C2 = 12 in kips
1
(M max + M min ) = 1 (28 + 12) = 20 in kips
2
2
1
1
M a = (M max M min ) = (28 12 ) = 8 in kips
2
2
M c
M c
sm = m , sa = a
I
I
3
3
bh
b(3b )
I=
=
= 2.25b 4
12
12
h
c = = 1.5b
2
Mm
Ma
sm =
, sa =
3
1.5b
1.5b3
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
Mm =
20 8
1 1.5b3 1.5b3
=
+
1.5
52
16
b = 0.96 in
say b = 1 in
h = 3b = 3 in
153.
The same as 152, except that the cycles of F2 will not exceed 100,000 and all
surfaces are machined.
Solution:
Page 12 of 62
106
(
)
sn at 10 cycles = 36 5
= 43.8 ksi
10
su = 72 ksi
Machined surface, factor = 0.90
sn = (0.85)(0.90)(43.8) = 33.5 ksi
5
20 8
1 1.5b3 1.5b3
=
+
1.5
52
33.5
b = 0.8543 in
7
say b = in
8
5
h = 3b = 2 in
8
154.
Solution:
For AISI 1020, coldfinished
su = 78 ksi
s y = 66 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 39 ksi
size factor = 0.85
sns = (0.6)(0.85)(39) = 20 ksi
s ys = 0.6 s y = 0.6(66 ) = 40 ksi
1 sms sas
=
+
N s ys sns
(a) Reversed torque
sms = 0
16T
sas =
D3
T = 6283 in lb
16(6283) 32,000
32
sas =
=
psi = 3 ksi
3
3
D
D
D
1
sas
= 0+
N
sns
Page 13 of 62
1 D3 D 3
=
+
1.5
40
20
D = 1.22 in
1
say D = 1 in
4
sms =
1 D3 D 3
+
=
1.5
40
20
D = 1.145 in
5
say D = 1 in
32
sms =
Page 14 of 62
A simple beam 2 ft. long is made of AISI C1045 steel, as rolled. The dimensions
of the beam, which is set on edge, are 1 in. x 3 in. At the midpoint is a repeated,
reversed load of 4000 lb. What is the factor of safety?
Solution:
For AISI C1045, as rolled
su = 96 ksi
s y = 59 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(96) = 48 ksi
size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(48) = 40.8 ksi
1 sm sa
= +
N s y sn
sm = 0
6M
sa = 2
bh
h = 3 in
b = 1 in
FL (4000 )(24 )
M=
=
= 24,000 in lb = 24 in kips
4
4
6(24 )
sa =
= 16 ksi
(1)(3)2
1
16
= 0+
N
40.8
N = 2.55
156.
The same as 155, except that the material is normalized and tempered cast steel,
SAE 080.
Solution:
Table AT 6
sn = 35 ksi
s y = 40 ksi
sn = (0.85)(35) = 29.75 ksi
1
16
= 0+
N
29.75
N = 1.86
157.
A 1 in. shaft is made of AISI 1045 steel, as rolled. For N = 2 , what repeated
and reversed torque can the shaft sustain indefinitely?
Page 15 of 62
The load on the link shown (150) is a maximum of 10 kips, repeated and
reversed. The link is forged from AISI C020, as rolled, and it has a inhole
drilled on the center line of the wide side. Let h = 2b and N = 1.5 . Determine b
and h at the hole (no column action) (a) for indefinite life, (b) for 50,000
repetitions (no reversal) of the maximum load, (c) for indefinite life but with a
ground and polished surface. In this case, compute the maximum stress.
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
For as forged surface
Surface factor = 0.55
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.55)(32.5) = 12.2 ksi
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
Page 16 of 62
sn = (12.2 )
4
5 10
(log K ) 3
0.085
= 15.74 ksi
(log 3.3 ) 3
f
n
(5 104 )
=
= 2.0
log K
10log 3.3
10 f
1 K fl sa
=
N
sn
1
(2.0)(10)
=
1.5 b(2b 0.25)(15.74)
2b 2 0.25b = 1.906
b 2 0.125b 0.953 = 0
b = 1.04 in
1
1
say b = 1 in , h = 2b = 2 in
16
8
K fl =
Page 17 of 62
(3.315)(10)
= 13.14 ksi
1.1875(2.375 0.25)
A connecting link as shown, except that there is a 1/8in. radial hole drilled
through it at the center section. It is machined from AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F, and
it is subjected to a repeated, reversed axial load whose maximum value is 5 kips.
For N = 1.5 , determine the diameter of the link at the hole (a) for indefinite life;
(b) for a life of 105 repetitions (no column action). (c) In the link found in (a)
what is the maximum tensile stress?
Problem 159
Solution:
For AISI 2330, WQT 1000 F
su = 135 ksi
s y = 126 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(135) = 67.5 ksi
For machined surface, Fig. AF 7, surface factor = 0.80
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.80)(67.5) = 36.72 ksi
Page 18 of 62
0.085
= 44.66 ksi
(log 2.4 ) 3
f
n
(105 )
K fl = log K f =
10log 2.44
10
1 K fl sa
=
N
sn
1
(1.81)(20)
=
1.5 44.66(D 2 0.5 D )
D 2 0.5D = 1.216
D = 0.71 in
Page 19 of 62
= 1.81
say D =
3
in
4
4K f F
D 2 0.5D
7
d 0.125
D = in ,
=
= 0.14
8
D 0.875
Figure AF 8
K t = 2.6
(c) smax =
smax =
160.
4(2.54)(5)
2
7
7
0.5
8
8
= 25.82 ksi
Page 20 of 62
2 .5
875
2187.5
sa =
=
b
b2
b
2 .5
1
6562.5 (1.65)(2187.5)
=
+
1.8 48,000b 2
20,000b 2
b = 0.7556 in
or b = 0.75 in
b
0.75
t=
=
= 0.3 in
2 .5 2 .5
sm =
Page 21 of 62
2 .5
875
2187.5
sa =
=
b
b2
b
2 .5
1
6562.5 (2.9)(2187.5)
=
+
1.8 48,000b 2
20,000b 2
b = 0.904 in
15
or b = 0.9375 in = in
16
b
3
t=
= in
2 .5 8
15
d = b = in
16
15
3
15
use b = in , t = in , d = in
16
8
16
sm =
(b) smax = sm + K f sa
d 15
=
in
2 32
1
q=
= 0.98
0.01
1+
15
32
K t = 2.9
r=
Fm 6562.5 6562.5
=
=
= 7467 psi
2
bt
b2
15
16
F 2187.5 2187.5
sa = a =
=
= 2489 psi
2
bt
b2
15
16
smax = sm + K f sa = 7467 + (2.86 )(2489 ) = 14,586 psi
sm =
162.
The beam shown has a circular cross section and supports a load F that
varies from 1000 lb to 3000 lb; it is machined from AISI C1020 steel, as
rolled. Determine the diameter D if r = 0.2 D and N = 2 ; indefinite life.
Page 22 of 62
=0
12 F = 24 B
F = 2B
F
B=
2
F
A= B=
2
At discontinuity
6F
M=
= 3F
2
M max = 3(3000) in lb = 9000 in lb = 9 in kips
Page 23 of 62
Solution:
Page 24 of 62
16T
D3
K fs sas
1 sms
=
+
N s ys
sns
Figure AF 12
D d =1.5d d =1.5
r d = 0.2d d = 0.2
K ts = 1.2
assume K fs K ts = 1.2
(16)(5) + (1.2)(16)(5)
1
=
2 43.2D 3
22.5D 3
D = 1.5734 in
9
say D = 1 in
16
smax = sm + K f sa
smax =
165.
(16)(5)
9
1
16
Page 25 of 62
Page 26 of 62
s=
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
(32)(36) + (1.0)(32)(12)
1
=
2 83 (1.5 D )3 41.62 (1.5 D )3
D = 1.6335 in
11
say D = 1 in
16
(c) Specified dimension:
D = 2 in , 1.5 D = 3 in
A smaller diameter is permissible if the fillet were shotpeened because of increased
fatigue strength.
166.
Solution:
Tmax = 15 in kips
Tmin = 5 in kips
1
Tm = (15 + 5) = 10 in kips
2
1
Ta = (15 5) = 5 in kips
2
For AISI 1050, OQT 1100 F
su = 101 ksi
s y = 58.5 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(101) = 50.5 ksi
Page 27 of 62
1 sms K fs sas
=
+
N s ys
sns
(16)(10) + (1.6)(16)(5)
1
=
1.6 35.1D 3
21.9D 3
D = 1.7433 in
3
say D = 1 in
4
(b) r = D 4
r D = 0.25
D d =1.5
Figure AF 12
K ts = 1.18
K fs K ts = 1.18 < 1.6
Therefore, smaller D is not reasonable.
170.
The beam shown is made of AISI C1020 steel, as rolled; e = 8 in . The load F is
repeated from zero to a maximum of 1400 lb. Assume that the stress
concentration at the point of application of F is not decisive. Determine the
depth h and width t if h 4t ; N = 1.5 0.1 for Soderberg line. Iteration is
necessary because K f depends on the dimensions. Start by assuming a logical
K f for a logical h (Fig. AF 11), with a final check of K f . Considerable
estimation inevitable.
Page 28 of 62
Problem 170
Solution:
1
F
2
At the hole
A= B=
F
M = eB = (8) = 4 F
2
M max = 4 F
M min = 0
1
M m = (4 F ) = 2 F = 2(1.4 ) = 2.8 in kips
2
1
M a = (4 F ) = 2 F = 2(1.4 ) = 2.8 in kips
2
Mc
s=
I
(h 2d )3 t
I=
12
1
d = in = 0.5 in
2
1 11
c = 1 + = 1.75 in
2 22
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(32.5) = 27.62 ksi
Fig. AF 7, c d = 1.75 0.5 = 3.5 > 0.5
Page 29 of 62
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
1 12(2.8)(1.75) (3.4 )(12 )(2.8)(1.75)
=
+
3
1.5 48(h 2d )3 t
27.62(h 2d ) t
(h 2d )3 t = 12.70
[h 2(0.50)]3 t = 12.70
(4t 1)3 t = 12.70
t = 0.8627 in
7
say t = in
8
h = 4t = 3.5 in
1 1 1
h > 1 + 1 + in
2 2 2
h > 3.5 in
Figure AF 11, h d > 10
h = 10d = 10(0.50) = 5 in
1
d
= 2 = 0 .5
b 5 1 1
2 2
Therefore K t = 3.5 , K f = 3.4
1
Use h = 5 in , t = 1 in
4
171.
Design a crank similar to that shown with a design factor of 1.6 0.16 based on
the modified Goodman line. The crank is to be forged with certain surfaces
milled as shown and two in. holes. It is estimated that the material must be of
the order of AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F. The length L = 17 in. , a = 5 in. , and the
load varies form + 15 kips to 9 kips. (a) Compute the dimensions at section AB
with h = 3b . Check the safety of the edges (forged surfaces). (Iteration involves;
one could first make calculations for forged surfaces and then check safety at
holes.) (b) Without redesigning but otherwise considering relevant factors ,
Page 30 of 62
Problems 171174.
Solution:
(a) AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F
su = 96 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(96) = 48 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
Asforged surface (Fig. AF I)
Surface factor = 0.4
sn = (0.85)(0.42)(48) = 17 ksi
Milled surface (Machined)
Surface factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(0.85)(48) = 34.68 ksi
At AB, machined
1 sm K f sa
= +
N su
sn
Figure AF 11
1
b = in = 0.5 in
2
1
d = in = 0.25 in
4
d 0.25
=
in = 0.5
b 0 .5
Assume K f = 3.50
q = 0.998
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.998(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.495
Mc
I
3
(
h 2d ) b
I=
12
s=
Page 31 of 62
1
h 2 4 b
12
3
M (12b 3)
2
s=
(3b 0.5)3 b
4.5M (4b 1)
s=
(3b 0.5)3 b
M = F (L a )
M max = (15)(17 5) = 180 in kips
c=
Page 32 of 62
1 sm K f sa
= +
N su
sn
1
2(51) (1.0)(2)(204)
= 3
+
1.6 3b (96)
3b3 (17 )
b = 2.373 in
3
say b = 2 in
8
5
3
since b = 2 in > 2 in , safe.
8
8
(c) Action: reduce number of repetitions of load.
CHECK PROBLEMS
173.
Solution:
Recommendation:
No. 1, reducing the number of repetitions of loads.
175.
The link shown is made of AISI C1020, as rolled, machined all over. It is loaded
3
9
5
in tension by pins in the D = in holes in the ends; a = in , t = in ,
8
16
16
1
h = 1 in . Considering sections at A, B, and C, determine the maximum safe
8
axial load for N = 2 and indefinite life (a) if it is repeated and reversed; (b) if it
is repeated varying from zero to maximum; (c) if it is repeatedly varies or
F = W to F = 3W . (d) Using the results from (a) and (b), determine the ratio of
the endurance strength for a repeated load to that for a reversed load (Soderberg
line).
Page 34 of 62
Page 35 of 62
F
F
64 F
=
=
(h d )t 1 1 3 5 15
8 8 16
1 64 Fm 3.47(64)Fa
=
+
2 15(48)
15(20)
8
Fm + 1.48 Fa at A
1=
45
s=
At B Figure AF 9
9
d = a = in
16
1
h = 1 in
8
3
r = in
16
5
t = in
16
3
r 16
=
= 0.33
9
d
16
1
1
h
= 8 =2
9
d
16
K tB = 1.63
a = 0.01 in
1
1
q=
=
= 0.95
a
0.01
1+
1+
3
r
16
k fB = q (ktB 1) + 1 = 0.95(1.63 1) + 1 = 1.6
s=
F
F
256 F
=
=
9
5
dt
45
16 16
Page 36 of 62
b
>1
h
1
in
8
9
h = a = in
16
1
d
= 8 = 0.22
h 9
16
K tC = 3.5
d 1
r = = in
2 16
a = 0.01 in
1
1
q=
=
= 0.862
a
0.01
1+
1+
1
r
16
k fC = q (ktC 1) + 1 = 0.862(3.5 1) + 1 = 3.2
D=
F
F
256 F
=
=
(h d )t 9 1 5 35
16 8 16
1 256 Fm 3.2(256)Fa
=
+
2 35(48)
35(20)
32
1=
Fm + 1.17 Fa at C
105
s=
Equations
8
Fm + 1.48 Fa
45
32
At B, 1 =
Fm + 0.455 Fa
135
32
At C, 1 =
Fm + 1.17 Fa
105
At A, 1 =
Page 37 of 62
Page 38 of 62
(d) Ratio =
179.
F (b ) 0.603
=
= 0.892
F (a ) 0.676
A steel rod shown, AISI 2320, hot rolled, has been machined to the following
3
1
dimensions: D = 1 in. , c = in. , e = in. A semicircular groove at the
4
8
1
1
midsection has r = in. ; for radial hole, a = in. An axial load of 5 kips is
8
4
repeated and reversed ( M = 0 ). Compute the factor of safety (Soderberg) and
make a judgement on its suitability (consider statistical variations of endurance
strength i4.4). What steps may be taken to improve the design factor?
Problems 179183
Solution:
AISI 2320 hotrolled (Table AT 10)
su = 96 ksi
s y = 51 ksi
sn = 48 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
Surface factor = 0.85 (machined)
sn = (0.80)(0.85)(0.85)(48) = 27.74 ksi
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
sm = 0 , reversed
sa = s
1 K f sa
=
N
sn
s
sa = n
NK f
at the fillet, Figure AF 12
1
r = e = in
8
Page 39 of 62
d =c=
3
in
4
D = 1 in
1
r 8
= = 0.17
d 3
4
D 1
= = 1.3
d 3
4
K t = 1.55
a = 0.010 in
1
1
q=
=
= 0.926
a
0.010
1+
1+
1
r
8
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(1.55 1) + 1 = 1.51
sa = s =
N=
4(5)
3
4
= 11.32 ksi
sn
27.74
=
= 1.62
sa K f (11.32)(1.51)
Page 40 of 62
q=
4F
4(5)
=
= 11.32 ksi
2
2
d
3
4
s
27.74
N= n =
= 1.44
sa K f (11.32)(1.7 )
sa = s =
D
4
N=
Dd
(1)
1
(1)
4
4
= 9.34 ksi
27.74
sn
=
= 1.27
sa K f (9.34)(2.33)
A stock stud that supports a roller follower on a needle bearing for a cam is
5
7
3
made as shown, where a = in , b = in , c = in . The nature of the junction
8
16
4
of the diameters at B is not defined. Assume that the inside corner is sharp. The
material of the stud is AISI 2317, OQT 1000 F. Estimate the safe, repeated load
F for N = 2 . The radial capacity of the needle bearing is given as 1170 lb. at
2000 rpm for a 2500hr life. See Fig. 20.9, p. 532, Text.
Problem 186
Solution:
AISI 2317, OQT 1000 F
su = 106 ksi
s y = 71 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 53 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
sn = (0.85)(53) = 45 ksi
Figure AF 12
5
d = a = in
8
3
D = c = in
4
r d 0 , sharp corner
3
D 4
= = 1.2
d 5
8
Assume K t = 2.7
K f K t = 2 .7
s=
32 M
a3
7
M = Fb = F = 0.4375 F
16
Page 42 of 62
a=
187.
The link shown is made of AISI C1035 steel, as rolled, with the following
3
7
1
1
dimensions a = in. , b = in. , c = 1 in. , d = in. , L = 12 in. , r = in. The
8
8
2
16
axial load F varies from 3000 lb to 5000 lb and is applied by pins in the holes.
(a) What are the factors of safety at points A, B, and C if the link is machined all
over? What are the maximum stresses at these points?
Fm =
Page 43 of 62
F
ac
4
= 10.67 ksi
3
(1)
8
1
sa =
= 2.67 ksi
3
(1)
8
1 10.67 (1.78)(2.67 )
=
+
N
55
21.68
N = 2.42
sm =
At B, same as A, K f = 1.78
F
(b a )c
4
sm =
= 8 ksi
7 3
(1)
8 8
s=
Page 44 of 62
sa =
At C, Figure AF 8
1
d = in
2
h = c = 1 in
b h >1
1
d 2
= = 0.5
h 1
K t = 2.2
a = 0.010 in
d 1
r = = in = 0.25 in
2 4
1
1
q=
=
= 0.962
a
0.010
1+
1+
r
0.25
K f = q(K t 1) + 1 = 0.962(2.2 1) + 1 = 2.15
F
(b a )(c d )
4
sm =
= 16 ksi
7
3
1
1
8 8 2
1
sm =
= 4 ksi
7 3 1
1
8 8 2
1 16 (2.15)(4 )
=
+
N 55
21.68
N = 1.45
s=
Page 45 of 62
A wroughtiron bar is 1in. in diameter and 5 ft. long. (a) What will be the stress
and elongation if the bar supports a static load of 5000 lb? Compute the stress
and elongation if a 5000 lb. weight falls freely 0.05 in. and strikes a stop at the
end of the bar. (b) The same as (a), except that the bar is aluminum alloy 3003H14.
Solution:
D = 1 in. , L = 5 ft
For wrought iron,
E = 28 106 psi
(a) elongation
F = 5000 lb
(5000)(5)(12) = 0.01364 in
FL
=
=
AE
(1)2 28 106
4
Stress and elongation
h = 0.05 in
W = 5000 lb
L = 5 ft = 60 in
W W 2hEA 2
s = + 1 +
A A
LW
1
2
6
2
(
0
.
05
)
28
10
(
1
)
5000 5000
4 = 24,741 psi
1 +
s=
+
2 2
(60)(5000)
(1)
(1)
4
4
sL (24,741)(60 )
=
=
= 0.053 in
E
28 106
Page 46 of 62
W W 2hEA 2
s = + 1 +
A A
LW
1
2
6
2
0
.
05
10
10
1
(
)
(
)
5000 5000
4 = 18,475 psi
1 +
s=
+
2 2
(60)(5000)
(1)
(1)
4
4
sL (18,475)(60 )
=
=
= 0.111 in
E
10 106
190.
What should be the diameter of a rod 5 ft. long, made of an aluminum alloy
2024T4, if it is to resist the impact of a weight of W = 500 lb dropped through a
distance of 2 in.? The maximum computed stress is to be 20 ksi.
Solution:
For aluminum alloy, 2024T4
E = 10.6 106 psi
W = 500 lb
h = 2 in
L = 5 ft = 60 in
s = 20 ksi = 20,000 psi
1
W W 2hEA 2
s = + 1 +
A A
LW
40 A = 1 + (1 + 1413 A)2
A=
D 2
4
= 0.9332
D = 1.09 in , say D = 1
191.
1
in
16
A rock drill has the heads of the cylinder bolted on by 7/8in. bolts somewhat as
shown. The grip of the bolt is 4 in. (a) If the shank of the bolt is turned down to
the minor diameter of the coarsethread screw, 0.7387 in., what energy may each
bolt absorb if the stress is not to exceed 25 ksi? (b) Short bolts used as described
above sometimes fail under repeated shock loads. It was found in one instance
that if long bolts, running from head to head, were used, service failures were
eliminated. How much more energy will the bolt 21 in. long absorb for a stress of
Page 47 of 62
Problem 191
Solution:
2
s2
( AL ) = s AL
U=
2E
2E
2
D
(a) A =
4
L = 4 in
D = 0.7387 in
E = 30106 psi
s = 25 ksi = 25,000 psi
U=
= 17.86 in lb
(b) L = 21 in
4
= 93.75 in lb
2 30 106
U = 93.75 17.86 = 75.89 in lb
U=
192.
Page 48 of 62
D 2
4
8WaE 8(8.05)(12)(30 106 )
s2 =
=
D 2 g
(0.162)2 (32)
s = 93,741 psi
193.
The hoist A shown, weighing 5000 lb. and moving at a constant v = 4 fps is
attached to a 2 in. wire rope that has a metal area of 1.6 sq. in. and a modulus
E = 12 106 psi . When h = 100 ft , the sheave D is instantly stopped by a brake
(since this is impossible, it represents the worst conceivable condition).
Assuming that the stretching is elastic, compute the maximum stress in the rope.
Solution:
s 2 AL
2E
1
W 2
v
U = mv 2 =
2
2g
U=
s 2 AL W 2
=
v
2E
2g
Wv 2 E
gAL
W = 5000 lb
s2 =
Page 49 of 62
E = 12 106 psi
A = 1.6 in 2
L = h = 100 ft
g = 32 fps 2
s2 =
s = 13,693 psi
194.
A coarsethread steel bolt, in. in diameter, with 2 in. of threaded and 3 in. of
unthreaded shank, receives an impact caused by a falling 500lb weight. The area
at the root of the thread is 0.334 sq. in. and the effects of threads are to be
neglected. (a) What amount of energy in inlb. could be absorbed if the maximum
calculated stress is 10 ksi? (b) From what distance h could the weight be
dropped for this maximum stress? (c) How much energy could be absorbed at the
same maximum stress if the unthreaded shank were turned down to the root
diameter.
Solution:
s 2 AL
U=
2E
(a) U = U1 + U 2
s12 A1L1
2E
2
s AL
U2 = 2 2 2
2E
A1 = 0.334 in 2
U1 =
A2 =
(0.75) = 0.442 in 2
4
s1 = 10,000 psi
s A (10,000 )(0.334 )
s2 = 1 1 =
= 7556 psi
A2
0.442
L1 = 2 in
L2 = 3 in
E = 30 10 6 psi
U1 =
U2 =
2(30 106 )
2(30 106 )
Page 50 of 62
W 2hEA 2
(b) s =
1 + 1 +
A
LW
W
2hE
s = 1 + 1 +
A1
L L
W 1 + 2
A1 A2
W
2hEA1 A2 2
s = 1 + 1 +
A1 W ( A2 L1 + A1L2 )
W = 500 lb
A1 = 0.334 in 2
A2 = 0.442 in 2
L1 = 2 in
L2 = 3 in
E = 30106 psi
s = 10,000 psi
0.334
500[(0.442 )(2 ) + (0.334 )(3)]
h = 0.0033 in
s 2 AL
2E
A = 0.334 in 2
L = 5 in
E = 30106 psi
s = 10,000 psi
(c) U =
2
(
10,000) (0.334)(5)
U=
= 2.783 in lb
2(30 106 )
196.
A part of a machine that weighs 1000 lb. raised and lowered by 1 in. steel rod
that has Acme threads on one end (see i8.18 Text, for minor diameter). The
length of the rod is 10 ft. and the upper 4 ft are threaded. As the part being
Page 51 of 62
W 2hEA 2
s=
1 + 1 +
A
LW
W
2hE
s = 1 + 1 +
A1
L L
W 1 + 2
A1 A2
W
2hEA1 A2 2
s = 1 + 1 +
A1 W ( A2 L1 + A1L2 )
1
see i8.18 , D2 = 1 in , D1 = 1.25 in
2
2
(1.25)
A1 =
= 1.227 in 2
4
(1.5)2
A2 =
= 1.767 in 2
4
L1 = 4 in
L2 = 6 in
1
h = in = 0.125 in
8
W = 1000 lb
E = 30106 psi
W 2hEA 2
(b) s =
1 + 1 +
A
LW
2
A = A1 = 1.227 in
L = L1 + L2 = 10 in
Page 52 of 62
197.
Solution:
1
2
2
Wv E
s=
g AL1 + We
o W
W
We = b
3
Wb = AL
= 0.284 lb in3
3
2
2
= 0.442 in
4 4
L = 6 ft = 72 in
Wb = (0.284)(0.442)(72) = 9.038 lb
9.038
= 3.013 lb
We =
3
W = 50 lb
v = 2 fps
A=
g o = 32 fps 2
E = 30106 psi
L = 6 ft
1
2
2
6
50
s y 55,000
=
= 6.74
s
8166
Page 53 of 62
Solution:
Without beams weight
y
s = sst
yst
FL3
48EI
F 48EI
k= = 3
y
L
y=
W 2hk 2
y = =
1 + 1 +
k
W
6
E = 3010 psi
L = 10 ft = 120 in
I = 301.6 in 4
48(30 106 )(301.6)
= 251,333 lb in
(120)3
W = 100 lb
h = 25 in
k=
100 2(25)(251,333) 2
y=
1 + 1 +
= 0.1415 in
100
251,333
WL3
(100)(120)
yst =
=
= 0.0004 in
48EI 48(30 106 )(301.6)
Mc
sst =
I
WL (100 )(120 )
M=
=
= 3000 in lb
4
4
h 12
c= =
= 6 in
2 2
(3000)(6) = 59.68 psi
sst =
301.6
0.1415
s = (59.68)
= 21,112 psi
0.0004
3
Page 54 of 62
2h 2
y = yst + yst 1 +
yst
h  correction factor =
1
W
1+ e
W
17Wb
35
Wb = (50 lb ft )(10 ft ) = 500 lb
17(500 )
We =
= 243 lb
35
1
h  correction factor =
= 0.292
243
1+
100
1
2(25)(0.292 ) 2
y = 0.00041 + 1 +
= 0.0764 in
0
.
0004
y
0.0764
s = sst
= (59.68)
= 11,400 psi
yst
0.0004
We =
201.
A 3000 lb. automobile (here considered rigid) strikes the midpoint of a guard rail
that is an 8in. 23lb. Ibeam, 40 ft. long; I = 64.2 in4 . Made of AISI C1020, as
rolled, the Ibeam is simply supported on rigid posts at its ends. (a) What level
velocity of the automobile results in stressing the Ibeam to the tensile yield
strength? Compare results observed by including and neglecting the beams
mass.
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi = 48,000 psi
F Wv 2
=
2
2 go
F 48 EI
k= = 3
L
Mc FLc
s=
=
I
4I
4 Is
F=
Lc
F F 2 L3
16 I 2 s 2 L3
s 2 IL
=
= 2 2
=
2
96 EI L c (96 EI ) 6 Ec 2
Page 55 of 62
2
2
3Wv Ec
1
s2 =
2 g o IL 1 + We
W
17Wb
We =
35
Wb = (23 lb ft )(40 ft ) = 920 lb
17(920 )
We =
= 447 lb
35
2
2
2
2
2
6
3
Wv
Ec
3
(
3000
)
v
(
30
10
)
(
4
)
1
s 2 = (48,000) =
=
447
2 go IL
32(64.2)(40)
1 +
3000
v = 7.10 fps
2
A simple beam is struck midway between supports by a 32.2lb. weight that has
fallen 20 in. The length of the beam is 12 ft. If the stress is not to exceed 20 ksi,
what size Ibeam should be used?
Solution:
Page 56 of 62
2h 2
y = yst + yst 1 +
yst
y
s = sst
yst
h = 20 in
s = 20,000 psi
WL3
yst =
48EI
1
y
96 EIh 2
= 1 + 1 +
yst
WL3
96 EIh
1
y
= 1 + 1 +
3
We
yst
WL
1+
W
Mc WLd
sst =
=
I
8I
17 wL
We =
35
1
WLd 96 EIh
1
s=
1 + 1 +
8I
WL3 1 + 17 wL
35W
W = 32.2 lb
h = 20 in
L = 12 ft = 144 in
E = 30106 psi
s=
(32.2)(144)d
8I
1
96 30 106 (I )(20)
1 + 1 +
(32.2)(144)3 1 + 17(w)(12)
35(32.2)
579.6d
1
2
s=
1 + 1 + 599 I
I
1 + 0.181w
Page 57 of 62
2
579.6(3)
1
s=
1 + 1 + 599(2.5)
= 19,600 psi < 20,000 psi
2.5
1 + 0.181(5.7 )
A 10in., 25.4lb.., Ibean, AISI 1020, as rolled, is 10 ft. long and is simply
supported at the ends shown. There is a static load of F1 = 10 kips , 4 ft from the
left end, and a repeated reversed load of F2 = 10 kips , 3 ft from the right end. It is
desired to make two attachments to the beam through holes as shown. No
significant load is supported by these attachments, but the holes cause stress
concentration. Will it be safe to make these attachments as planned? Determine
the factor of safety at the point of maximum moment and at points of stress
concentration.
Problem 204
Solution:
Mass of beam negligible
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
su = 65 ksi
( M
= 0)
4 F1 + (10 3)F2 = 10 B
1
B = (4 F1 + 7 F2 )
10
( M B = 0)
3F2 + (10 4)F1 = 10 A
1
A = (6 F1 + 3F2 )
10
F1 = 10 kips
F2 = 10 to 10 kips
1
Bmin = [4(10 ) + 7( 10 )] = 3 kips
10
Page 58 of 62
Bmax =
Page 59 of 62
sm =
sa
122.1
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
1 1.92 (2.85)(0.96 )
=
+
N
48
27.6
N = 7 .2
at maximum moment, or at , F2
M max = 3(11) = 33 ft kips
M min = 3( 3) = 9 ft kips
Mc
s=
I
1
M m = (33 9 ) = 12 ft kips = 144 in kips
2
1
M a = (33 + 9 ) = 21 ft kips = 252 in kips
2
Page 60 of 62
c=
1 sm K f sa
= +
N sy
sn
1 5.90 (1.0 )(10.32 )
=
+
N
48
27.6
N =2
Since the design factor at the holes is much larger than at the point of maximum moment,
it is safe to make these attachment as planned.
205.
Problem 205.
Solution:
M R2 = 0
(L x )F + (L x a )F = LR1
(2 L 2 x a )F
R =
1
L
x
M = R1 x = (2 L 2 x a )F
L
Page 61 of 62
a
L F
L
2
2 2 L L a a F =
M max =
L
2
2L
L = 20 ft = 240 in
a = 9 ft = 108 in
F = 10,000 lb = 10 kips
2
108
240
(10 )
2
M max =
= 720.75 in kips
2(240 )
For 15in., 42.9 lb, Ibeam
I = 441.8 in4
15
c = = 7.5 in
2
Mc (720.75)(7.5)
smax =
=
= 12.24 ksi
I
441.8
For AISI C1029, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
106
sn = 27.6 5
= 34 ksi
10
s
34
N= n =
=7
s 12.24
(b) N =
su
65
=
= 5.31
s 12.24
 end 
Page 62 of 62
221.
A 5000lb. gear box is provided with a steel (as rolled B1113) eyebolt for use
in moving it. What size bolt should be used: (a) if UNC threads are used? (b)
If UNF threads are used? (c) If the 8thread series is used? Explain the basis
of your choice of design factor.
Solution:
B1113, as rolled
s y = 45 ksi (Table AT7)
Fe = 5000 lb
i5.6, sd =
sy
6
( As ) 2
D < in
4
3
4
sd = 0.4 sy
For D in
sd = 0.4(45,000) = 18,000 psi
As =
Fe
5000
=
= 0.2778 sq.in.
sd 18 ,000
Use D = in , As = 0.373sq.in.
Page 1 of 42
Solution:
Table AT7
Wrought iron, s y = 25 ksi
sd = 0.4 sy = 0.4(25) = 10 ksi = 10,000 psi
As =
Fe 2(2000)
=
= 0.4 sq.in.
sd 10,000
Table AT 17
(a) UNC Threads
7
8
A wall bracket, Fig. 813, Text, is loaded so that the two top bolts that fasten it
to the wall are each subjected to a tensile load of 710 lb. The bolts are to be
cold forged from AISI C1020 steel with UNC threads, Neglecting the effect of
shearing stresses, determine the diameter of these bolts if they are well
tightened.
Figure 813
Page 2 of 42
Solution:
Fe = 710 lb
s
3
3
Fe = y ( As ) 2 D < in
4
6
3
66,000
( As ) 2
710 =
6
3
As = 0.161 sq.in. , D < in
4
225.
9
in , As = 0.1820 sq.in.
16
Page 3 of 42
Solution:
Coldfinished AISI B1113
Table A7, s y = 72 ksi
Fe = 1250 lb
s
3
(a) Fe = y ( As ) 2
6
3
72,000
1250 =
( As ) 2
6
3
in
4
Table AT 14 , UNC Threads
Use D =
5
in , As = 0.2260 sq.in.
8
Solution:
Page 4 of 42
Use D =
5
in , As = 0.2260 sq.in.
8
(b) T = CDFi
C = 0. 2
s i = 0. 9 s p
s p = 85 ksi , (Table 5.2)
The American Steel Flange Standard specifies that 8 bolts are to be used on
flanges for 4in. pipe where the steam or water pressure is 1500 psi. It is also
specified that, in calculating the bolt load, the outside diameter of the gasket,
which is 6 3/16 in., should be used. Determine (a) the diameter of the UNC bolts
if they are welltightened and made of ASTM 354 BD (Table 52), (b) the
approximate torque to tighten the nuts if the initial stress is 90 % of the proof
stress. The Standard specifies that 1 1/4 in. bolts with 8 th./in. be used (these
bolts are also subjected to bending). How does your answer compare?
Solution:
Table 5.2, ASTM 354 BD
s p = 120 ksi
s y = 125 ksi
Page 5 of 42
3
1500 6
4 16 = 5638 lb
Fe =
8
sy
(a) Fe =
( As ) 2
, D<
6
3
125,000
5638 =
( As ) 2
6
As = 0.4184 sq.in. ,
Table AT 14 , UNC Threads
Use D =
D>
3
in
4
7
in , As = 0.4620 sq.in.
8
3
in
4
use
sd = 50,000 psi 5.6, ASTM A354 BD
F
5638
As = e =
= 0.1128 sq.in.
sd 50 ,000
1
D < 1 in as specified by the standard.
4
CHECK PROBLEMS
228.
A cap screw, in.10UNC2, with a hexagonal head that is 9/16 in. thick,
carries a tensile load of 3000 lb. If the material is AISI 1015, cold drawn, find
the factor of safety based on ultimate strengths of (a) the threaded shank, (b)
the head against being sheared off, and (c) the bearing surface under the head.
(d) Is there any need to consider the strength of standard capscrew heads in
design?
Page 6 of 42
Solution:
For in. UNC, Table AT 14,
As = 0.334 sq.in.
Head:
1
A = 1 in.
8
(a) s =
(b) s s =
F
Dt
9
in
16
3000
ss =
= 2264 psi
3 9
4 16
s
58,000
N = us =
= 25.6
ss
2264
t=
(c) =
360 o
= 30 o
12
1
1
1 A A
1 8
Area = 6(2) tan = 6(2)
tan 30 = 1.096 sq.in.
2 2 2
2 2
Page 7 of 42
sb =
N=
F
=
Area Ab
3000
1.096
= 4586 psi
4 4
su 77,000
=
= 16.8
sb
4586
(d)
No need to consider the strength of standard capscrew heads since its factor of
safety is very much higher than for the threaded shank.
229.
A bolt, 1 1/8 in.7UNC2, is subjected to a tensile load of 10,000 lb. The head
has a thickness of in. and the nut a thickness of 1 in. If the material is SAE
grade 2 (Table 5.2), find the design factor as based on ultimate stresses (a) of
the threaded shank, (b) of the head against being sheared off, and (c) of the
bearing surface under the head. The bolt head is finished. (d) Is there any need
to consider the strength of standard bolt heads in design?
Solution:
1
For SAE grade 2 (Table 5.2), D = 1 in
8
su = 55 ksi , sus = 0.75su
For 1 1/8 in.7UNC2 (Table AT 14)
As = 0.763 sq.in.
A =1
11
in
16
F = 10,000 lb.
F 10,000
=
= 13,106 psi
As
0.763
s
55,000
N= u =
= 4.2
sd 13,106
(a) s =
(b) s s =
t=
F
Dt
3
in
4
Page 8 of 42
ss =
(c) =
360 o
= 30 o
12
11
1
1 A A
1 16
Area = 6(2) tan = 6(2)
tan 30 = 2.4661 sq.in.
2 2 2
2 2
F
10,000
sb =
=
= 6793 psi
2
Area Ab
1
2.4661 1
4 8
s
55,000
N= u =
= 8.1
sb
6793
(d)
No need to consider the strength of standard bolt head in design since its factor of
safety is higher than for the threaded shank.
230.
An axial force is applied to a regular nut which of course tends to shear the
threads on the screw. (a) What is the ratio of the force necessary to shear the
threads (all threads initially in intimate contact) to the force necessary to pull
the bolt in two? Use coarse threads, a 1 in. bolt, and assume that
sus = 0.75su . The head thickness is 1 in. and the nut thickness is 1 5/16 in. (b)
Is failure of the thread by shear likely in this bolt?
Solution:
1  in. UNC
As = 1.405 sq.in.
(a) Fs = shear force = susDt
1
D = 1 in.
2
5
t = 1 in.
16
Page 9 of 42
For bolted structural joints, specifications suggest that in. bolts (highstrength material) be tightened to an initial tension of Fi = 12,500 lb . What
should be the approximate tightening torque? How does your answer compare
with T = 90 ft lb ., which is the value in the specification?
Solution:
1
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (12,500) = 1250 in lb
2
One method of estimating the initial tensile stress in a tightened bolt is to turn
the nut until it is snug, but with no significant stress in the bolt. Then the nut is
turned through a predetermined angle that induces a certain unit strain
corresponding to the desired stress. A  in. bolt of the type shown in Fig.
5.4, Text, is turned down until, for practical purposes, the diameter of the
entire shank is the minor diameter. The material is AISI 4140, OQT 1200 oF.
The grip is 5 in. and the effective strain length is estimated to be 5.3 in. If the
initial tensile stress at the root diameter is to be about 75 % of the yield
strength, through what angle should the nut be turned after it is just snug? The
threads are UNC and the parts being bolted are assumed to be rigid.
Solution:
Page 10 of 42
pitch, p =
1
in = 0.10 in
10
(360o )
p
sL
=
(
360 o )
pE
(86,250)(5.3) (360o ) = 55o
=
(0.10)(30 106 )
=
233.
When both ends of a bolt are accessible for micrometer measurements, the
total elongation caused by tightening can be determined by measuring
lengths before and after tightening. In order to reduce this total elongation to
unit elongation, thence to stress, the effective strain length for the bolt must be
known. For a 1 in steel bolt, threaded for its full length, 8thread series, the
effective strain length has been found by experiment to be
Le = 0.97G + 1.1 in. , where G is the grip (by W.A. McDonald, North
Carolina State College). Let the bolt material be AISI 8742, OQT 1000 oF. (a)
It is desired that the initial tensile stress be about 0.7 s y . What total elongation
should be obtained for a grip length of 4.8 in.? (b) Investigate the approximate
tightening torque for the specified condition. How could this torque be
obtained?
Solution:
1 in., 8thread series
Table 5.1
Dr = 1.0966 in
As = 1.000 sq.in.
Th in. = 8
AISI 8742, OQT 1000 oF
s y = 147 ksi
(a) si = 0.70 s y
si = 0.70(147 ) = 102.9 ksi = 102,900 psi
Page 11 of 42
si Le
E
Le = 0.97G + 1.1 in.
G = 4.8 in
Le = 0.97(4.8) + 1.1 in. = 5.756 in
si Le (102,900 )(5.756 )
=
= 0.01975 in
E
30 106
(b) =
64TL
Dr4G
G = 11.5 10 6 psi
1
p = in = 0.125 in
8
0.01975
64T (5.756 )
=
=
4
0.125
(1.0966) (11.5 106 )
T = 22,408 in lb
ELASTIC CONSIDERATIONS
235.
Page 12 of 42
Ac = De2 D 2
4
4
h
De = (Nut or head width across flats) +
2
Table AT 14
1
A = 1 in
2
1 2
1
De = 1 + = 2 in.
2 2
2
2 2
Ac = De D
4
4
2
Ac = (2.5) (1)2 = 4.1234 sq.in.
4
FL
(15,000)(2) = 0.000686 in.
c = i =
Ac Ec (4.1234 )(10.6 10 6 )
(b) Fe = 5000 lb
Page 13 of 42
= Fe
= 5000
Fb = Fe
0.000686 + 0.00127
kb + k c
b + c
Fb = 1754 lb
Bolt:
Ft = Fi + Fb = 15,000 + 1754 = 16,754 lb
F 16,754
sb = t =
= 29,132 psi
As 0.606
Member B and C
kc
Fc = Fi Fe
kb + k c
c
Fc = Fi Fe
+
b
c
0.00127
Fc = 15,000 5000
= 11,754 lb
0.00127 + 0.000686
F 11,754
sc = c =
= 2851 psi
Ac 4.1234
(c) Fo = opening load
+ c
Fo = Fi i
i
Fig. 5.6
237.
0.00127 + 0.000686
= 15,000
= 23,102 lb
0
.
00127
A 1in. steel bolt is used to clamp two aluminum (2014T6, HT aged) plates
together as shown by Fig. 5.9, Text. The aluminum plates have a total
thickness of 2 in. and an equivalent diameter of 2 in. The bolt is heated to a
temperature of 200 oF, the inserted in the aluminum plates, which are at 80 oF,
and tightened so as to have a tensile tightening stress of 30 ksi in the
unthreaded shank while steel at 200 oF. What is the tensile stress in the bolt
after assembly has cooled to 80 oF? The deformations are elastic.
Figure 5.9
Page 14 of 42
Solution:
For aluminum 2014T6
E = 10.6 106 psi
s b = 30,000 psi
2
Fi = s b Ab = (30,000 ) (1) = 23,562 lb
4
Steel bolt. Eb = 30 10 6 psi
s L (30,000 )(2 )
i = b =
= 0.002 in.
Eb
30 10 6
c =
Ac =
Ac =
Fi L
.
Ac E c
De2
[(2)
4
D2
Ec = 10.6 10 6 psi
FL
(23,562)(2) = 0.001887 in
c = i =
Ac Ec (2.3562) 10.6 10 6
L = L c = 2 0.001887 = 1.998113 in.
L = Lt
= 0.000007 in. (in. F ) for steel
L = (0.000007 )(1.998113)(80 200 ) = 0.001678 in.
i = i + L = 0.002 0.001678 = 0.000322 in.
Page 15 of 42
i =
sb (2 )
30 106
sb = 4830 psi
0.000322 =
238.
Prob. 238
Solution:
For Yellow brass, B368,
E = 15 10 6 psi
Steel bolt
E = 30 106 psi
Table AT 14, 1 1/8 in., UNC
Dr = 0.9497 in.
As = 0.763 sq.in.
Th in = 7
L = 30 in.
p
1
p = in.
7
1
= turn
4
1 1 1
i = = in.
4 7 28
Page 16 of 42
i =
Fi L
Ab Eb
1
Fi (30)
=
28 1 2
6
1 30 10
4 8
Fi = 35,500 lb
(a)
Bolt: sb =
Fi 35,500
=
= 46,527 psi
As
0.763
Fi
Ac
Ac = 2 sq.in.
F 35,500
sc = i =
= 17,750 psi
Ac
2
Tube: sc =
(b) Fe = 5000 lb
Ac Ec (2 ) 15 106
kc =
=
= 1,000,000 lb in
L
30
2
1
6
1 30 10
Ab Eb 4 8
kb =
=
= 994,000 lb in
L
30
Bolts:
kb
Fe
Ft = Fi +
kb + k c
994,000
Ft = 35,500 +
(5000 ) = 38,000 lb
994,000 + 1,000,000
F 38,000
st = t =
= 49,800 psi
As
0.763
Tube:
kc
Fe
Fc = Fi
kb + kc
1,000,000
Fc = 35,500
(5000 ) = 33,000 lb
994,000 + 1,000,000
F 33,000
sc = c =
= 16,500 psi
Ac
2
For zero stress in the tube
Page 17 of 42
994,000 + 1,000,000
Fi =
(35,500) = 70,787 lb
1,000,000
ENDURANCE STRENGTH
DESIGN PROBLEMS
239.
Problem 239
Solution:
For AISI C1118, as rolled
s y = 46 ksi
su = 75 ksi
si = 0.5s y
Page 18 of 42
Lb = t
Ac Ec
Lc
For castiron class 20
Ec = 9.6 106 psi
Lc = t
kc =
Ac =
De2
D2
D2
4
De = 2 D
Ab =
Ac =
(2 D )2 D 2 = 3 D 2 = 3 Ab
4
AE
kb = b b
Lb
Ab 30 10 6
t
3 A 9.6 106
kc = b
t
kb
30 10 6
300
=
=
6
6
kb + k c 30 10 + 3(9.6 10 ) 588
Fb1 = 0
kb =
kb
300 1500
Fe =
Fb 2 =
= 383 lb
588 2
k b + kc
1
1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 23,000 As + (383 + 0) = 23,000 As + 192 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (383 0) = 192 lb
2
2
s n = 0.5su = 0.5(75,000 psi ) = 37,500 psi
sm =
Fm 23,000 As 192
192
=
+
= 23,000 +
As
As
As
As
Page 19 of 42
sa =
Fa 192
=
As
As
192
192
23,000 +
(1.8)
As
As
1
=
+
1.75
46,000
25,500
As = 0.2482 sq.in.
Table AT 14, UNC
3
Use D = in. , As = 0.334 sq.in.
4
(b) Modifies Goodman line
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N su
sn
192
192
23,000 +
(1.8)
As
As
1
+
=
1.75
75,000
25,500
As = 0.0609 sq.in.
Table AT 14, UNC
3
Use D = in. , As = 0.0775 sq.in.
8
(c) Recommended, D =
240.
3
in. UNC
4
Page 20 of 42
Solution:
kc
lb
(a) Fi = QFe
k
+
k
b c
Q = 1.5
AE
kb = b b
Lb
Ab =
D2
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
1
Lb = 1 in.
2
Ac Ec
kc =
Lc
Ac =
De2
4
De = 2 D
Ac =
D2
(2 D )2 D 2 = 3 D 2 = 3 Ab
4
4
4
6
Ec = 10 10 psi (3003H14 aluminum)
1
Lc = 1 in.
2
A 30 10 6
kb = b
1
1
2
3 A 10 10 6
kc = b
1
1
2
kc
3 10 10 6
=
= 0.5
kb + k c 30 10 6 + 3 10 10 6
Page 21 of 42
30 106
Fe =
(1250 ) = 625 lb
Fb 2 =
6
6
30 10 + 3(10 10 )
kb + k c
1
(Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 937.5 + 1 (625 + 0) = 1250 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (625 0) = 312.5 lb
2
2
F
1250
sm = m =
As
As
F 312.5
sa = a =
As
As
Fm = Fi +
1
1250
(1.8)(312.5)
=
+
2 72,000 As
28,220 As
As = 0.07459 sq.in.
Table AT 14, UNC
Page 22 of 42
Use D =
243.
Solution:
(10 )
Fo = 300
= 2356 lb.
4 10
kc
Fi = Fo
kb + k c
2
kb =
Ab Eb
Lb
D2
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
Ab =
Lb = L
AE
kc = c c
Lc
Ac =
De2
4
De = 2 D
Ac =
D2
(2 D )2 D 2 = 3 D 2 = 3 Ab
4
4
4
6
Cast Steel, Ec = 30 10 psi
Lc = L
Ab (30 10 6 )
L
3 Ab 30 106
kc =
= 3kb
L
kc
3kb
= (2356 )
= 1767 lb
Fi = Fo
kb + k c
kb + 3kb
kb =
Page 23 of 42
k b (10 )2 (200 )
Fe =
= 393 lb
10
kb + 3kb 4
1
(Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 1767 + 1 (393 + 0 ) = 1964 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (393 0) = 196 lb
2
2
F
1964
sm = m =
As
As
F 196
sa = a =
As
As
For C1118, as rolled
su = 75 ksi
Fm = Fi +
s y = 46 ksi
1
1964
(1.8)(196)
=
+
2 46,000 As 25,500 As
As = 0.1131 sq.in.
Table AT 14, UNC
1
Use D = in. , As = 0.1419 sq.in.
2
(b) T = 0.2 DFi
1
T = 0.2 (1767 ) = 176.7 in lb.
2
245.
A castiron (class 35) Dieselengine cylinder head is held on 8 stud bolts with
UNC threads. These bolts are made of AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 oF (Fig.
AF2). Assume that the compressed material has an equivalent diameter twice
Page 24 of 42
(8)
Fo = 1500
= 9425 lb.
4 8
kc
Fi = Fo
kb + k c
2
kb =
Ab Eb
Lb
D2
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
Ab =
Lb = L
AE
kc = c c
Lc
Ac =
De2
4
De = 2 D
Ac =
D2
(2 D )2 D 2 = 3 D 2 = 3 Ab
4
4
4
6
Ec = 14.5 10 psi , for castiron (class 35)
Lc = L
Ab 30 10 6
L
3 Ab 14.5 106
kc =
L
kc
3(14.5 10 6 )
= (9425)
= 5578 lb
Fi = Fo
6
6
30 10 + 3(14.5 10 )
kb + k c
kb =
Page 25 of 42
(8)2 (750 )
30 10 6
Fe =
Fb 2 =
= 1923 lb
6
6
8
30 10 + 3(14.5 10 ) 4
kb + k c
1
(Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 5578 + 1 (1923 + 0) = 6540 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (1923 0) = 962 lb
2
2
Fm = Fi +
Fm 6540
=
As
As
F
962
sa = a =
As
As
(a) For AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 oF
su = 153 ksi
s y = 134 ksi
sm =
Page 26 of 42
(3.3)(962)
1
6540
=
+
2 153,000 As 52,000 As
As = 0.2076 sq.in.
Table AT 14, UNC
5
Use D = in. , As = 0.226 sq.in.
8
(c) T = 0.2 DFi
5
T = 0.2 (5578) = 697 in lb.
8
Fi 5578
=
= 24,681 psi
As 0.226
s
24,681
Ratio = i =
= 0.184
s y 134,000
(d) si =
Factor of safety
Fi = si As = (113,900 )(0.226 ) = 25,742 lb
1
Fm = 25,742 + (1923) = 26,704 lb
2
1
Fa = (1923) = 962 lb
2
Fm 26,704
sm =
=
= 118,159 psi
As
0.226
F
962
sa = a =
= 4257 psi
As 0.226
Soderberg Equation
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
1 118,159 (3.3)(4257 )
=
+
N 134,000
52,000
N = 0.87
246.
Page 27 of 42
Solution:
Fe min = 0
Fe max = 30,000 lb
kc
Fi = QFe
k
+
k
b c
Q = 1.25
AE
kb = b b
Lb
Ab =
D2
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
Lb = L
AE
kc = c c
Lc
Ac =
De2
4
De = 2 D
Ac =
D2
(2 D )2 D 2 = 3 D 2 = 3 Ab
4
4
4
6
Ec = 10.6 10 psi , (Aluminum 2014T6)
Lc = L
Page 28 of 42
Fi = QFe
kb + k c
3 10.6 10 6
Fi = (1.25)(30,000 )
= 19, 296 lb
6
6
30
10
+
3
10
.
6
10
kb
Fe
Fb =
k
+
k
b c
Fb1 = 0
kb
30 106
Fe =
(30,000 ) = 14,563 lb
Fb 2 =
6
6
k
+
k
30
10
+
3
(
10
.
6
10
)
b
c
1
(Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 19,296 + 1 (14,563 + 0) = 26,578 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (14,563 0 ) = 7282 lb
2
2
Fm = Fi +
Fm
nAs
F
sa = a
nAs
For in.UNF (Table AT 14)
As = 0.1419 sq.in.
F
26,578 187,300
sm = m =
=
nAs 0.1419n
n
F
7282
51,318
sa = a =
=
nAs 0.1419n
n
sm =
The maximum external load on the cap bolts of an automotive connecting rod
end, imposed by inertia forces at top dead center, is taken to be 4000 lb.; the
minimum load is zero at bottom dead center. The material is AISI 4140, OQT
1100oF (qualifying for SAE grade 5); assume that s n = 0.45su . The grip for
through bolts is 1.5 in. For design purposed, let each bolt take half the load,
3
and use an equivalent De = 1 in. for the connected parts. The threads extend
8
a negligible amount into the grip. For the initial computation, use an opening
load Fo = 1.75 Fe . Considering the manner in which the bolt is loaded, we
decide that a design factor of 1.4 (Soderberg) should be quite adequate. (a)
Does a 5/1624 UNF satisfy this situation? If not, what size do you
recommend? (b) Experience suggests that, in situations such as this, an initial
stress of the order suggested in i5.8, Text, is good insurance against fatigue
failure. Decide upon such an si and recomputed N . How does it change?
Would you be concerned about the safety in this case? Consider the variation
of si as a consequences of the use of torque wrench and also the stress
relaxation with time (due to seating and other factors), and discuss. Compute
the required tightening torque for each si .
Solution:
Fo = 1.75Fe = 1.75(4000) = 7000 lb
kc
Fi = Fe
kb + kc
AE
kb = b b
Lb
Ab =
D2
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
Page 30 of 42
De2
4
2
D2
2
2
1 D = 1.485 D = 1.485 Ab
4 8 4
4
Ec = 10.6 106 psi , (Aluminum 2014T6)
Ac =
Lc = 1.5 in.
As Ab
Ab Eb Ab (30 106 )
kb =
=
Lb
1.5
Ac Ec (1.485 As )(30 106 )
kc =
=
Lc
1.5
1.485 As
Fi = 7000
= 7000 4714 As
1.485
kb
Fe
Fb =
kb + k c
Fb1 = 0
kb
A
Fe = s (4,000 ) = 2694 As
Fb 2 =
1.485
kb + k c
1
(Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 7000 4714 As + 1 (2694 As + 0) = 7000 3367 As
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2694 As 0 ) = 1347 As
2
2
Fm = Fi +
Table 5.2
su = 120 ksi
s y = 88 ksi
s n = 0.45su = 0.45(120 ) = 54 ksi = 54,000 psi
F
7000
sm = m =
3367
As
As
F
s a = a = 1347
As
Page 31 of 42
+
1.4 88,000 As 88,000
54,000
As = 0.1187 sq.in.
7
Table At14, we D = in , As = 0.1187 sq.in.
16
(a) 5/1624 UNF will not
D=
7
in ,
16
As = 0.1187 sq.in.
Fi = si As = (74,800)(0.1187 ) = 8879 lb
1
1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 8879 + (2694 As + 0 ) = 8879 + 1347 As
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2694 As 0 ) = 1347 As
2
2
F
8879
sm = m =
+ 1347
As
As
F
s a = a = 1347
As
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
8879
+ 1347
1 0.1187
+ (3.3)(1347 )
=
N
88,000
54,000
N = 1.06 , it decreases
N > 1 , therefore, safe.
Considering variation of si , si tends to exceeds the limiting stress therefore reduces the
factor of safety. While stress relaxation tends to reduce the limiting stress approaching
the si and causing lower design factor.
(c) Fi = 7000 4714 As = 7000 4714(0.1187 ) = 6440 lb
Page 32 of 42
7
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (6440) = 564 in lb
16
at Fi = 8879 lb
7
T = 0.2 DFi = 0.2 (8879 ) = 777 in lb
16
CHECK PROBLEMS
249.
Page 33 of 42
1
Lb = 30 + 2 = 30.5 in.
4
Eb = 30 10 6 psi
1
Fi (30.5)
=
=
32
(1)2 30 106
4
Fi = 24,141 lb
kb
Fb = Fe
kb + k c
Ab Eb 4
=
Lb
AE
kc = c c
Lc
Ac = 2 sq.in.
Lc = 30 in.
kb =
30.5
= 772,525
2 15 10 6
kc =
= 1,000,000
30
(a) Fb1 = 0
772,525
Fb 2 = (5000 )
= 2179 lb
772,525 + 1,000,000
1
1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 24,141 + (2179 + 0 ) = 25,230 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2179 0) = 1090 lb
2
2
Fm 25,230
sm =
=
= 38,227 psi
As
0.606
F
1090
sa = a =
= 1799 psi
As 0.606
For normalized AISI 1137, coldrolled thread
su = 98 ksi
s y = 58 ksi
s n = 0.5su = 0.5(98) = 49 ksi = 49,000 psi
K f = 1.4 (Table AT 12)
Page 34 of 42
(b) Fi = Fo
kb + k c
1,000,000
24,141 = Fo
772,525 + 1,000,000
Fo = 42,790 lb
250.
A in. finethread bolt, made of AISI 1117, cold drawn, with rolled threads,
passes through a yellow brass tube and two steel washers, as shown. The tube
is 4 in. long, 7/8 in. internal diameter, 1 in. external diameter. The washers
are each in. thick. The unthreaded part of the bolt is 3 in. long. Assume that
there is no stretching of the bolt inside the nut in finding its k . The
unlubricated bolt is tightened by a torque of 1800 inlb. The external load,
varying from 0 to 4 kips, is axially applied to the washers an indefinite
number of times. (a) Compute the factor of safety of the bolt by the Soderberg
criterion. Is there any danger of failure of the bolt? (b) What pull must be
exerted by the washers to remove all load from the brass tube?
Solution:
T = 0.2 DFi
3
1800 = 0.2 Fi
4
Fi = 12,000 lb
kb
Fb = Fe
kb + k c
1
1
1
=
+
kb kb1 kb 2
AE
kb1 = b b
Lb1
Lb1 = 3 in.
Ab =
= 0.4418 sq.in.
4 4
Page 35 of 42
kb1 =
As Eb
Lb 2
For in. UNF (Table AT 14)
As = 0.373 sq.in.
kb 2 =
1
Lb 2 = 4 + 2 3 = 1.5 in.
2
(0.373) 30 106 = 7,460,000
kb 2 =
1.5
1
1
1
=
+
kb kb1 kb 2
1
1
1
=
+
kb 4,418,000 7,460,000
kb = 2,774,733
AE
kc = c c
Lc
2
2
1 7
1 = 0.6259 sq.in.
4 4 8
Ec = 15 106 psi
Ac =
Lc = 4 in.
kc =
Fb1 = 0
2,774,733
Fb 2 = (4000)
= 2167 lb
2,774,733 + 2,347,125
1
1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 12,000 + (2167 + 0) = 13,084 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (2167 0) = 1084 lb
2
2
F
13,084
sm = m =
= 35,078 psi
As
0.373
F
1084
sa = a =
= 2906 psi
As 0.373
For AISI 111, cold drawn, rolled threads
s n = 40 ksi
Page 36 of 42
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
(b) Fi = Fo
kb + k c
2,347,125
12,000 = Fo
2,774,733 + 2,347,125
Fo = 26,186 lb
A coupling bolt (i5.13, Text) is used to connect two parts made of castiron,
251.
class 35. The diameter of the coarsethread bolt is in.; its grip is 2 in., which
is also nearly the unthreaded length. The bolt tightened to have an initial
tension of 4000 lb. The parts support an external load Fe that tends to separate
them and it varies from zero to 5000 lb. What is the factor of safety,
(Soderberg)?
Solution:
Fi = 4000 lb
kb
Fb = Fe
kb + k c
AE
kb = b b
Lb
Lb = 2 in.
kb =
2
Table AT 14, UNC
Page 37 of 42
Ac =
De2
D2 =
2
2
3 1
1 = 2.209 sq.in.
4 4 2
Lc = 2 in.
kc
(
2.209 )(14.5 106 )
=
= 16,015,250
2
Fb1 = 0
2,945,250
Fb 2 = (5000 )
= 777 lb
2,945,250 + 16,015,250
1
1
Fm = Fi + (Fb 2 + Fb1 ) = 4000 + (777 + 0 ) = 4389 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fb 2 Fb1 ) = (777 0) = 389 lb
2
2
Fm
4389
sm =
=
= 30,930 psi
As 0.1419
F
389
sa = a =
= 2741 psi
As 0.1419
1
For ASTM 354 BC (Table 5.2), D = in.
2
su = 125 ksi
s y = 109 ksi
s n = 0.5su
For axial loading
s n = (0.8)(0.5)(125) = 50 ksi = 50,000 psi
K f = 1.8
Soderberg Line
Page 38 of 42
1
30,930 (1.8)(2741)
=
+
N 109,000
50,000
N = 2. 6
252.
The cap on the end of a connecting rod (automotive engine) is held on by two
5/16in. bolts that are forged integrally with the main connecting rod. These
bolts have UNF threads with a 5/8in. on an unthreaded length of virtually 5/8
in. The nuts are to be tightened with a torque of 20 ftlb. and the maximum
external load on one bolt is expected to be 2330 lb. Let the equivalent
diameter of the connected parts be in. (a) Estimate the maximum force on
the bolt. (b) Compute the opening load. Is this satisfactory? (c) If the bolt
material is AISI 4140, OQT 1000 oF, what is the factor of safety based on the
Soderberg criterion?
Solution:
T = 20 ft lb = 240 in lb
T = 0.2 DFi
5
240 = 0.2 Fi
16
Fi = 3840 lb
kb
Fb = Fe
kb + k c
AE
kb = b b
Lb
2
2
3 5
= 0.3651 sq.in.
4 4 16
Ec = 30 10 6 psi , (Cast iron, class 35)
Ac =
De2
Page 39 of 42
D2 =
Fb = (2330)
= 405 lb
3,681,600 + 17,524,800
Lc =
(b) Fi = Fo
k
+
k
b c
17,524,800
3840 = Fo
3,681,600 + 17,524,80
Fo = 4647 lb < Fmax
Fb
405
= 3840 +
= 4042 lb
2
2
F
405
Fa = b =
= 202 lb
2
2
For AISI 4140, OQT 1000 oF
su = 170 ksi
(c) Fm = Fi +
s y = 155 ksi
Page 40 of 42
Solution:
6
Tangential force = (75 lb )
= 365 lb
1.25
Assume tangential force = holding force
Table 5.3, use Screw size 8, Holding force = 385 lb.
255.
Solution:
1.25
= 833 lb
Tangential force = (1000 lb )
32
Holding force = (6)(833) = 5000 lb
Table 5.3, use Screw size in.
256.
Solution:
Torque = (16)(40) = 640 in lb
2(640 )
Tangential force =
= 640 lb
2
Holding force = (5)(640 ) = 3200 lb
Table 5.3, use Screw size 9/16 in.
257.
A 12in. gear is mounted on a 2in. shaft and is held in place by a 7/16 in.
setscrew. For a design factor of 3, what would be the tangential load that
could be applied to the teeth and what horsepower could be transmitted by the
screw.
Solution:
Page 41 of 42
Page 42 of 42
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
HELICAL COMPRESSION SPRINGS
DESIGN LIGHT, MEDIUM SERVICE
271.
Solution:
For oil tempered wire, Table AT 17
146
su = 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw
solid stress = 0.6 s u
design stress, (average service)
ssd = 0.324 su
0.324(146 ) 47.304
ssd =
=
ksi
Dw0.19
Dw0.19
Dw + Dm 7
F = 2850 lb = 2.85 kips
8FDm 47.304
=
ss = K
3
Dw0.19
Dw
say K = 1.3
8(2.85)(7 Dw ) 47.304
ss = 1.3
=
Dw3
Dw0.19
Dw = 1.015 in
say Dw = 1.0 in
8(2.85)Dm
ss = 1.3
= 54
3
(1)
Dm = 5.72 in
Page 1 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
say Dm = 5.0 in
OD = Dm + Dw = 5.0 + 1.0 = 6 in < 7 in.
D
5 .0
C= m =
=5
Dw 1.0
= Free length Compressed length = 18 in 15 in = 3 in.
8FC 3 N c
GDw
3
in
8
8(2.85)(5) N c
(10,500)(1)
N c = 11.05
say N c = 11.5
3
=3=
8(2.85)(5) (11.5)
= 3.12 in
(10,500)(1)
Free length = 15 + 3.12 = 18.12 in
3
At 2.85 kips
8FDm
ss = K
3
Dw
C =5
4C 1 0.615 4(5) 1 0.615
K=
+
=
+
= 1.3105
4C 4
C
4(5) 4
5
8(2.85)(5)
ss = 1.3105
= 47.55 ksi
3
(1)
Permissible solid stress
0.6(146 )
sso = 0.6 su =
ksi = 99.93 ksi
(0.5)0.19
F
k=
using
or let T = Free length Solid height
47.55 99.93
=
3.12
T
T = 6.56 in
T = Free length Solid height = (P Dw )N c
6.56 = (P 1)(11.5)
P = 1.570 in
Page 2 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
1
use P = 1 in
2
Pitch angle,
1.5
P
o
o
= tan 1
= tan 1
= 5.5 < 12 , o.k.
D
(
5
)
A coil spring is to be used for the front spring of a automobile. The spring is
to have a rate of 400 lb./in., an inside diameter of 4 3/64 in., and a free length
of 14 1/8 in., with squaredandground ends. The material is to be oiltempered chrome vanadium steel. Decide upon the diameter of the wire and
the number of free coils for a design load of F = 1500 lb . Be sure solid
stress is all right. How much is the pitch angle?
Solution:
Table AT 17 CrV steel
168
su = 0.166 ksi , [0.032 < Dw 0.437]
Dw
average service
ssd = 0.324su
0.324(168) 54.432
ssd =
= 0.166 ksi
Dw0.166
Dw
Max solid stress = 0.6su
Page 3 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
3
in = 4.046875 in
64
Dm = Dw + 4.046875 in
ID = Dm Dw = 4
8FDm
= ssd
ss = K
3
Dw
Assume K = 1.3
F = 1500 lb = 1.5 kips
ssd =
8(1.5)(Dw + 4.046875)
54.432
= 1.3
0.166
Dw
Dw3
Dw = 0.724 in
3
use Dw = in
4
3
3
51
Dm = + 4 = 4 in
4
64
64
8FDm
ss = K
3
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
51
4
Dm 64
C=
=
6.4
Dw
3
4
4(6.4) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.235
4(6.4) 4
6.4
51
8(1.5) 4
64 = 53.64 ksi < 62.45 ksi , (o.k.)
ss = 1.235
3
8FC 3 N c
GDw
Page 4 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
3
G = 10,500 ksi , D w > in
8
F 1500
= =
= 3.75 in
k
400
3
8(1.5)(6.4 ) N c
= 3.75 =
(10,500) 3
4
N c = 9.4
Table AT 16, Total coils = N c + 2 = 9.4 + 2 = 11.4 for square and grounded end.
Summary of answer:
Dw = wire diameter = in.
No. of free coils = 11.4
To check for solid stress.
Permissible solid stress =
0.6(168)
= 115.65 ksi
(0.437 )0.166
Free length = PN c + 2 Dw
3
Solid height = Dw ( N c + 2 ) = (11.4 ) = 8.55 in
4
1
14 8.55
= 78.74 ksi < 115.65 ksi (safe)
Solid stress = (53.64 ) 8
3.75
Pitch:
1
PN c + 2 Dw = 14 in
8
1
3
P(9.4 ) + 2 = 14
8
4
11
P = 1.343 in = 1 in
32
Pitch angle,
11
1
1 P
1
= tan 32 = 5.1o < 12o , o.k.
= tan
D
4 51
64
Page 5 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
273.
A coiled compression spring is to fit inside a cylinder 5/8 in. in diameter. For
one position of the piston, the spring is to exert a pressure on the piston
equivalent to 5 psi of piston area, and in this position, the overall length of the
spring must not exceed (but may be less than) 2 in. A pressure of 46 psi on the
piston is to compress the spring in. from the position described above.
Design a spring for medium service. Specify the cheapest suitable material,
number of total and active coils for squareandground ends, and investigate
the pitch angle, and solid stress.
Solution:
8FDm
ss = K
3
D
OD = Dm + Dw =
Dm + 1.5 Dw =
5
D
in w
8
2
5
in
8
2
5
F1 = (5) = 1.534 lb
4 8
2
5
F2 = (46 + 5) = 15.647 lb
4 8
8FC 38.556
38,556
=
ss = K
ksi = 0.19 psi
2
0.19
Dw
Dw
Dw
8(15.647 )C
K
= 38,556 Dw1.81
Page 6 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
K=
4C 1 0.615
+
4C 4
C
1.81
4C 1 0.615
0.625
+
(39.845)C = 38,556
C
4C 4
C + 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
1.81
+
(C + 1.5) C = 413.3
C
4C 4
C = 7.035
0.625
0.625
=
= 0.0732 in
Dw =
C + 1.5 7.035 + 1.5
Table AT 15, Dw = 0.0720 in , W & M 15
Dm = 7.035(0.0720) = 0.5065 in
For N c
2 1 =
8(F2 F1 )C 3 N c
GDw
1 =
8(F1 )C 3 N c
GDw
1 =
2 =
8(F2 )C 3 N c
GDw
2 =
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
Table AT 17
146
su = 0.19 ksi , 0.028 < Dw < 0.5
Dw
Max solid stress =
ssd = 0.324
87.5
ksi
D w0.19
146 47.304
=
Dw0.19
Dw0.19
8FC 47.304
47,304
=
ss = K
ksi =
psi
2
0.19
0.19
D
D
D
w
w
w
(
)
8 15.647 C
K
= 47,304 Dw1.81
4C 1 0.615
0.625
+
(39.845)C = 47,304
C
4C 4
C + 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
1.81
+
(C + 1.5) C = 507.1
C
4C 4
C = 7.684
0.625
0.625
Dw =
=
= 0.0680 in
C + 1.5 7.684 + 1.5
Table AT 15, Dw = 0.0625 in , W & M 16
Dm = 7.684(0.0625) = 0.48025 in
15
say Dm =
= 0.46875 in
32
D
0.46875
C= m =
= 7 .5
Dw
0.0625
8FC
ss = K
2
Dw
4C 1 0.615 4(7.5) 1 0.615
K=
+
=
+
= 1.1974
4C 4
C
4(7.5) 4
7.5
8(15.647 )(7.5)
ss = 1.1974
= 91,600 psi = 91.6 ksi
2
(0.0625)
For N c
Page 8 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
2 1 =
8(F2 F1 )C 3 N c
GDw
2 1 =
1 =
8(F1 )C 3 N c
GDw
1 =
P = 0.1729 in
11
in
64
Pitch angle,
0.1729
P
o
o
= tan 1
= tan 1
= 6.7 < 12 , o.k.
0
.
46875
D
(
)
Solid stress
2 0.8325
sso = (91.6 )
= 142.6 ksi
0.75
87.5
Permissible solid stress =
= 148.8 ksi > 137.5 ksi , safe.
(0.0625)0.19
Summary of answer:
Suitable material = OilTempered Spring Wire
Total Coils = 13.32
Active Coils, N c = 11.32
274.
A helical spring is to fit about a 11/16in. rod with a free length of 2 in. or
less. A maximum load of 8 lb. is to produce a deflection of 1 in. The spring
is expected to be compressed less than 5000 times during its life, but is
subjected to relatively high temperatures and corrosive atmosphere. Select a
material and determine the necessary wire size, mean coil diameter, and
number of coils. Meet all conditions advised by Text.
Page 9 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
Solution:
For 5000 cycles < 104 cycles, use light service
Use stainless steel, type 302 (CrNi), ASTM A313 for relative high temperature and
corrosive atmosphere, Table AT 17.
ssd = 0.32su (i)
170
ksi , [0.01 < Dw < 0.13]
Dw0.14
97
su = 0.41 ksi , [0.13 < Dw < 0.375]
Dw
Maximum solid so = 0.47 su
su =
8FDm
ss = K
3
D
w
F = 8 lb
11 D
Dm Dw = + w
16 2
Dm 1.5Dw = 0.6875 in
CDw 1.5 Dw = 0.6875
0.6875
Dw =
C 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
170
assume su = 0.14 ksi
Dw
0.32(170 ) 54.4
54,400
ssd =
= 0.14 ksi =
psi
0.14
Dw
Dw
Dw0.14
4C 1 0.615 8(8)C
+
= 54,400 D1w.86
C
4C 4
1.86
4C 1 0.615 64C
0.6875
+
= 54,400
C
4C 4
C 1 .5
4C 1 0.615
1.86
+
(C 1.5) C = 1330
C
4C 4
C = 12.919
0.6875
Dw =
= 0.0602 in
12.919 1.5
Use Table AT 15, Dw = 0.0625 in , 16 W & M
Dm = 12.919(0.0602) = 0.8074 in
25
say Dm =
in = 0.78125 in
32
Page 10 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
11
16
0.78125 0.0625 > 0.6875
0.71875 > 0.6875
Dm Dw >
Dw
, o.k.
2
Dm 0.71875
=
= 12.5
Dw
0.0625
su =
170
ksi is o.k.
Dw0.14
8FC
ss = K
2
D
w
4(12.5) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.1144
4(12.5) 4 12.5
8(8)(12.5)
ss = 1.1144
= 72,648 psi
2
(0.0625)
8(F )C 3 N c
=
GDw
G = 10.6 106 psi
3
8(8)(12.5) N c
4 10.6 106 (0.0625)
N c = 9.3
To check for solid stress and pitch
Minimum solid height = Dw N c = (0.0625)(9.3) = 0.58125 in
3
=1 =
(72,648) 2 3 0.58125
4
= 90,000 psi = 90 ksi
3
1
4
(0.47 )(170) = 117.8 ksi > 90 ksi , o.k.
Permissible solid stress =
(0.0625)0.14
Free length = PN c , minimum
3
P (9.3) = 2
4
P = 0.2957 in
Pitch angle,
0.2957
P
= tan 1
= 7.5o < 12o , o.k.
= tan 1
D
(0.71825)
Summary of answer
Material, Stainless Steel, CrNi. ASTM A313
Solid stress =
Page 11 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
Dw = 0.0625 in , 16 W & M
25
Dm =
in
32
N c = 9.3
275.
Solution:
Use Music wire (The best material)
Table AT 17
190
su = 0.154 ksi , [0.004 < Dw < 0.192]
Dw
Maximum solid sso = 0.5su
Light service, ssd = 0.405su
0.405(190 ) 76.95
76,950
ssd =
= 0.154 ksi = 0.154 psi
0.154
Dw
Dw
Dw
8FC
ss = K
2
Dw
F = 3500 lb
OD = Dm + Dw = 6 in
(C + 1)Dw = 6
6
Dw =
C +1
76,950
4C 1 0.615 8(3500 )C
=
ss =
+
C 6 6 0.154
4C 4
C + 1 C + 1
4C 1 0.615
1.846
+
= 235.9
C (C + 1)
C
4C 4
C = 5.635
6
Dw =
= 0.9043 in > 0.192 in
5.635 + 1
76.950
use ss =
= 99,216 psi
(0.192)0.154
Page 12 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
4C 1 0.615 8(3500 )C
= 99,216
ss =
+
C 6
4C 4
C + 1
4C 1 0.615
2
+
C (C + 1) = 400.8
C
4C 4
C = 6.205
6
= 0.8328 in
Dw =
6.205 + 1
13
Say Dw = in = 0.8125 in
16
Dm = (6.205)(0.8125) = 5.042 in
Say Dm = 5 in
D
5
C= m =
= 6.154
Dw 0.8125
4(6.154) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.2455
4(6.154) 4 6.154
8FC
ss = K
2
Dw
8(3500)(6.154)
ss = 1.2455
= 103,481 psi > 99,216 psi , not o.k.
2
(0.8125)
Use Dm = 4.5 in
D
4 .5
C= m =
= 5.5385
Dw 0.8125
4(5.5385) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.2763
45.5385 4 5.5385
8(3500)(5.5385)
ss = 1.2763
= 95,435 psi > 99,216 psi , o.k.
2
(0.8125)
To check for solid stress
(0.5)(190) = 122.488 ksi = 122,488 psi
Permissible solid stress =
(0.192 )0.154
1
Solid stress =
(95,435) = 190,870 psi > 122,488 psi , not ok
0 .5
Use
0 .5
ssd = 122,488
= 61,244 psi
1
.
Page 13 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
4C 1 0.615 8(3500 )C
= 61,244
ss =
+
C 6
4C 4
C + 1
4C 1 0.615
2
+
C (C + 1) = 247.4
C
4C 4
C = 5 .1
6
= 0.9836 in
Dw =
5 .1 + 1
Say Dw = 1.0 in
Dm = (5.1)(1.0) = 5.1 in
Say Dm = 5 in
D
5
C = m = =5
Dw 1
8FC
ss = K
2
Dw
4(5) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.3105
4(5) 4
5
8(3500)(5)
ss = 1.3105
= 58,400 psi > 61,244 psi o.k.
2
(
)
1
.
0
Use Dw = 1.0 in , Dm = 5 in
1
Solid stress =
(58,400 ) = 116,800 psi < 122,488 psi , o.k.
0 .5
8(F )C 3 N c
=
GDw
(Table AT 17)
G = 12 106 psi
8(3500 )(5) N c
= 0.5 =
12 106 (1.0)
N c = 1.7143
say N c = 1.75
Free length Solid length = Solid Deflection
PN c Dw N c = 1 in
P(1.75) (1)(1.75) = 1
9
P = 1.5714 in 1 in
16
Pitch angle,
3
Page 14 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
9
1
P
= tan 1 16 = 5.68o < 12o , o.k.
= tan 1
D
(5)
Summary of answer.
F 3500
Scale, k = =
= 7000 lb in
0 .5
Wire size, Dw = 1.0 in
Material = Music Wire
Solid sress = 116,800 psi
9
Pitch of stress = P = 1 in
16
CHECK PROBLEMS LIGHT, MEDIUM SERVICE
276.
The front spring of an automobile has a total of 9 coils, 7 3/8 active coils
(squareandground ends), an inside diameter of 4 3/64 in., and a free length
of 14 in. It is made of SAE 9255 steel wire, OQT 1000oF, with a diameter
of 43/64 in. Compute (a) the rate (scale) of the spring; (b) the solid stress
and compare with a permissible value (is a stop needed to prevent solid
compression?). (c) Can 95 % of the solid stress be repeated 105 times without
danger of failure? Would you advise shot peening of the spring?
Solution:
8FC 3 N c
GDw
43
3
Dw =
in > in
64
8
6
G = 10.5 10 psi
D
C= m
Dw
Dm Dw = ID
43
3
Dm
= 4 in
64
64
23
Dm = 4 in
32
23
4
C = 32 = 7.0233
43
64
(a) =
Page 15 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
Nc = 7
3
8
43
(10.5 10 ) 64
GD
k = rate = = 3 w =
8C N c
= 345 lb in
3 3
8(7.0233) 7
8
8(2714)(7.0233)
ss = 1.212
= 130,322 psi
2
43
64
Page 16 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
corresponding deflection, (c) solid stress,. (d) pitch angle, (e) scale, (f) the
energy absorbed by the spring from a deflection of 0.25 in. to that of the
working load. (g) Is there any danger of this spring buckling? (h) What
maximum load could be used if the spring were shot peened?
Solution:
Table AT 17, oiltempered
146
su = 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw
87.5
Maximum solid sso = 0.19 ksi
Dw
ssd = 0.324su (medium service)
Table AT 15, No. 3 W & M
Dw = 0.2437 in
C = 4.13
Dm = CDw = 4.13(0.2437 ) = 1.0 in
8F C
(a) ss = K s 2
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
4(4.13) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.3885
4(4.13) 4 4.13
0.324(146 )
ss = ssd =
= 61.858 ksi = 61,858 psi
(0.2437 )0.19
8(F )(4.13)
ss = 61,858 = 1.3885
2
(0.2437 )
F = 252 lb
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
G = 11.5 106 psi
N c = 30
8(252)(4.13) (30)
= 1.52 in
11.5 106 (0.2437 )
3
Page 17 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (30 + 2)(0.2437 ) = 7.7984 in
Solid deflection = 9.9974 7.7984 = 2.199 in.
2.199
Solid stress = (61,858)
= 89,491 psi
1.52
Maximum solid sso =
87.5
87.5
ksi =
ksi = 114.4 ksi > 89.491 ksi , o.k. safe
0.19
Dw
(0.2437 )0.19
0.317
P
= tan 1
= 5.76o < 12o , o.k.
D
(1)
F 252
(e) scale = k = =
= 166 lb in
1.52
1
(f) U s = k ( 22 12 )
2
k = 166 lb in
1 = 0.25 in
2 = 1.52 in
1
2
2
U s = (166 ) (1.52 ) (0.25) = 186.6 in lb
2
(d) = tan 1
Solution:
Page 18 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
Dw = 1 in
3
Dm + Dw = 5 in
8
3
Dm = 4 in
8
3
4
D
C = m = 8 = 4.375
Dw
1
8FC 3 N c
(a) =
GDw
Assume N c = 4.3
G = 10.5 106 psi , Dw >
3
in
8
8F (4.375) (4.3)
10.5 106 (1)
F = 3645 lb
W 47,300
No. of springs =
=
= 13
F
3645
3
= 1.0 =
W 47,300
=
= 3638 lb
13
13
8F C
ss = K s 2
Dw
(b) F =
4C 1 0.615
+
4C 4
C
4(4.375) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.3628
4(4.375) 4 4.375
K=
8(3638)(4.375)
ss = 1.3628
= 55,235 psi
(1.0)2
2
(c) Solid Stress = ss = 55,235 = 110,470 psi
1
(d) s ys 110,470 psi
s ys
110,470
= 184,117 psi = 184.117 ksi
0.6
0.6
From Table AT 7,
Use AISI 8760, OQT 800 oF, s y = 200 ksi
sy =
Page 19 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
A spring, subjected to a load varying from 100 lb. to 250 lb., is to be made of oiltempered, coldwound wire. Determine the diameter of the wire and the mean
diameter of the coil for a design factor of 1.25 based on Wahls line. The spring
index is to be at least 5. Conform to good practice, showing checks for all
significant parameters. Let the free length be between 6 and 8.
Solution:
Fmax = 250 lb
Fmin = 100 lb
1
1
Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (250 + 100 ) = 175 lb = 0.175 kip
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = (250 100 ) = 75 lb = 0.075 kip
2
2
Wahls line
1 sms sas 2sas
=
+
N
s ys
sno
8 KFa Dm 8 KFa C
=
sas =
Dw3
Dw2
8 KFm Dm 8 KFmC
sms =
=
K cDw3
K cDw2
C =5
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
4(5) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.31
4(5) 4
5
Fig. AF 15, C = 5
K c = 1.19
For oiltempered wire,
87.5
s ys = 0.19
Dw , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
47
Dw0.1 , [0.041 < Dw < 0.15]
30
sno = 0.34
Dw , [0.15 < Dw < 0.625]
sno =
N = 1.25
Page 20 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
8(1.31)(0.075)(5) 1.251
=
Dw2
Dw2
8(1.31)(0.175)(5) 2.453
sms =
=
(1.19)Dw2
Dw2
30
say sno = 0.34 ksi
Dw
1 sms sas 2sas
=
+
N
s ys
sno
sas =
2.453 1.251
1.251
2 2
2
Dw
1
+ Dw
=
1.25
87.5
30
0.19
0.34
Dw
Dw
1
1
1
=
+
1.81
1.25 72.8 Dw
11.99 Dw1.66
Dw = 0.2857 in > 0.15 in
Table AT 15, use No. 1, W & M
Dw = 0.2830 in
A carbonsteel spring is to be subjected to a load that varies from 500 to 1200 lb.
The outside diameter should be between 3.5 and 4 in., the spring index between 5
to 10; approximate scale of 500 lb./in. Choose a steel and for a design factor of
1.4 by the Wahl line, find the wire diameter. Also determine the number of active
Page 21 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
coils and the free length for squaredandground ends. Conform to the general
conditions specified in the Text.
Solution:
For carbon steel, Table AT 17
91
s ys = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
49
sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
Fmax = 1200 lb
Fmin = 500 lb
1
1
Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (1200 + 500 ) = 850 lb = 0.85 kip
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = (1200 500 ) = 350 lb = 0.35 kip
2
2
OD = 3.5 ~ 4.0 in
C = 5 ~ 10
Wahls line
1 sms sas 2sas
+
=
N
s ys
sno
Figure AF 15, C = 5 ~ 10
Assume K = 1.2 , K c = 1.125
8 KFa Dm
sas =
Dw3
8 KFm Dm
sms =
K cDw3
OD 3.75 in
Dm = 3.75 Dw
8(1.2 )(0.35)(3.75 Dw ) 1.0695(3.75 Dw )
=
sas =
Dw3
Dw3
8(1.2 )(0.85)(3.75 Dw ) 2.3088(3.75 Dw )
sms =
=
(1.125)Dw3
Dw3
Dw
91
0.1
Dw
1
3.75 Dw
3.75 Dw
=
+
2.9
1.4 73.4285 Dw
22.9079 Dw2.85
Dw = 0.6171 in > 0.25 in
Use
1
=
1.4
3.75 Dw
2(1.0695)
Dw3
+
49
0.15
Dw
Page 22 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
91
= 104.53 ksi
(0.25)0.1
49
sno =
= 60.33 ksi
(0.25)0.15
s ys =
3.75 Dw
2(1.0695)
Dw3
+
60.33
Dw
1
=
1 .4
104.53
1
3.75 Dw 3.75 Dw
=
+
1.4 84.346 Dw3 28.205 Dw3
1
3.75 Dw
=
1.4 21.137 Dw3
Dw = 0.5935 in
use
19
Dw =
in
32
3
Dm + Dw 3 in
4
19
3
= 3 in
Dm +
32
4
5
Dm = 3 in
32
5
3
Dm 32
C=
=
= 5.316
Dw
19
32
. o.k.
19
Wire Diameter Dw =
in , Carbon Steel
32
Number of coils:
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
3
G = 10.5 106 psi = 10,500 ksi , Dw > in
8
F
GDw
=k = 3
8C N c
(10.5 10 ) 19
32
6
8(5.316 ) N c
N c = 10.4
Table AT 16, squareandground ends
500 =
Page 23 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
Free length = PN c + 2 Dw
Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw
Total Coils = N c + 2
19
Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (10.4 + 2 ) = 7.3625 in
32
F 1200
= =
= 2.4 in
k
500
Min. Free length = 2.4 + 7.3625 in = 9.7625 in
Use Free length = 10 in
P
0.8474
= 4.885o < 12o , o.k.
= tan 1
= tan 1
Dm
3 5
32
Solid stress:
T = solid deflection = 10 7.3625 = 2.6375 in
F = k T = (500)(2.6375) = 1319 lb
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
4(5.316) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.29
4(5.316) 4 5.316
5
8(1.29)(1319) 3
8 KFDm
32 = 23,033 psi = 23.033 ksi < s (= 104.53 ksi )
ss =
=
ys
3
3
Dw
19
32
284.
Solution:
Page 24 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
Table AT 16,
For carbon steel,
182
su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
91
s ys = 0.1 ksi
91
Dw
Max. solid s ys = 0.1 ksi
Dw
49
sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
Dm = 2 in.
Fmax = 300 lb
Fmin = 100 lb
(a) F = 300 lb = 0.3 kip
severe service, ssd = 0.263su =
8F C
ss = K s 2
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
Dm
C=
Dw
D
2
Dw = m =
C C
C = 6.075
2
Dw =
= 0.3292 in > 0.25 in
6.075
47.866
Therefore use ssd =
= 54.984 ksi
(0.25)0.1
Page 25 of 70
Dw0.1
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
4C 1 0.615 8(0.3)(2 )
ss =
+
= 54.984
C 2 3
4C 4
C
4C 1 0.615 3
4C 4 + C C = 287.9
C = 6.136
2
= 0.3259 in
Dw =
6.136
21
say Dw =
in
64
91
= 104.53 ksi
(0.25)0.1
49
sno =
= 60.33 ksi
(0.25)0.15
1
1
Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (300 + 100 ) = 200 lb = 0.2 kip
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = (300 100 ) = 100 lb = 0.1 kip
2
2
Dm
2
C=
=
= 6.095
Dw 21
64
Figure AF 15
K c = 1.15
K = 1.25
K 8Fm Dm
sms =
K c Dw3
(b) s ys =
sms
sas =
8 KFa Dm
Dw3
Page 26 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
8(0.1)(2)
sas = 1.25
= 18.02 ksi
21 3
64
Wahls line
1 sms sas 2sas
=
+
N
s ys
sno
1 31.34 18.02 2(18.02 )
=
+
N
104.53
60.33
N = 1.38
285.
A helical spring of harddrawn wire with a mean diameter of 1 in. and squareandground ends is to be subjected to a maximum load of 325 lb. (a) Compute the
wire diameter for average service. (b) How many total coils are required if the
scale is 800 lb./in.? (c) For a minimum load of 100 lb., what is the factor of safety
according to Wahl line? Would it be safe for an indefinite life?
Solution:
Table AT 17,
Harddrawn wire,
140
su = 0.19 ksi , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]
Dw
70
Maximum solid ss = s ys = 0.19 ksi
Dw
(0.9)(47 ) ksi , [0.041 < D < 0.15]
sno =
w
Dw0.1
(0.9)(30) ksi , [0.15 < D < 0.625]
sno =
w
Dw0.34
Average service
(a) ssd = 0.85(0.324 )su = 0.2754 su =
F = 325 lb = 0.325 kip
1
Dm = 1 in
2
8 FDm
ss = K
3
Dw
Page 27 of 70
0.2754(140 ) 38.556
=
ksi
Dw0.19
Dw0.19
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
4C 1 0.615
+
4C 4
C
1 .5
Dw =
C
K=
3
0.19
C
4C 4
1.5 1.5
C C
4C 1 0.615 2.81
+
C = 97.05
C
4C 4
C = 4.586
1 .5
1 .5
Dw =
=
= 0.3271 in < 0.625 in
C 4.586
21
Dw =
in
64
Dm
1 .5
=
= 4.57
Dw 21
64
4(4.57 ) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.345
4(4.57 ) 4 4.57
(b) C =
8FC 3 N c
GDw
F
GD
=k = 3 w
8C N c
k = 800 lb in = 0.8 kip in
(11,500) 21
64
0.8 =
3
84.57 N c
N c = 6.2
(c) s ys =
70
0.19
21
64
(0.9)(30)
= 86.5 ksi
sno =
Page 28 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
1
(325 100) = 112.5 lb = 0.1125 kip
2
K c = 1.212 , Fig. AF 15
K = 1.345
K c Dw3 1.212
21
64
8Fm Dm
8(0.1125)(1.5)
sas = K
= 1.345
= 16.36 ksi
3
3
21
Dw
64
Solution:
For carbon steel ASTM A230
Table AT 17
182
su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
91
s ys = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
49
sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
Medium Service
ssd = 0.324su
182 58.968
58,968
(a) ssd = 0.324 0.1 =
ksi =
psi
0.1
Dw
Dw0.1
Dw
Page 29 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
8 FDm
ss = K
3
Dw
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
4(6) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.2525
4(6) 4
6
F = 200 lb
8(200)(6) 58,968
ss = 1.2525
=
2
Dw0.1
Dw
Dw = 0.2371 in
1
(200 + 150) = 175 lb = 0.175 kip
2
1
(200 150) = 25 lb = 0.025 kip
2
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.156
Fa =
= 48.8 ksi
=
K c Dw2 1.156 (0.2437 )2
8(0.025)(6 )
8F C
sas = K a 2 = 1.2525
= 8.1 ksi
2
Dw
(0.2437 )
1 sms sas 2sas
=
+
N
s ys
sno
1 48.8 8.1 2(8.1)
=
+
N
104.8
60.56
N = 1.525
sms =
(b) Fm =
Fa =
1
(200 + 100) = 150 lb = 0.15 kip
2
1
(200 100) = 50 lb = 0.05 kip
2
Page 30 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.156
8FmC 1.2525 8(0.15)(6 )
=
= 41.8 ksi
2
2
Dw 1.156 (0.2437 )
8(0.05)(6)
8F C
sas = K a 2 = 1.2525
= 16.11 ksi
2
Dw
(0.2437 )
1 sms sas 2sas
+
=
N
s ys
sno
1 41.8 16.11 2(16.11)
+
=
N
104.8
60.56
N = 1.287
sms =
K
Kc
(c) Fm =
1
(200 + 25) = 112.5 lb = 0.1125 kip
2
1
(200 25) = 87.5 lb = 0.0875 kip
2
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.156
Fa =
= 31.36 ksi
=
K c Dw2 1.156 (0.2437 )2
8(0.0875)(6)
8F C
sas = K a 2 = 1.2525
= 28.2 ksi
2
D
(
)
0
.
2437
sms =
CHECK PROBLEMS
A Diesel valve spring is made of 3/8in. chromevanadium steel wire, shotpeened; inside
diameter is 3 in., 7 active coils, free length is 7 3/8 in., solid length is 4 1/8 in., length
with valve closed, 6 in., length when open, 5 1/8 in. (a) Compute the spring constant
and the factor of safety as defined by the Wahl criterion (see 6.13, Text). (b) Is there
any danger of damage to the spring if it is compressed solid? (c) What is the natural
frequency? If this spring is used on a 4stroke Diesel engine at 450 rpm, is there any
danger of surge? Compute the change of stored energy between working lengths.
Solution:
For chromevanadium steel wire, shotpeened, Table AT 17
Page 31 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
w < 0.437 ]
Dw0.166
(1.25)(100 ) ksi , [0.032 < D < 0.437]
s ys =
w
Dw0.166
(1.25)(49) ksi , [0.028 < D < 0.5]
sno =
w
Dw0.15
3
Dw = in = 0.375 in
8
(1.25)(100) ksi = 147.1 ksi
s ys =
(0.375)0.166
(1.25)(49) ksi = 70.96 ksi
sno =
(0.375)0.15
su =
8FC 3 N c
GDw
F
GD
=k = 3 w
8C N c
(a) =
K c Dw2
Page 32 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
4C 1 0.615
+
4C 4
C
4(9) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.162
4(9 ) 4
9
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.10
K=
2
2
Dw 1.10 (0.375)
8(0.11224 )(9)
8F C
sas = K a 2 = 1.162
= 21.3 ksi
2
Dw
(0.375)
1 sms sas 2sas
=
+
N
s ys
sno
1 39.8 21.3 2(21.3)
=
+
N
147.1
70.96
N = 1.377
sms =
K
Kc
Page 33 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
(d) U s =
1
1
2
2
k 12 22 = (105.64 ) (3.25) (1.125) = 491 in lb
2
2
289.
A helical spring is hot wound from 5/8in. carbonsteel wire with an outside
diameter of 3 in. A force of 3060 lb. is required to compress the spring 1
in to the solid heigh. In service the spring is compressed so that its
deformation varies form in. to1 1/8 in. (a) What is the factor of safety by
the Wahl criterion? (b) Is the solid stress safe? Compute (c) the pitch angle,
(d) the change of stored energy between the working lengths, (e) the factor of
safety if the spring is peened?
Solution:
For hotwound carbon steel wire
5
Dw = in
8
Table AT 17
91
s ys = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
91
s ys =
ksi = 104.5 ksi , Dw > 0.25 in.
(0.25)0.1
49
sno = 0.15 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
49
sno =
ksi = 60.33 ksi , Dw > 0.25 in.
(0.25)0.15
Permissible solid stress = ss =
ss =
117
ksi , [Dw > 0.375 in.] 6.3
Dw0.31
117
ksi = 35.4 ksi
(0.625)0.31
3060
= 1748.6 lb in
1.75
1
F1 = k1 = (1748.6 ) = 874.3 lb
2
1
F2 = k 2 = (1748.6 )1 = 1967.2 lb
8
1
Fm = (1967.2 + 874.3) = 1420.7 lb = 1.4207 kip
2
1
Fa = (1967.2 874.3) = 546.4 lb = 0.5464 kip
2
(a) k =
Page 34 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
5
in = 0.625 in
8
1
Dm + Dw = 3 in
4
Dm = 2.625 in
D
2.625
C= m =
= 4 .2
Dw 0.625
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
4(4.2) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.3808
4(4.2) 4
4.2
K c = 1.234
Dw =
= 43.5 ksi
=
K c Dw2 1.234 (0.625)2
8(0.5464)(4.2)
8F C
sas = K a 2 = 1.3808
= 20.7 ksi
2
Dw
(0.625)
1 sms sas 2sas
=
+
N
s ys
sno
1 43.5 20.7 2(20.7 )
+
=
N
104.5
60.33
N = 1.106
sms =
8(3.060)(4.2)
8 FC
= 115.7 ksi < 135.4 ksi , safe
Solid stress, ss = K 2 = 1.3808
2
Dw
(0.625)
3
(c) Solid deflection = 1 in
4
(P Dw )N c = 1.75 in
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
G = 10.5 106 psi , hotwound
F
GD
k= = 3w
8C N c
Page 35 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
(10.5 10 )(0.625)
6
1748.6 =
8(4.2 ) N c
3
N c = 6.332
(P 0.625)(6.332) = 1.75
P = 0.9014 in
Pitch angle
P
P
tan =
=
Dm CDw
= tan 1
0.9014
P
= tan 1
= 6.24o
CDw
(4.2)(0.625)
1
1
2
2
k 12 22 = (1748.6 )(1.125) (0.5) = 888 in lb
2
2
(e) When peened
s ys = 12.5(104.5) = 130.6 ksi
(d) U s =
ENERGY STORAGE
293.
A 10lb. body falls 10 in. and then strikes a helical spring. Design a harddrawn carbon steel spring that will absorb this shock occasionally without
permanent damage. Determine appropriate values of wire diameter, coil
diameter, pitch, free length, closed length, and the maximum stress under the
specified conditions, and scale. Let C = 7 .
Solution:
For harddrawn carbon steel, Table AT 17
182
su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
91
Max. solid ss = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
36.855
ssd = (0.50 )(0.405)su =
ksi
Dw0.1
Us =
ss2V
4 K 2G
Page 36 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
4C 1 0.615
+
4C 4
C
4(7 ) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.213
4(7 ) 4
7
K=
D 2
V w (Dm )N c
4
2 Dw2 Dm N c
V=
4
Dm = CDw
V=
2CDw3 N c
4
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
U s = W (h + )
8 FC
ss = K 2
Dw
s D 2
F= s w
8KC
s D 2 8C 3 N c
= s w
8KC GDw
s sDwC 2 N c
KG
2 2
3
ssDwC 2 N c s s CD w N c
U s = W h +
=
KG
16 K 2G
Wh
Nc = 2 2 2
ss CDw s sDwC 2W
16 K 2G
KG
36.855
when ss =
ksi
Dw0.1
Wh
Nc =
2 2
2.8
(36.855) CDw 36.855D w0.9C 2W
16 K 2G
KG
(
0.010)(10)
Nc =
(36.855)2 2 (7)Dw2.8 36.855D w0.9 (7 )2 (0.010)
2
(1.213)(11,500)
16(1.213) (11,500)
0.10
Nc =
2.8
0.3466 Dw 0.004067 D w0.9
Page 37 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
combination of Dw and N c
Gage No. W & M
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
Dw
0.1055
0.1205
0.1350
0.1483
0.1620
0.1770
0.1920
0.2070
0.2253
0.2437
Nc
991.2
312.1
166.1
108.0
75.2
53.7
40.2
31
23.4
18.1
Dw N c
105
37.6
22.4
16.0
12.2
9.5
7.7
6.4
5.3
4.4
(P 0.2437)(18.1) = 5.1
P = 0.5255 in
17
say P =
= 0.53125 in
32
Minimum Solid Height = Dw N c = (0.2437 )(18.1) = 4.41 in
Assume squared and ground end
Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (0.2437 )(18.1) + 2(0.2437 ) = 5.0 in
Summary of answer:
Dw = 0.2437 in , No. 3 W & M
Page 38 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
Dm = 1
45
in
64
17
in
32
Free length = 10.2 in
Closed length = 5 in
Maximum stress = 42.44 ksi
P=
294.
Solution:
For harddrawn steel wire, shock load, average service
140
su = 0.19 ksi , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]
Dw
70
Max. solid ss = 0.19 ksi , [0.028 < Dw < 0.625]
Dw
140 19.278
ssd = (0.50)(0.85)(0.324)su = (0.50)(0.85)(0.324) 0.19 = 0.19 ksi
Dw Dw
s 2V
s 2 2 Dw3 CN c
Us = s 2 = s
4K G
16 K 2G
C=6
4C 1 0.615
K=
+
4C 4
C
4(6) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.2525
4(6) 4
6
U s = 75 in lb = 0.075 in kip
19.278
2 Dw3 (6)N c
U s = 0.075 = 0.19
2
Dw 16(1.2525) (11,500)
0.9837 = Dw2.62 N c
Table AT15
W&M
Page 39 of 70
Dw
Nc
Dw N c
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
20
30
40
50
0.1483
0.1620
0.1770
0.1920
0.207
0.2253
0.2437
0.2625
0.2830
0.3065
0.3310
0.3625
0.3938
0.4305
146
116
92
74
61
49
40
32.7
26.9
21.8
17.8
14.0
11.3
8.95
7
Minimum Solid Height = Dw N c = (0.4305)(9 ) = 3.8745 in 3 in
8
45
21
Minimum Free Length = PN c = (9 ) = 6.328125 in 6 in
64
64
Pitch Angle
Page 40 of 70
21.65
18.79
16.28
14.21
12.63
11.04
9.75
8.58
7.61
6.68
5.89
5.075
4.45
3.85
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
45
P
= tan 1 64 = 5o < 12o
= tan 1
Dm
2 9
16
Volume
(0.4305)2 9
Dw2
3
(Dm )N c =
V
2 (9 ) = 10.55 in
4
4
16
Summary of answer:
Dw = 0.4305 in , No. 50 W & M
9
Dm = 2 in
16
Nc = 9
21
Free length = 6 in
64
Pitch Angle = = 5o
Solid Stress = 80.65 ksi
Volume of metal = 10.55 in3
Possibility of spring buckling
21
6
64 = 2.47 < 4 , no possibility
9
2
16
CONCENTRIC HELICAL SPRINGS
297.
Two concentric helical springs are to be subjected to a load that varies from a
maximum of 235 lb. to a maximum of 50 lb. They are to fit inside a 1 5/8 in.
cylinder. The maximum deflection is to be in., and the deflection when
compressed solid is to be approximately 1 in. Using the static approach for
severe service (maximum load), determine the wire diameter, mean coil
diameter, number of coils, solid length, and free length of both springs. (Start
with oiltempered wire and assume a diametral clearance between the outer
D
spring and the cylinder of w , assume a similar clearance between springs.
2
Search for a suitable spring index and wire size.)
Solution:
For oiltempered wire
Table AT 17
Page 41 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
146
ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw0.19
87.5
Max. solid ss = 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw
Severe service
0.263(146 ) 38.398
ssd = 0.263su =
=
ksi
Dw0.19
Dw0.19
F = 235 lb = 0.235 kip
o = i
su =
(C 1)Dwo = (C + 1.5)Dwi
Page 42 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
1.625(C 1)
(C + 1.5)2
1.625C (C 1)
Dmi =
(C + 1.5)2
Dwi =
8F C 38.398
sso = K o2 = 0.19 ksi
Dwo
Dwo
1.81
15.08Dwo
Fo =
KC
8F C 38.398
ssi = K i 2 = 0.19 ksi
Dwi
Dwi
1.81
15.08Dwi
KC
Fo + Fi = F = 0.235 kip
Fi =
1.81
1.81
15.08Dwo
15.08Dwi
+
= 0.235
KC
KC
1.81
1.81
15.08 Dwo
+ 15.08 Dwi
= 0.235 KC
1.81
1.81
1.625
1.625(C 1)
15.08
= 0.235 KC
+ 15.08
C + 1 .5
C + 1.5
1.81
(
1
C 1)
4C 1 0.615
154.52
+
= 0.235
+
C
1.81
3.62
C
(C + 1.5)
4C 4
(C + 1.5)
C = 5.328
1.625(5.328 1)
Dwi =
= 0.1509 in
(5.328 + 1.5)2
1.625
Dwo =
= 0.2380 in
5.328 + 1.5
Table AT 15, use Dwi = 0.1620 in , No. 8 W & M and Dwo = 0.2625 in , No. 2 W & M
13
Dmo = CDwo = (5.328)(0.2625) = 1.3986 in 1 in
32
7
Dmi = CDwi = (5.328)(0.1620 ) = 0.8631 in in
8
7
Dmi
8
Ci =
= = 5.401
Dwi 0.1620
Co =
Dmo
Dwo
13
1
32
=
= 5.357
0.2625
Page 43 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
1.81
15.08Dwo
K o Co
4(5.357 ) 1 0.615
Ko =
+
= 1.287
4(5.357 ) 1 5.357
Fo =
15.08(0.2625)
= 0.194 kip
(1.287 )(5.357 )
1.81
Fo =
1.81
15.08Dwi
K i Ci
4(5.401) 1 0.615
Ki =
+
= 1.2843
4(5.401) 1 5.401
15.08(0.1620)
Fi =
= 0.081 kip
(1.2843)(5.401)
Fo + Fi = 0.194 + 0.071 = 0.275 kip > 0.235 kip , ok
3GDwo
Fo =
32C 3 N co
3(11,500)(0.2625)
0.194 =
3
32(5.357 ) N co
N co = 9.5
3GDwi
Fi =
32C 3 N ci
3(11,500)(0.1620)
0.071 =
3
32(5.401) N ci
N ci = 15.6
87.5
Max. solid stress, sss = 0.19 ksi ,
Dw
87.5
ssso =
= 112.82 ksi
(0.2625)0.19
87.5
sssi =
= 123.65 ksi
(0.1620)0.19
Stress
38.398
ssi =
= 54.26 ksi
(0.1620)0.19
38.398
sso =
= 49.51 ksi
(0.2625)0.19
Fi =
Solid stress
1
sso = 49.51
= 66.01 ksi < 112.82 ksi
0.75
Page 44 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
1
ssi = 54.26
= 72.35 ksi < 123.65 ksi
0.75
Solid length
Dwo N co = (0.2625)(9.5) = 2.5 in
Two concentric, helical compression springs are used on a freight car. The
larger spring has an outside diameter of 7 in., a free length of 7 1/8 in., and is
made of a 1 in. steel bar. The smaller has an outside diameter of 4 1/8 in., a
free length of 6 13/16 in. , and is made of 7/8 in. steel bar. The solid height of
each spring is 5 in. and the forces required to compress them solid are
15,530 lb. and 7,000 lb., respectively. The working load on the two springs is
11,350 lb. Determine (a) the number of free coils in each spring, (b) the stress
in each spring when compressed solid, (c) the stresses induced by the working
Page 45 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
load. Notice that the outer spring deflects 5/16 in. before the inner one takes a
load. (d) What energy is absorbed while changing deflection from that at the
working load to that when the springs are compressed solid?
Solution:
ODo = 7 in
3
Dwo = 1 in
8
1
FLo = 7 in
8
1
ODi = 4 in
8
7
Dwi = in
8
13
FLi = 6 in
16
1
(a) Solid height = Dw N T = 5 in
4
5.25
N To =
= 3.82
1.375
5.25
=6
N Ti =
0.875
(b) Fo = 15,530 lb
Fi = 7000 lb
8 FC
ss = K 2
Dw
3
Dmo = 7 1 = 5.625 in
8
Dmo 5.625
Co =
=
= 4.091
Dwo 1.375
4(4.091) 1 0.615
Ko =
+
= 1.393
4(4.091) 4 4.091
1 7
Dmi = 4 = 3.25 in
8 8
D
3.25
Ci = mi =
= 3.714
Dwi 0.875
4(3.714) 1 0.615
Ki =
+
= 1.442
4(3.714) 4 3.714
Page 46 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
Solid stress
8(15,530)(4.091)
sso = 1.393
= 119,203 psi
2
(
)
1
.
375
8(7000 )(3.714 )
ssi = 1.442
= 124,689 psi
2
(0.875)
(b) Stresses induced by working load
Fi + Fo = 11,350 lb
15,530
ko =
= 8283 lb in
1
1
7 5
4
8
7000
ko =
= 4480 lb in
1
13
6 5
4
16
5
o i = = 0.3125 in
16
Fi = ki i = 4480 i
Fo = ko o = 8283(0.3125 + i )
Fi + Fo = ko o = 4480 i + 8283(0.3125 + i ) = 11,350 lb
i = 0.6865 in
o = 0.3125 + 0.6865 = 0.9990 in
Fi = (4480)(0.6865) = 3076 lb
Fo = (8283)(0.9990) = 8275 lb
Stresses
8(8275)(4.091)
sso = 1.393
= 63,516 psi
2
(1.375)
8(3076)(3.714)
ssi = 1.442
= 54,792 psi
2
(0.875)
(d) Energy
1
U so = ko ( o22 o21 )
2
1
1
o 2 = 7 5 = 1.875 in
8
4
o1 = 0.9990 in
1
2
2
U so = (8283)(1.875) (0.999 ) = 10,427 in lb
2
Page 47 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
1
ki i22 i21
2
13
1
i 2 = 6 5 = 1.5625 in
16
4
o1 = 0.6865 in
1
2
2
U si = (4480 )(1.5625) (0.6865) = 4,413 in lb
2
U si =
TORSIONBAR SPRINGS
299.
Page 48 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
16T
d3
T = Fe = (1.3)(1500)(10) = 19,500 in lb
16(19,500 )
115,200 =
d3
d = 0.95 in
use d = 1 in
117 117
6.3 ss = 0.3 = 0.3 = 117 ksi s ys
Dw
(1)
(a) ss =
1
(1500 1200) = 150 lb
2
Ta = (150)(10) = 1500 in lb = 1.5 in kips
16(1.5)
sas =
= 7.64 ksi
(1)3
1
68.8 (1.45)(7.64 )
=
+
N 115.2
64.5
N = 1.30
Fa =
(c) Shotpeened
s ys = 1.25(115.2 ) = 144 ksi
sns = 1.25(64.5) = 80.6 ksi
1 68.8 (1.45)(7.64 )
=
+
N 144
80.6
N = 1.625
Page 49 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
300.
A solid steel torsion bar is loaded through a 10 in. arm as shown. The load F
perpendicular to the centerline of the arm varies from 500 to 1000 lb.,
7
200,000 cycles. The bar is d = in. in diameter and 30 in. long; let D d = 3 ;
8
r d = 0.1 ; (a) Determine the maximum stress in the bar, the angular
deflection, and the scale (lb./in.) where F is applied. The support is such that
bending of the bar is negligible. (b) Select a material and heat treatment for
this bar for a minimum N = 1.2 , Soderberg criterion.
(log K f ) 3
Kf
(200,000)(log1.45) 3 1.33
1.45
16T
d3
16(7.5)
sms =
= 57 ksi
3
7
8
16(2.5)
sas =
= 19 ksi
3
7
8
ss =
Page 50 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
TL 64TL
=
JG d 4G
64(500 )(10 )(30 )
min =
= 0.4533 rad
4
7
6
11.5 10
8
64(1000 )(10 )(30 )
max =
= 0.9066 rad
4
7
6
11.5 10
8
F
1000
scale =
=
= 110.3 lb in
e (0.9066)(10)
(c)
1 sms K f sas
=
+
N s ys
sns
10 6
0.085
= 0.344 su
1
57
(1.33)(19)
=
+
1.2 0.6s y 0.344su
Use AISI 8760, OQT 800 oF
s y = 200 ksi
su = 220 ksi
N = 1.24
HELICAL SPRINGS NON CIRCULAR SECTION
301.
Solution:
For oiltempered wire,
146
su = 0.19 , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
Dw
Max. solid ss = 0.6su
Page 51 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
(a) average service,
b = Dw , t = b
K FD (3b + 1.8t )
2.4 FDm
ss= q m 2 2
= Kq
2b t
b3
s sd = 0.324su , average service
2.4 FDm 0.324(146 )
Kq
=
2b 3
b 0.19
F = 0.325 kip
1
Dm = 1 in
2
K q = 1.25 (assumed)
2.4(0.325)(1.5) 0.324(146 )
1.25
=
b3
b 0.19
b = 0.2902 in
Table AT 15, use b = 0.313 in , # 1 wire size
D
1 .5
C= m =
= 4 .8
b
0.313
Figure AF 15, K q = 1.275
(b) =
2.45 FDm3 N c
2.45FDm3 N c
=
Gt 3 (b 0.56t )
0.44Gb 4
13 2.45(0.325)(1.5) N c
=
32 0.44(11,500 )(0.313)4
N c = 7.34
3
(0.313)
0.6(146 )
solid stress = =
= 109.2 ksi
(0.313)0.19
109.2 13
solid deflection = =
= 0.91 in
48.65 32
(P b )N c = 0.91
(P 0.313)(7.34) = 0.91
P = 0.437 in
Page 52 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
use P =
7
in
16
27
7
Free length = PN c + 2b = (7.34 ) + 2(0.313) = 3.837 in 3 in
32
16
7
P
16
tan =
=
Dm (1.5)
1 2 1
1
13
k = F = (0.325) = 0.066 in kip = 66 in lb
2
2
2
32
66
= 0.085 Btu
778
302.
Solution:
Dm + Dw = 1 in
5
(a) Dw =
in
32
5 27
Dm = 1
=
in
32 32
27
Dm 32
C=
=
= 5.4
Dw 5
32
8FC 3 N c
=
GDw
8(100 )(5.4 ) N c
5
11.5 10 6
32
N c = 14.3
3
1=
Page 53 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
5
in
32
5 27
Dm = 1
=
in
32 32
2.45 FD m3 N c
=
0.44Gb 4
(b) Square, b =
27
2.45(100) N c
32
1=
4
6 5
0.44 11.5 10
32
N c = 20.5
3
1
in , t = in
16
8
1 7
Dm = 1 t = 1 = in
8 8
3
2.45FD m N c
= 3
Gt (b 0.56t )
(c) b =
7
2.45(100 ) N c
8
1=
3
1 3
1
11.5 10 6 0.56
8 16
8
N c = 16.1
1
3
in , t = in
8
16
3 13
Dm = 1 t = 1 = in
16 16
3
2.45FD m N c
= 3
Gt (b 0.56t )
(d) b =
13
2.45(100 ) N c
16
1=
3
3 1
3
11.5 10 6 0.56
16 8
16
N c = 11.5
(e) Maximum Stress
Page 54 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
8 FC
Dw3
4(5.4) 1 0.615
K=
+
= 1.284
4(5.4) 4
5.4
For (a) ss = K
8(100)(5.4)
ss = 1.284
= 72,320 psi
5 3
32
FD m (3b + 1.8t )
2.4 FD m
= Kq
2 2
2b t
b3
27
Dm 32
C=
=
= 5.4
b
5
32
K q = 1.25
For (b) ss = K q
27
2.4(100)
32 = 66,355 psi
ss = 1.25
3
32
FD m (3b + 1.8t )
For (c) ss = K q
2b 2t 2
7
D
8
C = m = =7
t
1
8
K q = 1 .1
7
(100)
8 3 3 + 1.8 1 = 68,992 psi
ss = 1.1
2
3 1 2 16
8
2
16 8
FD m (3b + 1.8t )
For (d) ss = K q
2b 2t 2
13
Dm 16
C=
=
= 4.33
t
3
16
Page 55 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
K q = 1 .2
13
(100)
16 3 1 + 1.8 3 = 63,232 psi
ss = 1.2
2
1 3 2 8
16
2
8 16
Va = Dw2 ( Dm )N c
4
5 2 27
Va = (14.3) = 0.727 in 3
4 32 32
For (b) Square wire
Vb = b 2 ( Dm )N c
2
5 27
Vb = (20.5) = 1.327 in 3
32 32
For (c) rectangular wire
Vc = bt ( Dm )N c
3 1 7
Vc = (16.1) = 1.037 in3
16 8 8
For (d) rectangular wire
Vd = bt ( Dm )N c
1 3 13
Vd = (11.5) = 0.688 in 3
8 16 16
Ratio of volume
Square to round wire
V 1.327
= b =
= 1.825
Va 0.727
Rectangular to round wire (long dimension parallel to the axis)
V 1.037
= c =
= 1.426
Va 0.727
Rectangular to round wire (short dimension parallel to the axis)
V
0.688
= d =
= 0.946
Va 0.727
Page 56 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
TENSION SPRINGS
305.
Design two tension springs for a spring balance with a capacity of 200 lb.
Each spring supports a maximum load of 100 lb. The outside diameter must
not exceed 1 in. and the total length including end loops must not exceed 9
in. Select a material and determine the dimension, including wire diameter,
number of coils, and free length.
Solution:
Table AT 17, assume oil tempered wire
146
su = 0.19 ksi
Dw
87.5
s ys = 0.19 ksi
Dw
0.8(87.5)
70
ssd =
= 0.19 ksi , [0.032 < Dw < 0.5]
0.19
Dw
Dw
F = Fi + k
8 K cFDm
ss =
Dw3
2r
D
C= m = m
Dw Dw
8FaC 3 N c
G Dw
GD
k = 3w
8C N
3
G D 8F C N c
k = 3 w a
= Fa
8C N GDw
Fa = 100 lb = 0.10 kip
Figure AF 15, assume K c = 1.2
8 K cFi Dm 8 K cFa Dm
ss =
+
Dw3
Dw3
8 K cFaC
s s = K c si +
Dw2
OD = Dm + Dw = 1.25 in
1.25
Dw =
C +1
6.21, assume si = 18 ksi
ssd = ss
Page 57 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
70
8(1.2 )(0.1)C
= (1.2 )(18) +
0.19
Dw
Dw2
70(C + 1)
(1.25)0.19
0.19
8(1.2 )(0.1)C (C + 1)
(1.25)2
= 21.6 +
67.1(C + 1)
0.19
= 21.6 + 0.1956C (C + 1)
Two helical tension springs are to be used in scales for weighing milk. The
capacity of the scales is 30 lb., each spring carries 15 lb. with a deflection of 3
9/16 in. The springs are made of No. 14, W & M steel wire, outside diameter,
29/32 in. (a) how many coils should each spring have? (b) What is the
maximum stress in the wire? What material should be used?
Page 58 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
Solution:
k = 15 lb
9
= 3 in
16
(a) Table AT 15, No. 14 W &M
Dw = 0.0800 in
29
0.0800 = 0.82625 in
32
D
0.82625
C= m =
= 10.328
Dw
0.0800
Dm = OD Dw =
8(k )C 3 N c
GDw
9 8(15)(10.328) N c
=
16 11.5 106 (0.080)
N c = 24.8
3
(b) F = Fi + k
Fi =
si Dw3
8Dm
6.21, C = 10.328
si = 11,272 psi
Fi =
(11,272)(0.08)3
= 2.743 lb
8(0.82625)
F = 2.743 + 15 = 17.743 lb
Figure AF 15, K c = 1.09
8 K c FDm 8(1.09 )(17.743)(0.82625)
ss =
=
= 79,476 psi
Dw3
(0.080)3
s
79,476
s ys s =
= 99,345 psi = 99.345 ksi
0 .8
0 .8
Table AT 17, use Hard drawn wire
70
70
s ys = 0.19 =
= 113 ksi > 99.345 ksi
Dw
(0.080)0.19
307.
Page 59 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
maximum values), (c) the stress caused by the 5 lb load, (d) the maximum
stress. What material should be used? (e) What energy is absorbed from the
point where the load is the initial tension until the springs length is 6 5/16 in.?
(Data courtesy Worthington Corporation.)
Solution:
Dw = 0.078 in
Dm Dw = 0.609 in
Dm = 0.609 + 0.078 = 0.687 in
D
0.687
C= m =
= 8 .8
Dw 0.078
N c = 55
8FC 3 N c
GDw
1
F = 5 lb
2
5
9
= 6 5 = 0.75 in
16
16
3
8(k )(8.8) (5)
= 0.75 =
11.5 106 (0.078)
k = 2.244 lb
0.75
Page 60 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
F = k
5
9
= 9 5 = 3.75 in
16
16
F = Fi + k = 3.256 + (2.992)(3.75) = 14.476 lb
8 K c FC 8(1.1)(14.476 )(8.8)
ss =
=
= 58,651 psi
Dw2
(0.078)2
Table AT 16
s
58,651
s ys s =
= 73,300 psi = 73.3 ksi
0 .8
0 .8
Table AT 17, use Hard drawn wire
70
70
s ys = 0.19 =
= 113.658 ksi > 73.3 ksi
Dw
(0.078)0.19
(e) U s =
1 2 1
2
k = (2.992 )(0.75) = 0.8415 in lb
2
2
TORSION SPRINGS
308.
Solution:
T = M = Fa
F = 55 lb
a = 2 in
T = M = (55)(2) = 110 in lb
Dm = 2.5 in
182
Table AT 17, su = 0.1 ksi , [0.093 < Dw < 0.25]
Dw
Average service
182 117.936
117,936
sd = (1.6 )(0.405)su = 0.648 0.1 =
ksi =
psi
0.1
Dw
Dw0.1
Dw
KMc
I
For round wire, assume K c = K ci = 1.08 , Table AT 18
D
c= w
2
(a) ss =
Page 61 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
I Dw3
=
c
32
(1.08)(110)(32) = 117,936
ss =
Dw3
Dw0.1
Dw = 0.2060 in < 0.25 in
Table AT 15, use Dw = 0.2070 in , No. 5 W & M
r D
2
= 9.66 > 9 , ok
To check: = m =
c Dw 0.2070
Table AT 18, K = 1.08
(1.08)(110)(32) = 136,430 psi
ss =
(0.2070 )3
117,936
ssd =
= 138,054 psi > 136,430 psi
(0.2070)0.1
Therefore, use No. 5 W & M, Dw = 0.2070 in
MDm N c
EI
6
E = 30 10 psi
(b) =
I=
Dw4
64
= 180o =
64 MDm N c
=
EDw4
64(110 )(2 )N c
=
(30 106 )(0.2070)4
N c = 12.29
1
1
(c) U s = T = (110 )( ) = 172.8 in lb
2
2
312.
A pivoted roller follower is held in contact with the cam by a torsion spring.
The moment exerted by the spring varies from 20 lbin to 50 lbin. as the
follower oscillates through 30o. The spring is made of AISI 6152 steel, OQT
1000 oF. What should be the value of Dw , Dm , and N c if the factor of safety
is 1.75 based on the Soderberg line? Would this be a conservative or risky
approach?
Solution:
AISI 6152, OQT 1000 oF
su = 184 ksi
Page 62 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
s y = 173 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 92 ksi
1
M m = (50 + 20 ) = 35 lb in
2
1
M a = (50 20 ) = 15 lb in
2
assume K = 1.08
32 KM m 32(1.08)(35) 385
sm =
=
= 3 psi
Dw3
Dw3
Dw
32 KM a 32(1.08)(15) 165
sa =
=
= 3 psi
Dw3
Dw3
Dw
1 s m sa
=
+
N s y sn
1
385
165
=
+
3
1.75 173,000 Dw 92,000 Dw3
Dw = 0.1916 in
Table AT 15, use Dw = 0.1920 in , No. 6 W & M
To solve for K
32(35)K
sm =
= 50,369 K psi
(0.1920)3
32(15)K
sa =
= 21,587 K psi
(0.1920)3
1
50,369 K 20,587 K
=
+
1.75 173,000
92,000
K = 1.0868
Table AT 18 K ci = K = 1.0868
r Dm
=
= 9.32 > 9 , ok
c Dw
Dm = 9.32(0.1920) = 1.7894 in
7
use Dm = 1 in = 1.875 in
8
MDm N c 64MDm N c
=
=
EI
EDw4
30 64(50 20 )(1.875)N c
=
180
(30 106 )(0.1920)4
N c = 5.93
Summary of answer:
Dw = 0.1920 in , No. 6 W & M
Page 63 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
7
Dm = 1 in
8
N c = 5.93 , N > 1.4 , therefore conservative.
Solution.
Fig. 6/20
6 FL
bh 2
6 FL3
=
Ebh3
AISI 1095, OQT 900 oF, s y = 104 ksi , Table AT 9
sB =
=
= 6 B
3
Eh
6 L Ebh
Us =
1 s bh 2 s B L2 1 s B2 bhL
U s = B
2 6 L Eh 12 E
U s = 500 ft lb = 6000 in lb
Page 64 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
(52,000)2 b 1 L
1
2
12
30 106
bL = 1598 in 2
6000 =
b=
1598 in 2
L
L = 36 in , b =
1598 in 2
= 44.4 in
36 in
L = 48 in , b =
1598 in 2
= 33.3 in
48 in
L = 60 in , b =
1598 in 2
= 26.6 in
60 in
L = 72 in , b =
1598 in 2
= 22.2 in
72 in
(b) =
s B L2
Eh
2
(
52,000 )(36 )
L = 36 in , =
= 4.4928 in
1
30 10
2
2
(
52,000 )(48)
L = 48 in , =
= 7.9872 in
6 1
30 10
2
2
(
52,000 )(60 )
L = 60 in , =
= 12.48 in
6 1
30 10
2
2
(
52,000)(72 )
L = 72 in , =
= 17.9712 in
6 1
30 10
2
317.
One of the carbon contacts on a circuit breaker is mounted on the free end of
a phosphorbronze beam ( = 0.35 ). This beam has the shape of the beam
9
1
1
shown in Fig. 6.24, Text, with b = 1 in. , b = in. , L = 4 in. , and h = in.
16
2
16
When the contacts are closed, the beam deflects in. Compute (a) the force
on the contacts, (b) the maximum stress.
Solution:
Page 65 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
Figure 6.24
6 FL 3WL
s= 2 =
bh
bh 2
K FL3 1 2
K WL3 1 2
= 1
= 1
3EI
6 EI
9
b 16
=
= 0.5625
b
1
Figure 6.25, K1 = 1.14
bh3
12
3
4 K FL 1 2
= 1
Ebh 3
3
2
3 4(1.14 )F (4.5) 1 (0.35)
=
3
4
(16 106 )(1) 161
F = 8 lb
as a beam, I =
(b) s =
318.
6 FL 6(8)(4.5)
=
= 55,296 psi
2
bh 2
1
(1)
16
A cantilever leaf spring 26 in. long is to support a load of 175 lb. The
construction is similar to that shown in Fig. 6.22 (a), Text. The leaves are to
be 2 in. wide, 3/16 in. thick; SAE 9255 steel, OQT 1000 oF; 107 cycles (
6.26). (a) How many leaves should be used if the surfaces are left as rolled?
(b) The same as (a) except that the leaves are machined and the surfaces are
not decarburized. (c) The same as (b), except that the surface is peened all
over. (d) Which of these springs absorbs the most energy? Compute for each:
(e) What are the load and deflection of the spring in (b) when the maximum
stress is the standardtest yields strength?
Solution:
Figure 6.22 (a)
6 FL
sA = 2
bh
Page 66 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
6 FL3
Ebh3
b = N1b
F = 175 lb
b = 2 in
3
h = in
16
L = 26 in
6.26, SAE 9255, OQT 1000 oF
su = 180 ksi
s y = 160 ksi
A =
3
in = 0.1875 in
16
sd = 83.75 ksi
t=
Page 67 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
(d) U s =
6 FL3
EN1bh 3
For (a) N1 = 17
6(175)(26 )
= 2.745 in
3
3
30 10 (17 )(2 )
16
1
U s = (175)(2.745) = 240 in lb
2
For (b) N1 = 7
6(175)(26 )
= 6.666 in
3
3
30 10 6 (7 )(2 )
16
1
U s = (175)(6.666 ) = 583 in lb
2
For (c) N1 = 5
6(175)(26 )
= 9.332 in
3
3
30 10 (5)(2 )
16
1
U s = (175)(9.332 ) = 817 in lb
2
Page 68 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
6 FL
6 FL
=
2
bh
N1bh 2
6 F (26 )
160,000 =
2
(7 )(2) 3
16
load F = 505 lb
sd =
6(505)(26 )
3
30 10 (7 )(2 )
16
(
319.
= 19.24 in
The rear spring of an automobile has 9 leaves, each with an average thickness
of 0.242 in. and a width of 2 in.; material is SAE 9261, OQT 1000 oF. The
length of the spring is 56 in. and the total weight on the spring is 1300 lb.
Assume the spring to have the form shown in Fig. 6.22 (b), Text. Determine
(a) the rate of the spring, (b) the maximum stress caused by the dead weight.
(c) What approximate repeated maximum force (0 to Fmax ) would cause
impending fatigue in 105 cycles, the number of applications of the maximum
load expected during the ordinary life of a car? (If the leaves are cold rolled
to induce a residual compressive stress on the surfaces, the endurance limit as
su 2 should be conservative.)
Solution:
Figure 6.22 (b)
3FL
sA =
2bh 2
3FL3
A =
8Ebh 3
F = 1300 lb
h = 0.242 in
N1 = 9
b = 2 in
L = 56 in
(a) Rate , k =
k=
8Ebh3
3L3
(b) s A =
3FL
3(1300 )(56 )
=
= 103,590 psi
2
2
2 N1bh
2(9 )(2 )(0.242 )
Page 69 of 70
SECTION 4  SPRINGS
(c) SAE 9261. OQT 1000 oF
su = 192 ksi
192
sn =
= 96 ksi
2
3FL
sA =
2 N1bh 2
3F (56 )
96,000 =
2
2(9 )(2 )(0.242 )
F = 1200 lb
321.
The front spring of an automobile is made similar to Fig. 6.23, Text. The
average thickness for each of the 6 leaves, 0.213 in.; material is SAE 9255,
OQT 1000 oF. The load caused by the weight of the car is 775 lb. (a) What
stress is caused by a force of twice the dead weight? (b) What load would
stress the spring to the yield strength?
Solution:
Figure 6.23
6 FL 3WL
3WL
s= 2 =
=
2
bh
bh
N1bh 2
W = 775 lb , N1 = 6 , b = 2 in , h = 0.213 in
36 in
= 18 in
L=
2
(a) W = 2(775) = 1550 lb
3(1550 )(18)
s=
= 153,740 psi
(6)(2)(0.213)2
(b) SAE 9255, OQT 1000 oF
s y = 160 ksi
6 FL 3WL
3WL
=
=
2
2
bh
bh
N1bh 2
3W (18)
160,000 =
(6)(2)(0.213)2
W = 1613 lb
s=
 end 
Page 70 of 70
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
DESIGN PROBLEMS
334.
A round steel rod made of structural steel, AISI C1020, as rolled, is to be used as
a column, centrally loaded with 10 kips; N = 3 . Determine the diameter for (a)
L = 25 in. , (b) L = 50 in. (c) The same as (a) and (b) except that the material is
AISI 8640, OQT 1000 F. Is there any advantage in using this material rather than
structural steel?
Solution:
For AISI C1020,as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
F = 10 kips
N =3
(a) Le = L = 25 in.
Consider first J.B. Johnson
2
Le
sy
k
Fc = NF = s y A1 2
4 E
2
D
A=
4
D
k=
4
E = 30 103 ksi
2
(48) 25
D
2
(3)(10) = (48) D 1 2 4 3
4 4 30 10
30 = 12D 2 1 2 2
D
48
30 = 12D 2
D = 1.096 in
1
say D = 1 in = 1.0625 in
16
Page 1 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Le
25
=
= 94 < 120 o.k.
k 1.0625
4
(b) Le = L = 50 in.
Consider Eulers Equation
2 EA
Fc = NF =
2
Le
k
D 2
2 30 103
4
(3)(10 ) =
2
50
D
4
3 4
30 = 0.1875 D
D = 1.507 in
1
say D = 1 in = 1.5 in
2
Le
50
=
= 133 > 120 o.k.
k 1 .5
4
Le 2 2 E 2
=
k s y
Le 2 2 30 103 2
=
= 62.83
k
150
Le
sy
k
Fc = NF = s y A1 2
4 E
Page 2 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
2
(150) 25
D
2
(3)(10) = (150) D 1 2 4 3
4 4 30 10
12.5
30 = 37.5D 2 1 2 2
D
468.75
30 = 37.5D 2
D = 1.23 in
say D = 1.25 in
Le
25
=
= 80 > 62.83 use Eulers equation
k 1.25
4
2 EA
Fc = NF =
2
Le
k
D 2
2 30 103
4
(3)(10) =
2
25
D
4
3 4
30 = 0.75 D
D = 1.0657 in
1
say D = 1 in = 1.0625 in
16
Le
25
=
= 94 > 62.83 ok
k 1.0625
4
For (b) Le = L = 50 in.
Consider Eulers Equation
2 EA
Fc = NF =
2
Le
k
Page 3 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
D 2
2 (30 103 )
(3)(10) =
50
D
4
3 4
30 = 0.1875 D
D = 1.507 in
1
say D = 1 in = 1.5 in
2
Le
50
=
= 133 > 62.83 o.k.
k 1 .5
4
There is no advantage.
335.
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
Le = L = 40 in
F = 10,000 lb = 10 kips
N =3
Di = 0.75Do
I
A
(Do4 Di4 )
4
I=
= Do4 (0.75Do ) = 0.033556 Do4
64
(Do2 Di2 ) Do2 (0.75Do )2
A=
=
= 0.343612 Do2
4
4
k=
[
[
k=
0.033556 Do4
= 0.3125Do
0.343612 Do2
Page 4 of 18
]
]
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
(a) Consider parabolic equation
2
Le
sy
k
Fc = NF = s y A1 2
4 E
25
(48)
0.3125Do
(3)(10) = (48)(0.343612)Do2 1 2 4 3
4 30 10
10,000
40
= 16,000 70
2
0.343612 Do
0.3125 Do
10,000 = 5498 Do2 3078 Do
Do = 1.6574 in
5
say Do = 1 in = 1.625 in
8
Le
40
=
= 78.8 < 120 o.k.
k 0.3125(1.625)
(c) Secant formula
NF ec Le NF
sy =
1 + sec
A k 2
2k EA
Do = 1.5625 in
k = 0.3125Do = 0.4883 in
A = 0.343612 Do2 = 0.8389 in 2
Page 5 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
ec
= 0.25 , (i7.8)
k2
48 =
N (10)
40
1 + 0.25 sec
0.8389
2(0.4883)
336.
)]
Solution:
For AISI C1020, rolledsteel plate
s y = 48 ksi
4
b 4 (b 1) b 4 (b 1)
=
12
12
12
2
2
A = b (b 1)
I=
k=
10 N
(30 103 )(0.8389)
I
b 4 (b 1)
=
2
A
12 b 2 (b 1)
Le = L = 6 ft = 72 in
F = 80,000 lb = 80 kips
(a) N = 2.74
Consider J.B. Johnson
2
Le
sy
k
NF = s y A1 2
4 E
72
(48)
(2.74)(80) = (48)A 1 2 k 3
4 (30 10 )
10.085 A
219.2 = 48 A
k2
Page 6 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
try b = 3.23 in
4
4
(
3.23) (3.23 1)
k=
2
2 = 1.1331 in
12[(3.23) (3.23 1) ]
2
2
2
A = b 2 (b 1) = (3.23) (3.23 1) = 5.46 in 2
10.085(5.46 )
219.2 = 48(5.46 )
= 219.2 ok
(1.1331)2
NF ec Le
1 + sec
A k 2
2k
NF
EA
ec
= 0.25 , (i7.8)
k2
48 =
72
N (80)
1 + 0.25 sec
5.46
2(1.1331)
80 N
(30 103 )(5.46)
337.
)]
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
Le = L = 15 ft = 180 in
F = 125 kips
Page 7 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Table AT 1.
G=H
A = GH gh = H 2 (H 0.5)(H 1) = H 2 H 2 1.5H + 0.5 = 1.5H 0.5 = 0.5(3H 1)
k=
3
1 GH 3 gh3
1 H 4 (H 0.5)(H 1)
=
12 GH gh
12
0.5(3H 1)
F = 16,000 A1 0.0044
k
(180)
0.792
7.8125 = A1
use H = 7.37 in
k=
= 3.04527 in
0.792
7.8125 10.5551
= 7.81
3.04527
Therefore use H = 7.37 in
3
Or H = 7 in = 7.375 in
8
L
180
= 59 < 120
(b) Consider J.B. Johnson, e =
k 3.04527
s
se = y
N
F
125
se =
=
= 13.8 ksi
2
2
Le
180
sy
(48)
k
3.04527
A 1
10.555 1
4 2 E
4 2 30 103
Page 8 of 18
H 4 (H 0.5)(H 1)
6(3H 1)
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
N=
sy
48
=
= 3.48
se 13.8
A k 2
2k EA
ec
= 0.25 , (i7.8)
k2
48 =
180
N (125)
1 + 0.25 sec
10.555
2(3.04527 )
338.
125 N
3
(30 10 )(10.555)
)]
Problem 338.
Solution:
For AISI C1030, as rolled
s y = 51 ksi
su = 80 ksi
1
Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 30 103 2
=
=
= 108
k s y
51
L = 20 in
N = 2 .5
(a) F = 15 kips
Consider J.B. Johnson
Page 9 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
2
Le
s
y
k
NF = s y A1 2
4 E
D
k=
4
D 2
A=
4
Le = L = 20 in
2
20
(51) D
2
(2.5)(15) = (51) D 1 2 4 3
4 4 (30 10 )
2.72
37.5 = 12.75 D 2 1 2 2
D
34.68
37.5 = 12.75 D 2
D = 1.101 in
3
say D = 1 in = 1.1875 in
16
Le
20
=
= 68 < 108 o.k.
k 1.1875
4
Page 10 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
2
Le
s
em
k
Fm = sem A1 2
4 E
20
(51) D
2
D
1 2 4 3
7.5 = (3.923)
4 4 (30 10 )
2.72
7.5 = 0.98 D 2 1 2 2
D
2.67
7.5 = 0.98 D 2
D = 1.65 in
5
say D = 1 in = 1.625 in
8
Le
20
=
= 49 < 108 o.k.
k 1.625
4
(c) The answer in (a) will not do because it is lower than (b)
339.
The connecting link for a machine (see figure) is subjected to a load that varies
fro + 450 (tension) to 250 lb. The cross section is to have the proportions
G = 0.4 H , t = 0.1H , fillet radius r 0.05 H ; L = 10 in ; material, AISI C1020,
as rolled. (a) Considering buckling only, determine the dimensions for a design
factor of 2.5. (b) For the dimension found compute the factor of safety from the
Soderberg criterion.
su = 65 ksi
Page 11 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Table AT 1
G = 0 .4 H
t = 0.1H
r 0.05 H
A = GH gh
g = G t = 0.4 H 0.1H = 0.3H
h = H 2(0.1H ) = 0.8 H
3
3
1 GH 3 gh3
1 (0.4 H )(H ) (0.3H )(0.8 H )
= 0.35824 H
12 GH gh
12
0.16 H 2
Le
s
y
k
NF = s y A1 2
4 E
10
48
2
(
0
.
35824
H
)
2
(2.5)(0.35) = (48) 0.16 H 1 2
3
4 30 10
Page 12 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
(b) with H = 0.46875 in
2
A = 0.16(0.46875) = 0.0352 in 2
k = 0.35824(0.46875) = 0.1679 in
350
Fmin
0.0352
A
smin = s e =
=
= 11,600 psi = 11.6 ksi
2
2
Le
10
s y 48
1 k 1 0.1679
4 2 E 4 2 30 103
F
+ 450
smax = max =
= +12,800 psi = +12.8 psi
A
0.0352
1
sm = (12.8 11.6 ) = 0.6 ksi
2
1
sa = (12.8 + 11.6 ) = 12.1 ksi
2
su = 0.5sn = 0.5(65) = 32.5 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
su = 0.85(32.5) ksi = 27.62 ksi
CHECK PROBLEMS
341.
Page 13 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
pins. What is (a) the critical load for this column, (b) the design factor, (c) the
equivalent stress under a load of 15 kips? What material does the secant formula
indicate as satisfactory for the foregoing load, when (e) ec k 2 = 0.25 , (f)
L
e= e .
400
A = bh = (0.75)(1.75) = 1.3125 in 2
For loose fit
bh3
I=
12
I
bh 3
h
1.75
k=
=
=
=
= 0.5052 in
A
12bh
12
12
Le
20
=
= 39.6 < 108 for AISI C1030, as rolled
k 0.5052
use J.B. Johnson equation
2
2
Le
20
sy
51
k
0.5052
(a) Fc = s y A 1
= (51)(1.3125) 1
= 62.42 kips
4 2 (30,000)
4 2 E
(b) Fc = NF
F 62.42
N= c =
= 4.16
F
15
s
51
(c) se = y =
= 12.26 ksi
N 4.16
F
15
(d) Actual s = =
= 11.43 ksi
A 1.3125
Page 14 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Secant Formula
NF ec Le NF
sy =
1 + sec
A k 2
2k EA
ec
(e) 2 = 0.25
k
62.42
20
62.42
sy =
1 + 0.25 sec
= 64.4 ksi
3
1.3125
2(0.5052) 30 10 (1.3125)
use AISI C1020, cold drawn, s y = 66 ksi
Le
20
=
= 0.05 in
400 400
h 1.75
c= =
= 0.875 in
2
2
ec (0.05)(0.875)
=
= 0.1714
k2
(0.5052)2
(f) e =
sy =
62.42
20
1 + 0.1714 sec
1.3125
2(0.5052 )
62.42
= 59.12 ksi
3
30 10 (1.3125)
Solution:
For AISI C1015, as rolled
s y = 45.5 ksi
1
Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 30 103 2
=
=
= 114
k s y
45.5
L = 15 ft = 180 in
Le = 0.65L = 0.65(180) = 117 in
Le
117
=
= 77.5 < 114
k 1.509
Page 15 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Use J.B. Johnson equation
2
Le
sy
2
s y A
k (45.5)(3.174) 45.5(77.5)
(a) F =
1
=
1 2
= 44.4 kips
N
4 2 E
2.5
4 (30,000)
No. of columns
200
=
= 4.5 say 5 columns
44.4
F
A
(b) se =
2
Le
s
y
1 k
4 2 E
200
F=
= 40 kips
5
40
3.174
se =
= 16.4 ksi
2
77.5
45.5
k
1
4 2 (30,000)
344.
the ends be a little fixed with Le = 0.8L and determine the critical load (a)
according to the Johndon or the Euler equation; (b) according to the secant
formula if ec k 2 is assumed to be 0.25.
Page 16 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Solution:
For AISI C1022, as rolled
s y = 52 ksi
1
Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 (30 103 ) 2
=
=
= 107
k s y
52
(a) k = 2.54 in
I = 93.0 in 4
Le = 0.8(30)(12) = 288 in
Le 288
=
= 113.4 > 107
k 2.54
Use Eulers Equation
2 EA 2 (30,000)(14.4)
Fc =
=
= 332 kips
2
(113.4)2
Le
k
(b) Secant formula
NF ec Le NF
sy =
1 + sec
A k 2
2k EA
113.4
F
52 = c 1 + 0.25 sec
14.4
2
F
52 = c 1 + 0.25 sec 0.0863
14.4
Fc = 273 kips
348.
Fc
3
(30 10 )(14.4)
Fc
]}
A 4 x 3 x in. angle is used as a flatended column, 5 ft. long, with the resultant
load passing through the centroid G (see figure); k x = 1.25 in , k y = 0.86 in ,
ku = 1.37 in , kv = 0.64 in , A = 3.25 sq.in. Find the safe load if N = 2.8 and the
material is (a) structural steel, (b) magnesium alloy AZ 91C (i7.12.\, Text), (c)
magnesium alloy AZ 80A, (d) magnesium alloy AZ 80A as before, but use the
Johnson formula and compare.
Page 17 of 18
SECTION 5 COLUMNS
Solution:
L (5)(12 )
Le = =
= 30 in
2
2
k = k min = 0.64 in
Le
30
=
= 46.875
k 0.64
(a) Structural steel, s y = 48 ksi
Le
= 46.875 < 120
k
use J.B. Johnson
2
Le
sy
2
s y A
k (48)(3.25) 48(46.875)
F=
1
=
1 2
= 50.75 kips
N
4 2 E
2.8
4 (30,000 )
Le
s
y
s y A
(36)(3.25) 1 36(46.875)2 = 39 kips > 25.134 kips
k
F=
1 2 =
2
N
4 E
2.8
4 (30,000)
 end 
Page 18 of 18
Solution:
F = 2500 lb
Ny = 2
a = 2.5 in
F Fec
=
A
I
For AISI C1022, as rolled, sy = 52 ksi (Table AT7).
sy
Ny
52
= 26 ksi = 26,000 psi
2
A = bh = 3b2
bh 3 b(3b )2
I=
=
= 2.25b 4
12
12
h
c = = 1.5b
2
h
e = a + = a + 1.5b = 2.5 + 1.5b
2
F Fec
=
A
I
(2.5 + 1.5b)(1.5b)
1
26,000 = 2500 2 +
2.25b 4
3b
2.5 + 1.5b
1
26,000 = 2500 2 +
1.5b 3
3b
By trial and error method:
5
b = 0.625 in = in
8
7
h = 3b = 3(0.625) in = 1.875 in = 1 in
8
Page 1 of 133
A tensile load on a link as described in 361 varies from 0 to 3000 lb.; it is machined from
AISI 1045, as rolled, and the lower edge of the link is a = 0.5 in. above the center line of
the pins; h 3b. Determine the dimensions of the link for N = 2 based on the Soderberg
line.
Solution:
Soderberg Line:
1 sm sa
=
+
N s y sn
For AISI 1045, as rolled (Table AT 7).
sy = 59 ksi
su = 96 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 48 ksi
Size factor = 0.85
Load factor (axial) = 0.80
sn = 0.85(0.80)(48) = 32.64 ksi
1
(3000 lb + 0 ) = 1500 lb
2
1
Fa = (3000 lb 0 ) = 1500 lb
2
h
e = a + = a + 1.5b = 0.5 + 1.5b
2
1 ec
sm = Fm +
A I
(0.5 + 1.5b )(1.5b)
1
sm = 1500 2 +
2.24b 3
3b
0.5 + 1.5b
1
sm = 1500 2 +
1.5b 3
3b
1 ec
sa = Fa +
A I
(0.5 + 1.5b)(1.5b )
1
sa = 1500 2 +
3
b
2.24b 3
0.5 + 1.5b
1
sa = 1500 2 +
1.5b 3
3b
1 sm sa
=
+
N s y sn
Fm =
Page 2 of 133
2 59,000 32,640 3b 2
1.5b3
1
0.5 + 1.5b
+
= 7.00
2
3b
1.5b 3
By trial and error method:
b = 0.53 in
h = 3b = 3(0.53) in = 1.59 in
Use b x h = 9/16 in x 1 5/8 in
363.
The same as 362, except that the load continuously reverses, 3 kips to 3 kips.
Solution:
1
Fm = (3 3) = 0 lb
2
1
Fa = (3 + 3) = 3 kips
2
1 ec
sm = Fm +
A I
(0.5 + 1.5b )(1.5b)
1
sm = 1500 2 +
2.24b 3
3b
0.5 + 1.5b
1
sm = (0) 2 +
=0
1.5b 3
3b
1 ec
sa = Fa +
A I
(0.5 + 1.5b)(1.5b)
1
s a = 3 2 +
2.24b 3
3b
0.5 + 1.5b
1
sa = 3 2 +
1.5b 3
3b
1 sm sa
=
+
N s y sn
1
3 1
0.5 + 1.5b
=0+
2 +
2
32.64 3b
1.5b 3
1
0.5 + 1.5b
+
= 5.44
2
3b
1.5b 3
By trial and error method:
b = 0.5905 in
Page 3 of 133
A circular column (See Fig. 8.3, Text), the material of which is SAE 1020, as rolled, is to
have a length of 9 ft. and support an eccentric load of 16 kips at a distance of 3 in. from
the center line. Let N = 3. (a) What should be the outside diameter Do if the column is
hollow and Di = 0.75Do? (b) What should be the diameter if the column is solid?
Solution:
a. Try J.B. Johnson
2
Le
sy
F
k
= se 1 2
A
4 E
E = 3010 6 psi
Transition point
1
Le 2 2 E 2 2 2 30 10 6 2
=
=
= 111
k sy
48000
Le = 2L
L = 9 ft = 108 in
Le = 2L = 2(108) = 216 in
I
A
Do4 Di4 Do4 (0.75Do )4 0.6836Do4
I=
=
=
64
64
64
k=
) [
A=
(D
4
2
o
Di2 =
Page 4 of 133
[D
2
o
(0.75Do )2 = 0.109375Do2
0.6836Do4
64
k=
= 0.3125Do
0.109375Do2
16
46.5642
F
2
0.109375Do
Do2
A
se =
=
=
2
2
Le
216 1 19.363
s
48
y
Do2
0.3125Do
1 k
4 2 E 1 4 2 30 103
= se +
Fec
I
Do
= 0.5Do
2
e = 3 in
F = 16 kips
c=
sy
48
= 16 ksi
N 3
46.5642
Do2
16(3)(0.5Do )
= 16 =
+
19.363 0.6836Do4
1
64
Do2
= 16 =
46.5642
Do2
19.363
1
Do2
715.22
Do3
Page 5 of 133
se =
2 (30,000)
216
3
0.3125Do
Fec
= se +
I
16 = 0.20658Do2 +
= 0.20658Do2 ksi
16(3)(0.5Do )
715.22
= 0.20658Do2 +
4
0.6836Do
Do3
64
Do = 3.802 in
Di = 0.75Do = 0.75(3.802) = 2.8515 in
To check:
k = 0.3125Do = 0.3125(3.802) in = 1.188125 in
Le
216 in
=
= 182 > 111
k 1.188125 in
Use Do = 3 13/16 in, Di = 2 13/16 in
b. For solid, also using Eulers equation.
I
A
D 4
I=
64
D 2
A=
4
k=
D 4
k=
se =
se =
64 = 1 D = 0.25D
D 2 4
4
2E
2
L
N e
k
2 (30,000)
216
3
0.25D
Fec
= se +
I
= 0.1322D 2 ksi
16(3)(0.5D )
489
= 0.1322D 2 + 3
4
D
D
64
By trial and error method.
16 = 0.1322D 2 +
Page 6 of 133
Solution:
Eulers Equation:
Le = 2L = 2(15)(12 ) = 360 in
= 16 ksi
e = 3 in
0.6836Do4
64
A = 0.109375Do2
k = 0.3125Do
a. I =
se =
se =
2E
L
N e
k
2 (30,000)
360
3
0.3125Do
Fec
= se +
I
16 = 0.07437Do2 +
= 0.07437Do2 ksi
16(3)(0.5Do )
715.22
= 0.07437Do2 +
4
0.6836Do
Do3
64
Do = 3.624 in
Di = 0.75Do = 0.75(3.624 ) = 2.718 in
To check:
k = 0.3125Do = 0.3125(3.624) in = 1.1325 in
Le
216 in
=
= 191 > 111
k 1.1325 in
Use Do = 3 5/8 in, Di = 2 5/8 in
Page 7 of 133
b. I =
A=
D 4
64
D 2
4
k = 0.25D
se =
se =
2E
2
L
N e
k
2
(30,000)
360
3
0.25D
Fec
= se +
I
16 = 0.0476D 2 +
= 0.0476D 2 ksi
16(3)(0.5D )
489
= 0.0476D 2 + 3
4
D
D
64
A link similar to one shown is to be designed for: steady load F = 8 kips, L = 20 in. = 30o;
aluminum alloy 2024T4; N = 2.6 on the yield strength. It seems desirable for the
dimension b not to exceed 1 3/8 in. Determine b and h and check their proportions for
reasonableness. The support is made so that the pin at B carries the entire horizontal
component of F.
Page 8 of 133
t =
t =
Page 9 of 133
18 =
(8)sin 30o
7
h = 5.877 in 5 in
8
7
5 in
h
= 8 = 4.27
b 1 3 in
8
7
3
Therefore, use h = 5 in , b = 1 in
8
8
367.
A column 15 ft. long is to support a load F2 = 50,000 lb. Acting at a distance of e = 8 in.
from the axis of the column as shown (with F1 = 0). Select a suitable Ibeam for a design
factor of 3 based on yield strength. The upper end of the column is free. See handbook
for the properties of rolled sections.
Solution:
Use C1020, structural steel, sy = 48 ksi
Secant Formula
NF ec
L NF
1 + 2 sec e
sy =
A k
2 EI
F = F2 = 50,000 lbs = 50 kips
e = 8 in
N =3
E = 30,000 ksi
depth
c=
2
Le = 2L = 2(15)(12 ) = 360 in
Page 10 of 133
(8) depth
(
)(
)
3(50)
360
3
50
2
sec
48
1 +
A
k2
2 (30,000)(I )
rd
From Strength of Materials, 3 Edition by F.S. Singer and A. Pytel, Table B2, pg. 640, select
WideFlange Sections by trial and error.
Then selecting W360 x 51, properties are
A = 6450 mm2 = 10 in2
Depth = 355 mm = 14 in
k = 148 mm = 5.83 in
I = 1.41 x 108 mm4 = 338.8 in4
Substitute,
(8) 14
(3)(50)
3(50)
2 sec 360
48
1 +
2
10 (5.83)
2 (30,000)(338.8)
48 47.08
Therefore suitable wide flange Ibeam is W14 x 34 lb. (English units)
A = 10 in2
Depth = 14 in
k = 5.83 in
I = 338.8 in4
368.
Solution:
Use C1020, structural steel, sy = 48 ksi
N =3
E = 30,000 ksi
Le = 2L = 2(15)(12 ) = 360 in
Transition Point
1
Le 2 2E 2 2 2 (30,000) 2
=
=
= 111
k sy
48
Page 11 of 133
Le
sy
k
Fc = NF1 = sy A 1 2
4 E
NF1
sy =
2
Le
sy
k
A 1 2
4 E
3(50 )
48
2
360
48
k
A 1 2
4 (30,000)
150
48
5.2549
A1
k2
From Strength of Materials, 3rd Edition by F.S. Singer and A. Pytel, Table B2, pg. 640, select
WideFlange Sections by trial and error.
Then selecting W310 x 21, properties are
A = 2690 mm2 = 4.17 in2
k = 117 mm = 4.61 in
Substitute,
150
48
5.2549
4.17 1
2
(4.61)
48
150
5.2549
4.17 1
2
(4.61)
48 47.8
Check for validity of JB Johnson Formula
Le 360
=
= 78.1 < 111
k 4.61
Therefore, JB Johnson formula is valid and suitable wide flange Ibeam is W12 x 14 lb. (English
units)
A = 4.17 in2
k = 4.61 in
Page 12 of 133
A cam press, similar to that of Fig. 191, Text, exerts a force of 10 kips at a distance of 7
in. from the inside edge of the plates that make up the frame. If these plates are 1 in.
thick and the horizontal section has a depth of 6 in., what will be the maximum stress in
this section?
Solution:
F Fec
+
A
I
F = 10 kips
6
e = 7 in + in = 10 in
2
6
c = in = 3 in
2
A = 2(1)(6 ) = 12 in 2
I=2
(1)(6 )3
12
= 36 in 4
F Fec
+
A
I
10 (10)(10)(3)
= +
= 9.2 ksi
12
36
370.
A manufacturer decides to market a line of aluminum alloy (6061T6) Cclamps, (see Fig.
8.4, Text). One frame has a Tsection with the following dimensions (letters as in Table
AT 1): H = 1 1/16 , B = 17/32, a = 1/8, and t = 1/8. The center line of the screw is 2 3/8 in.
from the inside face of the frame. (a) For N = 3 on the yield strength, what is the
Page 13 of 133
Solution:
AA 6061T6, sy = 40 ksi (Table AT 3)
See Fig. 8.4, (Cclamp) Tsection
F Fec
+
A
I
1 ec
= F +
A I
From Table AT 1 (Tsection)
A = Bt + a(H t )
I=
Bt 2
ah 2
+ (Bt )d 2 +
+ (ah )e 2
12
12
H = 1.0625 in
B = 0.53125 in
a = 0.125 in
t = 0.125 in
h = H t = 1.0625 0.125 = 0.9375 in
For c1 :
h
t
c1 (Bt + ha ) = t + (ha ) + (Bt )
2
2
0.9375
0.125
+
(0.53125)(0.125)
2
c1 = 0.4016 in
c 2 = H c1 = 1.0625 0.4016 = 0.6609 in
Page 14 of 133
A = Bt + a(H t )
A = (0.53125)(0.125) + (0.125)(1.0625 0.125) = 0.1836 in 2
Bt 2
ah 2
+ (Bt )d 2 +
+ (ah )e 2
12
12
(0.53125)(0.125)2
(0.125)(0.9375)2
I=
+ (0.53125)(0.125)(0.3391)2 +
12
12
2
4
+ (0.125)(0.9375)(0.19215) = 0.02063 in
I=
c = c1 = 0.4016 in
e = 2.375 + 0.4016 = 2.7766 in
sy
40
= 13 ksi
N 3
(2.7766)(0.4016)
1
= 13 = F
+
0.02063
0.1836
F = 0.218 kips = 218 lbs
a. =
b. = sy = 40 ksi
(2.7766)(0.4016)
1
+
0.02063
0.1836
F = 0.672 kips = 672 lbs
= 40 = F
371.
A Cframe (Fig. 8.5 Text) of a handscrew press is made of annealed cast steel, ASTM
A2758 and has a section similar to that shown. The force F acts normal to the plane of
the section at a distance of 12 in. from the inside face. The various dimensions of the
sections are: a = 3 in., b = 6 in., h = 5 in., d = e= f = 1 in. Determine the force F for N = 6
based on the ultimate strength.
Page 15 of 133
Solution:
a = 3 in
b = 6 in
h = 5 in
d = e = f = 1 in
A = fa + dh + (b f d )e
A = (1)(3) + (1)(5) + (6 1 1)(1) = 12 in 2
For c1 :
f
d
b
c1 A = hd + (b f d ) + af b
2
2
2
1
1
6
c1 = 2.583 in
c 2 = b c1 = 6 2.583 = 3.417 in
Page 16 of 133
j=
6 1 + 1
b f d
b f +d
2.583 = 0.417 in
(c1 d ) =
c1 =
2
2
2
f
1
= 3.417 = 2.917 in
2
2
d
1
m = c1 = 2.583 = 2.083 in
2
2
k = c2
af 3
e(b f d )3
hd 3
+ afk 2 +
+ e(b f d ) j 2 +
+ hdm 2
12
12
12
(3)(1)3
(1)(6 1 1)3
(5)(1)3
I=
+ (3)(1)(2.917 )2 +
+ (1)(6 1 1)(0.417 )2 +
+ (5)(1)(2.083)2
12
12
12
I = 53.92 in 4
I=
su 60
=
= 10 ksi
N 6
Page 17 of 133
A I
c = c1 = 2.583 in
e = 12 + 2.583 = 14.583 in
= F
1 (14.583)(2.583)
10 = F +
53.92
12
F = 12.789 kips = 12,789 lbs
In the link shown (366), let b = in., h = 2 in., d = 2 in., L = 18 in., and = 60o. The
clearance at the pins A and B are such that B resists the entire horizontal component of
F; material is AISI C1020, as rolled. What may be the value of F for N = 3 based on the
yield strength?
372.
Solution:
Refer to Prob. 366.
F sin 6FL cos
+
t =
bh
bh 2
sin 6L cos
+
t = F
bh 2
bh
For AISI C1020, as rolled, sy = 48 ksi .
sy
N
48
= 16 ksi
3
b = 0.5 in
h = 2 in
L = 18 in
= 60o
sin 60 6(18)cos 60
16 = F
+
(0.5)(2)2
(0.5)(2)
The link shown is subjected to a steady load F1 = 2.1 kips; b = 0.5 in., h = a = d = 2 in., L =
18 in.; material AISI 1040, cold drawn (10% work). The dimensions are such that all of
the horizontal reaction from F2 occurs at A; and F2 varies from 0 to a maximum, acting
Page 18 of 133
Solution:
b = 0.5 in
h = a = d = 2 in
L = 18 in
F1 = 2.1 kips
=0
(a + L + d )E = aF1 + hF2
E=
aF1 + hF2
a+L+d
=0
Ay = F1 E
=0
Ax = F2
For F2 = 0 :
(2 )(2.1) + 0 = 0.191 kip
E=
2 + 18 + 2
Ay = F1 E = 2.1 0.191 = 1.909 kips
Ax = F2 = 0
M = aAy = (L + d )E
M=
(L + d )(aF1 + hF2 )
a+L+d
F2 = 0
Page 19 of 133
M=
Let F2 = max F2
Mmax + 3.82
2
(
18 + 2)[2(2.1) + 2F2 ]
Mmax =
= 1.82(2.1 + F2 )
2 + 18 + 2
1.82(2.1 + F2 ) + 3.82
Mm =
= 3.82 + 0.91F2
2
Mm =
Mmax 3.82
2
1.82(2.1 + F2 ) 3.82
Ma =
= 0.91F2
2
Ma =
Fm = Fa = 0.5F2
For SAE AISI 1040 Cold Drawn (10% Work)
sy = 85 ksi
sn = 54 ksi
sn (bending ) = sn size factor = (54)(0.85) = 45.9 ksi
se = sm +
se =
sy
sn
sa
M c F
= m + m
N I
A
sy
sy Ma c Fa
+
+
A
sn I
F2 = 3.785 kips
376.
A freeend column as shown, L = 12 ft. long, is made of 10in. pipe, schedule 40, (Do =
10.75 in., Di = 10.02 in., k = 3.67 in., Am = 11.908 in2., I = 160.7 in4., Z = 29.9 in3.). The load
completely reverses and e = 15 in.; N = 3; material is similar to AISI C1015, as rolled. (a)
Using the equivalentstress approach, compute the safe (static) load as a column only.
(b) Judging the varying loading by the Soderberg criterion, compute the safe maximum
load. (c) Determine the safe load from the secant formula. (d) Specify what you consider
to be a reasonable safe loading.
Page 20 of 133
Solution:
For AISI C1015, as rolled.
sy = 45.5 ksi
su = 61 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(61) = 30.5 ksi
Do = 10.75 in
Di = 10.02 in
L = 12 ft
k = 3.67 in
Am = 11.908 in 2
I = 160.07 in 4
Z = 29.9 in3
N =3
Le
sy
k
A 1 2
4 E
Page 21 of 133
s1 =
(45.5)(78.5)2
11.9081
2
4 (30,000)
F
s1 =
9.09
Fe
s2 =
Z
e = 15 in
F (15) F
s2 =
=
29.9 2
= s1 + s2
45.5
F
F
=
+
3
9.09 2
F = 24.863 kips = 24,863 lbs
F e F s F e F
se = m + m + y a + a
A sn Z
A
Z
sy
45.5 F (15)
F
se = = (0) +
+
= 2.25F
N
20.74 29.9 1.908
45.5
= 2.25F
3
NF ec
L
1 + 2 sec e
A k
2
I
c
Page 22 of 133
NF
EI
c=
Le NF 288
3F
=
= 0.11382 F
2 EI
2 (30,000)(160.07 )
NF
3F
=
= 0.252F
A 11.908
NF ec
L NF
1 + 2 sec e
sy =
A k
2 EI
)]
A bracket is attached as shown (367) onto a 14in. x 193lb., wide flange Ibeam (A =
56.73 sq. in., depth = 15.5 in., flange width = 15.710 in., Imax = 2402.4 in4., Imin = 930.1
in4., kmin = 4.05 in.). The member is an eccentrically loaded column, 40 ft. long, with no
central load (F1 = 0) and no restraint at the top. For e = 12 in. and N = 4, what may be
the value of F2?
Solution:
Using secant formula:
NF ec
L NF
1 + 2 sec e
sy =
A k
2 EI
I = Imax = 2402.4 in 4
E = 30,000 ksi
e = 12 in
k = kmax = 6.50 in
Le = 2L = 2(40)(12) = 960 in
Page 23 of 133
sy = 48 =
4F (12)(7.75)
460
sec
1 +
2
56.73
2
(6.50)
378.
4F
(30,000)(2402.4)
)]
A 14in. x 193lb., wide flange Ibeam is used as a column with one end free (A = 56.73
sq. in., depth = 15.5 in., Imax = 2402.4 in.4, Imin = 930.1 in.4, kmin = 4.05 in., length L = 40
ft.). If a load F2 is supported as shown on a bracket at an eccentricity e = 4 in. (with F1 =
0), what may be its value for a design factor of 4? Flange width = 15.71 in.
Solution:
Using secant formula:
L NF
NF ec
1 + 2 sec e
sy =
A k
2 EI
F = F2
A = 56.73 in 2
e = 4 in
flange width 15.71
c=
=
= 7.855 in
2
2
k = kmin = 4.05 in
E = 30,000 ksi
Page 24 of 133
4F2 (4)(7.855)
960
1 +
sec
2
56.73
2
(4.05)
4F2
(30,000)(930.1)
Solution:
s
L
F ec
= y = 2 1 + 2 sec e
N A k
2
NF2
EI
F1
+
A
F1 = 0.5F2
F
0.5F2
48
= 2 1 + 0.554 sec 0.18174 F2 +
4 56.73
56.73
12 = 0.01763F2 1 + 0.554 sec 0.18174 F2 + 0.008814F2
The caststeel link (SAE 080) shown (solid lines) is subjected to a steady axial tensile load
and was originally made with a rectangular cross section, h = 2 in., b = in., but was
found to be too weak. Someone decided to strengthen it by using a Tsection (dotted
addition), with h and b as given above. (a) Will this change increase the strength?
Explain. (b) What tensile load could each link carry with N = 3 based on yield?
Page 25 of 133
Solution:
For SAE 080, s y = 40 ksi
(a) This change will not increase the strength because of increased bending action that
tends to add additional stress.
s y 40
(b) = =
= 13.3 ksi
N
3
Rectangular cross section:
F F
= =
A bh
F
13.3 =
(0.5)(2 )
F = 13.3 kips
Tsection:
h = 2 in , b = 0.5 in
A = b(h b ) + bh = 0.5(2 0.5) + 0.5(2) = 1.75 in 2
b
1
c1 A = b(h b ) (h b ) + b + bh
2
2
0. 5
1
2
2
c1 = 0.6786 in
c 2 = h c1 = 2 0.6786 = 1.3214 in
1
(h b) = 1.3214 1 (2 0.5) = 0.5714 in
2
2
b
0.5
f = c1 = 0.6786
= 0.4286 in
2
2
d = c2
b(h b )3
hb 3
+ b(h b )d 2 +
+ hbf 2
12
12
0.5(2 0.5)3
2(0.5)3
I=
+ 0.5(2 0.5)(0.5714)2 +
+ 2(0.5)(0.4286)2
12
12
I=
I = 0.59 in 4
Page 26 of 133
(0.6786)(0.6786)
1
13.3 = F
+
0.59
1.75
F = 6.941 kips
The figure shows a plate riveted to a vertical surface by 5 rivets. The material of the
plate and rivets is SAE 1020, as rolled. The load F = 5000 lb., b = 3 in., = 0, and c = 5 in.;
let a = 3D. Determine the diameter D of the rivets and the thickness of plate for a design
factor of 3 based in yield strengths.
Solution:
=0
For SAE 1020, as rolled.
s y = 48 ksi
s sy = 0.6s y
N=3
Page 27 of 133
1
2
F 2
R = F12 +
5
F2 F1
=
a 2a
F1 = 2F2
[ M
=0
=0
a = 3D
b = 3 in
c = 5 in
F = 5 kips
F1 = 2F2
4(2F2 )(3D ) + 2F2 (3D ) = (5)(5) + 5 sin 0 o (6D 3)
30F2 D = 25
5
F2 =
6D
5 5
F1 = 2F2 = 2 =
6D 3D
A=
=
=
D2
R
A
s sy
N
0.6s y
N
Page 28 of 133
0.6 sy
N
R
A
1
2 F 2 2
F1 +
5
0.6 sy
=
N
A
1
0.6(48)
=
3
5 2 5 2 2
+
3D 5
D2
2.778 2
2 + 1
D
9. 6 =
0.7854D 2
By trial and error method.
5
D = 0.625 in = in
8
For thickness of plate, t .
A = Dt
R
=
A
1
2
2
5 2 5 2 2 5
5 2
R = + =
+
= 2.85 kips
3D 5
3(0.625) 5
s
R
= y =
N Dt
48
2.85
=
3 0.625t
1
t = 0.285 in = in
4
382.
Page 29 of 133
Solution:
2
F
F
R = F12 + 2F1 cos120o
5
5
2 F 2
2
F
R = F1 + + 2F1 cos 60o
5
5
MC = 0
F1 = 2F2 = 2 0.5 +
=1+
D
D
R
=
A
s
0.6s y
= sy =
N
N
0.6 sy
N
R
A
1
2 F 2
2
F
o
F1 + + 2F1 cos 60
0.6 sy
5
5
=
N
A
Page 30 of 133
0.6(48)
=
3
0.944 2 5 2 0.944 5
2
o
+ + 21 +
cos 60
1 +
D 5
D 5
2
D
4
1
0.944 2
2
0.944
o
1
+
+
1
+
2
1
+
cos
60
D
D
9. 6 =
2
0.7854 D
By trial and error method. D = 0.641 in
5
Say D = 0.625 in = in (same as 381).
8
For t .
1
0.944 2
2
0.944
o
R = 1 +
+ 1 + 21 +
cos 60
D
D
0.944 2
2
0.944
o
R = 1 +
+ 1 + 21 +
cos 60 = 3.1325 in
0.625
0.625
R
=
A
s
R
= y =
N Dt
48 3.1325
=
3 0.625t
5
t = 0.31325 in = in
16
383.
Design a riveted connection, similar to that shown, to support a steady vertical load of F
= 1500 lb. when L = 18 in. and = 0o. Let the maximum spacing of the rivets, horizontally
and vertically, be 6D, where D is the diameter of the rivet; SAE 1020, as rolled, is used
for all parts; N = 2.5 based on yield. The assembly will be such that there is virtually no
twisting of the channel. The dimensions to determine at this time are: rivet diameter
and minimum thickness of the plate.
Page 31 of 133
Solution:
= 0 o , a = b = 6D
1
(6D ) = 3D
2
F
R = F1 +
4
R
=
A
For SAE 1020, as rolled, s y = 48 ksi .
c=
N = 2.5
s sy = 0.6s y
s sy
N
0.6s y
N
0.6(48)
= 11.52 ksi
2.5
4F1c = F (L + c )
4F1 (3D ) = 1.5(18 + 3D )
0.375(6 + D )
F1 =
D
0.375(6 + D ) 1.5 2.25
R=
+
=
+ 0.75
D
4
D
1
A = D 2
4
Page 32 of 133
R
A
2.25
+ 0.75
11.52 = D
1 2
D
4
11
D = 0.6875 in = in
16
sy
R
N A
2.25
+ 0.75
48
= D
2.5
Dt
2.25
+ 0.75
0
.
6875
19.2 =
0.6875t
5
t = in
16
384.
The same as 383, except that = 45o.
Solution:
= 11.52 ksi , = 19.2 ksi
Page 33 of 133
F
F
R
+ + 2F1 cos 45 o
4
4
4F1 (3D ) = F cos (L + 3D ) = 1.5 cos 45 o (18 + 3D )
0.2652(6 + D )
F1 =
d
2
= F12
0.2652(6 + D ) 1.5
0.2652(6 + D ) 1.5
o
R =
+
+ 2
cos 45
D
D
4
2
0.2652(6 + D )
6+D
R2 =
+ 0.140625 + 0.140625
D
2
0.84375
6+D
R = 0.0703
+ 0.28125
+
D
D
R
=
A
2
1
2
2
0.84375
6+D
+ 0.28125
0.0703
+
D
D
11.52 =
1 2
D
4
D = 0.594 in
19
say D = in = 0.59375 in
32
1
2
2
0.84375
6 + 0.59375
R = 0.0703
+ 0.28125 = 3.221 kips
+
0.59375
0.59375
R
=
Dt
R
19.2 =
Dt
3.221
19.2 =
0.59375t
t = 0.2815 in
say t =
385.
1
in .
4
The plate shown (381) is made of SAE 1020 steel, as rolled, and held in place by five
in. rivets that are made of SAE 1022 steel, as rolled. The thickness of the plate is in., a
= 2 in., c = 6 in., b = 4 in., and = 0. Find the value of F for a design factor of 5 based
on the ultimate strength.
Page 34 of 133
Solution:
Plate, SAE 1020, as rolled (Table AT 7)
su = 65 ksi
su 65
=
= 13 ksi
N
5
R = Dt
3 1
R = (13)( ) = 15.3 kips
4 2
R =
= 10.8 = 4.77 ksi
4
4
F 2
R = F12 +
5
F1 = 2F2
2F1 (2a ) + 2F2 (a ) = Fc
2(2F2 )(2 )(2.5) + 2F2 (2.5) = F (6)
25F2 = 6F
F2 = 0.24F
F1 = 2(0.24F ) = 0.48F
2
R = (0.48F )
2
F
+ = (4.77 )2
5
386.
Solution:
R = 4.77 kips
F
R = F1 +
5
F1 = 2F2
2F1 (2a) + 2F2 (a ) = F (2a b)
2(2F2 )(2 )(2.5) + 2F2 (2.5) = F [2(2.5) 4]
25F2 = F
F2 = 0.04F
F1 = 0.08F
F
R = 4.77 = 0.08F +
5
F = 17 ,000 lbs
Page 36 of 133
The plate shown is made of AISI 1020 steel, as rolled, and is fastened to an Ibeam (AISI
1020, as rolled) by three rivets that are made of a steel equivalent to AISI C1015, cold
drawn. The thickness of the plate and of the flanges of the Ibeam is in., the diameter
of the rivets is in., a = 8.5 in., b = 11.5 in. and c = 4.5 in., d = 4 in. For F2 = 0, calculate
the value of F1 for N = 2.5 based on yield strength.
Solution:
3
D = in
4
1
t = in
2
a = 8.5 in
b = 11.5 in
c = 4.5 in
d = 4 in
Plate, AISI 1020 Steel, as rolled, s y = 48 ksi
Rivet, AISI C1015, cols drawn, s sy = 0.6(63) = 37.8 ksi
sy
48
= 19.2 ksi
N 2.5
s
37.8
= sy =
= 15.12 ksi
N
2.5
3 1
R = (Dt ) = 19.2( ) = 22.6 kips
4 2
D 2
R =
4
3
= 15.12 = 6.68 kips
4 4
D 2
Use R =
4
3
= 15.12 = 6.68 kips
4 4
F2 = 0 ,
Page 37 of 133
d
2
4
2
= 2.5 in
c
3
2 = +
4. 5
2 = +
F
F
=
2c
3
F 2c
F =
3
c
2c
F1 a + = 2F + F
3
3
2(4.5)
F
4. 5
3
F1 8.5 +
= 2F (2.5) +
3
2. 5
F1 = 0.86F
F
F= 1
0.86
c3
cos =
4. 5 3
cos =
= 0.60
2. 5
2
F
F
R 2 = F 2 + 1 + 2F 1 cos
3
3
2
F F
F F
R = 1 + 1 + 2 1 1 (0.60)
0.86 3
0.86 3
2
Page 38 of 133
Solution:
R = 6.68 kips
R=F+
F2
3
F
(2c 3)
c 2c
F2 b = F + 2F
3 3
F =
F2 11.5
+
=F
3 3 2(4.5)
3
F2 = 0.7167F
Page 39 of 133
R =F +
389.
Solution:
3
[ M
corner
=0
s y As 2
6
, D < in
4
Page 40 of 133
Fe =
s y As 2
6
3
52,000 As 2
Fe = 477.4 =
6
2
As = 0.1448 in
Select
Say D =
1
in , UNC, As = 0.1419 in 2
2
Fe
+ si
A
477.4
st =
+ 0.7(52,000) = 39,764 psi
0.1419
(b) st =
ss =
(i)
1 s
=
N s y
ss
+
s 2
y
2
2
= 39,764 + 3052
52,000 52,000
N = 1.293
(ii)
1 s
=
N s y
ss
+
s
3
y
2
2
2
2
= 39,764 + 3052
52,000 52,000 3
N = 1.296
For the mounted bracket shown, determine the rivet diameter (all same size) for N = 3,
the design being for the external loading (initial stress ignored); F = 2.3 kips, = 0, c = 17
in., a = 1 in., b = 14 in.; rivet material is AISI 1015, as rolled. Compute for (a) the
maximum shear theory, (b) the maximum normal stress theory, (c) the octahedral shear
theory.
Page 41 of 133
Solution:
F2
F
= 1
a a+b
F2
F1
=
1.5 1.5 + 14.5
F2 = 0.09375F1
2F1 (a + b) + F2 (a ) = Fc
2F1 (1.5 + 14.5) + 0.09375F1 (1.5) = (2.3)(17 )
F1 = 1.2165 kips
F1 1.2165
=
ksi
A
A
F
2.3 0.7667
ss =
=
=
ksi
3 A 3A
A
For AISI 4015, as rolled. s y = 45.5 ksi
s=
1 s
=
N sy
ss 2
+
s
ys
s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(45.5) = 22.75 ksi
2
Page 42 of 133
A = 0.1291 in 2
D 2
= 0.1291 in 2
4
D = 0.4054 in
3
say D = in
8
A=
2
2 1.2165 1.2165 2 0.7667 2 1.5869
s s
(b) = + + s s2 =
+
+
=
2 2
2A
A
2 A A
1
=
N sy
sy
N
1.5869 45.5
=
A
3
A = 0.1046 in 2
A=
D 2
= 0.1046 in 2
4
D = 0.365 in
3
say D = in
8
(c) s ys =
sy
45.5
3
= 26.27 ksi
1
2
1 1.2165 0.7667 2
=
+
3 45.5A 26.27 A
A = 0.11874 in 2
A=
D 2
= 0.11874 in 2
4
D = 0.3888 in
3
say D = in
8
Page 43 of 133
The same as 390, except that the two top rivets are 2 in. long and the bottom rivet is 1
in. long.
Solution:
2
a
2
1.5
=
=
1
a+b
1
1.5 + 14.5
2 = 0.093751
F2 (1.25) = 0.09375(2)F1
F2 = 0.15F1
2F1 (a + b) + F2 a = Fc
2F1 (16) + 0.15F1 (1.5) = (2.3)(17 )
F1 = 1.2133 kips
F1 1.2133
=
ksi
A
A
F
2.3 0.7667
ss =
=
=
ksi
3 A 3A
A
For AISI 4015, as rolled. s y = 45.5 ksi
s=
Page 44 of 133
1 s
=
N sy
ss 2
+
s
ys
s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(45.5) = 22.75 ksi
2
1
2
2
1 1.2133 0.7667 2
=
+
3 45.5 A 22.75A
A = 0.1289 in 2
D 2
= 0.1289 in 2
4
D = 0.4051 in
3
say D = in
8
A=
2
2 1.2133 1.2133 2 0.7667 2 1.5843
s s
+
(b) = + + s s2 =
+
=
2 2
2A
A
2 A A
1
=
N sy
sy
N
1.5843 45.5
=
A
3
A = 0.1045 in 2
D 2
= 0.1045 in 2
4
D = 0.3648 in
3
say D = in
8
A=
(c) s ys =
sy
45.5
3
= 26.27 ksi
1
2
1 1.2133 0.7667 2
=
+
3 45.5 A 26.27 A
A = 0.1186 in 2
Page 45 of 133
= 0.1186 in 2
4
D = 0.3886 in
3
say D = in
8
A=
393.
The same as 390, except that the load is applied vertically at B instead of at A; let AB = 8
in. The two top rivets are 12 in. apart.
Solution:
b
= 6 +
3
2
14.5
3
= 7.705 in
2 = 62 +
F1
F2
2b 3
2b F 2(14.5) F1
F2 = 1 =
= 1.2546F1
3 3 7.705
Page 46 of 133
6
= 0.7787
7.705
2
F
F
R 2 = F12 + + 2F1 cos
3
3
2
2.3
2.3
R = (0.6682) +
+ 2(0.6682)
(0.7787 )
3
3
R = 1.3536 kips
R 1.3536
ss = =
ksi
A
A
2
1
s
(a) =
N sy
ss
+
s
ys
A = 0.1957 in 2
D 2
= 0.1957 in 2
4
D = 0.5 in
1
say D = in
2
A=
2
2 1.2165 1.2165 2 1.3536 2 2.10
s s
(b) = + + s s2 =
+
+
=
2 2
2A
A
2 A A
1
=
N sy
Page 47 of 133
N
2.10 45.5
=
A
3
A = 0.1385 in 2
A=
D 2
= 0.1385 in 2
4
D = 0.42 in
7
say D = in
16
3 45.5A 26.27 A
A = 0.1742 in 2
D 2
= 0.1742 in 2
4
D = 0.471 in
1
say D = in
2
A=
394.
The bracket shown is made of SAE 1020, as rolled, and the rivets are SAE 1015, cold
drawn. The force F = 20 kips, L = 7 in., and = 60o. Let the design factor (on yield) be 2.
(a) Determine the thickness t of the arm. (b) Compute the rivet diameter by both
maximum shear and octahedral shear theories and specify a standard size. (c) Decide
upon a proper spacing of rivets and sketch the bracket approximately to scale. Is some
adjustment of dimensions desirable? Give suggestions, if any. (No additional calculations
unless your instructor asks for a complete design.)
Solution:
Bracket: SAE 1020, as rolled, s y = 48 ksi
Rivets: SAE 1015, cold drawn, s y = 63 ksi
Page 48 of 133
(a) Bracket.
(F cos )(L ) 4
F sin
2
s=
+
A
I
A = 4t
t (4)3
I=
= 5.333t
12
48 20 sin 60 o
20 cos 60 o (7 )(2)
=
+
N
2
4t
5.333t
t = 1.275 in
1
say t = 1 in
4
s=
sy
(b)
F2 F1
=
2 6
F1 = 3F2
(
)
3(3F )(6) + 2F (2 ) = (20)(cos 60 )(7 ) + (20)(sin 60 )(3)
3F1 (6) + 2F2 (2) = F cos 60o (L ) + F sin 60 o (3)
o
F2 = 2.10 kips
F1 = 3F2 = 3(2.10) = 6.31 kips
F cos 20 cos 60 2
=
=
5A
5A
A
F1 F sin 60 6.31 20 sin 60 9.774
s= +
=
+
=
A
5A
A
5A
A
ss =
1 s
=
N sy
ss
+
s
ys
s y = 63 ksi
2
2
1 9.774 2 2
=
+
2 63A 31.5A
A = 0.3353 in 2
Page 49 of 133
A=
D 2
= 0.3353 in 2
4
D = 0.653 in
3
say D = in
4
Octahedral shear, s ys =
sy
63
3
1
2
2
1 9.774 2 2
=
+
2 63A 36.37 A
A = 0.3292 in 2
A=
D 2
= 0.3292 in 2
4
D = 0.6474 in
3
say D = in
4
(c) Spacing
F cos
5(S D )t
t = 1.5 in , s y = 48 ksi
D = 0.75 in
F = 20 kips
sy
F cos
N 5(S D )t
48
20 cos 60
=
2 5(S 0.75)(1.5)
S = 0.806 in
7
use S = in adjust to 2 in
8
Page 50 of 133
= 36.37 ksi
(a) If the rivets supporting the brackets of 390 are 5/8 in. in diameter, = 0, c = 14 in. a =
2 in., and b = 18 in., what are the maximum tensile and shear stresses in the rivets
induced by a load of F = 10 kips. (b) For rivets of naval brass, hard, compute the factor
of safety by maximum shear and octahedral shear theories (initial tension ignored).
Solution:
Page 51 of 133
F2
F
= 1
a a+b
F2
F
= 1
2 2 + 18
F2 = 0.1F1
2F1 (a + b) + F2 (a ) = Fc
2F1 (2 + 18) + 0.1F1 (2) = (10)(14)
F1 = 3.8425 kips
F1
F
3.8425
= 1 =
= 12.525 ksi
A
(0.625)2
D2
4
4
F
F
10
ss =
=
=
= 10.865 ksi
3A
2
2
3 D
3 (0.625)
4
4
s=
s 2 2 2 12.525 2
2
2
(a) = + s s =
+ (10.865) = 12.541 ksi
2
2
2 12.525 12.525 2
2
s s
2
= + + s s2 =
+
+ (10.865) = 18.804 ksi
2 2
2
1 s
=
N sy
ss 2
+
s
ys
Max. shear theory; s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(48) = 24 ksi
2
Page 52 of 133
sy
3
48
3
= 27.71 ksi
1
2
2
1 12.525 10.865 2
=
+
N 48 27.71
N = 2.123
397.
The same as 396, except that the two top rivets are in. in diameter and the bottom
one is in. in diameter.
Solution:
a+b
a
2 =
1
a+b
F2
a F1
=
A2 a + b A1
a
Page 53 of 133
a D2
F2 =
F1
a + b D1
2
2 0. 5
F2 =
F1 = 0.0444F1
2 + 18 0.75
2F1 (a + b) + F2 (a ) = Fc
2F1 (2 + 18) + 0.0444F1 (2) = (10)(14)
F1 = 3.492 kips
F1
3.492
=
= 7.9043 ksi
A1
(0.75)2
4
F
10
ss =
=
= 9.26 ksi
2 A1 + A2
2
2
2 (0.75) + (0.50)
4
4
s=
s 2 2 2 7.9043 2
2
2
(a) = + s s =
+ (9.26) = 10.068 ksi
2
2
2
2 7.9043 7.9043 2
2
s s
2
= + + s s2 =
+
+ (9.26) = 14.02 ksi
2 2
2
1
s
(b) =
N sy
ss 2
+
s
ys
Max. shear theory; s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(48) = 24 ksi
2
1
2
2
1 7.9043 9.26 2
=
+
N 48 24
N = 2.384
Page 54 of 133
sy
3
48
3
= 27.71 ksi
What static load F may be supported by the in. rivets shown, made of coldfinished
C1015, with N = 3; = 0, a = 1 , b = 9, c = 14, f = 9, g = 12 in.? Count on no help from
friction and ignore the initial tension. Check by both maximum shear and octahedral
shear theories.
Solution:
For coldfinished, C1015, s y = 63 ksi .
F1
F
= 2
a+b a
F1
F
= 2
1.5 + 9 1.5
F1 = 7F2
= 0o
3F1 (a + b) + F2 a = Fc
3(7F2 )(1.5 + 9 ) + F2 (1.5) = F (14)
F2 = 0.0631F
F1 = 7F2 = 0.4417F
s=
F1 0.4417F
=
=F
A (0.75)2
4
Page 55 of 133
ss =
F
F
=
= 0.5659F
4A
2
(
)
4 0.75
4
1
1 s
=
N sy
2
2
ss 2
+
s
ys
Max. shear theory; s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(63) = 31.5 ksi
1
2
2
1 F 0.5659F 2
= +
3 63 31.5
F = 13.9 kips
sy
3
63
3
= 36.37 ksi
1
2
2
1 F 0.5659F 2
= +
3 63 36.37
F = 15 kips
399.
The 2in., UNC cap screw shown has been subjected to a tightening torque of 20 inkips.
The force F = 12 kips, = 60o, and Q = 0; L = 24 in., a = 20 in., b = 15 in.; screw material is
AISI C1137 as rolled. (a) What is the approximate initial tightening load? (b) What is the
increase in this load caused by the external force F if the bar is 8 in. wide and 2 in. thick
and the unthreaded shank of the screw is 2 in. long? (See 5.9, Text.) (c) What are the
maximum tensile and shear stresses in the bolt? (d) Compute the factor of safety from
maximum normal stress, maximum shear, and octahedral shear theories.
Solution:
(a) T = CDFi
C = 0.2
D = 2 in
T = 20 in kips
20 = 0.2(2)Fi
Page 56 of 133
Fb = Fe
kb + kc
AE
kb = s
Lb
AE
kc = c
Lc
For 2UNC
As = 2.50 in 2
Width across flat = 3 in.
2.5E
kb =
= 1.25E
2
kc = 4
(3)2 E
2
= 3.5343E
1.25E
Fb = (30)
= 7.84 kips
1.25E + 3.5343E
F + Fb 50 + 7.84
(c) s = i
=
= 23.14 ksi
As
2.50
ss =
s 2
2 23.14 2
2
2
= + ss2 =
+
(
4
.
16
)
= 12.3 ksi
2
2
2
2 23.14 23.14 2
2
s s
2
2
= + + s s =
+
+ (4.16) = 23.87 ksi
2 2
2
sy
N
23.87 =
55
N
Page 57 of 133
Maximum Shear:
0.5sy
=
N
0.5(55)
12.3 =
N
N = 2.236
Octahedral shear, s ys =
sy
3
55
3
= 31.75 ksi
1 s
=
N sy
2
2
ss 2
+
s
ys
1
2
2
1 23.14 4.16 2
=
+
N 55 31.75
N = 2.269
400.
The plate shown is attached by three in., UNC cap screws that are made of ASTM
A325, heattreated bolt material; L = 26 in., a = 6 in., b = 4 in., = 0. The shear on the
screws is across the threads and they have been tightened to an initial tension of 0.6sp
(sp = proof stress, 5.8, Text). Which screw is subjected to (a) the largest force, (b) the
largest stress? What safe static load can be supported by the screws for N = 1.5 based
on the HenckyMises criterion?
Solution:
For ASTM A325, HeatTreated, in. UNC
s y = 88 ksi
s p = 85 ksi
si = 0.6s p = 0.6(85) = 51 ksi
Page 58 of 133
b a
2 3
= 2.83 in
4
2
6
3
2 = + = +
F1
(2a 3)
F1
2.83F1
F2 =
=
= 0.7075F1
(2a 3) 2(6 ) 3
=
2a
2a
2F2 + F1 = F L +
3
3
2(6)
2(6 )
2(0.7075)(F1 )(2.83) + F1
= F 26 +
3
3
F1 = 3.75F
F
F
R = F1 + = 3.75F + = 4.1F
3
3
For in UNC, As = 0.1419 in 2
R
4.1F
ss = =
= 29F
A 0.1419
s = si = 51 ksi
By HenckyMises Criterion.
1
1
(s x + s y )+ (1 + ) s x sy
=
2
2
Page 59 of 133
2
+ s s2
= 0.3
1
1
(s x + sy ) + (1 + ) s x sy
= =
N
2
2
sy
2
2
+ ss
2
88 1 0.3
=
(51) + (1 + 0.3) 51 + (29F )2
1.5
2
2
401.
The same as 400, except that the cap screw A is in. in diameter.
Solution:
A1 = As1 = 0.3340 in 2 (3/4 in UNC)
A2 = As2 = 0.1419 in 2 (1/2 in UNC)
F2
F1
=
A2 A1 (2a 3)
F2
F1
=
(0.1419 )(2.83) (0.3340)[2(6) 3]
F2 = 0.3006F1
2a
2a
2F2 + F1 = F L +
3
3
2(6)
2(6)
2(0.3006F1 )(2.83) + F1
= F 26 +
3
3
F1 = 5.262F
F2 = 0.3006F1 = 0.3006(5.262F ) = 1.582F
For in UNC.
F
F
R = F1 + = 5.262F + = 5.6F
3
3
Page 60 of 133
ss =
5.6F
= 16.8F ksi
0.3340
2
F
F
R = F22 + 2F2 cos
3
3
a3 63
cos =
=
= 0.7067
2.83
1
2
2
F
F
R = (1.582F )2 + 2(1.582F ) (0.7067 ) = 1.367F
3
3
1.367F
ss =
= 9.6F ksi
0.1419
2
88 1 0.3
= =
=
(51) + (1 + 0.3) 51 + (16.8F )2
N 1.5
2
2
sy
A section of a machined shaft is subjected to a maximum bending moment of 70,000 inlb., a torque of 50,000 inlb., and an end thrust of 25,000 lb. The unsupported length is 3
ft. and the material is AISI C1030, normalized. Since the computations are to be as
though the stresses were steady, use N = 3.3. Compute the diameter from both the
maximumshear and the octahedralshear theories and specify a standard size.
Solution:
wL2
2
M1 = 70,000 in lb
L = 3 ft = 36 in
M = M1 +
Page 61 of 133
= 0.284 lb in 3
D 2
A=
4
0.284D 2
w=
= 0.223D 2 lb in
4
0.223D 2 (36 )2
M = 70,000 +
= 70,000 + 144.5D 2
2
F = 25,000 lb
F Mc
s= +
A
I
D
c=
2
D 2
A=
4
D 4
I=
64
4F 32M
s= 2 +
D
D 3
4(25,000) 32 70,000 + 144.5D 2
s=
+
D 2
D 3
ss =
1 s
=
N sy
ss
+
s
ys
Maximum shear
s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(47 ) = 23.5 ksi = 23,500 psi
1
1 D 3
D + 254,648
D2
=
23,500D 3
3.3
47 ,000
Page 62 of 133
1 D 3
D + 254,648
D2
=
27 ,140D 3
3.3
47 ,000
0.223D 2 (180)2
= 70,000 + 3612.6D 2
2
F = 25,000 lb
F Mc
s= +
A
I
4F 32M
s= 2 +
D
D 3
4(25,000) 32 70,000 + 3612.6D 2
s=
+
D 2
D 3
s=
Maximum shear
1
1 D 3
D + 254,648
D2
=
23,500D 3
3.3
47 ,000
Page 63 of 133
Octahedral Shear
1
3
2
1 D
D + 254,648
D
=
27 ,140D 3
3.3
47 ,000
A shaft is to be made in two sections, I and II, of diameters D1 and D2, somewhat as
shown, machined from AISI 1045, annealed. It is expected that a = 8 in., b = 24 in., L = 20
in., and the load Q = 2 kips, so seldom repeated that the design is for steady load. The
factor of safety is to be 2.2 on the basis of the octahedralshear theory and closely the
same in each section. The ends A and B are restrained from twisting, but they are
designed to support the balancing reactions from Q without other moments. Decide
upon standard size for D1 and D2.
Solution:
T = QL = (2)(20 ) = 40 in kips
T1 + T2 = T = 40 in kips
1 = 2
T1L1 T2 L2
=
J1G J 2 G
T1a
Tb
= 24
4
D1 D2
32
32
8T1 24T2
= 4
D14
D2
Page 64 of 133
D
T1 = 3T2 1
D2
T1 + T2 = T = 40 in kips
D
T2 3 1
D 2
+ 1 = 40
40
T2 =
D 4
3 1 + 1
D 2
D
D
40(3) 1
120 1
D2
D2
T1 =
=
4
D
D 4
1
3 + 1 3 1 + 1
D 2
D2
A + B = Q = 2 kips
aA = bB
8A = 24B
A = 3B
3B + B = 2
B = 0.5 kips
A = 1.5 kips
4
D 4
D
16120 1
1920 1
D 2
16T
D2
s s1 = 31 =
=
D1
D 4
D 4
3
3
1
D1 3 + 1 D1 3 1 + 1
D 2
D 2
16T2
16(40)
640
s s2 =
=
=
3
4
D 2
D
D 4
3
3
1
D2 3 + 1 D2 3 1 + 1
D 2
D 2
N = 2.2
Octahedral Shear
Page 65 of 133
1 s
=
N sy
s ys =
sy
3
ss
+
s
ys
55
3
= 31.75 ksi
1
1 s1
=
N sy
s s1
+
s
ys
2
4
1920 1
2
D2
1 384
=
+
2.2 55D13
D 4
3
1
31.75D1 3 + 1
D
1
2
2
4
19.25 D1
2
D
1 2.2224
2
=
+
2.2 D13 D 4
3
1
D1 3 + 1
D 2
1 s2
=
N sy
s s2
+
s
ys
1 384
640
+
=
3
2.2 55D 2
D
3
1
31.75D 2 3
D 2
+ 1
1 2.2224
6.42
+
=
2.2 D 23 D 4
3
1
D 2 3 + 1
D
Page 66 of 133
D1
D2
2.268
2.372
2.398
2.403
1.820
1.730
1.714
1.712
D1
D2
1.25
1.37
1.40
1.40
Actual
1
3
Use standard D1 = 2 in , D 2 = 1 in
2
4
1
But D1 > D 2 , use D1 = 2 in
2
1
D 2 = D1 + 2r = 1.3D1 = 1.3 2 = 3.25 in
2
1
say D 2 = 3 in
2
405.
The shaft shown overhangs a bearing on the right and has the following dimensions: a =
5 in., b = in., and e = 10 in. The material is AISI C1040, annealed. This shaft is subjected
to a torque T = 10,000 inlb., forces F1 = 10,000 lb., and F2 = 20,000 lb. Using a staticdesign approach, determine the diameter D for N = 2.5, with computations from the
maximumshear and octahedralshear theories.
Solution:
= 0.284 lb in 3
w = 0.284 D 2 = 0.223D 2
4
2
we
0.223D 2 (10 )2
M=
=
= 11.15D 2
2
2
Bending due to F1 and load
Page 67 of 133
s=
D
D2
D3
D3
407,437 25,465 114
s=
+
+
D
D3
D2
1 s
=
N sy
ss 2
+
s
ys
For AISI C1040, annealed (Fig. AF 1) s y = 48 ksi
2
1 D 3
D + 50,930
D2
=
24,000D 3
2.5
48,000
D = 2.95 in
Octahedral Shear
sy
48
s ys =
=
= 27.71 ksi
3
3
1
1 D 3
D + 50,930
D2
=
27,710D 3
2.5
48,000
D = 2.95 in
use D = 3.0 in
Page 68 of 133
Solution
F2 = 0
s 2 = 0 , s3 = 0
509,296 114
s = s1 =
+
D
D3
50,930
ss =
D3
N = 2.5
Maximum shear, s ys = 0.5sy = 0.5(48) = 24 ksi
1
509,296 114 2
+
1 D 3
D
+ 50,930
=
24,000D 3
2.5
48,000
2
2
D = 3 in
Octahedral Shear
sy
48
s ys =
=
= 27.71 ksi
3
3
1
509,296 114 2
2
2
+
1 D 3
D + 50,930
=
27 ,710D 3
2.5
48,000
D = 2.997 in
use D = 3.0 in
CHECK PROBLEMS
407.
The shaft shown overhangs a bearing at the right and has the following dimensions: D =
2 in., a = 4 in., b = in., c = 2 in., d = 6 in., e = 8 in., r = in. This shaft is subjected to a
torque T = 8000 inlb. and forces F1 = 8000 lb., and F2 = 16,000 lb. Determine the
maximumshear and normal stresses, and the octahedralshear stress: (a) at points A
and B ( = 45o), (b) at points M and N, (c) at point G.
Page 69 of 133
Solution:
Bending due to F2 :
32F2 b 32(16,000 )(0.75)
s2 =
=
= 15,279 psi
D 3
(2)3
Tension
4F
4(16,000)
s3 = 22 =
= 5093 psi
D
(2)2
Bending due to F1 and weight of beam
wx 2
32 F1a +
2
s1 =
D 3
x from the free end.
ss =
16T 16(8000)
=
= 5093 psi
D 3
(2)3
(A) x = e c = 8 2 = 6 in
0.892(6)2
32 (8000)(4) +
s1 =
= 40,764 psi
3
(2 )
at A
s = s3 + (s1 s 2 ) sin 45o = 5093 + (40,764 15,279) sin 45o = 23,114 psi
Max. Shear
1
s 2
2 23,114 2
2
2
= + s s2 =
+ (5093) = 12,629 psi
2
Max. Normal
1
2
2 23,114 23,114 2
2
s s
2
2
= + + s s =
+
+ (5093) = 24,186 psi
2 2
2
Page 70 of 133
o =
2 2
s + 3s s2
3
1
2
2
(23,114)2 + 3(5093)2
3
1
2
= 11,662 psi
At B:
s = (s1 s2 )sin 45o s3 = (40,764 15,279) sin 45o 5093 = 12,928 psi
Max. Shear
1
s 2
2 12,928 2
2
2
= + s s2 =
+ (5093) = 8229 psi
2
Max. Normal
1
2
2 12,928 12,928 2
2
s s
2
= + + s s2 =
+
+ (5093) = 14,693 psi
2 2
2
1
2
= 7 ,378 psi
(B)
1
= 7.75 in
4
0.892(7.75)2
32(8000)(4 ) +
x =e c =8
s1 =
(2)3
= 40,778 psi
at M
s = s3 + s1 s2 = 5093 + 40,778 15,279 = 30,592 psi
Max. Shear
1
s 2
2 30,592 2
2
2
= + s s2 =
+ (5093) = 16,122 psi
2
2
Max. Normal
1
2
2 30,592 30,592 2
2
s s
2
2
= + + s s =
+
+ (5093) = 31,418 psi
2 2
2
1
2
= 15,009 psi
At N:
s = s1 s 2 s3 = 40,778 15,279 5093 = 20,406 psi
Max. Shear
Page 71 of 133
s 2
2 20,406 2
2
2
2
= + s s =
+ (5093) = 11,403 psi
2
Max. Normal
1
2
2 20,406 20,406 2
2
s s
2
= + + s s2 =
+
+ (5093) = 21,606 psi
2 2
2
(C) At G.
x = e c = 8 2 = 6 in
0.892(2 )2
32 (8000)(4) +
s1 =
= 40,746 psi
3
(2)
Max. Shear
1
s 2
2 17 ,826 2
2
2
= + s s2 =
+ (5093) = 10,265 psi
2
Max. Normal
1
2
2 17 ,826 17 ,826 2
2
s s
2
= + + s s2 =
+
+ (5093) = 19,178 psi
2 2
2
411.
1
2
= 9376 psi
A 4in. shaft carries an axial thrust of 20 kips. The maximum bending moment is 2/3 of
the twisting moment; material is AISI 8630, WQT 1100 F, and N =3. Use the steady stress
approach and compute the horsepower that may be transmitted at 2000 rpm?
Solution:
For AISI 8630, WQT 1100oF, s y = 125 ksi
32M 4F
+
D 3 D 2
16T
ss = 3
D
2
M= T
3
F = 20 kips
s=
Page 72 of 133
1 s
=
N sy
2
2
ss 2
+
s
ys
1
2
2
1 0.1061T + 1.59155 0.0796T 2
=
+
3
125
62.5
T = 213 in kips = 213,000 in lb
Tn
(213,000 )(2000)
hp =
=
= 6762 hp
63,000
63,000
412.
The same as 411, except that the shaft is hollow with an inside diameter of 2 in.
Solution:
32MDo
4F
s=
+
4
4
2
Do Di
D o D i2
) (
2
32 T (4)
4(20)
3
s=
+
= 0.1252T + 2.612
4
4
(4) (2.5)
(4)2 (2.5)2
16TDo
16T (4)
ss =
=
= 0.0939T
4
4
Do Di
(4)4 (2.5)4
] [
1 s
=
N sy
2
2
ss 2
+
s
ys
1
2
2
1 0.1252T + 2.612 0.0939T 2
=
+
3
125
62.5
T = 177 in kips = 177,000 in lb
Tn
(177,000)(2000)
hp =
=
= 5619 hp
63,000
63,000
413.
A hollow, alloyedsteel shaft, AISI 4130, OQT 1100 F, has an OD of 3 in. and an ID of 2
in. It is transmitting 1500 hp at 1200 rpm, and at the same time is withstanding a
maximum bending moment of 40,000 inlb. and an axial compressive force F = 10 kips.
The length of the shaft between bearings is 10 ft. Using a steady stress approach,
Page 73 of 133
T=
0.962(120)2
= 41,732 in lb
8
32MDo
4F
s=
+
4
4
2
Do Di
Do Di2
32(41,732)(3.25)
4(10,000)
s=
+
= 22,000 psi
4
4
(3.25) (2.5)
(3.25)2 (2.5)2
16TDo
16(78,750)(3.25)
ss =
=
= 17 ,978 psi
4
4
Do Di
(3.25)4 (2.5)4
M = 40,000 +
) (
] [
) [
1
2
s 2
22,000 2
2
2
(A) = + s s2 =
+ (17 ,978) = 21,076 psi
2
2
2 22,000 22,000 2
2
s s
2
2
(B) = + + s s =
+
+ (17 ,978) = 32,076 psi
2 2
2
sys
(C) N =
0. 5s y
0.5(114)
= 2.704
21.076
sy
114
N= =
= 3.554
32.076
1
1
s
(D) =
N sy
s ys =
sy
3
ss
+
s
ys
114
3
= 65.82 ksi
Page 74 of 133
The force F on the lever in the illustration (in the plane of the lever) varies from a
maximum of 424.2 lb. to a minimum of 141.4 lb.; L = 20 in., a = 15 in., D2 = 1.2D1, r =
0.125D1, = 45o; the material is colddrawn SAE 1040, 10% worked, the design factor N
= 1.5. Compute the diameter D1 using the Soderbergline approach with both the
maximumshear and octahedralshear theories; indefinite life.
Solution:
For SAE 040, 10% Worked
s n = 54 ksi
s y = 85 ksi
s n 54
1
=
=
sy 85 1.574
s ns s n
1
=
=
s ys s y 1.574
SF = 0.85
Page 75 of 133
Assume q = 1
K f = 1 + q (K t 1) = 1 + (1)(K t 1) = K t
K f = 1.54
K fs = 1.27
Forces:
Fmax = 424.2 lb
Fmin = 141.4 lb
1
(Fmax + Fmax ) = 1 (424.2 141.4) = 141.4 lb
2
2
1
1
Fa = (Fmax Fmax ) = (424.2 + 141.4) = 282.8 lb
2
2
Fm =
D 2
= 0.223D 2
w = 0.284
4
wL2
wL2
M = M1 +
= FL +
2
2
0.233D 2 (20 )2
M m = (141.4)(20) +
= 2828 + 44.6D 2
2
0.233D 2 (20)2
Ma = (282.8)(20) +
= 5656 + 44.6D 2
2
T = (F cos )a
(
)
= (282.8)(cos 45 )(15) = 3000 in lb
32M
D 3
32 2828 + 44.6D 2
28,806 454
sm =
=
+
3
D
D
D3
32 5656 + 44.6D 2 57 ,612 454
sa =
=
+
D
D 3
D3
s=
16T
D 3
16(1500) 7640
sms =
= 3
D 3
D
16(3000 ) 15,280
sas =
=
D 3
D3
ss =
Page 76 of 133
s es =
K fs sas
sns
sms +
s ys
SF
=
1.574 D 3 0.85 D 3
D3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
s es =
se =
=
1.574 D 3
D 0.85 D 3
D
D
D3
1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn s ns
122,681 1111 2
2
2
+
1 D 3
D + 27 ,684
=
1.5
54,000
27,000D 3
D = 1.5625 in = 1
9
in
16
sn
3
54,000
3
= 31,177 psi
1
122,681 1111 2
2
2
+
1 D 3
D + 27,684
=
1.5
54,000
31,177D 3
D = 1.55 in
9
say D = 1 in
16
5
say D = 1 in
8
417.
A hollow steel shaft, SAE 1045, as rolled, has an inside diameter of one half of the
outside diameter and is transmitting 1600 hp at 600 rpm. The maximum bending
moment is 40,000inlb. Determine the diameter for N = 3 by both the maximumshear
and octahedral shear theories. Specify a standard size. Use the Soderberg line for
obtaining the equivalent stresses.
Page 77 of 133
sas = 0
s ms = s
sns
1 16TDo
1 16(168,000)(2Di ) 92,825
=
sms =
4
4
s ys
1.229 Do Di 1.229 (2Di )4 Di4
D i3
Maximum shear, sns = 0.5sn = 0.5(48,000) = 24,000 psi
ses =
1
2
2 2
1 54,325 92,825
=
+
1.5 48,000Di3 24,000D i3
Di = 2.295 in
say Di = 2.25 in , Do = 2Di = 4.5 in
Octahedral Shear. sns =
sn
3
48,000
3
= 27,713 psi
1
2
2 2
1 54,325 92,825
=
+
1.5 48,000Di3 27,713Di3
Di = 2.20 in
say Di = 2.25 in , Do = 2Di = 4.5 in
Page 78 of 133
418.
Solution:
For AISI 2340, OQT 1000oF. s y = 120 ksi , su = 137 ksi
32M m
4F 32(22.5) 4(40) 229 51
+
=
+
= 3 + 2
3
D
D
D
D 2
D 3
D 2
32Ma 32(7.5) 76
sa =
=
= 3
D
D 3
D 3
sm =
se =
Kf
sn
1 229 51 1 76 220 29
sm +
sa =
+
+
+
=
sy
SF
1.752 D 3 D 2 0.85 D 3 D 3 D 2
ses =
K fs
sns
1 102 1 25.5 88
sms +
sas =
=
s ys
SF
1.752 D 3 0.85 D 3 D 3
Page 79 of 133
220 29
+
1 D 3 D 2
=
1.5 68.5
2
2
88
+
3
34.25D
D = 1.93 in
say D = 2 in ,
Octahedral Shear. sns =
sn
3
68.5
3
= 39.55 psi
1
220 29
+
1 D 3 D 2
=
1.5 68.5
2
2
88
+
3
39.55D
D = 1.909 in
say D = 2 in
419.
The same as 418, except that the shaft has a profile keyway at the point of maximum
moment.
Solution:
K f = 1.6
K fs = 1.3
Kf
sn
1 229 51 1.6 76 274 29
sm +
sa =
+
+
+
=
sy
SF
1.752 D 3 D 2 0.85 D 3 D 3 D 2
K fs
s
1 102 1.3 25.5 97
ses = ns sms +
sas =
=
s ys
SF
1.752 D 3 0.85 D 3 D 3
se =
274 29
+
1 D 3 D 2
=
1.5 68.5
2
2
+ 97
34.25D 3
D = 2.04 in
say D = 2 in
(b) Octahedral Shear. sns =
Page 80 of 133
sn
3
68.5
3
= 39.55 psi
274 29
+
1 D 3 D 2
=
1.5 68.5
2
2
97
+
3
39.55D
D = 2.02 in
say D = 2 in
CHECK PROBLEMS
420.
A 2in. shaft made from AISI 1144, elevated temperature drawn, transmits 200 hp at 600
rpm. In addition to the data on the figure, the reactions are B = 4.62 kips and E = 1.68
kips. Compute the factor of safety by the maximumshear and octahedralshear
theories.
Solution:
For AISI 1144, Elevated Temperature, drawn, s y = 83 ksi , su = 118 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(118) = 59 ksi
sn 59
1
=
=
sy 83 1.407
MB = (2.1)(10) = 21 in kips , MC = (1.68)(10) = 16.8 in kips
63,000hp 63,000(200)
T=
=
= 21,000 in lbs = 21 in kips
n
600
Table AT 13
K f = 2.0 , K fs = 1.6
se =
sn
sm + K f sa
sy
Mm = 0 , s m = 0
Ma = Mm
32(16.8)
32MC
s e = K f sa = K f
= 2.0
= 42.8 ksi
3
3
D
(2)
s
s es = ns sms + K fs sas
sys
Tm = T ,
Ta = 0
Page 81 of 133
ses =
sns
s 16T
1 16(21)
sms = ns 3 =
= 9.5 ksi
s ys
sys D 1.407 (2)3
1 se
=
N sn
ses
+
sns
2
2
1 42.8 9.5 2
=
+
N 59 29.5
N = 1.26
Octahedral Shear. s ns = 0.577 sn = 0.577(59 ) = 34.05 psi
1
2
2
1 42.8 9.5 2
=
+
N 59 34.05
N = 1.26
421.
In the figure (399), the bar supports a static load Q = 3000 lb. acting down; L = 16 in., a =
12 in., b = 7 in. The force F = 2500 lb. is produced by a rotating unbalanced weight and is
therefore repeated and reversed in both the horizontal and the vertical directions. The
1in. cap screw, with cut UNC threads, is made of AISI C1137, annealed, and it has been
subjected to a tightening torque of 4600 inlb. The thickness of the bar is 2 in. (a)
Compute the factor of safety for the load reversing in the vertical direction, and (b) in
the horizontal direction (maximumshear theory), with the conservative assumption
that friction offers no resistance.
Solution:
For AISI C1137, annealed, s y = 50 ksi , su = 85 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(85) = 42.5 ksi
K f = 2.8 (Table AT 12)
sn sns 42.5
1
=
=
=
sy sny
50 1.1765
T = 0.2DFi
4600 = 0.2(1)(Fi )
Page 82 of 133
Fb = Fe
kb + kc
AE
AE
kb = s , kc = c
Le
Le
kb
As
0.606
=
=
= 0.2554
k b + k c As + Ac 0.606 + (1.5)2
4
Q = 3000 lb = 3 kips
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
(a) Vertical, Moment at Edge = 0, Q > F
Fm =
Fm
24.1
=
= 39.8 ksi
As 0.606
F
0.9
sa = a =
= 1.5 ksi
As 0.606
sm =
Page 83 of 133
(a b)Fe = Qb
(12 7 )Fe = (3)(7 )
Fe = 4.2 kips
Fb = (4.2 )(0.2554 ) = 1.073 kips
Fb = Fi + Fb = 23 + 1.073 = 24.1 kips
F
24.1
s= b =
= 39.8 ksi
A 0.606
sm = s
sa = 0
K f sa
s
1
se = n sm +
=
(39.8) + 0 = 33.83 ksi
sy
SF
1.1765
Shear:
Fm = 0
1
Fa = (Fmax Fmin ) = 2.5 kips
2
s ms = 0
Fa
2.5
=
= 4.13 ksi
As 0.606
K fs sas
s
(1.0)(4.13) = 4.86 ksi
ses = ns sms +
=0+
s ys
SF
0.85
sas =
1 se
=
N sn
ses 2
+
sns
sns = 0.5sn = 0.5(42.5) = 21.25 ksi , maximum shear
2
1
2
2
1 33.83 4.86 2
=
+
N 42.5 21.25
N = 1.21
Page 84 of 133
The load Q, as seen (404), acts on the arm C and varies from 0 to 3 kips. The ends A and
B of the shaft are restrained from turning through an angle but are supported to take
the reactions A and B without other moments. The shaft is machined from AISI 1045, as
rolled; D1 = 2, D2 = 2.5, L = 15, a = 10, b = 20 in. For calculation purposes, assume that
the shaft size changes at the section of application of Q. Determine the factor of safety
in accordance with the maximumshear and octahedralshear theories. Investigate both
sections I and II. Would you judge the design to be 100% reliable?
Solution:
T = QL
Tmax = (3)(15) = 45 in kips
T1 + T2 = 45 in kips
T1a T2 b
=
J
J
T1a T2 b
=
D14 D 24
T1 (10) T2 (20)
=
(2 )4 (2.5)4
T1 = 0.8192T2
0.8192T2 + T2 = 45 in kips
T2 = 24.74 in kips
T1 = 0.8192T2 = 0.8192(24.74) = 20.27 in kips
1
1
Ta1 = Tm1 = T1 = (20.27 ) = 10.14 in kips
2
2
1
1
Ta 2 = Tm 2 = T2 = (24.74 ) = 12.37 in kips
2
2
16T
D 3
16T 16(10.14)
sms1 = sas1 = 31 =
= 6.46 ksi
D1
(2)3
sms = sas =
Page 85 of 133
sms 2 = sas 2 =
16T2 16(12.37 )
=
= 4.03 ksi
D 23
(2.5)3
A + B = Q = 3 kips
Aa = Bb
A(10) = B(20)
A = 2B
2B + B = 3 kips
B = 1 kip
A = 2 kips
M = Aa = Bb = (2 )(10) = 20 in kips
Mmax = M = 20 in kips
1
M m = Ma = Mmax = 10 in kips
2
32M
sm = sa =
D 3
32(10 )
sm1 = sa1 =
= 12.73 ksi
(2)3
32(10)
sm 2 = sa 2 =
= 6.52 ksi
(2.5)3
Use (1)
sms = 6.46 ksi , sm = 12.73 ksi
sas = 6.46 ksi , sa = 12.73 ksi
r = 0.15D1
r
D D
2.5
= 0.15 , = 2 =
= 1.25
D1
d D1 2.0
K t = 1.5 , K ts = 1.25 (Figure AF 12)
r = 0.15D1 = 0.15(2 ) = 0.30
1
=
= 0.968
a
0.01
1+
1+
r
0. 3
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.968(1.5 1) + 1 = 1.484
q=
K fs = q (K ts 1) + 1 = 0.968(1.25 1) + 1 = 1.242
Profile Keyway
K f = 1.6 , K fs = 1.3
Net
Page 86 of 133
K f sa
sn
1
sm +
=
(12.73) + 1.9(12.73) = 43.84 ksi
sy
(SF )(RF ) 1.229
(0.85)(0.85)
ses =
K fs sas
sns
1
s ms +
=
(6.46) + 1.3(6.46) = 16.88 ksi
s ys
(SF )(RF ) 1.229
(0.85)(0.85)
1 se
=
N sn
ses
+
sns
2
2
1 43.84 16.88 2
=
+
N 48 24
N = 0.87
Octahedral Shear. sns = 0.577 sn = 0.577(48) = 27.7 psi
1
2
2
1 43.84 16.88 2
=
+
N 48 27.7
N = 0.91
A rotating shaft overhangs a bearing, as seen in the illustration. A in. hole is drilled at
AB. The horizontal force F2 varies in phase with the shaft rotation from 0 to 5 kips, but
its line of action does not move. A steady torque T = 8 inkips is applied at the end of the
shaft; D = 2, D2 = 2.5, a = 2, b = 5, e = 0.5, r = in. The material is AISI C1040, annealed.
What steady vertical load F1 can be added as shown if the design factor is to be 2.5 from
the octahedralshear theory? Assume that the cycling of F2 may be such that the worst
stress condition occurs at the hole.
Page 87 of 133
Solution:
AISI C1040, annealed, s y = 48 ksi (Fig. AF 1), su = 80 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 40 ksi
sn 40 1
=
=
sy 48 1.2
For hole: d D = 0.25 2 = 0.125
K t = 2.2 , K ts = 1.6
a = 0.01 (annealed)
0.25
r=
= 0.125
2
1
1
q=
=
= 0.926
a
0.01
1+
1+
r
0.125
K f = q (K t 1) + 1 = 0.926(2.2 1) + 1 = 2.11
K fs = q (K ts 1) + 1 = 0.926(1.6 1) + 1 = 1.56
At hole
s = s3 + s1 s2
Bending F2 :
Mc M
s2 =
=
I
I c
F2 e
(5)(0.5)
s2 =
=
= 4.04 ksi
3
2
3
D
dD
(2) (0.25)(2 )2
32
6
32
6
F2
(
5)
s3 =
=
= 1.89 ksi
D 2
(2)2
dD
(0.25)(2)
4
4
F1b
(F1 )(5)
s1 =
=
= 8.08F1
3
2
3
D
dD
(2) (0.25)(2)2
32
6
32
6
Page 88 of 133
ss =
dD
16
6
(2 )
16
(8)
(0.25)(2 )2
= 5.70 ksi
1 se
=
N sn
ses
+
sns
2
2
1 6.74F1 1.78 4.75 2
=
+
2.5
40
23.08
F1 = 2.3 kips
POWER SCREWS
424.
Design a squarethread screw for a screw jack, similar to that shown, which is to raise
and support a load of 5 tons. The maximum lift is to be 18 in. The material is AISI C1035,
as rolled, and N 3.3 based on the yield strength.
Page 89 of 133
Solution:
AISI C1035, as rolled, s y = 55 ksi
sy
55
= 16.6 ksi
N 3.3
F = (5)(2) = 10 kips
F 10
A= =
= 0.6034 in 2
s 16.6
D 2
A = r = 0.6034 in 2
4
Dr = 0.876 in
say 1 in, Dr = 1.000 in
L = 18 in
Le = 2L = 36 in
1
1
k = Dr = (1.000) = 0.125 in
8
8
Le
36
=
= 288 > 40
k 0.125
Transition:
s=
Le 2 2E 2 2 2 (30,000) 2
=
=
= 104
k sy
55
L
Use column formula, Eulers e > 104
k
2EI
F= 2
NLe
10,000 =
I=
2 (30 10 6 )I
3.3(36)2
Dr4
= 0.14444
64
Dr = 1.31 in
use 1 in, Dr = 1.400 in
Page 90 of 133
425.
(a) For the screw of 424, what length of threads h will be needed for a bearing pressure
of 1800 psi? (b) Complete the design of the jack. Let the base be cast iron and the
threads integral with the base. Devise a method of turning the screw with a round steel
rod as a lever and fix the details of a nonrotating cap on which the load rests. (c) What
should be the diameter of the rod used to turn the screw? If a man exerts a pull of 150
lb. at the end, how long must the rod be?
Solution:
(a)
Th/in = 2.5
Dr = 1.40 in
1
= 0.4 in
2.5
Lead
= tan 1
D m
1
Dm = (1.75 + 1.40 ) = 1.575 in
2
0.40
o
= tan 1
= 4.62
(
)
1
.
575
Lead Pitch =
f = 0.15
tan = f = 0.15
= 8.53o
F cos( + )
s=
(Do Dr )L
1800 =
Page 91 of 133
ss =
F
Dh
10
6.4 =
D(1.5)
D = 0.33 in
ss =
A screw jack, with a 1 in. square thread, supports a load of 6000 lb. The material of
the screw is AISI C1022, as rolled, and the coefficient of friction for the threads is about
0.15. The maximum extension of the screw from the base is 15 in. (a) Considering the
ends of the screw restrained so that Le = L, find the equivalent stress and the design
factor. (b) If the load on the jack is such that it may sway, the screw probably acts as a
column with one end free and the other fixe. What is the equivalent stress and the
factor of safety in this instance? (c) What force must be exerted at the end of a 20in.
lever to raise the load? (d) Find the number of threads and the length h of the threaded
portion in the castiron base for a pressure of 500 psi on the threads. (e) What torque is
necessary to lower the load?
Page 92 of 133
Solution:
From Table AT 7,
AISI C1022, as rolled, sy = 52 ksi
F = 6000 lb = 6 kips
For 1 in square thread, Dr = 1.0 in, Th/in. = 3.5
f = 0.15
(a) With Le = L = 15 in
1
1
k = Dr = (1.0) = 0.125 in
8
8
Le
15
=
= 120
k 0.125
Transition for AISI C1020;
1
Le 2 2E 2 2 2 (30,000) 2
=
=
= 107
k sy
52
Le
Use column formula, Eulers
> 107
k
2EA
Fc = NF =
(Le k )2
sd =
F
2E
=
A N (Le k )2
Equivalent stress
F
4F
sd = = 2
A Dr
4(6)
sd =
= 7.64 ksi
(1.0)2
Design factor
2E
sd =
N (Le k )2
Page 93 of 133
7.64 =
2 (30,000)
N (120)2
N = 2.69
(b) With Le = 2L = 30 in
Le
30
=
= 240
k 0.125
Transition for AISI C1020;
1
Le 2 2E 2 2 2 (30,000) 2
=
=
= 107
k sy
52
Le
Use column formula, Eulers
> 107
k
2EA
Fc = NF =
(Le k )2
sd =
F
2E
=
A N (Le k )2
Equivalent stress
F
4F
sd = = 2
A Dr
4(6)
sd =
= 7.64 ksi
(1.0)2
Design factor
2E
sd =
N (Le k )2
7.64 =
2 (30,000)
N (240)2
N = 0.673 not safe
(c) For force exerted at the end of 20in. lever to raise the load = Fa
WDm
T=
tan( + )
2
1
Lead = Pc =
= 0.2857 in
3. 5
1
Dm = (1.25 + 1.00) = 1.125 in
2
Lead
0.2857
= tan1
= tan1
= 4.62o
Dm
(1.125)
f = tan = 0.15
= 8.53o
W = 6000 lb
Page 94 of 133
T = Fa a =
(d) Let p = pressure = 500 psi, W = 6000 lb, Do = 1.25 in, Di = 1.00 in.
Nt = number of threads, h = length of threaded portion.
4W
p=
2
Do Dr2 Nt
4(6000 )
500 =
(1.25)2 (1.00 )2 Nt
Nt = 27
Then
h = Nt Pc = (27 )(0.2857 ) = 7.7 in
A squarethread screw, 2 in. in diameter, is used to exert a force of 24,000 lb. in a shaftstraightening press. The maximum unsupported length of the screw is 16 in. and the
material is AISI C1040, annealed. (a) What is the equivalent compressive stress in the
screw? Is this a satisfactory value? (b) What torque is necessary to turn the screw
against the load for f = 0.15? (c) What is the efficiency of the screw? (d) What torque is
necessary to lower the load?
Solution:
For 2 in. square thread screw, Do = 2 in, Dr = 1.612 in, Th/in. = 2.25 from Table 8.1
W = 24,000 lb = 24 kips, L = 16 in
(a) For unsupported length, Le = L = 16 in.
For AISI C1040, annealed, Figure AF1, sy = 47.5 ksi
Transition,
1
1
k = Dr = (1.612 ) = 0.2015 in
8
8
1
Le 2 2E 2 2 2 (30,000) 2
=
=
= 112
k sy
47.5
Then
Le
16
=
= 79.4 < 112
k 0.2015
Page 95 of 133
Le
< 112
k
A
4 2E
se =
4W
sy (Le k )2
4 2E
4(24)
se =
47.5(79.4)2
(1.612)2 1 2
4 (30,000)
Dr2 1
se = 15.74 ksi
s
47.5
= 3.0 satisfactory
N= y =
se 15.74
(b) Torque to turn the screw against the load
WDm
tan( + )
2
1
Lead = Pc =
= 0.4445 in
2.25
1
Dm = (2.00 + 1.612 ) = 1.806 in
2
Lead
0.4445
= tan1
= tan1
= 4.48o
Dm
(1.806)
f = tan = 0.15
T=
= 8.53o
W = 24,000 lb
WDm
tan( + )
2
24,000(1.806)
T=
tan(8.53 + 4.48)
2
T = 5008 in lb
T=
428.
(a) A jack with a 2in., squarethread screw is supporting a load of 20 kips. A single
thread is used and the coefficient of friction may be as low as 0.10 or as high as 0.15.
Page 96 of 133
= 5.71o
If f = 0.15
f = tan = 0.15
= 8.53o
Since is always greater than , the screw is always selflocking.
WDm
tan( + )
2
W = 20 kips
WDm
tan( + )
T=
2
20(1.806)
T=
tan(8.53 + 4.48)
2
T = 4.173 in kips
Torque necessary to lower the load.
WDm
T=
tan( )
2
20(1.806)
T=
tan(8.53 4.48)
2
T = 1.279 in kips.
T=
= 5.71o
If f = 0.15
Page 97 of 133
= 8.53o
Since is always less than , the screw is always not selflocking.
WDm
tan( + )
2
W = 20 kips
WDm
tan( + )
T=
2
20(1.806)
T=
tan(8.53 + 8.904)
2
T = 5.671 in kips
Torque necessary to lower the load = 0
T=
= 5.71o
If f = 0.15
f = tan = 0.15
= 8.53o
Since is always less than , the screw is always not selflocking.
WDm
tan( + )
2
W = 20 kips
WDm
T=
tan( + )
2
20(1.806)
T=
tan(8.53 + 13.224)
2
T = 7.207 in kips
Torque necessary to lower the load = 0
T=
429.
The conditions for a selflocking screw are given in 8.23, Text. Assume that the
coefficient of friction is equal to the tangent of the lead angle and show that the
efficiency of a selflocking screw is always less than 50%.
Solution:
tan
e=
tan( + ) +
For selflocking, > , then + > 2
Then,
Page 98 of 133
e<
e < 0.50
e < 50%
CURVED BEAMS
430.
Solution:
(a) Table AT3. Wrought aluminum alloy 2014 T6
sn = 18 ksi @5 108 cycles
sy = 60 ksi
At 106 cycles
106
sn = sn
nc
0.09
0.09
10 6
18 = sn
8
5 10
sn = 31.49 ksi
With size factor.
sn = 0.85sn = 0.85(31.49) = 26.77 ksi
sn 26.77
=
= 13.38 ksi
N
2
Equation:
F K Mc
s= + c
A
I
s=
Page 99 of 133
A=
I=
D 2
4
D 4
64
D
c=
2
M = Fe
D
K c (Fe )
4F
2
s= 2 +
D
D 4
64
s=
4F 32K c Fe
+
D 2
D 3
The same as 430, except that the section is rectangular with h 3b; see figure.
Solution:
(a) Table AT3. Wrought aluminum alloy 2014 T6
sn = 18 ksi @5 108 cycles
sy = 60 ksi
At 106 cycles
sn = sn
nc
0.09
0.09
10 6
18 = sn
8
5
10
sn = 31.49 ksi
With size factor.
sn = 0.85sn = 0.85(31.49) = 26.77 ksi
s
26.77
s= n =
= 13.38 ksi
N
2
Equation:
F K Mc
s= + c
A
I
A = bh = b(3b) = 3b 2
bh 3 b(3b)3
=
= 2.25b 4
12
12
h
c = = 0.5h = 1.5b
2
M = Fe
F
K (Fe )(1.5b)
s= 2 + c
3b
2.25b 4
I=
s=
F
K Fe
+ c 3
2
3b 1.5b
432.
A hook is to be designed similar to that shown to support a maximum load F = 2500 lb.
that will be repeated an indefinite number of times; the horizontal section is to be
circular of radius c and the inside radius a is 1 in. (a) Determine the diameter of the
Solution:
(a) For AISI 4130, WQT 1100 F, Table AT 7
sy = 114 ksi, su = 127 ksi, sn = su/2 for reversed bending
sn = SFsn = 0.85sn = 0.85(su 2)
Soderberg line:
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
sm = sa =
s
repeated load
2
K f = 1.0
s2
1
s
=
+
N 2 sy 0.85(su 2 )
1 1
1
=
+
s
N 2sy 0.85su
1 1
1
s
=
+
2 2(114) 0.85(127 )
sd = 36.63 ksi
For curved beam
F K Mc
s= + c
A
I
a = 1.5 in
A=
(2c )2 = c 2
4
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
M = F (a + c )
I=
(2c )4
64
c 4
4
The same as 432, except that the hook is expected to be subjected to 100,000
repetitions of the maximum load.
sn = 0.85(su 2 )
n
c
Soderberg line:
1 sm K f sa
=
+
N sy
sn
sm = sa =
0.085
106
= 0.85(su 2)
100
,
000
s
repeated load
2
K f = 1.0
s2
1
s
=
+
N 2 sy 0.5169su
1 1
1
s
=
+
N 2sy 1.0338su
1 1
1
s
=
+
2 2(114 ) 1.0338(127 )
sd = 41.66 ksi
For curved beam
F K Mc
s= + c
A
I
a = 1.5 in
(2c )2 = c 2
4
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
M = F (a + c )
A=
I=
(2c )4
c 4
64
4
Table AT 18,
r =a+c
r a + c 1. 5 + c
=
=
c
c
c
Substitute:
2.5 K (2.5)(1.5 + c )c
41.66 = 2 + c
c
c 4 4
2.5 10K c (1.5 + c )
41.66 = 2 +
c
c 3
By trial and error: c = 0.601
r 1.5 + 0.601
=
= 3.5 , K c = 1.28
c
0.601
0.085
= 0.5169su
A hook, similar to that shown with a horizontal circular section of diameter 2c, is to be
designed for a capacity of 2000 lb. maximum, a load that may be applied an indefinite
number of times. A value of a = 2 in. should be satisfactory for the radius of curvature of
the inside of the hook. Let N = 1.8 based on the modified Goodman line. At the outset of
design, the engineer decided to try AISI C1040, OQT 1100 F. (a) Compute the diameter
of the horizontal section, (b) If the 45o circular section is made the same diameter, what
is its design factor (modified Goodman)? Could this section be made smaller or should it
be larger?
Solution:
(a) For AISI C1040, OQT 1100 F, Figure AF 1
su = 100 ksi, sn = su/2 for reversed bending
sn = SF x sn = 0.85(0.5)(100) = 42.5 ksi
Kf = 1.0
Modified Goodman line:
(2c )2 = c 2
4
F = 2000 lb = 2.0 kips
M = F (a + c )
I=
(2c )4
c 4
64
4
Table AT 18,
r =a+c
r a + c 2. 0 + c
=
=
c
c
c
Substitute:
2.0 K (2.0)(2.0 + c )c
33.14 = 2 + c
c
c 4 4
2.0 8K (2.0 + c )
33.14 = 2 + c 3
c
c
By trial and error: c = 0.639
r 2.0 + 0.639
= 4.13 , K c = 1.224
=
c
0.639
2. 0
8(1.224)(2.0 + 0.639)
33.14 = s =
+
2
(0.639)
(0.639)3
33.14 = s 33.08 ksi
Use c = 11/16 in
Diameter = 2c = 1.375 in = 1 3/8 in
s
sm = sa =
2
s
sms = sas = s
2
F cos 45 K c Mc F cos 45 K c F (a + c )(cos 45)c
s=
+
=
+
A
I
c 2
c 4 4
F cos 45 4K c F (a + c )(cos 45)
+
s=
c 2
c 3
F sin 45 F sin 45
ss =
=
A
c 2
11
c = in = 0.6875 in (assuming constant diameter)
16
r a + c 2.0 + 0.6875
=
=
= 3.91
c
c
0.6875
Table AT 18,
K c = 1.239
(2.0 )cos 45 4(1.239)(2.0)(2.0 + 0.6875)(cos 45)
s=
+
(0.6875)2
(0.6875)3
s = 19.40 ksi
(2.0 )sin 45
ss =
= 0.95 ksi
(0.6875)2
Then
s s
se = m n + K f sa
su
19.40 42.5
ss
se = n + K f =
+ 1 = 13.82 ksi
2 su
2 100
s s
ses = ms ns + K f sas
sus
ses =
0.85 25.5
ss sns
+ K f =
+ 1 = 0.68 ksi
2 sus
2 60
2
2
1 se ses
= +
N sn sns
2
2
1 13.82 0.68 2
=
+
N 42.5 25.5
N = 3.06
Since N > 1.8, this section could be made smaller.
435.
A Cframe hand press is made of annealed cast steel (A2758) and has a modified Isection, as shown. The dimensions of a 45o section CD are: a = 3, b = 6, h = 4, t = 1 in.,
radius r = 1 in.; also g = 12 in.; and the maximum force is F = 17 kips, repeated a
relatively few times in the life of the press. (a) Applying the straightbeam formula to
the 45o section, compute the maximum and minimum normal stresses. (b) Do the same,
applying the curvedbeam formula. (c) By what theory would you judge this section to
have been designed? If the radius r were increased several times over, as it could have
been done, would the stress have been materially reduced? Give reasons for your
conclusions.
Solution:
(a) Straightbeam formula
Consider only normal stresses, relatively static.
F cos 45 Mc
s=
A
I
M = F g r + 2 + r cos 45
2
A = ht + at + (b 2t )t
t
t
b 2t
ht + (b 2t )(t )
+ t + at b t +
2
2
2
c2 =
ht + (b 2t )t + at
+ (b 2t ) + at b
2
2
2
c2 =
ht + (b 2t )t + at
c1 = b c 2
(4)(1)2
1
(6 )(1)
+ [6 2(1)]
+ (3)(1) 6
2
2
2
c2 =
= 2.77273 in
(4 )(1) + [6 2(1)](1) + (3)(1)
c1 = b c 2 = 6 2.7723 = 3.22727 in
I = I + Ad 2
A1 = ht
A2 = (b 2t )t
A3 = at
ht 3
t
I1 =
+ ht c 2
12
2
I2 =
t (b 2t )3
b
+ (b 2t )(t ) c2
12
2
at 3
t
I3 =
+ at c1
12
2
I1 =
2
(4)(1)3 ( )( )
1
+ 4 1 2.77273 = 21 in 4
12
2
(1)[6 2(1)]3 [ ( )]( ) 6
I2 =
+ 6 2 1 1 2.77273 = 5.54 in 4
12
(3)(1)
A
I
A = (4 )(1) + (3)(1) + [6 2(1)](1) = 11 in 2
I3 =
2.77273
M = 17 12 1 +
+ 1 cos 45 = 215.686 in kips
2
17 cos 45 (215.686)(2.77273)
smax =
+
= 13.27 ksi in tension
11
49.104
17 cos 45 (215.686)(2.77273)
smin =
A
I
Using Table AT18
r
Z = 1 + [b1 log e (r + c1 ) (t b1 )log e (r + c 4 ) + (b t )log e (r c3 ) blog e (r c 2 )]
A
smax =
r = 1 + 2.77273 = 3.77273 in
c 2 = 2.77273 in
c1 = 3.22727 in
c 4 = 3.22727 1 = 2.22727 in
c3 = 2.77273 1 = 1.77273 in
b1 = 3 in
t = 1 in
b = 4 in
c
1 + Z (r + c ) I
Kc =
Arc
3.77273 3log e (3.77273 + 3.22727 ) (1 3)log e (3.77273 + 2.22727)
Z = 1 +
c = c2
c2
2.77273
(49.104)
1 +
I 1 +
Z (r c 2 ) 2.944455(3.77273 2.77273)
K ci =
=
(11)(3.77273)(2.77273)
Arc 2
K ci = 0.8286
c = c1
c1
3.22727
(49.104)
1 +
I 1 +
Z (r + c1 ) 2.944455(3.77273 + 3.22727 )
K co =
=
(11)(3.77273)(3.22727 )
Arc1
K co = 0.424
F cos 45 K ci Mc 2
smax =
+
A
I
F cos 45 K co Mc1
smin =
A
I
17 cos 45 (0.8286)(215.686)(2.77273)
smax =
+
= 11.18 ksi in tension
11
49.104
smin =
17 cos 45 (0.424)(215.686)(2.77273)
(c) This section must be designed based on straight beam formula. Maximum stress is
higher.
Increasing the radius r.
Table A18.
r = 2 + 2.77273 = 4.77273 in
c 2 = 2.77273 in
c1 = 3.22727 in
c 4 = 3.22727 1 = 2.22727 in
c3 = 2.77273 1 = 1.77273 in
b1 = 3 in
t = 1 in
b = 4 in
c
1 + Z (r + c ) I
Kc =
Arc
4.77273 3log e (4.77273 + 3.22727 ) (1 3)log e (4.77273 + 2.22727 )
Z = 1 +
c = c2
c2
2.77273
1 +
I 1 +
(49.104)
(
)
Z
r
c
3
.
622343
(
4
.
77273
2
.
77273
)
2
K ci =
=
(
)(
)(
)
Arc 2
11 4.77273 2.77273
K ci = 0.4664
c = c1
c1
3.22727
(49.104)
1 +
I 1 +
Z
(
r
+
c
)
3.622343(4.77273 + 3.22727 )
K co =
=
(11)(4.77273)(3.22727)
Arc1
K co = 0.3221
F cos 45 K ci Mc 2
smax =
+
A
I
F cos 45 K co Mc1
smin =
A
I
17 cos 45 (0.4664)(215.686)(2.77273)
smax =
+
= 6.77 ksi in tension
11
49.104
17 cos 45 (0.3221)(215.686)(2.77273)
smin =
436.
The stress is reduced using by increasing the radius r in Curved Beam Formula.
Reason: As the radius r increased the stress factor for curved beam decreases thence
the maximum stress is reduced.
A heavy Cclamp, similar to the figure, is made of normalized cast steel (A2758) and has
a Tsection where t= 7/16 in.; q= 2 , a =1 in. What is the safe capacity if N = 2 based
on yield?
Solution:
F K Mc
s = + ci i
A
I
Table AT 1
2
3t
7
A = 4t + t (4.5t ) = 10.5t 2 = 10.5 = 2.009766 in 2
2
16
(t ) 4.5t + 3 t
3
+ (4t t ) t
2
2 = 2.035714t
c1 =
3
3
2t 4.5t + t + (4t t ) t
2
7
c1 = 2.035714 = 0.890625 in
16
c 2 = 4.5t + 1.5t c1 = 6t 2.035714t = 3.964286t
7
c 2 = 3.964286 = 1.734375 in
16
Table AT 18
r = a + c1 = 1.75 + 0.890625 = 2.640625 in
r a + c1 2.640625
=
=
= 2.965
c
c1
0.890625
K ci = 1.4212
(4t ) 3 t
2
2
3
2 + (4t ) 3 t 2.035714t 3 t + (t )(4.5t ) + (t )(4.5t ) 3.964286t 4.5 t
I=
12
4
12
2
2
7
I = 31.861607t = 31.861607 = 1.167293 in 4
16
4
F K ci Mc i
+
A
I
sy 36
F
(1.4212 )(3.640625)(F )(0.890625)
s= = =
+
N 2 2.009766
1.167293
F = 4.049 kips = 4049 lb
s=
437.
The same as 436, except that the section is trapezoidal with b = in. (see figure). Ignore
the effect of resounding off the corners.
Solution:
F K Mc
s = + ci i
A
I
From other sources.
2
1
(b + 2b)(3b ) = 4.5b 2 = 4.5 3 = 2.53125 in 2
2
4
3b 2b + 2b 4
43
c1 =
= b = = 1 in
3 b + 2b 3
34
4
5
5 3
c 2 = 3b b = b = = 1.25 in
3
3
3 4
A=
4
(3b)3 [b 2 + 4b(2b) + (2b)2 ]
3
4
I=
= 3.25b = 3.25 = 1.02832 in 4
36(b + 2b)
4
Table AT 18
3.25b4
Z = 1 +
2r b a
(r + c 2 ) log e r + c 2 (b a )
a +
(a + b)c
c
r c1
2(2.75)
1.50 0.75
2.75 + 1.25
(2.75 + 1.25) log e
(1.50 0.75)
0.75 +
(0.75 + 1.5)(2.25)
2.25
2.75 1
Z = 0.05627
c1
1
(1.02832)
1 +
I 1 +
Z (r c1 ) 0.05627(2.75 1)
K ci =
=
= 1.6479
(2.53125)(2.75)(1)
Arc1
M = F (q + c1 ) = F (2.75 + 1) = 3.75F
For Normalized cast steel, A2758,
sy = 36 ksi
F K ci Mc i
+
A
I
sy 36
F
(1.6479)(3.75)(F )(1)
s= = =
+
N 2 2.53125
1.02832
F = 2.810 kips = 2810 lb
s=
Special welded steel pipe, equivalent in strength to SAE 1022, as rolled, is subjected to
an internal pressure of 8000 psi. The internal diameter is to be 4 in. and the factor of
safety is to be 3, including an allowance for the weld. (a) Find the thickness of the pipe
according to the distortionenergy theory. (b) Using this thickness find the maximum
normal and shear stresses and the corresponding safety factors. (c) Compute the
thickness from the thinshell formula and from the Barlow formula.
Solution:
4.5
ri =
= 2.25 in , N = 3 , pi = 8000 psi
2
SAE 1022, as rolled, sy = 52 ksi
(a) DistortionEnergy Theory
1
1
1 in
t = ri
1 3pi
sy 52
s = = = 17.333 ksi = 17 ,333 psi
N 3
1
1 = 2.774 in
t = 2.25
1 3 8000
17 ,333
pi ro2 + ri2
ro2 ri 2
ri = 2.25 in
ro = 2.25 + 2.774 = 5.024 in
ti =
ti =
=
=
ro2 pi
ro2 ri 2
(5.024)2 (8000)
= 10,007 psi
5.0242 2.252
sy
52,000
N=
=
= 2.60
2 2(10,007 )
(c) From thinshell formula
p r (8000)(2.25)
t= i i =
= 1.0385 in
st
17,333
From Barlow formula
pr
p (r + t )
t= i o = i i
st
st
pr
(8000)(2.25)
t= i i =
= 1.929 in
st pi 17,333 8000
439.
The internal diameter of the caststeel cylinder, SAE 0030, of a hydraulic press is 12 in.
The internal working pressure is 6000 psi, N = 2.5. Find the thickness of the cylinder
walls (a) from the maximumshearstress theory, (b) from the octahedralshear theory.
(c) Compute the thickness from the thinshell and Barlow formulas. What do you
recommend?
Solution:
1
1
t = ri
3pi
sy 35
= 14 ksi
s= =
N 2.5
12
t = (6 )
1 = 5.8195 in
3 (6)
14
The same as 439, except a higherstrength material is selected. Try caststeel SAE 0105.
Solution:
Table AT 6. SAE 0105 = A14858, sy = 85 ksi
(a) Maximum shear theory
r 2 (p p ) s
= o 2 i 2o = y
ro ri
2N
12
ri = = 6 in
2
pi = 6,000 psi = 6 ksi
po = 0 ksi
ro2 (6 0 )
85
=
2
2
2(2.5)
ro (6)
ro = 7.459 in
t = ro ri = 7.459 6 = 1.459 in
(b) Octahedral Sheat Theory
12
1
1
t = ri
3pi
sy 85
s= =
= 34 ksi
N 2.5
12
1
1 = 1.2005 in
t = (6)
3 (6 )
34
A 2 in. heavywall pipe has the following dimensions: OD = 2.875, ID = 1.771, t = 0.552
in.; inside surface area per foot of length = 66.82 in.2, outside surface area per foot of
length = 108.43 in.2. The material is chromiummolybdenum alloy, for which the
permissible tangential tensile stress is 15 ksi at temperatures between 700 800 F. (a)
Compute the maximum internal working pressure for this pipe from Lames formula, by
the maximumshear and octahedralshear theories. (b) What is the stress at an external
fiber? (c) A higher design stress would be permitted for an external pressure alone.
Nevertheless, compute the external pressure corresponding to a maximum tangential
stress of 15 ksi.
Solution:
OD 2.875
ro =
=
= 1.4375 in
2
2
ID 1.771
ri = =
= 0.8855 in
2
2
t = 0.552 in
(a) Lames Equation
p r 2 + r 2 2p r 2
ti = i o 2 i 2 o o = s
ro ri
pi (1.4375)2 + (0.8855)2 0
(1.4375)2 (0.8855)2
pi = 6.7477 ksi
Maximum shear theory
r 2 (p p ) s
= o 2 i 2o =
ro ri
2
15 =
(1.4375)2 (pi )
15
=
2
2
(1.4375) (0.8855) 2
pi = 4.654 ksi
Octahedral shear theory
12
t = ri
1
3pi
12
0.552 = (0.8855)
1
3pi
15
pi = 5.374 ksi
(b) Stress at external fiber, pi = 4.654 ksi
to =
0 2po (1.4375)2
(1.4375)2 (0.8855)2
po = 4.654 ksi
15 =
442.
A caststeel hub is to be shrunk on a 1.5in., SAE 1035, asrolled, steel shaft. The
equivalent diameter of the hub is 2.5 in., its length is 4 in. (a) What must be the
interference of metal if the holding power of this fit is equal to the torsional yield
strength of the shaft? Use Baughers recommendations. (b) What are the corresponding
tangential and radial stresses in the hub?
Solution:
Table AT 7, SAE 1035, as rolled, sy = 55 ksi.
sys = 0.6 sy = 33 ksi
Es = 30,000 ksi
s = 0.3
For hub, Cast steel, Eh = 30,000 ksi, h ~ 0.3
(a) Interference of metal
For solid shaft, same E and .
2
Ei Di
1
pi =
2Di Do
Di = 1.5 in
Do = 2.5 in
L = 4 in
For pi:
fp D 2L
T= i i
2
But
Di3 sys
T=
16
Then
Di3 sys fpiDi2L
=
16
f = 0.1 as per Baughers recommendation
Di sys (1.5)(33)
pi =
=
= 15.46875 ksi
8 fL 8(0.1)(4 )
Then
pi =
2
Ei Di
1
2Di Do
(30,000)(i ) 1.5 2
15.46875 =
1
2(1.5) 2.5
i = 0.002417 in  answer.
(b) Tangential and radial stresses in the hub
Tangential stress
Ei Di
1 +
th =
2Di Do
th =
(30,000)(0.002417 ) 1.5 2
= 32.87 ksi
1 +
2(1.5)
2.5
Radial stress
rh = pi = 15.46875 ksi
443.
The same as 442, except that the hub is ASTM 20, cast iron. Will the resulting tensile
stresses be safe for cast iron?
Solution:
Table AT 6, ASTM 20, cast iron, suc = 83 ksi, su = 20 ksi (hub)
Table AT 7, SAE 1035, as rolled, sy = 55 ksi.
sys = 0.6 sy = 33 ksi
(a) Interference of metal
For hub of cast iron and the shaft is steel.
D 2
Ei 1 i
Do
pi =
2
D
Di 3 + + (1 ) i
Do
Di = 1.5 in
Do = 2.5 in
L = 4 in
E = 30,000 ksi
= 0.27
For pi:
fp D 2L
T= i i
2
But
Di3 sys
T=
16
fpiDi2L
16
f = 0.1 as per Baughers recommendation
Di sys (1.5)(33)
pi =
=
= 15.46875 ksi
8 fL 8(0.1)(4 )
Then
D 2
Ei 1 i
Do
pi =
2
Di
Di 3 + + (1 )
Do
2
(30,000)(i )1 1.5
2.5
15.46875 =
2
i = 0.004269 in  answer.
(b) Tangential and radial stresses in the hub
Tangential stress
D 2
Ei 1 + i
Do
th =
2
D
Di 3 + + (1 ) i
Do
2
(30,000)(0.004269)1 + 1.5
2.5 = 32.87 ksi
th =
2
(30,000)(0.002417 ) 1.5 2
th =
= 32.87 ksi
1 +
2(1.5)
2.5
> 20 ksi.
A caststeel gear is pressed onto a 2in. shaft made of AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F. The
equivalent hub diameter is 4 in., and the hub length is 4 in. (a) What are the maximum
tangential and radial stresses in the hub caused by a class FN 2 interference fit?
Compute for the apparent maximum value of i (but recall the probability of this event).
(30 10 )(0.0027) 1 + 2
=
6
th
2(2)
= 25,313 psi
4
2
Radial stress
2
Ei Di
1
rh = pi =
2Di Do
2
6
30 10 (0.0027 ) 2
rh =
1 = 15,188 psi
2(2)
4
The same as 444, except that a class FN 4 fit is investigated and the computation is
made for the average i.
Solution:
Cast steel, E = 30 x 106 psi, = 0.27 or approximately 0.3
AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F, E = 30 x 106 psi, = 0.3, sy = 133 ksi (Fig. AF 2).
Di = 2 in, Do = 4 in, L = 4 in.
For Class FN 4 interference fit.
Table 3.2, page 85, 2 in diameter.
Maximum value of i = 0.0042 0.0000 = 0.0042 in
Minimum value of i = 0.0035 0.0012 = 0.0023 in
Average value of i = 0.5 (0.0042 + 0.0023) = 0.00325 in
(a) For same material and same Poissons ratio
Tangential stress
Ei Di
1 +
th =
2Di Do
(30 10 )(0.00325) 1+ 2
=
6
th
2(2 )
= 30,469 psi
4
2
Radial stress
2
Ei Di
1
rh = pi =
2Di Do
2
6
30 10 (0.00325) 2
rh =
1 = 18,281 psi
2(2 )
4
A No. 217 ball bearing has a bore of 3.3465 in., a width of 1.1024 in., and the inner race
is approximately 3/8 in. thick. This bearing is to be mounted on a solid shaft with i =
0.0014. (a) Calculate the maximum radial and tangential stresses in the race. (b)
Estimate the force required to press the bearing onto the shaft.
Solution:
Di = 3.3465 in, Do = 3.3465 + 2(3/8) = 4.0965 in, i = 0.0014 in.
(a) Maximum radial stress in the race
2
Ei Di
1
rh = pi =
2Di Do
2
6
30 10 (0.0014) 3.3465
rh =
= 2,087 psi
1
2(3.3465)
4.0965
Tangential stress
2
Ei Di
1 +
th =
2Di Do
2
6
30 10 (0.0014) 3.3465
th =
1
+
= 10,463 psi
2(3.3465)
4.0965
(b) Force required to press the bearing onto the shaft
f p D L
F = 1 i i tons , use f1 = 0.175 on the average
2000
(0.175)(2,087 )( )(2)(4 ) = 4.59 tons
F=
2000
447.
A steel disk of diameter Do and thickness L = 4 in. is to be pressed onto a 2in. steel
shaft. The parts are manufactured with class FN 5 fit, but assembled parts are selected
so as to give approximately the average interference. What will be the maximum radial
and tangential stresses in the disk if (a) Do is infinitely large; (b) Do = 10 in.; (c) Do = 4 in.;
(d) Do = 2.5 in.?
Solution:
(a) Maximum radial stress if Do .
2
Ei Di
1
rh = pi =
2Di Do
Ei
rh = pi =
2Di
rh =
2(2 )
Maximum tangential stress if Do .
th =
Ei Di
1 +
2Di Do
th =
Ei
2Di
th =
2(2 )
(b) Maximum radial stress if Do = 10 in .
2
Ei Di
1
rh = pi =
2Di Do
2
30 10 6 (0.005) 2
rh =
1 = 36,000 psi
2(2 )
10
Maximum tangential stress if Do = 10 in .
2
Ei Di
1 +
th =
2Di Do
6
30 10 (0.005) 2
th =
1 + 10 = 39,000 psi
2(2 )
(c) Maximum radial stress if Do = 2.5 in .
2
Ei Di
1
rh = pi =
2Di Do
2
30 106 (0.005) 2
rh =
= 13,500 psi
1
2(2 )
2.5
Maximum tangential stress if Do = 2.5 in .
2
Ei Di
1 +
th =
2Di Do
6
30 10 (0.005) 2
th =
1 + 2.5 = 61,500 psi
2(2 )
448.
A steel cylinder is to have an inside diameter of 3 in. and pi = 30,000 psi. (a) Calculate
the tangential stresses at the inner and outer surfaces if the outside diameter is 6 in. (b)
It was decided to make the cylinder in two parts, the inner cylinder with D1 = 3 in. and Di
= 4.5 in., the outer cylinder with Di = 4.5 in. and Do = 6 in. (see figure). The two cylinders
were shrunk together with i = 0.003 in. Calculate the pressure at the interface and the
tangential stresses at the inner and outer surfaces of each cylinder. (Suggestion: first
derive an equation for the interface pressure).
Solution:
(a) Tangential stresses at the inner and outer surface.
Di = 3 in, ri = 1.5 in, pi = 30,000 psi
Do = 6 in, ro = 3 in, po = 0
p r 2 + r 2 2p r 2
ti = i o 2 i 2 o o
ro ri
ti =
(30,000)[(3)2 + (1.5)2 ] 0
= 50,000 ksi
(3)2 (1.5)2
to =
2(30,000 )(1.5)2 0
= 20,000 ksi
(3)2 (1.5)2
(b) Pressure at the interface, tangential stresses at the inner and outer surface of each
cylinder.
+ h pi ts + s pi
i = 2( h + s ) = Di th
E
E
h
s
to =
Eh = E s , h = s
th =
pi ro2 + ri2
ro2 ri 2
ts =
p
p D
i = Di th + i ts i = i ( th ts )
E
E
E E
E
D p r2 +r2 p r2 +r2
2p r 2
i = i i 2o 2i + i 2i 21 2 1 1 2
E ro ri
ri r1
ri r1
p1 = 30,000 psi, ro = 3 in, ri = 2.25 in, r1 = 1.5 in
4.5
(2.25)2 (1.5)2 = 20,000 + 48,000
3.571429 + 2.6
(3)2 + (2.25)2 + (2.25)2 + (1.5)2
2
2
2
2
(3) (2.25) (2.25) (1.5)
pi = 11,018.5 psi
Tangential stresses:
Inner cylinder:
Inner surface:
p r 2 + r 2 2p r 2
ti = 1 i 2 1 2 i i
ri r1
pi =
ti =
to =
Outer cylinder:
Inner surface:
p r 2 + r 2 2p r 2
ti = i o 2 i 2 o o
ro ri
ti =
to =
449.
Solution:
Phosphor Bronze B139C, Es = 16 x 106 psi (Table AT3), s = 0.36 (other reference).
Cast steel, Eh = 30 x 106 psi , h = 0.27 (Table AT 6)
+ h pi ts + s pi
i = 2( h + s ) = Di th
Eh
Es
th =
pi ro2 + ri2
ro2 ri 2
ts =
pi ri2 + r12
ri2 r12
p
p
i = Di th + h i ts s i
Eh
Es
Es
Eh
p r2 +r2 p p r2 + r2 p
i = Di i o2 i 2 + h i + i i 2 12 s i
Eh
Es
E s ri r1
E h ro ri
(a) pi
i
Di
pi =
2
2
ro + ri
ri2 + r12
+
+ h s
2
2
2
2
E h ro ri
E s ri r1
Eh Es
(
(
)
)
(
(
2.25
= 1.125 in
2
1.25
ri =
= 0.625 in
2
0.75
r1 =
= 0.375 in
2
ro =
)
)
(1.125)2 + (0.625)2
30 10 6 [(1.125)2 (0.625)2 ]
0.0016
1.25
(
0.625)2 + (0.375)2
0.27
0.36
+
+
2
2
6
6
30 10 16 10 6
16 10 (0.625) (0.375)
1.28 10
6.309524 10 + 1.328125 10 7 + 0.9 10 8 2.25 108
pi = 7,017 psi
(b) Maximum tangential stress in the steel cylinder.
p r2 + r2
th = i 2o 2i
ro ri
pi =
th =
(c) F
f1piDi L
tons , use f1 = 0.175 on the average
2000
(0.175)(7,017 )( )(1.25)(4) = 4.82 tons
F=
2000
(d) Decrease of the inside diameter of the bushing. The bushing is phosphor bronze.
Subscript is s as in shaft.
+ s pi
s = ts
Es
F=
ts =
pi ri2 + r12
ri2 r12
ts =
14,911 + 0.36(7,017 )
= 0.000774 in
16 10 6
s =
DESIGN PROJECTS
DESIGN PROJECTS
450.
A jib crane similar to the one shown is to be designed for a capacity of F = ___ (say, 1 to
3 tons). The load F can be swung through 360o; L 10 ft., b 8.5 ft., c 2 ft. The
moment on the jib is balanced by a couple QQ on the post, the forces Q acting at
supporting bearings. The crane will be fastened to the floor by 6 equally spaced bolts on
a D1 = 30in. bolt circle; outside diameter of base D2 = 36 in. (a) Choose a pipe size
(handbooks) for the column such that the maximum equivalent stress does not exceed
12 ksi. (b) Choose an Ibeam for the jib such that the maximum stress does not exceed
12 ksi. (c) Compute the maximum external load on a base bolt and decide upon the size.
451.
Design an airoperated punch press similar to the one shown. Let the force at the punch
be 12 tons, (or other capacity as specified by the instructor), the depth of throat to the
inside edge of the frame be 25 in., the diameter and stroke of the piston about 8 in. by 8
in., the mechanical advantage of the lever about 7, and the diameter of the punch 3/16
in. Determine first the horizontal section of the frame, and locate and design the
cylinder. Then determine the relative arrangement of the various links and make a force
analysis, from which the design of certain parts follows. Determine the actual distance
of movement of the punch (not less than about 1 in.). The illustration will assist the
student in settling upon the proportions of parts for which strength calculations cannot
be made.
452.
Design a screw press similar to that shown for a load of ___ (say, 3) tons on the screw.
The depth of the throat g is to be ___ (10) in. and the height of the throat h is to be ___
(15) in. (The instructor will assign the data.) The order of procedure may be as follows:
(a) Find the diameter of the screw. If Le/k > 40, check as a column. If the top of the screw
is squared off for a handwheel or handle, check this section for twisting. The equation
for pivot friction, if desired, is in 18.10, Text. (b) Decide upon the diameter of the
handwheel or the length of handle (if one is needed to obtain the maximum pressure),
assuming that the maximum force to be exerted by a man is about 150 lb. Dimensions
of handwheels may be found in handbooks. The handle may be designed by the flexure
formula. (c) Design the frame. The shape of the section of the frame will depend on the
material used. A Tsection is suitable for cast iron (say N = 6 on the ultimate strength), a
hollow box or modified Isection is suitable for cast steel. The 45o section CD of the
frame should be safe as a curved beam. See Table AT 18. In this connection, it will be
well to make the radius r as large as practicable, since the larger r the less the stresses
from a given load. Compute the dimensions of the vertical section. It is a good plan to
keep t and a the same in all sections. (d) Design the bushing if one is used. The height b
depends upon the number of threads in contact, which in turn depends upon the
bearing pressure used in design. (Say halfhard yellow brass?) Compute the outside
453.
Design a jib crane, as suggested by the illustration, to lift a load of W of ___ tons. The
maximum radius of swing is to be about ___ ft. (The instructor will assign data).
Suggested procedure: (a) From catalogues, select a hoist to suit the purpose, giving
reasons for your choice, and noting significant dimensions. Of course, in the end, the
hoist trolley has to match the size of Ibeam used. (b) Let the angle that the diagonal
tension rod makes with the horizontal be about 20o to 25o, and decide upon the
dimensions H and L. Note that the point G does not necessarily have to be at the
extreme position of the load. As a matter of fact, some advantage may result from
having G inside the outermost position of the load. Make the force analyses (including
weight of hoist as part of load) for (1) the condition of maximum column action, (2) the
condition of maximum bending moment on the beam, and (3) the condition for
maximum force on the hinge B (to be used for the design of this hinge). (c) Find the size
of Ibeam such that the maximum stress for any position of the load falls within the
limits of 12 and 15 ksi, usually by assuming a standard beam and checking the stress.
According to the arrangement of parts, it may be necessary to design the connection at
G between the rod and the beam first. With the details of this connection known and
E
n
d

A short stub shaft, made of SAE 1035, as rolled, receivers 30 hp at 300 rpm via a
12in. spur gear, the power being delivered to another shaft through a flexible
coupling. The gear is keyed (profile keyway) midway between the bearings. The
pressure angle of the gear teeth = 20 o ; N = 1.5 based on the octahedral shear
stress theory with varying stresses. (a) Neglecting the radial component R of the
tooth load W , determine the shaft diameter. (b) Considering both the tangential
and the radial components, compute the shaft diameters. (c) Is the difference in
the results of the parts (a) and (b) enough to change your choice of the shaft size?
Problem 471.
Solution:
For SAE 1035, as rolled
s y = 55 ksi
su = 85 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(85) = 42.5 ksi
A = W cos
63,000hp 63,000(30 )
T=
=
= 6300 in lb
n
300
AD
T=
2
A(12 )
6300 =
2
A = 1050 lb
A = W cos
1050 = W cos 20
W = 1118 lb
Shear stress
16T 16(6300 )
ss =
=
d3
d3
100,800
ss = sms =
d3
sas = 0
Page 1 of 76
From Table AT 2
FL
M=
4
(a) Negligible R :
AL (1050 )(16 )
M=
=
= 4200 in lb
4
4
32 M 32(4200 ) 134,400
s=
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sm = 0
134,400
sa = s =
d3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
For profile keyway
K f = 2 .0
K fs = 1.6
SF = 0.85
K s
(2.0)(134,400) = 100,661
se = f a =
SF
(0.85) d 3
d3
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
sns sn 42.5
1
= =
=
s ys s y
55 1.294
sns
1 100,800 24,796
=
sms =
3
s ys
d3
1.294 d
Octahedralshear theory
ses =
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2
1 100,661
24,796
=
+
3
1.5 42,500d 0.577 42,500d 3
d = 1.569 in
Page 2 of 76
use d = 1
11
in
16
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2
1 107,180
24,796
=
+
3
1.5 42,500d 0.577 42,500d 3
d = 1.597 in
11
use d = 1 in
16
(c) The difference in the results of the parts (a) and (b) is not enough to change the choice
of the shaft size.
472.
A coldfinished shaft, AISI 1141, is to transmit power that varies from 200 to 100
and back to 200 hp in each revolution at a speed of 600 rpm. The power is
received by a 20in. spur gear A and delivered by a 10in. spur gear C. The
tangential forces have each been converted into a force ( A and C shown) and a
couple (not shown). The radial component R of the tooth load is to be ignored in
the initial design. Let 2 and, considering varying stresses with the maximum
shear theory, compute the shaft diameter.
Page 3 of 76
sns sn
1
= =
s ys s y 1.8
1 252,000 (1.6)(84,000) 94,894
+
ses =
=
3
0.85 d 3
d3
1.8 d
Bending stress, negligible radial load
T = 21,000 in lb at 200 hp
For A:
20
A = T
2
A(10 ) = 21,000
Page 4 of 76
[ M
[ F
=0
A+C = B + D
at 200 hp
2100 + 4200 = B + 1680
B = 4620 lb
At 200 hp: A = 2100 lb , B = 4620 lb , C = 4200 lb , D = 1680 lb
Shear Diagram
V
Maximum moment at B
M = (2100)(10 ) = 21,000 in lb
32 M 32(21,000 ) 672,000
s=
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sm = 0
672,000
sa = s =
d3
K f sa
(2.0)(672,000) = 503,304
s
se = n s m +
= 0+
sy
SF
0.85 d 3
d3
Page 5 of 76
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.5sn
2
1 503,304
94,894
=
+
3
2 50,000d 0.5 50,000d 3
d = 2.78 in
3
use d = 2 in
4
475.
Page 6 of 76
K fs = 1.6
SF = 0.85
1 83,160 (1.6)(68,040) 55,425
+
ses =
=
3
0.85 d 3
d3
1.806 d
Bending stress, using only tangential loads
Page 7 of 76
[ M
= 0 6 A + 20 D = 14C
6(1260) + 20 D = 14(1890)
D = 945 lb
[ F
=0
A+C = B + D
1260 + 1890 = B + 945
B = 2205 lb
Shear diagram
V
Maximum moment at B
M = (1260)(6) = 7560 in lb
32 M 32(7560 ) 241,920
s=
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sm = 0
241,920
sa = s =
d3
K f sa (2.0 )(241,920 ) 181,189
s
se = n s m +
=
=
sy
SF
0.85 d 3
d3
55,425
d3
Octahedral Shear Theory
ses =
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2
1 181,189
55,425
=
+
3
2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3
d = 1.997 in
use d = 2 in
Page 8 of 76
A shaft made of AISI 1137, cold rolled, for a forage harvester is shown.
Power is supplied to the shaft by a vertical flat belt on the pulley A. At B, the
roller chain to the cutter exerts a force vertically upwards, and the Vbelt to
the blower at C exerts a force vertically upwards. At maximum operating
conditions, the flat belt supplies 35 hp at 425 rpm, of which 25 hp is delivered
to the cutter and 10 hp to the blower. The two sections of the shaft are joined
by a flexible coupling at D and the various wheels are keyed (sledrunner
keyway) to the shafts. Allowing for the varying stresses on the basis of the
von MisesHencky theory of failure, decide upon the diameters of the shafts.
Choose a design factor that would include an allowance for rough loading.
Problem 478.
Solution:
For AISI 1137, cold rolled
s y = 93 ksi
su = 103 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(103) = 51.5 ksi
sn sns 51.5
1
=
=
=
s y s ys
93 1.806
Pulley,
63,000hp 63,000(35)
TA =
=
= 5188 in lb
n
425
For flatbelt
2T 4(5188)
FA = F1 + F2 = 2(F2 F1 ) = 2 A =
= 692 lb
30
DA
Sprocket,
63,000hp 63,000(25)
TB =
=
= 3706 in lb
n
425
For chain,
2T
2(3706 )
FB = B =
= 741 lb
DB
10
Sheave,
63,000hp 63,000(10 )
TC =
=
= 1482 in lb
n
425
Page 9 of 76
35 hp
Shaft ABD
[ M
D'
=0
(6 + 8 + 4)FA = (8 + 4)A'+4FB
18(692) = 12 A'+4(741)
A' = 791 lb
[ F
=0
FA + D = FB + A
692 + D = 741 + 791
D = 840 lb
Shear Diagram
Maximum M at A.
M = (6)(692) = 4152 in lb.
32 M 32(4152 ) 132,864
s=
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sm = 0
sa = s =
132,864
d3
Page 10 of 76
3(1482 )
=
= 445 lb
10
K fs = 1.6
SF = 0.85
K f sa
(1.60)(132,864) = 79,610
s
se = n s m +
= 0+
sy
SF
0.85 d 3
d3
at A T = TA = 5188 in lb
16T 16(5188) 83,008
ss =
=
=
d3
d3
d3
sms = ss
sas = 0
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
1 83,000 14,630
=
ses =
3
d3
1.806 d
Choose a design factor of 2.0
N = 2 .0
von MisesHencky theory of failure (Octahedral shear theory)
1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2
1 79,610
14,630
=
+
3
2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3
d = 1.48 in
1
use d = 1 in
2
Page 11 of 76
[ M
C'
=0
8 D = 3FC
8 D = 3(445)
D = 167 lb
[ F
=0
C = D + FC
C = 167 + 445
C = 612 lb
Shear Diagram
3
d
1.806 d
1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2
1 25,616
4180
=
+
3
2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3
Page 12 of 76
479.
Problems 479480
Solution:
FlatBelt Drive (B)
63,000hp 63,000(25)
TB =
=
= 6300 in lb
n
250
2T 4(6300)
FB = F1 + F2 = 2(F1 F2 ) = 2 B =
= 573 lb
44
DB
Gear A, Doubled hp
63,000hp 63,000(25 + 25)
TA =
=
= 12,600 in lb
n
250
2T
2(12,600 )
FA = A =
= 3150 lb
DA
8
Loading:
Page 13 of 76
Vertical:
[ M
=0
6(1500) + 8BV = 24 EV
6(1500) + 8(405) = 24 EV
EV = 510 lb
[ F
=0
1500 + EV = DV + BV
1500 + 510 = DV + 405
DV = 1605 lb
Shear Diagram
Page 14 of 76
M DV = (6 )(1500 ) = 9000 in lb
M BV = (16 )(510 ) = 8160 in lb
M AV = (5)(510 ) = 2550 in lb
Horizontal:
[ M
=0
8 Bh + 24 Eh = 19 FA
8(405) + 24 Eh = 19(3150)
Eh = 2359 lb
[ F
=0
Dh + Bh + Eh = FA
Dh + 405 + 2359 = 3150
Dh = 386 lb
Shear Diagram
Page 15 of 76
M Dh = 0 in lb
M Bh = (8)(386 ) = 3088 in lb
M Ah = (5)(2359 ) = 11,795 in lb
MA =
MB =
(M ) + (M )
(M ) + (M )
2
Ah
Bh
(11,795)2 + (2550)2
(3088)2 + (8160)2
AV
BV
= 12,068 in lb
= 8725 in lb
M D = 9000 in lb
Therefore
M max = 12,068 in lb
32 M 32(12,068) 386,176
s=
=
=
d3
d3
d3
Maximum moment subjected to alternating tension and compression
sm = 0
386,176
sa = s =
d3
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
For AISI 1137, colddrawn,
s y = 93 ksi
se =
su = 103 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(103) = 51.5 ksi
For sledrunner keyway (Table AT 13)
K f = 1 .6
K fs = 1.6
SF = 0.85
(1.60)(386,176 ) = 231,386
se = 0 +
0.85 d 3
d3
Page 16 of 76
1
,800 151,200
=
(ss max + ss min ) = 1 201,600 + 100
3
2
2
d
d3
sas =
1
,800 50,400
=
(ss max ss min ) = 1 201,600 100
3
2
2
d
d3
ses =
K fs sas
sns
sms +
s ys
SF
3
0.85 d 3
d3
1.806 d
1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2
1 231,386
56,848
=
+
3
2 51,500d 0.577 51,500d 3
d = 2.14 in
3
say d = 2 in
16
THRUST LOADS
Page 17 of 76
Solution:
For colddrawn monel shaft, Table AT 10
s y = 75 ksi
sn = 42 ksi at 108
at 2 x 105
0.085
108
sn 42
= 71.23 ksi
5
2
10
sn sns 71.23
1
=
=
=
s y s ys
75
1.053
63,000hp 63,000(400 )
=
= 16,800 in lb
n
1500
16T 16(16,800 ) 268,800
ss =
=
=
D3
D3
D3
s ms = ss
T=
s as = 0
K fs sas
sns
sms +
s ys
SF
SF = 0.85
assume K f = K fs = 1.0
ses =
81,255
1 268,800
+ 0 =
ses =
3
D3
1.053 D
Fvm
= hp
33,000
vm = (30 knots )(1.152 mph knot )(5280 ft mi )(1 hr 60 min ) = 3041 fpm
F (3041)
= (0.70)(400)
33,000
F = 3040 lb
4F
4(3040 ) 12,160
s=
=
=
2
D
D2
D2
sm= s
sa = 0
Page 18 of 76
se =
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
3676
1 12,160
+0 = 2
se =
2
D
1.053 D
Maximum Shear Theory
1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.5sn
2
1 3676
81,255
=
+
2
2 71,230 D 0.5 71,230 D 3
2
2
1
1
2.2815 2
=
+
2 19.377 D 2 D 3
By trial and error
11
D = 1.66 in = 1 in
16
482.
A shaft receives 300 hp while rotating at 600 rpm, through a pair of bevel gears,
and it delivers this power via a flexible coupling at the other end. The shaft is
designed with the average forces ( at the midpoint of the bevelgear face); the
tangential driving force is F , G = 580 lb , Q = 926 lb ; which are the rectangular
components of the total reaction between the teeth; Dm = 24 in , L = 36 in ,
a = 10 in . Let the material be AISI C1045, cold drawn; N = 2 . Considering
varying stresses and using the octahedral shear theory, determine the shaft
diameter.
Page 19 of 76
3
D3
1.7 D
D
F m = T
2
24
F = 31,500
2
F = 2625 lb
Vertical:
D
24
Q m = 926 = 11,112 in lb
2
2
G = 580 lb
[ M
=0
Av (36 ) +
QDm
G (10 ) = 0
2
QDm
= G (10 ) + Av (36 )
2
11,112 = 580(10) + Av (36)
Av = 148 lb
Page 20 of 76
[ F =0]
v
Av + Bv = 580 lb
148 + Bv = 580 lb
Bv = 432 lb
Shear Diagram
Moment Diagram
M Cv = 11,112 in lb
M Bv = 5328 in lb
Horizontal:
[ M
=0
Ah (36) = (2625)(10)
Ah = 729 lb
[ F
=0
Bh = Ah + F
Bh = 725 + 2625
Page 21 of 76
M Ch = 0
M Bh = (36 )(729 ) = 26,244 in lb
Maximum M
M = MB =
(M ) + (M )
2
Bh
BV
32 M
4Q
+
3
D D2
D3
D2
D3
4Q 32 M 3704 856,960
smin =
D 2 D3 D 2
D3
1
sm = (smax + smin )
2
1 856,960 3704 3704 856,960 3704
=
sm =
+
+
D2 D2
D 3 D 2
2 D3
1
sa = (smax smin )
2
856,960
sa =
D3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
smax =
assume K f = 1.0 at B
1 3704 1.0 856,960 964 320,916
+
= 2 +
se =
2
3
D3
1.7 D 0.85 D D
Octahedral Shear Theory
1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
Page 22 of 76
D2
694 320,916
1
2
2
2 2
+
2
3
1
94,370
6.42 3.27
1
D
+
=
= D
+ 3 + 3
3
2
2
50,000
D D
0.577(50,000)D
72 D
483.
The worm shown is to deliver 65.5 hp steadily at 1750 rpm. It will be integral
with the shaft if the shaft size needed permits, and its pitch diameter 3 in. The 12in. pulley receives the power from a horizontal belt in which the tight tension
F1 = 2.5F2 . The forces (in kips) on the worm are as shown, with the axial force
taken by bearing B. The strength reduction factor for the thread roots may be
taken as K f = 1.5 , shear or bending. The shaft is machined from AISI 1045, as
rolled. (a) For N = 2.2 (Soderberg criterion) by the octahedralshear theory,
compute the required minimum diameter at the root of the worm thread (a first
approximation). (b) What should be the diameter of the shaft 2.5 in. to the left of
the centerline of the worm? (c) Select a shaft size D and check it at the pulley A.
Problem 483.
Solution:
For AISI 1045, as rolled
s y = 59 ksi
su = 96 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 48 ksi
sn sns 48
1
=
=
=
s y s ys 59 1.229
63,000hp 63,000(65.5)
T=
=
= 2358 in lb
1750
1750
(F1 F2 ) 12 = T
2
(2.5F2 F2 )(6) = 2358
F2 = 262 lb
F1 = 2.5F2 = 655 lb
Page 23 of 76
[ M
=0
[ F
=0
917 + Eh = Bh + 1570
917 + 1208 = Bh + 1570
Bh = 555 lb
Shear Diagram
M Ah = 0
M Bh = (917 )(6 ) = 5502 in lb
M Ch = (1208)(6.5) = 7852 in lb
Vertical:
3
M = (2540 ) = 3810 in lb
2
M E =0
M + (1170)(6.5) = 13Bv
3810 + (1170)(6.5) = 13Bv
Bv = 878 lb
Page 24 of 76
[ F =0]
v
Ev + Bv = 1170
Ev + 878 = 1170
Ev = 292 lb
Shear Diagram
Moment Diagram
M Av = 0
M Bv = 0
M Cv = 5707 in lb
M=
MA =
MB =
MC =
(M h )2 + (M v )2
(0)2 + (0)2 = 0
(5502)2 + (0)2 = 5502 in lb
(7852)2 + (5707)2 = 9707 in lb
32 M
4F
32(9707 ) 4(2540 ) 310,624 10,160
+
=
+
=
+
3
2
Dr Dr
Dr3
Dr2
Dr3
Dr2
Page 25 of 76
smin =
310,624 10,160
+
Dr3
Dr2
1
(smax + smin )
2
10,160
sm =
Dr2
1
sa = (smax smin )
2
310,624
sa =
Dr3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
sm =
2
3
= D2 + D3
1.229 Dr 0.85 Dr
r
r
16T 16(2358) 12,000
ss =
=
=
Dr3
Dr3
Dr3
sms = ss
sas = 0
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
9764
1 12,000
ses =
+0= 3
Dr
1.229 Dr
N = 2.2 , Octahedral shear theory
1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2632 174,485 2
2
1
+
2
2
2 2
1 Dr
Dr
9764
1
3.635 1
=
+
=
+
2
0.577(48,000)Dr3
2.2
48,000
Dr3 2.84 Dr3
18.24 Dr
Page 26 of 76
K fs = K ts = 1.34
at 2.5 in to the shaft
M h = (917 )(6) + (362)(6.5 2.5) = 6950 in lb
(6950)2 + (3512)2
= 7787 in lb
10,160
D2
32 M 32(7787 ) 249,184
sa =
=
=
D3
D3
D3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
sm =
2
3
D2
D3
1.229 D 0.85 D
9764
ses =
D3
1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2632 153,970 2
2
1
2
2
2 2
+
2
3
1
9764
1
3.21 1
D
+
=
= D
+ 3 +
3
2
2.2
48,000
18.24 D
D 2.84 D 3
0.577(48,000)D
Page 27 of 76
15
in = 1.9375 in
16
At the pulley A, or 3 in. right of centerline
M h = (917 )(3) = 2751 in lb
(c) Selecting D = 1
Mv = 0
M = 2751 in lb
For sled runner keyway
K f = 1 .6
K fs = 1.6
sm = 0
32 M
32(2751)
sa =
=
= 3853 psi
3
D
(1.9375)3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
1 .6
se = 0 +
(3853) = 7253 psi
0.85
9764
ses =
= 1343 psi
(1.9375)3
1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2 2
2
1 7253
1343
=
+
N 48,000 0.577(48,000)
N = 6.30 > 2.2 , therefore o.k.
484.
A propeller shaft as shown is to receive 300 hp at 315 rpm from the right through
a flexible coupling. A 16in. pulley is used to drive an auxiliary, taking 25 hp.
The belt pull FB is vertically upward. The remainder of the power is delivered to
a propeller that is expected to convert 60% of it into work driving the boat, at
which time the boat speed is 1500 fpm. The thrust is to be taken by the righthand
bearing. Let N = 2 ; material coldworked stainless 410. Use the octahedral shear
theory with varying stresses. (a) Determine the shaft size needed assuming no
buckling. (b) Compute the equivalent column stress. Is this different enough to
call for another shaft size? Compute N by the maximum shear stress theory,
from both equations (8.4) and (8.11).
Page 28 of 76
Problem 484.
Solution:
For stainless 410, coldworked
s y = 85 ksi
sn = 53 ksi
SF = 0.85
Belt drive
63,000hp 63,000(25)
TB =
=
= 5000 in lb
n
315
2T 4(5000)
FB = F1 + F2 = 2(F1 F2 ) = 2 B =
= 1250 lb
16
DB
Propeller
63,000hp 63,000(300 25)
TP =
=
= 55,000 in lb
n
315
Thrust
Fvm = hp(33,000)
F (1500) = (0.60)(300 25)(33,000)
F = 3630 lb
Vertical loading
[ M
=0
(20)(1250) = 60C
C = 417 lb
[ F =0]
v
A + C = FB
A + 417 = 1250
Page 29 of 76
Shear Diagram
M B = (20)(833) = 16,660 in lb
Maximum T at B
T = TB + TP = 60,000 in lb
(a) Shaft size assuming no buckling
M = 16,660 in lb
F = 3630 lb
4F
4(3630 ) 14,520
=
=
sm =
2
D
D2
D2
32 M 32(16,660 ) 533,120
sa =
=
=
D3
D3
D3
For sledrunner keyway
K f = 1 .6
K fs = 1.6
sn sns 53
1
=
=
=
s y s ys 85 1.604
se =
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
2
3
D2
D3
1.604 D 0.85 D
16
16(60,000 ) 960,000
ss = sms =
=
=
3
D
D3
D3
sas = 0
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
190,510
1 960,000
+ 0 =
ses =
2
D3
1.604 D
Page 30 of 76
1 se ses
= +
N sn sns
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
1
2
2882 319,430
1
2
2
2 2
+
2
3
1
190,510
1
6.027 6.230
D
+
=
= D
+
+
3
2
2
53,000
18.39 D
D 3 D 3
0.577(53,000 )D
D2
Le = 12 + 60 + 10 = 82 in
1
1
k = D = (2.625) = 0.65625 in
4
4
Le
82
=
= 125 > 120
k 0.65625
Use Eulers equation
2
L
sy e
2
85(125)
k
=
= 2
= 4.486
2E
30 103
4F
4(3630 )
s=
(4.486) = 3000 psi
=
2
D
(2.625)2
Since > 1 , it is different enough to call for another shaft size.
Page 31 of 76
2
2 s 2 2
18,078 2
2
= ss + = (10,533) +
= 13,880 psi
2
2
0.5sn 0.5(53,000)
N=
=
= 1.91
13,880
Equation (8.11) sns = 0.5sn
1
2
2 2
18,078 2 10,533 2 2
1 s ss
= + =
+
(
)
N sn sns
53
,
000
0
.
5
53
,
000
N = 1.91
CHECK PROBLEMS
485.
A 3in. rotating shaft somewhat as shown (482) carries a bevel gear whose mean
diameter is Dm = 10 in and which is keyed (profile) to the left end. Acting on the
gear are a radial force G = 1570.8 lb , a driving force Q = 3141.6 lb . The thrust
force is taken by the righthand bearing. Let a = 5 in and L = 15 in ; material,
AISI C1040, annealed. Base calculations on the maximum shearing stress theory
with variable stress. Compute the indicated design factor N . With the use of a
sketch, indicate the exact point of which maximum normal stress occurs.
Solution:
For AISI C1040, annealed, Figure AF 1
s y = 48 ksi
su = 80 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 40 ksi
sn sns 40 1
=
=
=
s y s ys 48 1.2
FDm (6283.2 )(10 )
T=
=
= 31,416 in lb
2
2
16T 16(31,416 )
ss =
=
= 5926 psi
D3
(3)3
sms = ss
sas = 0
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
1
ses =
(5926 ) + 0 = 4940 psi
1 .2
Vertical
Page 32 of 76
QDm
= 5G + 15 AV
2
15,708 = 5(1570.8) + 15 AV
AV = 523.6 lb
[ F =0]
v
AV + BV = G
523.6 + BV = 1570.8
BV = 1047.2 lb
Shear Diagram
Moment Diagram
M CV = 15,708 in lb
M BV = 7854 in lb
Page 33 of 76
[ M
=0
15 Ah = 5(6283.2)
Ah = 2094.4 lb
[ F
=0
Bh = Ah + F
Bh = 2094.4 + 6283.2
Bh = 8377.6 lb
Shear Diagram
M Ch = 0
M Bh = (15)(2094.4 ) = 31,416 in lb
Maximum Moment
2
M = M B2h + M Bv
=
(31,416)2 + (7854)2
= 32,383 in lb
Page 34 of 76
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.5sn
2 2
2
1 14,373 4940
=
+
N 40,000 0.5(40,000)
N = 2 .3
487.
Page 35 of 76
[ M
=0
15(2311) = 59 Bh
Bh = 588 lb
[ F
=0
Ah + Bh = 2311
Ah + 588 = 2311
Ah = 1723 lb
Shear Diagram
M Ch = (1723)(15) = 25,845 in lb
Page 36 of 76
Vertical
[ M
=0
18(1664) = 59 Av
Av = 508 lb
[ F =0]
v
Av + Bv = 1664
508 + Bv = 1664
Bv = 1156 lb
Shear Diagram
M Cv = (508)(15) = 7620 in lb
M Dv = (1156 )(18) = 20,808 in lb
M C = M C2h + M C2v =
(25,845)2 + (7620 )2
M D = M D2 h + M D2 v =
(10,557 )2 + (20,808)2
Maximum M at C
M = M C = 26,945 in lb
sm = 0
32 M
sa =
D3
7
D = 2 in = 2.4375 in
16
Page 37 of 76
= 26,945 in lb
= 23,333 in lb
se =
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
K fs sas
sns
sms +
s ys
SF
1
ses =
(3658) + 0 = 2915 psi
1.255
Octahedral shear theory sns = 0.577 sn
1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2 2
2
1 22,300
2915
=
+
N 35,300 0.577(35,300)
N = 1.544
489.
Page 38 of 76
Page 39 of 76
[ M
=0
[ F =0]
v
Cv + Dv = Av + Bv
554 + Dv = 1568 + 614
Dv = 1628 lb
Shear Diagram
Horizontal
[ M
=0
[ F
=0
Ch + Bh = Ah + Dh
Ch + 159 = 406 + 16
Ch = 263 lb
Shear Diagram
Page 40 of 76
(1052)2 + (2216)2
= 2453 in lb
M D = M D2 h + M D2 v =
(477 )2 + (1842)2
= 1903 in lb
(a) At bearing D
1
r = in
8
3
d = 1 in
8
r 0.125
=
0.10
d 1.375
D 1.375 + 0.25
=
1 .2
d
1.375
K t K f = 1 .6
K ts K fs = 1.34
M = MD
sm = 0
32 M 32(1903)
sa =
=
= 7456 psi
d 3 (1.375)3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
se = 0 +
sms
0.85
16T
16(1764 )
=
=
= 3456 psi
3
D (1.375)3
sas = 0
ses =
K fs sas
sns
sms +
s ys
SF
1
ses = (3456 ) + 0 = 1920 psi
1 .8
Octahedral shear theory
1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
Page 41 of 76
2 2
2
1 14,035
3456
=
+
N 50,000 0.577(50,000)
N = 3.28
(b) At A
For profile keyway
K f = 2.0 , K fs = 1.6
11
in = 1.6875 in
16
M = M A = 2453 in lb
sm = 0
32 M
32(2453)
sa =
=
= 5200 psi
3
d
(1.6875)3
K f sa
s
se = n s m +
sy
SF
d =1
se = 0 +
sms
0.85
16T
16(1764 )
=
=
= 1870 psi
3
D (1.6875)3
sas = 0
ses =
K fs sas
sns
sms +
s ys
SF
1
ses = (1870 ) + 0 = 1040 psi
1 .8
Octahedral shear theory
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
1
2
2 2
2
1 12,235
1040
=
+
N 50,000 0.577(50,000)
N = 4.043
THRUST LOADS
491.
Page 42 of 76
Problem 491
Solution:
Table AT 11n For AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F
s y = 120 ksi
su = 167 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 83.5 ksi
sn sns 83.5
1
=
=
=
s y s ys 120 1.437
SF = 0.85
T = 21,400 in lb
Vertical
Page 43 of 76
[ F =0]
v
S + Av = Gv
1940 + Av = 2061
Av = 121 lb
Shear Diagram
Moment Diagram
M Av = 0
M Bv = (121)(1.2035) = 146 in lb
M Cv = (121)(1.2035 + 4.875) = 736 in lb
M Dv = (121)(1.2035 + 4.875 + 5.5675) = 1409 in lb at left side
M Dv = 1409 + M = 1409 + 22,777 = 21,368 in lb at right side
M Ev = 21,368 (2061)(4.4325) = 12,233 in lb
M Fv = 12,233 (2061)(4.5625) = 2830 in lb
M Gv = 2830 (2061)(1.375) = 0
Horizontal
Page 44 of 76
[ M
=0
[ F
=0
Ah + Gv = W
Ah + 3269 = 6180
Ah = 2911 lb
Shear Diagram
Moment Diagram
M Ah = 0
M Bh = (2911)(1.2035) = 3500 in lb
M Ch = (2911)(1.2035 + 4.875) = 17,695 in lb
M Dh = 33,900 in lb
M Eh = 33,900 (3269 )(4.4325) = 19,410 in lb
M Fh = 19,410 (3269 )(4.5625) = 4495 in lb
M Fh = 4495 (3269 )(1.375) = 0
Combined
M = M h2 + M v2
MA =
MB =
MC =
MD =
MD =
ME =
(0)2 + (0)2 = 0 in lb
(3500)2 + (146)2 = 3503 in lb
(17,695)2 + (736)2 = 17,710 in lb
(33,900)2 + (1409)2 = 33,930 in lb (left)
(33,900)2 + (21,368)2 = 40,073 in lb (right)
(19,410)2 + (12,233)2 = 22,944 in lb
Page 45 of 76
MF =
MG =
Page 46 of 76
sE = sF =
4F
4(6580 )
=
= 748 psi
2
D4 (3.3469 )2
r1 0.098
=
= 0.03
D1 3.740
D2 4.8125
=
= 1 .3
D1
3.740
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 2 .3
At B:
K fs K ts = 1.7
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
sm = sB = 599 psi
se =
sa = s B = 682 psi
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2 2
2
1 2262
1450
=
+
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)
N = 24.7
r2
0.75
=
= 0.16
D2 4.8125
Dr
5.701
=
= 1 .2
D2 4.8125
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 1 .5
At C:
K fs K ts = 1.2
Page 47 of 76
se =
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
sm = 362 psi
sa = 1618 psi
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2 2
2
1 3107
681
=
+
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)
N = 25.1
At D:
Assume K f = 1.5 as in Prob. 483
se =
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
sm = 258 psi
sa = 2203 psi
Page 48 of 76
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
1
2
2 2
2
1 4067
409
=
+
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)
N = 20.2
r3 0.75
=
= 0.19
D3
4
Dr 5.701
=
= 1.43
D3
4
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 1.45
At E:
K fs K ts = 1.25
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
sm = sE = 524 psi
se =
sa = s E = 3652 psi
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2 2
2
1 6595
1185
=
+
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)
N = 12
At F:
r4
0.098
=
= 0.03
D4 3.3469
Page 49 of 76
se =
sa = s F = 1443 psi
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2 2
2
1 4425
2023
=
+
N 83,500 0.577(83,500)
N = 14.8
Then N = 12 at r3 =
492.
3
in (E)
4
The slowspeed shaft of a speed reducer shown, made of AISI 4140, OQT 1200
F, transmits 100 hp at a speed of 388 rpm. It receives power through a 13.6 in.
gear B. The force on this gear has three components: a horizontal tangential
driving force Ft = 2390 lb , a vertical radial force S = 870 lb , and a thrust force
Q = 598 lb taken by the righthand bearing. The power is delivered to a belt at
F that exerts a downward vertical force of 1620 lb.; sled runner keyways. Use
the octahedral shear theory with the Soderberg line and compute N at sections C
and D. (Data courtesy of Twin Disc Clutch Company.)
Page 50 of 76
13.6
13.6
M = Q
= (598)
= 4066.4 in lb
2
2
M A =0
Page 51 of 76
[ F =0]
v
Av + S + F = Gv
Av + 870 + 1620 = 3573
Av = 1083 lb
Shear Diagram
Moment Diagram
M Av = 0
3
M Pv = (1083)1 = 1286 in lb
16
5
M Bv = 1286 + ( 1083)1 = 3046 in lb at the left
8
M Bv = 3046 + 4066.4 = 1021 in lb at the right
3
M Cv = 1021 (1953) 3 = 5570 in lb
8
7
M Gv = 5570 (1953)1 = 7950 in lb
32
Page 52 of 76
Horizontal
[ M
=0
19
13
13
2 (2390 ) + 2 + 4 Gh
32
16
16
Gh = 908 lb
[ F
=0
Ah + Gh = Ft
Ah + 908 = 2390
Ah = 1482 lb
Shear Diagram
M Ah = 0
3
M Ph = (1482 )1 = 1760 in lb
16
5
M Bh = 1760 + (1482 )1 = 4168 in lb
8
Page 53 of 76
Combined
M = M h2 + M v2
M A = 0 in lb
MP =
MB =
MC =
MD =
ME =
MF =
1
in = 0.125 in
8
d = 2.750 in
D = 2.953 in
r 0.125
=
= 0.05
d 2.750
D 2.953
=
= 1.10
d 2.750
Figure AF 12
K f 1 K t = 1 .9
at C: r =
K fs1 K ts = 1.3
For sled runner keyway
K f 2 = 1 .6
K fs 2 = 1.6
K f = 0.8 K f 1 K f 2 = 0.8(1.9 )(1.6 ) = 2.4
K fs = 0.8 K fs1 K fs 2 = 0.8(1.3)(1.6 ) = 1.7
Page 54 of 76
se =
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
4Q
4(598)
=
= 101 psi
2
d
(2.750)2
32 M C 32(5678)
sa =
=
= 2781 psi
d3
(2.750)3
(2.4)(2781) = 7920 psi
1
se =
(101) +
0.85
1.482
K fs sas
s
ses = ns sms +
s ys
SF
sm =
16T 16(16,237 )
=
= 3976 psi
d 3 (2.750)3
sas = 0
sms =
1
ses =
(3976 ) + 0 = 2683 psi
1.482
Octahedral shear theory
1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2 2
2
1 7920
2683
=
+
N 56,000 0.577(56,000)
N =6
1
in = 0.0625 in
16
d = 2.953 in
3
D = 3 in = 3.375 in
8
r 0.0625
=
= 0.02
d
2.953
D 3.375
=
= 1.14
d 2.953
Figure AF 12
K f K t = 2 .4
at D: r =
K fs K ts = 1.6
se =
K f sa
sn
sm +
sy
SF
Page 55 of 76
16T 16(16,237 )
=
= 3211 psi
d 3 (2.953)3
sas = 0
sms =
1
ses =
(3211) + 0 = 2167 psi
1.482
Octahedral shear theory
1
2
2 2
1 se ses
= +
N sn 0.577 sn
2 2
2
1 6508
2167
=
+
N 56,000 0.577(56,000)
N = 7 .5
TRANSVERSE DEFLECTIONS
494.
The forces on the 2in. steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips , C = 4 kips . Determine
the maximum deflection and the shafts slope at D.
Problems 494496
Solution:
Page 56 of 76
[M B = 0]
2(10) + 25D = 4(15)
D = 1.6 kips
[Fv = 0]
A+C = B + D
2 + 4 = B + 1 .6
B = 4.4 kips
Shear Diagram
Moment Diagram
M
64 M
=
EI E D 4
M (in kip )
M 4 4
D 10
EI
Page 57 of 76
A
0
B
20
C
16
D
0
135.8
108.6
M
200 104
, Scale sM =
per in
EI
EI
D4
Deflection:
At A: y A =
0.625
in
D4
Page 58 of 76
At C: yC =
0.375
in
D4
Slope:
0.075
rad
D4
0.0125
At B: =
rad
D4
0.05625
At D: =
rad
D4
At A: =
Maximum deflection:
0.625
y = yA =
= 0.04 in
(2 )4
Shafts slope at D
0.05625
=
= 0.0035 rad
(2)4
495.
The forces on the steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips , C = 4 kips . Determine the
constant shaft diameter that corresponds to a maximum deflection of 0.006 in. at
section C.
Solution:
(see Problem 494)
0.375
yC =
= 0.006
D4
D = 2.812 in
7
say D = 2 in
8
496. The forces on the steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips , C = 4 kips . Determine a
constant shaft diameter that would limit the maximum deflection at section A to
0.003 in.
Solution:
(see Problem 494)
0.625
yA =
= 0.003
D4
D = 3.80 in
7
say D = 3 in
8
497.
Page 59 of 76
Problem 497
Solution:
M R1 = 0
(3000 ) 7 + 1 1 (2100) 7 + 2 1 + 1 = 7 + 2 1 + 2 + 7 R2
8 8
R2 = 444 lb
[ F = 0]
R1 + R2 + 2100 = 3000
R1 444 + 2100 = 3000
R1 = 1344 lb
Loading
Shear Diagram
Moment Diagram
Page 60 of 76
M A = 0 in lb
7
M B = (1344 ) = 1176 in lb
8
7 1
M C = (1134 ) + 1 = 2688 in lb
8 8
1
M D = 2688 (1656 )1 = 825 in lb
8
M E = 825 (1656)(1) = 831 in lb
M F = 831 + (444)(1) = 387 in lb
7
M G = 387 + (444 ) = 0 in lb
8
M (in kips )
D(in )
M
10 4
EI
)( )
A
0
1
B1
1.18
1
B2
1.18
2
C
2.69
2
D1
0.83
2
D2
0.83
1
E
0.83
1
F1
0.39
1
F2
0.39
1
G
0
1
1.58
0.50
1.14
0.35
0.60
0.60
0.28
0.52
Scale ss = 2 in in
Page 61 of 76
y deflection, Scale s y = 8 10 4 D 4 in in
Page 62 of 76
(a) Determine the diameter of the steel shaft shown if the maximum deflection is
to be 0.01 in.; C = 1.5 kips , A = 1.58 kips , L = 24 in . (b) What is the slope of the
shaft at bearing D? See 479.
[ M
=0
6(1.5) + 8(0.424) = 24 Ev
Ev = 0.516 kip
[ F
=0
Dv + 0.424 = 1.5 + Ev
Dv + 0.424 = 1.5 + 0.516
Dv = 1.592 kip
Shear Diagram
M C = 0 ; M D = 6(1.5) = 9 in kips
M B = 9 + 8(0.092) = 8.264 in kips
Page 63 of 76
C
0
0
D
9
61.1
Scale ss = 8 in in
M
120 10 4
, Scale sM =
per in
EI
EI
D4
Page 64 of 76
B
8.264
56.1
A
2.588
17.6
E
0
0
Deflections.
0.384
yCv =
in
D4
0.288
y Bv =
in
D4
0.168
y Av =
in
D4
Slope
0.057
Dv =
rad
D4
Horizontal
[ M
=0
8(0.424 ) + 24 Eh = 19(1.58)
Eh = 1.1095 kip
[ F
=0
Dh + Eh + 0.424 = 1.58
Dh + 1.1095 + 0.424 = 1.58
Page 65 of 76
Moments
MC = 0
MD = 0
M B = 8( 0.0465) = 0.372 in kip
M A = 0.372 + 11( 0.4705) = 5.5475 in kips
M E = 5.5475 + 5(1.1095) = 0
M (in kips )
M
D 4 10 4
EI
C
0
0
D
0
0
Scale ss = 8 in in
M
4 104
, Scale sM =
per in
EI
EI
D4
Page 66 of 76
B
0.372
2.53
A
5.5475
37.7
E
0
0
Deflections.
0.064
yC h =
in
D4
0.072
y Bh =
in
D4
0.096
y Ah =
in
D4
Slope
0.012
Dh =
rad
D4
Resultant deflection:
y = yh2 + yv2
1
2
1
2 2
[(0.064) + (0.384) ]
2
yC =
[(0.072) + (0.288) ]
D
[(0.096) + (0.168) ]
Slope:
Page 67 of 76
0.297
D4
0.194
D4
1
2 2
yA =
0.390
D4
1
2 2
yB =
= ( +
2
h
1
2 2
v
1
2 2
[(0.012) + (0.057) ]
=
2
0.05823
rad
D4
(a) Diameter D.
Maximum deflection = yC =
0.390
= 0.01 in
D4
D = 2.50 in
CRITICAL SPEED
499.
A small, highspeed turbine has a single disk, weighing 0.85 lb., mounted at the
midpoint of a 0.178in. shaft, whose length between bearings is 6 in. What is
the critical speed if the shaft is considered as simply supported?
Solution:
Table AT 2
3
WL3
(
0.85)(6.5)
y=
=
= 0.052634 in
4
3EI
6 (0.178 )
3 30 10
64
30 g o ( Wy ) 2 30 g o 2 30 386 2
nc =
=
= 818 rpm
=
Wy 2
y
0.052634
500.
The bearings on a 1 in. shaft are 30 in. apart. On the shaft are three 300lb
disks, symmetrically placed 7.5 in. apart. What is the critical speed of the shaft?
Solution:
Page 68 of 76
Table AT 2
Deflection of B.
y B = y B1 + y B2 + y B3
y B1 =
64
(300)(15)(7.5)(30)2 (15)2 (7.5)2 = 0.01556 in
y B2 =
(1.5)4
6 30 106
(30)
64
2
2
2
(
300)(7.5)(7.5)(30) (7.5) (7.5)
y B3 =
= 0.00990 in
4
6 (1.5 )
6 30 10
(30)
64
Deflection of C.
yC = yC1 + yC2 + yC3
yC1
2
2
2
(
300)(7.5)(30 15)(
[
30) (7.5) (30 15) ]
=
= 0.01556 in
4
6 (1.5 )
6(30 10 )
(30)
64
(300)(15)(30 15)(30)2 (15)2 (30 15)2 = 0.02264 in
yC2 =
4
6 (1.5 )
6 30 10
(30)
64
(300)(7.5)(15)(30)2 (7.5)2 (15)2 = 0.01556 in
yC3 =
(1.5)4
6 30 106
(30)
64
yC = 0.01556 + 0.02264 + 0.01556 = 0.05376 in
Deflection of D.
y D = y D1 + y D2 + y D3
Page 69 of 76
y D1 =
64
(300)(15)(30 22.5)(30)2 (15)2 (30 22.5)2 = 0.01556 in
y D2 =
4
6 (1.5 )
6 30 10
(30)
64
(300)(7.5)(22.5)(30)2 (7.5)2 (22.5)2 = 0.01273 in
y D3 =
(1.5)4
6 30 106
(30 )
64
y D = 0.00990 + 0.01556 + 0.01273 = 0.03819 in
1
2
30 g o ( Wy )
30 g o ( y B + yC + y D ) 2
nc =
=
Wy 2
y B2 + yC2 + y D2
1
501.
A fan for an airconditioning unit has two 50lb. rotors mounted on a 3in. steel
shaft, each being 22 in. from an end of the shaft which is 80 in. long and simply
supported at the ends. Determine (a) the deflection curve of the shaft considering
its weight as well as the weight of the rotors, (b) its critical speed.
Solution:
W1 = 50 lb
W3 = 50 lb
2
W2 = (0.284 ) (3) (80 ) = 160 lb weight of shaft
4
160
w2 =
= 2 lb in
80
Deflection of B.
y B = y B1 + y B2 + y B3
Page 70 of 76
y B1 =
64
(50)(22)(22)(80)2 (22)2 (22)2 = 0.002296 in
y B3 =
4
6 (3)
6 30 10
(80)
64
(2)(22)(80)3 2(80)(22)2 (22)3 = 0.006843 in
y B2 =
(3)4
6 30 106
64
y B = 0.002844 + 0.006843 + 0.002296 = 0.011983 in
Deflection of C.
yC = yC1 + yC2 + yC3
yC1
2
2
2
(
50)(22)(80 40)(
[
80) (22) (80 40) ]
=
= 0.003317 in
4
6 (35)
6(30 10 )
(80)
64
2
2
2
(
50)(22 )(40)(80) (22) (40)
yC3 =
= 0.003317 in
4
6 (3)
6 30 10
(80)
64
(2)(40)(80)3 2(80)(40)2 (40)3 = 0.008942 in
yC2 =
4
6 (3)
6 30 10
64
yC = 0.003317 + 0.008942 + 0.003317 = 0.015576 in
By symmetry
y D = y B = 0.011983 in
(a) Deflection curve
Page 71 of 76
30 g o ( Wy ) 2
nc =
Wy 2
30 386(3.69046) 2
nc =
= 1563 rpm
0.053177
ASME CODE
502.
Solution:
For AISI C1050, annealed
s y = 53 ksi
su = 92 ksi
0.3s y = 15.9 ksi
0.18su = 16.56 ksi
use d = 0.3s y = 15.9 ksi
M = 43 in kips
T = 27 in kips
1
2 2
16
FD 1 + B 2
2
3
(K sT ) + K m M +
D =
8
d 1 B 4
Reduce to
1
16
2
2 2
3
D =
(K sT ) + ( K m M )
d 1 B 4
For mild shock load, rotating shafts
K m = 1.75
K s = 1.25
B=0
1
16
2
2 2
3
D =
[(1.25)(27,000)] + [(1.75)(43,000)]
(15,900)
D = 2.98 in
say D = 3 in
)[
Page 72 of 76
503.
Solution:
For AISI 3150, OQT 1000 F
s y = 130 ksi
su = 151 ksi
0.3s y = 39 ksi
0.18su = 27.18 ksi
use d = 0.18su = 27.18 ksi
63000(82 )
T=
= 4492 in lb
1150
M = 7500 in lb
F = 15,000 lb
16
FD 1 + B 2
2
3
(K sT ) + K m M +
(a) D =
d 1 B 4
8
(
16
1)(15,000)D 2
2
3
D =
[(1.25)(4492)] + (1.75)(7500) +
(27180)
8
1
2 2
(b) s =
32 M
4F
32(7500 ) 4(15,000 )
+
=
+
= 31,124 psi = 31.124 ksi
3
2
D D
(1.5)3
(1.5)2
Page 73 of 76
ss =
16T 16(4492 )
=
= 6778.5 psi = 6.7785 ksi
D 3 (1.5)3
2
2
1 s ss
=
+
N s y s ys
504.
short stub shaft, made of SAE 1035, as rolled, receives 30 hp at 300 rpm via a
12in. spur gear, the power being delivered to another shaft through a flexible
coupling. The gear is keyed midway between the bearings and its pressure angle
= 20o . See the figure for 471. (a) Neglecting the radial component of the tooth
load, determine the shaft diameter for a mild shock load. (b) Considering both
tangential and radial components, compute the shaft diameter. (c) Is the
difference in the foregoing results enough to change your choice of the shaft
size?
Solution:
Page 74 of 76
16
FD 1 + B 2
2
(
)
D3 =
K
T
+
K
M
+
s
m
d 1 B 4
8
Reduce to
1
16
2
2 2
D3 =
K
T
+
K
M
(
)
(
)
s
m
d 1 B 4
For mild shock load, rotating shafts
K m = 1.75
K s = 1.25
B=0
1
16
D3 =
[(1.25)(6.3)]2 + [(1.75)(4.2)]2 2
(15.3)
D = 1.5306 in
9
say D = 1 in
16
)[
1
2
Solution:
Page 75 of 76
Data and figure is the same as in Problem 479. Also figure is the same as in Problem 498.
For AISI 1137, coldfinished
s y = 93 ksi
su = 103 ksi
0.3s y = 27.9 ksi
0.18su = 18.54 ksi
use d = 0.18s u = 18.54 ksi
From Problem 479
M = M B = 14,343 in lb = 14.343 in kips
T = TA = 12,600 in lb = 12.6 in kips
For heavy shock load
K m = 2.5
K s = 1.75
B=0
16
FD 1 + B
2
(K sT ) + K m M +
4
d 1 B
8
1
16
2
2 2
(
)
(
)
D3 =
K
T
+
K
M
s
m
d 1 B 4
D3 =
)[
16
[(1.75)(12.6)]2 + [(2.5)(14.343)]2
(18.54)
D = 2.2613 in
5
say D = 2 in
16
D3 =
1
2
 end 
Page 76 of 76
)
2
1
2
A castiron pulley transmits 65.5 hp at 1750 rpm. The 1045 asrolled shaft to which it is to be
keyed is 1 in. in diameter; key material, colddrawn 1020. Compute the length of flat key and
of square key needed.
Solution:
For shaft: 1045 asrolled, Table AT 7, sy = 59 ksi
For key: Colddrawn 1020, sy = 66 ksi
D = 1 in = 1.75 in
hp = 65.5 hp, n = 1750 rpm
63,000hp 63,000(65.5)
=
= 2358 in lb = 2.358 in kips
n
1750
Table AT 19, use b = 3/8 in, t = 1/4 in for D = 1 in
Assume smooth load, N = 1.5
T=
A 3 in. shaft transmits with medium shock 85 hp at 100 rpm. Power is received through a
sprocket (annealed nodular iron 604510) keyed to the shaft of coldrolled AISI 1040 (10%
work), with a key of coldfinished B1113. What should be the length of (a) a square key? (b) a
flat key?
Solution:
For sprocket, annealed nodular iron, 604510, Table AT 6, sy = 55 ksi
For shaft, coldrolled AISI 1040 (10% work), Table AT 10, sy = 85 ksi
For key, coldfinished B1113, Table AT 7, sy = 72 ksi
D = 3 in = 3.25 in
hp = 85 hp
n = 100 rpm
63,000hp 63,000(85)
=
= 53,550 in lb = 53.55 in kips
n
100
Table AT 19, use b = in, t = 1/2 in for D = 3 in
For medium shock, N = 2.25
(a) Square key,
b = in, t = in.
By shear,
sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(72) = 43.2 ksi
sys 43.2
ss =
=
= 19.2 ksi
N 2.25
2T
2(53.55)
L=
=
= 2.29 in
ss bD 19.2(3 4)(3.25)
By compression, use sy of sprocket the lowest.
sy
55
sc = =
= 24.4 ksi
N 2.25
4T
4(53.55)
L=
=
= 3.60 in
sc tD 24.4(3 4)(3.25)
T=
A caststeel gear (SAE 0030), with a pitch diameter of 36 in., is transmitting 75 hp at 210 rpm to
a rock crusher, and is keyed to a 3in. shaft (AISI 1045, as rolled); the key is made of AISI C1020,
cold drawn. For a design factor of 4 based on yield strength, what should be the length of (a) a
square key, (b) flat key? (c) Would either of these keys be satisfactory?
Solution:
For caststeel gear (SAE 0030), Table AT 6, sy = 35 ksi
For shaft, AISI 1045, as rolled, Table AT 7, sy = 59 ksi
For key, AISI C1020, colddrawn, Table AT 7, sy = 66 ksi
D = 3 in
hp = 75 hp
n = 210 rpm
63,000hp 63,000(75)
=
= 22,500 in lb = 22.5 in kips
n
210
Table AT 19, use b = in, t = 1/2 in for D = 3 in
Design factor, N = 4
(a) Square key,
b = in, t = in.
By shear,
sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(66) = 39.6 ksi
sys 39.6
ss =
=
= 9.9 ksi
N
4
2T
2(22.5)
L=
=
= 2.02 in
ss bD 9.9(3 4)(3)
By compression, use sy of caststeel gear the lowest.
sy 35
sc = =
= 8.75 ksi
N 4
T=
525.
An electric motor delivers 50 hp at 1160 rpm to a 1 5/8 in. shaft (AISI 13B45, OQT 1100 F). Keyed
to this shaft is a caststeel (SAE 080, N & T) pulley whose hub is 2 in. long. The loading may be
classified as mild shock. Decide upon a key for this pulley (material), investigating both flat and
square keys.
Solution:
hp = 50 hp
n = 1160 rpm
D = 1 5/8 in = 1.625 in
Shaft material AISI 13B45, OQT 1100 F, Table AT 10, sy = 112 ksi
Pulley material SAE 080, N & T, Table AT 6, sy = 40 ksi
L = 2 in
N = 2.0 to 2.25 for mild shock
From Table AT 19 for D = 1 5/8 in
b = 3/8 in, t = in
63,000hp 63,000(50)
T=
=
= 2,716 in lb = 2.716 in kips
n
1160
For flat key: b = 3/8 in, t = in
Check for compression:
4T
4(2.716)
sc =
=
= 13.37 ksi
LtD (2 )(1 4)(1.625)
sy
40
= 2.99 > 2.25
Based on pulley material, N = =
sc 13.37
Therefore safe in compression.
Determine the yield stress on the key
2T
2(2.716)
ss =
=
= 4.457 ksi
LbD (2)(3 8)(1.625)
5
Min. s y = (13.37 )(2.25) = 30 ksi  Minimum yield strength of key material required.
Select SAE 003, Table AT 6, sy = 35 ksi Answer.
For square key: b = t = 3/8 in
Check for compression:
4T
4(2.716)
sc =
=
= 8.914 ksi
LtD (2 )(3 8)(1.625)
sy
40
= 4.49 > 2.25
Based on pulley material, N = =
sc 8.914
Therefore safe in compression.
Determine the yield stress on the key
2T
2(2.716)
ss =
=
= 4.457 ksi
LbD (2)(3 8)(1.625)
N = 2.25
s ys = 0.6 sy = Nss
0.6 sy = (2.25 )(4.457 )
s y = 16.7 ksi
CHECK PROBLEMS
526. A caststeel (SAE 080, N & T) pulley, attached to a 2in. shaft, is transmitting 40 hp at 200 rpm,
and is keyed by a standard square key, 3 in. long, made of SAE 1015, cold drawn; shaft material,
C1144, OQT 1000 F. (a) What is the factor of safety of the key? (b) The same as (a) except a flat
key is used.
Solution:
Pulley, Cast steel, SAE 080, N & T, Table AT 6, sy = 40 ksi
Key, SAE 1015, cold drawn, Table AT 7, sy = 63 ksi
Shaft, C1144, OQT 1000 F, sy = 83 ksi
hp = 40 hp
N = 200 rpm
D = 2 in
L = 3 in
63,000hp 63,000(40)
=
= 12,600 in lb = 12.6 in kips
n
200
Table AT 19, D = 2 in
b = in, t = 3/8 in
T=
A caststeel (SAE 080, N & T) pulley is keyed to a 2 1/2in. shaft by means of a standard square
key, 3 in. long, made of colddrawn SAE 1015. The shaft is made of colddrawn AISI 1045. If
the shaft is in virtually pure torsion, and turns at 420 rpm, what horsepower could the assembly
safely transmit (steady loading)?
Solution:
Pulley, Cast steel, SAE 080, N & T, Table AT 6, sy = 40 ksi
Key, SAE 1015, cold drawn, Table AT 7, sy = 63 ksi
Shaft, AISI 1045, cold drawn, Table AT 7, sy = 85 ksi
N = 420 rpm
L = 3 in = 3.5 in
D = 2 in
Table AT 19, D = 2 in
b = 5/8 in, t = 7/16 in
Square Key, b = t = 5/8 in
N = 1.5 for steady loading (smooth)
For shaft:
Key:
By shear:
s LbD
T= s
2
sys 0.6 sy 0.6(63)
ss =
=
=
= 25.2 ksi
N
N
1. 5
(25.2 )(3.5)(5 8)(2.5)
T=
= 68.9 in kips < 104.31 inkips
2
By compression:
s LtD
T= c
4
sy (pulley ) 40
sc =
=
= 26.67 ksi
N
1.5
(26.67 )(3.5)(5 8)(2.5)
T=
= 36.46 in kips < 104.31 inkips
4
Use T = 36.46 in kips = 36,460 in kips
Tn
36,460(420)
hp =
=
= 243 hp
63,000
63,000
528.
The same as 527, except that the diameter is 3 in. and the length of the key is 5 in.
Solution:
Pulley, Cast steel, SAE 080, N & T, Table AT 6, sy = 40 ksi
Key, SAE 1015, cold drawn, Table AT 7, sy = 63 ksi
Shaft, AISI 1045, cold drawn, Table AT 7, sy = 85 ksi
N = 420 rpm
L = 5 in
D = 3 in
Table AT 19, D = 3 in
b = 3/4 in, t = 1/2 in
Square Key, b = t = 3/4 in
N = 1.5 for steady loading (smooth)
For shaft:
3
s D 3 0.6 sy D
0.6(85)( )(3)3
T= s
=
=
= 180.25 in kips
16
N(16 )
1.5(16 )
Key:
By shear:
s LbD
T= s
2
sys
0.6 sy
Solution:
ND
2
2T
N=
D
a) T =
Axial force = F = fN =
2 fT
D
2ND
= ND
2
T
N=
D
b) T =
fT
D
Assembly (b) is stronger than assembly (a) which has an axial force half that of assembly (b).
Axial force = F = fN =
530.
A 1 11/16in. shaft rotating at 200 rpm, carries a castiron gear keyed to it by a x 1 in.
Woodruff key; shaft material is coldfinished SAE 1045. The power is transmitted with mild
shock. What horsepower may be safely transmitted by the key, (a) if it is made of colddrawn
SAE 1118? (b) if it is made of SAE 2317, OQT 1000 F? (c) How many keys of each material are
needed to give a capacity of 25 hp? Specify a choice.
Solution:
Only shear is used.
D = 1 11/16 in
n = 200 rpm
Woodruff key = x 1 in
N = 2 for mild shock
Shear force for key
2T
F=
= ss As
D
s AD
T= s s
2
Table 10.1, x 1 in Woodruff Key is Key No. 810
Shear area, As = 0.296 sq. in.
(a) Key, colddrawn 1118, Table AT 7, sy = 75 ksi
sys 0.6 sy 0.6(75)
=
=
= 22.5 ksi < 24.06 ksi
ss =
N
N
2
(22.5)(0.296)1 11
16 = 5.62 in kips = 5620 in lb
T=
2
(5620)(200)
Tn
hp =
=
= 17.84 hp
63,000
63,000
(b) Key, SAE 2317, OQT 1000F, Table AT 7, sy = 79 ksi
sys 0.6 sy 0.6(79)
ss =
=
=
= 23.7 ksi < 24.06 ksi
N
N
2
(23.7 )(0.296 )1 11
16 = 5.92 in kips = 5920 in lb
T=
2
(5920)(200)
Tn
hp =
=
= 18.79 hp
63,000
63,000
(c) Number of keys for (a) = 25 / 17.84 = 1.4 or 2 keys
Number of keys for (b) = 25 / 18.79 = 1.33 or 2 keys
Select (b) which is stronger.
531.
A 3/16 x 1in. Woodruff key is used in a 1 3/16in. shaft (colddrawn SAE 1045). (a) If the key is
made of the same material, will it be weaker or stronger than the shaft in pure torsion? (b) If the
key is made of SAE 4130, WQT 1100 F, will it be weaker or stronger? For the purposes here, the
weakening of the shaft by the keyway is ignored.
10
3
0.6(85)( )1
3
ssD 3 0.6 syD
16 = 16.77 in kips
T=
=
=
16
16
16
Therefore the key is weaker.
(b) Key material = SAE 4130, WQT 1100, Table AT 7, sy = 114 ksi
In yield: For key
3
0.6(114)(0.178)1
ss As D 0.6 sy As D
16 = 7.23 in kips
T=
=
=
2
2
2
For shaft:
3
3
0.6(85)( )1
3
ssD 3 0.6 syD
16 = 16.77 in kips
T=
=
=
16
16
16
Therefore the key is weaker.
532.
A 2in. shaft (coldfinished SAE 1137) is connected to a hub by a 3/8in. radial taper pin made of
4150, OQT 1000 F. (a) What horsepower at 1800 rpm would be transmitted when the pin is
about to be sheared off? (b) For this horsepower, what peak torsional stress may be repeated in
the shaft? Is the shaft safe from fatigue at this stress?
Solution:
D = 2 in
d = 3/8 in
n = 1800 rpm
(a) For pin material , 4150, OQT 1000 F, Table AT9, su = 193.5 ksi
d 2
d 2
= ss
F = ss (2 As ) = ss (2)
4
2
d 2 D 1
FD
= ssd 2D
T=
= ss
2
2 2 4
s s = sus = 0.75 su = 0.75(193.5 ) = 145.1 ksi
11
1
3
T = (145.1)( ) (2 ) = 32.05 in kips = 32,050 in lb
4
8
(32,050 )(1800)
Tn
hp =
=
= 915.7 hp
63,000
63,000
(b) For shaft, coldfinished, SAE 1137, Table AT 8, su = 103 ksi
s
103
sns = 0.6 sn = 0.6 u = 0.6
= 30.96 ksi
2
2
But,
16T 16(32,050)
ss = 3 =
= 20,404 psi = 20.4 ksi < 30.96 ksi
D
(2)3
s
30.96
N = ns =
= 1.52 > 1.5, therefore safe from fatigue at this stress.
ss
20.4
533.
A 20in. lever is keyed to a 1 7/8in. shaft (coldfinished SAE 1141) by a radial taper pin whose
mean diameter is 0.5 in.; pin material, C1095, OQT 800 F. The load on the lever is repeatedly
reversed; N = 2 on endurance strength. What is the safe lever load (a) for the shaft, (b) for the
pin key (shear only), (c) for the combination?
Solution:
T = FL where F = safe lever load.
L = 20 in
D = 1 7/8 in = 1.875 in
Shaft Material, cold finished, SAE 1141, Table AT 10.
sy = 90 ksi
sy
sn
= 1.8
90
= 50 ksi
1.8
Pin Material, C1095, OQT 800 F, Table AT 9.
su = 176 ksi
sn = 0.5su = 0.5(176 ) = 88 ksi
(a) For the shaft.
0.6sy 0.6(50)
ss =
=
= 15 ksi
N
2
s D 3 15( )(1.875)3
T= s
=
= 19.414 in kips = 19,414 in lbs
16
16
T = FL
19,414 = F (20 )
F = 970.7 lb
(b) For the pin.
0.6 sy 0.6(88)
ss =
=
= 26.4 ksi
N
2
sn =
12
534.
A lever is keyed to a 2 in. shaft made of SAE 1035, as rolled, by a radial taper pin, made of SAE
1020, as rolled. A load of 200 lb. is applied to the lever 22 in. from the center of the shaft. (a)
What size pin should be used for N = 3 based on the yield strength in shear? (b) Let the hub
diameter be 5 in. and assume that the part of the pin in the hub is uniformly loaded cantilever
beam. Compute the bending stress and comment on the bending strength (especially if the
loading varies).
Solution:
Shaft material, SAE 1035, as rolled, Table AT 7, sy = 55 ksi
Pin material, SAE 1020, as rolled, Table AT 7, sy = 48 ksi
F = 200 lb, L = 22 in, N = 3
D = 2 in, Dh = 5 in
T = FL = (200)(22) = 4400 inlb = 4.4 inkips
(a) For the pin:
0.6 sy 0.6(48)
ss =
=
= 9.6 ksi
N
3
2T d
T
4T
ss =
=
= 3
2
2 As
d (d ) d
4
4(4.4)
9.6 =
d 3
d = 0.836 in
7
Use d = in = 0.875 in
8
(b) For the bending stress.
As cantilever beam let
1
L = (Dh D )
2
1
L = (5 2.5) = 1.25 in
2
From Table AT 2.
wL2 FL
M=
=
2
2
Where F is the uniform load.
13
2T
4T
4(4400)
=
=
= 2347 lb
Dm Dh + D 5 + 2.5
F = 1174 lb
FL (1174)(1.25)
M= =
= 734 lb
2
2
Bending stress
32M 32(734)
sb = 3 =
= 11,160 psi = 11.16 ksi
d
(0.875)3
If the loading varies and factor of safety of 3.
sn = Nsb = 3(11.16 ) = 33.48 ksi
Pin material, SAE 1020, as rolled, Table AT 7, sy = 48 ksi, su = 65 ksu.
sn = 0.5 su = 0.5(65 ) = 32.5 ksi
The bending stress is nearly safe as the load varies.
2F =
535.
A sprocket, transmitting 10 hp at 100 rpm, is attached to a 1 7/16 in. shaft as shown in Fig.
10.15, p. 290., Text; E = 31/2 in. What should be the minimum shear pin diameter if the
computed stress is 85% of the breaking stress mentioned in the Text?
Solution:
hp = 10 hp, n = 100 rpm, D = 1 7/16 in = 1.4375 in, E = 3 in = 3.5 in
63,000hp 63,000(10)
T=
=
= 6300 in lb
n
100
T 6300
F= =
= 1800 lb
E
3.5
From text, Page 290. Breaking stress = 50,000 psi
s s = 0.85(50 ,000 ) = 42 ,500 psi
4F
ss = 2
d
4(1800 )
42,500 =
d 2
d = 0.2322 in use in.
536.
A gear is attached to a 2in. shaft somewhat as shown in Fig. 1015, p. 290, Text; E = 3 5/16 in.;
minimum shearpin diameter = 3/8 in. with a rated torque of 22 inkips. (a) For this torque,
compute the stress in the shear pin. (b) From the ferrous metals given in the Appendix, select
those that would give a resisting torque of about 110% of the rated value. Choose one,
specifying its heat treatments or other conditions.
Solution:
D = 2 in
E = 3 5/16 in = 3.3125 in
d = 3/8 in
T = 22 inkips
(a) Stress in shearpin
T
22
F= =
= 6.64 lb
E 3.3125
14
4(6.64)
= 60.12 ksi
(3 8)2
(b) Select material. sus = 1.1(60.12 ) = 66.13 ksi
From appendix, Table AT 7, select Cold drawn, C1020 with sus = 66 ksi
ss =
SPLINES
537.
A shaft for an automobile transmission has 10 splines with the following dimensions: D = 1.25
in., d = 1.087 in., and L = 1.000 in. (see Table 10.2, p. 287, Text). Determine the safe torque
capacity and horsepower at 3600 rpm of this sliding connection.
Solution:
D = 1.25 in, d = 1.087 in, L = 1.000 in, Nt = 10, n = 3600 rpm
T = (1000 )(hL )(rm )(Nt ) in lb
D +d
rm =
4
Table 10.2 for 10 splines, sliding connection
h = 0.095D
Then
h = 0.095(1.25 ) = 0.11875 in
But
D d 1.25 1.087
h=
=
= 0.0815 in actual
2
2
1.25 + 1.087
rm =
= 0.58425 in
4
T = (1000 )(0.0815)(1.000 )(0.58425 )(10 ) = 476.2 in lb  ans
Tn
(476.2 )(3600)
hp =
=
= 27.2 hp  ans
63000
63000
538.
The rear axle of an automobile has one end splined. For this fitting there are ten splines, and D =
1.31 in., d = 1.122 in., and L = 1 15/16 in. The minimum shaft diameter is 1 3/16 in. (a)
Determine the safe torque capacity of the splined connection, sliding under load. (b) Determine
the torque that would have the splines on the point of yielding if the shaft is AISI 8640, OQT
1000 F, if one fourth of the splines are in contact. (c) Determine the torsional stress in the shaft
corresponding to each of these torques.
Solution:
D = 1.31 in, d = 1.122 in, L = 1 15/16 = 1.9375 in, Nt = 10
Dr = 1 3/16 in = 1.1875 in
T = (1000 )(hL )(rm )(Nt ) in lb
D +d
rm =
4
Table 10.2 for 10 splines, sliding connection
h = 0.095D
Then
h = 0.095(1.31) = 0.12445 in
15
D d 1.31 1.122
=
= 0.094 in (actual)
2
2
1.31 + 1.122
rm =
= 0.608 in
4
(a) Safe Torque
T = (1000 )(0.094 )(1.9375)(0.608 )(10 ) = 1107.32 in lb  ans
(b) Torque by splines required on the point of yielding with one fourth of splines in contact (Page
288).
From Table AT7, AISI 8640, OQT 1000 F. sy = 150 ksi, ss = sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(150) = 90 ksi
s DL D (90)( )(1.31)(1.9375) 1.31
T = s
=
2 = 58.76 in kips
8
8 2
T = 58,760 in lbs
(c) Torsional stress in the shaft
From safe torque of 1107.32 inlb
16T 16(1107.32 )
ss = 3 =
= 3368 psi  ans
Dr (1.1875)3
From torque at the point of yield
16T 16(58,760)
ss = 3 =
= 178,711 psi  ans (too high)
Dr (1.1875)3
h=
539.
An involute splined connection has 10 splines with a pitch Pd of 12/24 (a) Determine the
dimension of this connection. (b) Compute the length of spline to have the same torsional
strength as the shaft when one fourth the splines carry the load; minimum shaft diameter is
9/16 in. (no sliding). Check for compression.
Solution:
Nt = 10, Pd = 12, Dr = 9/16 in = 0.5625 in
(a) Dimension D
N 10
D = t = = 0.8333 in
Pd 12
(b) Length of spline (same torsional strength as the shaft when one fourth the splines carry the load
(Page 288).
D 3 (0.5625)3
L= r =
= 0.2136 in
D
0.8333
Check for compression.
Failure in compression is not likely (Page 289) and can be checked by using the projected
contact area.
Projected contact area:
Ac = 0.2LD = 0.2(0.2136 )(0.8333) = 0.0356 in 2 based on onefourth of the teeth being under load.
COUPLINGS
540.
A flange coupling has the following dimensions (Fig. 10.19, p. 291, Text): d = 5, D = 8 5/8, H = 12
, g = 1 , h = 1, L = 7 in.; number of bolts = 6; 1 x 1 in. square key. Materials: key, colddrawn AISI 1113; shaft, coldrolled, AISI 1045; bolts, SAE grade 5 (5.8). Using the static
16
d = 5 in
D = 8 5/8 in = 8.625 in
H = 12 in = 12.25 in
g = 1 in = 1.5 in
h = 1 in
L = 7 in = 7.25 in
N = 3.3
nb = 630 rpm
Square key = 1 in x 1 in
Materials:
Key: colddrawn AISI 1113, Table AT 7, sy = 72 ksi, sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(72) = 43.2 ksi
Shaft: coldrolled, AISI 1045, Table AT 8, sy = 85 ksi, sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(85) = 51 ksi
Bolt: SAE Grade 5, h = 1 in. sy = 81 ksi, sys = 0.6sy = 0.6(81) = 48.6 ksi
No given material for the flange.
Bolts in shear:
sys 48.6
ss =
=
= 14.73 ksi
N
3. 3
h 2
F=
N b ss
4
FH h 2 Nb ss H
T=
=
2
8
2
(1) (6 )(14.73)(12.25)
T=
= 425.158 in kips
8
T = 425,158 in lbs
(425,158)(630)
Tn
hp =
=
= 4252 hp
63,000
63,000
Bolts in compression:
sy 81
sc = =
= 24.55 ksi
N 3.3
F = Nb hgs c
17
FH Nb hgsc H
=
2
2
(6)(1)(1.5)(24.55)(12.25)
T=
= 1353.319 in kips
2
T = 1,353,319 in lbs
(1,353,319)(630)
Tn
hp =
=
= 13,533 hp
63,000
63,000
T=
Key in shear:
sys 43.2
ss =
=
= 13.09 ksi
N
3. 3
s bdL (13.09 )(1.25)(5)(7.25)
T= s
=
= 296.570 in kips
2
2
T = 296,570 in lbs
(296,570)(630)
Tn
hp =
=
= 2966 hp
63,000
63,000
Key in compression:
sy 72
sc = =
= 21.82 ksi
N 3.3
s tdL (21.82)(1.25)(5)(7.25)
T= c
=
= 247.180 in kips
4
4
T = 247 ,180 in lbs
(247,180 )(630)
Tn
hp =
=
= 2472 hp
63,000
63,000
Shaft in shear:
sys 51
ss =
=
= 15.45 ksi
N 3.3
d 3 ss (5)3 (15.45)
T=
=
= 379.200 in kips
16
16
T = 379,200 in lbs
(379,200)(630)
Tn
hp =
=
= 3792 hp
63,000
63,000
The safest horsepower is the lowest which is 2472 hp.
541.
A castiron (ASTM 25) jaw clutch with 4 jaws transmits 50 hp at 60 rpm. The inside diameter of
the jaws is 3 in. Considering rough handling, choose N = 8 on ultimate strengths. Make
reasonable and conservative assumptions and compute (a) the outside diameter of the jaws, (b)
the length of jaws h.
18
Solution:
For ASTM 25, suc = 97 ksi, in shear sus = 35 ksi (Table AT 6)
63,000hp 63,000(50)
T=
=
= 52,500 in lbs
n
60
T = 52.5 in kips
(a) The outside diameter of the jaws
s
35
ss = us = = 4.375 ksi
N
8
Assume Dm as the average diameter, t = thickness = Do Di , Nj = number of jaws
Shear area,
1 D
1 D + Di Do Di
As = m (t ) = o
2 Nj
2 N j 2 2
1 D 2 Di2 2
=
As = o
Do Di2
2 4 4 32
2T
4T
F=
=
Dm Do + Di
F
4T
32
128T
ss = =
=
2
2
(Do + Di ) Do2 Di2
As Do + Di Do Di
128(52.5)
4.375 =
(Do + 3) Do2 9
By trial and error.
Do = 7.466 in or D o = 7.5 in
(b) The length of jaws h.
s
97
sc = uc =
= 12.125 ksi
N
8
N j h(Do Di )
Ac =
2
F
2F
2F
F
sc =
=
=
=
Ac N j h(Do Di ) 4h(Do Di ) 2h(Do Di )
sc =
4T (Do + Di )
2T
=
2
2h(Do Di ) h Do Di2
)
19
2(52.5)
h (7.5)2 (3)2
3
h = 0.1833 in or h = in
16
12.125 =
542.
The universal joint shown is made of AISI 3150, OQT 1000 F; a = 2 7/16 in., D = 9/16; n = 400
rpm. (a) What torque may be transmitted for shear of the pin (N = 5 on ultimate)? (b)
Considering the pin as a simply supported beam of length a with the load distributed from a
maximum at the outer (triangular), compute the safe transmitted torque (Same N). (c) In order
not to have excessive wear on the pin, the average bearing pressure should not excced 3 ksi.
Compute this transmitted torque. (d) What is the safe power?
Solution:
For AISI 3150, OQT 1000 F, Table AT 7, su = 151 ksi, sus = 113 ksi
N=5
pb = 3 ksi
a = 2 7/16 in = 2.4375 in
D = 9/16 in = 0.5625 in
n = 400 rpm
(a) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin.
s
113
ss = us =
= 22.6 ksi
N
5
Each shear area
D 2 (22.6)( )(0.5625)2
=
F = ss
= 5.616 kips
4
4
Fa
T = 2 = Fa = (5.616)(2.4375) = 13.687 in kips
2
T = 13,687 in lbs
(b) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin (simply supported beam)
Fa
T =M=
3
(5.616)(2.4375)
T=
= 4.563 in kips
3
T = 4,563 in lbs
20
A diagrammatic representation of a universal joint is shown, two yoke parts, the type being
similar to Figs. 10.28 and 12.10, Text. The pin extensions have a diameter D = in.; a = 11/16 in.,
material of all parts is 4340, OQT 800. Let N = 4 on ultimate stresses; n = 2400 rpm. Compute the
safe torque for (a) shear of pins, (b) the pin extensions in bending, assuming that the load
distribution is from zero at the outside pin ends to a maximum at the inside yoke surfaces, (c) an
average bearing pressure on pins of 4 ksi. (d) What is the corresponding horsepower capacity?
Solution:
For AISI 4340, OQT 800 F, Table AT 7, su = 221 ksi, sus = 0.75su = 0.75(221) = 166 ksi
N=4
pb = 4 ksi
a = 11/16 in = 0.6875 in
D = 3/4 in = 0.75 in
n = 2400 rpm
(a) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin.
s
166
ss = us =
= 41.5 ksi
N
4
Each shear area
D 2 (41.5)( )(0.75)2
=
F = ss
= 18.33 kips
4
4
T = M = Fa = (18.33)(0.6875) = 12.602 in kips
T = 12,602 in lbs
21
(b) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin (simply supported beam)
2Fa
T =M=
3
2(18.33)(0.6875)
T=
= 8.401 in kips
3
T = 8,401 in lbs
(c) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin (pb = 4 ksi)
F
F
pb =
=
Ab Da
F
4=
(0.75)(0.6875)
F = 2.063 ksi
2Fa
T =M=
3
2(2.063)(0.6875)
T=
= 0.9455 in kips
3
T = 945.5 in lbs
(d) Safe power
(945.5)(2400)
Tn
hp =
=
= 36.02 hp
63,000
63,000

End 
22
Solution.
(a) T f =
DLvips D
2
(cd 2)
L = 3 in
D = 3 in
Dn (3)(400)
vips =
=
= 20 ips
60
60
c d D = 0.0015
SAE 40 oil, 140 oF, Figure A16.
= 7.25 reyns
DLvips 7.25 10 6 ( )(3)(3)(20 )
F=
=
= 17.173 lb
(cd 2)
(0.0015 2)
D
3
T f = F = (17.173) = 25.76 in lb
2
2
Fvm
fhp =
33,000
Dn (3)(400 )
vm =
=
= 314.16 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(17.173)(314.16) = 0.1635 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
F 17.173
f =
=
= 0.0191
W
900
D
3
T f = F = (5.211) = 7.817 in lb
2
2
Fvm
fhp =
33,000
Page 1 of 63
vm =
Dn
(3)(400 )
= 314.16 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(5.211)(314.16) = 0.0496 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
F 5.211
f =
=
= 0.00579
W
900
553.
Solution:
W
p=
LD
D = 6 in.
L D =1
L = 6 in.
W = pLD = (50)(6)(6 ) = 1800 lb
F = 13 lb
Coefficient of Friction
F
13
f =
=
= 0.0072
W 1800
DLvips
F=
(cd 2)
Dn (6)(300)
vips =
=
= 30 ips
60
60
DLvips ( )(6)(6)(30 )
F=
=
= 13 lb
(cd 2)
(0.003 2)
The
load
on
a
4in.
full
bearing
is
2000
lb.,
n = 320 rpm ; L D = 1 ; cd D = 0.0011 ; operating temperature = 150 oF;
ho = 0.00088 in . (a) Select an oil that will closely accord with the started
conditions. For the selected oil determine (b) the frictional loss (ftlb/min), (c)
the hydrodynamic oil flow through the bearing, (d) the amount of end leakage,
Page 2 of 63
ns D
p cd
320
ns =
= 5.333 rps
60
W
2000
p=
=
= 125 psi
LD (4)(4)
cd D = 0.0011
S=
(5.333)
1
0.121 =
125 0.0011
= 3.4 10 6 reyn = 3.4 reyns
Figure AF16, 150 oF, use SAE 30 or SAE 20 W
Select SAE 30, the nearest
= 3.9 106 reyn
f = 3.22
0.0011
f = 0.003542
F = f W = (0.003542)(2000 ) = 7.084 lb
Page 3 of 63
vm =
Dn
(4)(320)
= 335.1 fpm
12
12
Frictional loss = Fvm = (7.084 )(335.1)2374 ft lb min
A 4in., 360o bearing, with L D = 1.1 (use table and chart values for 1), is to
support 5 kips with a minimum film thickness 0.0008 in.; cd = 0.004 in. ,
n = 600 rpm . Determine (a) the needed absolute viscosity of the oil .(b)
Suitable oil if the average film temperature is 160 F, (c) the frictional loss in
hp. (d) Adjusting only ho to the optimum value for minimum friction,
determine the fhp and compare. (e) This load varies. What could be the
magnitude of the maximum impulsive load if the eccentricity ration
becomes 0.8? Ignore squeeze effect.
Page 4 of 63
Solution:
D = 4 in
L = 1.1D = 1.1(4) = 4.4 in
W
5000
p=
=
= 284 psi
LD (4.4)(4)
ho = 0.0008 in
cd = 0.004 in.
2h
2(0.0008)
= 1 o = 1
= 0 .6
cd
0.004
600
=
= 10 rps
60
(a)
S = 0.121
r
S =
cr
ns n s D
=
p cd
p
(10)
4
0.121 =
284 0.004
= 3.4 106 reyn
f = 3.22
0.004
f = 0.00322
F = f W = (0.00322)(5000 lb ) = 16.1 lb
Dn (4)(600)
vm =
=
= 628.3 fpm
12
12
Page 5 of 63
fhp =
(16.1)(628.3) = 0.3065 hp
Fvm
=
33,000
33,000
f = 2.46
0.004
f = 0.00246
F = f W = (0.00246)(5000 lb ) = 12.3 lb
Dn (4)(600)
vm =
=
= 628.3 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(12.3)(628.3) = 0.234 hp < fhp (c )
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
r
S =
cr
ns n s
=
p
p
D
cd
(3.2 10 )(10)
0.0446 =
6
0.004
p = 717.5 psi
W = pDL = (717.5)(4)(4.4) = 12,628 lb
556.
Page 6 of 63
r ns
S =
cr p
2700
ns =
= 45 rps
60
2
6
4 4 10 (45)
S = 0.172 =
p
0.0075
p = 298 psi
W = pDL = (298)(8)(4) = 9536 lb
ho
= 0.27
cr
= 38.5o
r
f = 4.954
cr
D
f = 4.954
cd
f = 4.954
0.004
f = 0.0093
F = f W = (0.0093)(9536 lb ) = 88.7 lb
Dn (8)(2700)
vm =
=
= 5655 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(88.7 )(5655) = 15.2 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
Page 7 of 63
ho
= 0.27
cr
= 38.5o
q
= 5.214
rcr ns L
q = 5.214rcr ns L = 5.214(4 )(0.0075)(45)(4 ) = 28.2 in 3 sec
qs
= 0.824
q
qs = 0.824(28.2 ) = 23.2 in 3 sec
ct
= 20.26
p
20.26(298)
t =
= 54 o F
112
p
= 0.3013
pmax
298
pmax =
= 989 psi
0.3013
h
To solve for maximum load, Table AT 20, L D = 1 2 , o = 0.43
cr
r
S =
cr
ns
= 0.388
p
(d) cr = 0.0075 in
2
6
4 4 10 (45)
S = 0.388 =
p
0.0075
p = 132 psi
W = pDL = (132)(8)(4) = 4224 lb
(e) ho = 0.002 in
ho
= 0.43
cr
0.002
cr =
= 0.00465 in
0.43
2
6
4
4 10 (45)
S = 0.388 =
p
0.00465
p = 343.3 psi
W = pDL = (343.3)(8)(4) = 10,986 lb
Page 8 of 63
Solution:
L = 6 in
D = 6 in
L D =1
r = D 2 = 3 in
cr r = 0.001
n = 1600 rpm
Dn (3)(1600)
vm =
=
= 2513 fpm
12
12
Fvm
fhp =
33,000
33,000(11)
F=
= 144.45 lb
2513
F 144.45
f =
=
= 0.00211
W 68,500
r
1
(a)
f =
(0.00211) = 2.11
cr
0.001
r
Table AT 20, L D = 1 ,
f = 2.11
cr
Near the vicinity of optimum bearing
cr = 0.001r = 0.001(3) = 0.003 in
ho = 0.254cr = 0.254(0.003) = 0.0008 in
(b) Table AT 20, L D = 1 ,
r
f = 2.11
cr
S = 0.0652
2
r ns
S =
= 0.388
cr p
1600
ns =
= 26.67 rps
60
W
68,500
p=
=
= 1902.8 psi
LD (6)(6)
Page 9 of 63
1 ( )(26.67 )
S = 0.0652 =
0.001 1902.8
= 4.7 10 6 reyn
Figure AF 16, 160 F, use SAE 40.
ho
= 0.53
cr
ho
0.0008
=
= 0.0015 in
0.53
0.53
ho
r
= 0.53 , S = 0.214 , f = 4.89
cr
cr
ho the same, cr =
r
S =
cr
ns
p
2
6
3 4.7 10 (26.67 )
S = 0.214 =
p
0.0015
p = 2343 psi
W = pDL = (2343)(6)(6) = 84,348 lb
r
f = 4.89
cr
f = 4.89
0.0015
f = 0.00245
F = f W = 0.00245(84,348) = 206.65 lb
vm = 2513 fpm
(206.65)(2513) = 15.74 hp
Fvm
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
558.
Solution:
D L = 2.25 1.6875 in
L 1.6875
=
= 0.75
D
2.25
Page 10 of 63
ns r
p cr
(a) cr = 0.0008 in
S=
= 0.038
827
0.0008
Table AT 20, L D = 3 4 , S = 0.038
L D
1
ho cr
0.2
0.2
S
0.0446
0.0923
0.2
0.0685
L D
1
ho cr
0.1
0.1
S
0.0188
0.0313
0.1
0.0251
At L D = 3 4
ho 0.038 0.0251
=
(0.2 0.1) + 0.1 = 0.13
cr 0.0685 0.0251
ho = 0.13cr = 0.13(0.0008) = 0.0001 in
(b) cr = 0.0005 in
827
0.0005
= 0.098
Page 11 of 63
L D
1
ho cr
0.2
0.2
S
0.0446
0.0923
0.2
0.0685
L D
1
ho cr
0.4
0.4
S
0.121
0.319
0.4
0.220
At L D = 3 4
ho 0.098 0.0685
=
(0.4 0.2) + 0.2 = 0.239
cr 0.220 0.0685
ho = 0.239cr = 0.239(0.0005) = 0.00012 in
use cr = 0.0005 in , ho = 0.00012 in
A 360o bearing supports a load of 2500 lb.; D = 5 in. , L = 2.5 in. ,
cr = 0.003 in. , n = 1800 rpm ; SAE 20 W oil entering at 100 F. (a) Compute
the average temperature t av of the oil through the bearing. (An iteration
procedure. Assume ; compute S and the corresponding to ; then the
average oil temperature t av = ti + to 2 . If this t av and the assumed do not
locate a point in Fig. AF 16 on the line for SAE 20 W oil, try again.) Calculate
(b) the minimum film thickness, (c) the fhp, (d) the amount of oil to be
supplied and the end leakage.
561.
Solution:
D = 5 in
L = 2.5 in
L 2 .5
=
= 0 .5
D
5
cr = 0.003 in
(a) Table AT 20
cto
Parameter,
, c = 112
p
r
S =
cr
ns
Page 12 of 63
f = 8.777
0.003
f = 0.0105
F = f W = 0.0105(2500 ) = 26.25 lb
Dn (5)(1800)
vm =
=
= 2356 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(26.25)(2356) = 1.874 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
Page 13 of 63
t av = ti + to 2 o F
132.5
130.5
132.0
PARTIAL BEARINGS
562.
Solution:
D = L = 2 in
L D =1
cr = 0.001 in
r = D 2 = 1 in
n = 2400 rpm
ns = 40 rps
= 3 106 reyn
ho = 0.004 in.
ho 0.0004
=
= 0. 4
0.001
cr
Dn (2)(2400)
vm =
=
= 1257 fpm
12
12
(a) Full bearing
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4
S = 0.121
rf
= 3.22
cr
q
= 4.33
rcr ns L
qs
= 0.680
q
cto
= 14.2
p
p
= 0.415
pmax
Load W
Page 14 of 63
ns
p
2
6
1 3 10 (40 )
0.121 =
p
0.001
p = 992 psi
W = pDL = (992)(2)(2) = 3968 lb
fhp:
F = fW
rf
= 3.22
cr
f = 3.22
0.001
f = 0.00322
F = f W = (0.00322)(3968) = 12.78 lb
(12.78)(1257 ) = 0.4868 hp
Fvm
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
Oil flow, q
q
= 4.33
rcr ns L
q
= 4.33
(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)
q = 0.3464 in3 sec
End leakage
qs
= 0.680
q
qs = 0.68(0.3464 ) = 0.2356 in3 sec
Temperature rise, to
cto
= 14.2
p
(112)to = 14.2
992
to = 126 o F
(b) 180o Bearing
Table AT 21, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4
S = 0.128
Page 15 of 63
Load W
r
S =
cr
ns
p
2
6
1 3 10 (40 )
0.128 =
p
0.001
p = 937.5 psi
W = pDL = (937.5)(2)(2) = 3750 lb
fhp:
F = fW
rf
= 2.28
cr
f = 2.28
0.001
f = 0.00228
F = f W = (0.00228)(3750) = 8.55 lb
(8.55)(1257) = 0.3257 hp
Fvm
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
Oil flow, q
q
= 3.25
rcr ns L
q
= 3.25
(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)
q = 0.26 in3 sec
End leakage
qs
= 0.572
q
qs = 0.572(0.26 ) = 0.1487 in3 sec
Temperature rise, to
Page 16 of 63
cto
= 12.4
p
(112)to = 12.4
937.5
to = 104 o F
(c) 12o Bearing
Table AT 22, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4
S = 0.162
rf
= 2.16
cr
q
= 2.24
rcr ns L
qs
= 0.384
q
cto
= 15
p
Load W
r
S =
cr
ns
p
2
6
1 3 10 (40 )
0.162 =
p
0.001
p = 741 psi
W = pDL = (741)(2 )(2) = 2964 lb
fhp:
F = fW
rf
= 2.16
cr
f = 2.16
0.001
f = 0.00216
F = f W = (0.00216)(2964) = 6.4 lb
Fvm
(6.4)(1257 ) = 0.2438 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
Oil flow, q
Page 17 of 63
Temperature rise, to
cto
= 15
p
(112)to = 15
741
to = 99 o F
(d) 60o Bearing
L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.4
S = 0.450
rf
= 3.29
cr
q
= 1.56
rcr ns L
qs
= 0.127
q
cto
= 28.2
p
Load W
r
S =
cr
ns
p
2
6
1 3 10 (40 )
0.450 =
p
0.001
p = 267 psi
W = pDL = (267 )(2)(2) = 1068 lb
fhp:
F = fW
Page 18 of 63
f = 3.29
0.001
f = 0.00329
F = f W = (0.00329)(1068) = 3.514 lb
Fvm
(3.514)(1257) = 0.1339 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
Oil flow, q
q
= 1.56
rcr ns L
q
= 1.56
(0.1)(0.001)(40)(2)
q = 0.1248 in3 sec
End leakage
qs
= 0.127
q
qs = 0.127(0.1248) = 0.0158 in3 sec
Temperature rise, to
cto
= 28.2
p
(112)to = 28.2
267
to = 67 o F
563.
Solution:
L = 2 in
D = 2 in
W = 5000 lb
cr = 0.001 in.
n = 2400 rpm
ns = 40 rps
= 3 106 reyn
r = D 2 = 1 in
Page 19 of 63
p=
W
5000
=
= 1250 psi
LD (2)(2)
2
r ns 1 3 10 6 (40 )
S =
=
= 0.10
1250
cr p 0.001
Dn (2)(2400)
vm =
=
= 1257 fpm
12
12
Using Fig. AF 17 and AF 18
f = 2 .8
0.001
f = 0.0028
F = f W = (0.0028)(5000) = 14 lb
Fvm = (14)(1257 ) = 17,600 ft lb min
f = 2 .0
0.001
f = 0.0020
F = f W = (0.0020)(5000) = 10 lb
Fvm = (10)(1257 ) = 12,570 ft lb min
Page 20 of 63
f = 1 .7
0.001
f = 0.0017
F = f W = (0.0017 )(5000) = 8.5 lb
Fvm = (8.5)(1257 ) = 10,685 ft lb min
f = 1 .4
0.001
f = 0.0014
F = f W = (0.0014)(5000) = 7 lb
Fvm = (7 )(1257 ) = 8,800 ft lb min
564.
Solution:
W = 4500 lb
ho = 0.002 in
L D =1
D = 4 in
L = 4 in
r = D 2 = 2 in
cd = 0.010 in.
n = 3600 rpm
Page 21 of 63
r
(a) S =
cr
ns
D ns
S =
cd p
2
4 (60 )
0.162 =
0.010 281.25
= 4.75 106 reyn
(b)
r
f = 2.16
cr
D
f = 2.16
cd
f = 2.16
0.010
f = 0.0054
F = f W = 0.0054(4500) = 24.30 lb
Page 22 of 63
(d)
qs
= 0.384
q
qs = 0.384(5.4 ) = 2.07 in3 sec
(e)
(f)
cto
= 15.0
p
(112)to = 15.0
281.25
to = 38 o F
(g)
= 0.356
pmax
281.25
pmax =
= 790 psi
0.356
(h) cd = 0.010 in , D = 4 in
Table 3.1
RC 8, Hole, average = + 0.0025
Shaft, average =  0.00875
cd = 0.0025 + 0.00875 = 0.01125 0.010 in
Class of fit = RC 9
(i) = 0.80
Table AT 22, , L D = 1
S = 0.162
2
D ns
S =
cd p
2
6
4 3 10 (60 )
0.0531 =
p
0.010
p = 542 psi
Page 23 of 63
Solution:
W = 4500 lb
D = 3 in
L = 3 in
L D =1
cd = 0.003 in.
2
D ns
S =
cd p
3600
ns =
= 60 rps
60
W
4500
p=
=
= 500 psi
DL (3)(3)
cto
, (SAE 20W)
p
t , oF
3.5 x 106
2.0 x 106
2.6 x 106
2.35 x 106
2.4 x 106
130
160
145
150
149
0.42
0.24
0.312
0.282
0.288
Page 24 of 63
cto
p
19.8
15.4
17.7
17.2
17.3
to
tav = ti + to 2
88
68
79
76
78
154
144
149.5
148
149
ho = 0.00077 in
(c) Table At 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.288
r
f = 2.974
cr
D
3
f =
f = 2.974
cr
0.003
f = 0.002974
F = f W = (0.002974)(4500) = 13.383 lb
Fvm
fhp =
33,000
Dn (3)(3600)
vm =
=
= 2827 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(13.383)(2827 ) = 1.15 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
566.
Solution:
W = 6000 lb
Page 25 of 63
r ns
S =
cr p
W
6000
p=
=
= 187.5 psi
DL (4)(8)
D
r = = 4 in
2
2
4 (16.67 )
S = 0.126 =
0.0087 187.5
= 6.70 106 reyn
f = 2.97
0.0087
f = 0.00646
F = f W = (0.00646 )(6000) = 38.76 lb
Dn (8)(1000)
vm =
=
= 2094 fpm
12
12
Page 26 of 63
fhp =
Fvm
(38.76)(2094) = 2.46 hp
=
33,000
33,000
For (a)
cd 2cr 2(0.0087 )
=
=
= 0.0022
D
D
8
cd
> 0.0022
D
cd
= 0.0030
D
cd = 0.0030(8) = 0.0240 in
cr = 0.0120 in
ho 0.002
=
= 0.1667
cr 0.012
Table AT 21, L D = 1 2
r
f = 1.67
cr
4
f = 1.67
0.0016
f = 0.00668
F = f W = (0.00668)(6000 ) = 40.08 lb
Dn (8)(1000)
vm =
=
= 2094 fpm
12
12
(40.08)(2094) = 2.54 hp > 2.46 hp
Fvm
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
cd
< 0.0022
D
cd
= 0.0020
D
cd = 0.0020(8) = 0.0160 in
cr = 0.0080 in
ho 0.002
=
= 0.25
cr 0.008
Table AT 21, L D = 1 2
r
f = 3.26
cr
4
f = 3.26
0.0016
f = 0.00652
Page 27 of 63
567.
Solution:
D = 5 in.
L = 5 in.
L
=1
D
n = 250 rpm
250
ns =
= 4.17 rps
60
= 3 106 reyn
W = 3500 lb
W
3500
p=
=
= 140 psi
DL (5)(5)
(a)
Table AT 22,
h
L
= 1 , max. load o = 0.46
D
cr
S = 0.229
2
r ns
S =
cr p
D
r = = 2.5 in
2
2
S = 0.229 =
140
cr
cr = 0.00156 in
ho = 0.46cr = 0.46(0.00156) = 0.00072 in
Page 28 of 63
(b)
Table AT 22,
L
h
= 1 , min. friction o = 0.40
D
cr
S = 0.162
2
r ns
S =
cr p
D
r = = 2.5 in
2
2
S = 0.162 =
140
cr
cr = 0.00186 in
ho = 0.46cr = 0.40(0.00186) = 0.00074 in
L
h
= 1 , max. load o = 0.46
D
cr
r
f = 2.592
cr
2 .5
f = 2.592
0.00156
f = 0.00162
F = f W = (0.00162 )(3500 ) = 5.67 lb
Dn (5)(250)
vm =
=
= 327.25 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(5.67)(327.25) = 0.0562 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
ho
= 0.40
cr
r
f = 2.16
cr
2 .5
f = 2.16
0.00186
f = 0.00161
F = f W = (0.00161)(3500) = 5.635 lb
Page 29 of 63
Dn
(5)(250)
= 327.25 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(5.635)(327.25) = 0.0559 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
vm =
570.
Solution:
W = 17,000 lb
p = 200 psi
n = 1500 rpm
1500
ns =
= 25 rps
60
L D =1
L=D
W
p=
DL
17,000
200 =
D2
D = L = 9.22 in
D 9.22
r= =
= 4.61 in
2
2
(a) For optimum bearing with minimum friction
ns
p
2
4.61 (25)
0.158 =
0.00682 200
= 2.8 106 reyn
Fig. AF 16, at 150 F
Use Either SAE 20W or SAE 30.
(d)
Table AT 21, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.44
r
f = 2.546
cr
4.61
f = 2.546
0.00682
f = 0.00377
Dn (9.22)(1500)
vm =
=
= 3621 fpm
12
12
F = f W = (0.00377 )(17,000) = 64.09 lb
Fvm
(64.09)(3621) = 7.0 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
571.
The reaction on a 120o partial bearing is 2000 lb. The 3in journal turns at
1140 rpm; cd = 0.003 in. ; the oil is SAE 20W at an average operating
temperature of 150 F. Plot curves for the minimum film thickness and the
frictional loss in the bearing against the ratio L D , using L D = 0.25, 0.5, 1,
and 2. (Note: This problem may be worked as a class problem with each
student being responsible for a particular L D ratio.)
Solution:
W = 2000 lb
D = 3 in.
n = 1140 rpm
1140
ns =
= 19 rps
60
cd = 0.003 in
cr = 0.0015 in
For SAE 20W, 150 F
= 2.75 106 reyn
(a)
L
= 0.25
D
Page 31 of 63
c
p
0
.
0015
889
r
ho
= 0.083
cr
ho = 0.083(0.0015) = 0.000125 in
r
f = 2.193
cr
1 .5
f = 2.193
0.0015
f = 0.002193
F = f W = (0.002193)(2000) = 4.386 lb
Dn (3)(1140)
vm =
=
= 895 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(4.386)(895) = 0.119 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
L
(b)
= 0 .5
D
L = 0.5 D = 0.5(3) = 1.5 in
W
2000
p=
=
= 444 psi
DL (3)(1.5)
L
Table AT 22,
= 0 .5
D
D
r = = 1.5 in
2
2
444
cr p 0.0015
ho
= 0.2159
cr
ho = 0.2159(0.0015) = 0.000324 in
r
f = 2.35
cr
Page 32 of 63
f = 2.35
0.0015
f = 0.00235
F = f W = (0.00235)(2000) = 4.7 lb
Dn (3)(1140)
vm =
=
= 895 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(4.7 )(895) = 0.1275 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
L
(c)
=1
D
L = D = 3 in
W
2000
p=
=
= 222 psi
DL (3)(3)
L
Table AT 22,
=1
D
D
r = = 1.5 in
2
2
222
cr p 0.0015
ho
= 0.4658
cr
ho = 0.4658(0.0015) = 0.000699 in
r
f = 2.634
cr
1 .5
f = 2.634
0.0015
f = 0.002634
F = f W = (0.002634)(2000 ) = 5.268 lb
Dn (3)(1140)
vm =
=
= 895 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(5.268)(895) = 0.1429 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
L
(d)
=2
D
L = 2 D = 2(3) = 6 in
W
2000
p=
=
= 111 psi
DL (3)(6)
L
Table AT 22,
=2
D
Page 33 of 63
r=
D
= 1.5 in
2
2
111
cr p 0.0015
ho
= 0.718
cr
ho = 0.718(0.0015) = 0.00108 in
r
f = 3.8118
cr
1 .5
f = 3.8118
0.0015
f = 0.003812
F = f W = (0.003812)(2000) = 7.624 lb
Dn (3)(1140)
vm =
=
= 895 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(7.624)(895) = 0.2068 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
L
D
0.25
0.5
1.0
2.0
Page 34 of 63
ho , in
fhp
0.000125
0.000324
0.000699
0.001080
0.119
0.128
0.143
0.207
572.
Solution:
D = 8 in.
L = 8 in.
L D =1
W = 12,000 lb
D
r = = 4 in
2
cr = 0.0015r = 0.0015(4) = 0.0060 in
ho 0.0024
=
= 0. 4
cr 0.0060
n = 500 rpm
500
ns =
= 8.33 rps
60
Table AT 21, ho cr = 0.4 , L D = 1
S = 0.128
r
f = 2.28
cr
cto
= 12.4
p
W 12,000
p=
=
= 187.5 psi
DL (8)(8)
(a) = 1
ho
= 1 0 .4 = 0 .6
cr
r
(b) S =
cr
ns
p
2
4 (8.33)
S = 0.128 =
0.0060 187.5
= 6.5 106 reyn
Page 35 of 63
(c)
r
f = 2.28
cr
f = 2.28
0.0060
f = 0.00342
F = f W = (0.00342 )(12,000) = 41.04 lb
Dn (8)(500)
vm =
=
= 1047 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(41.04)(1047) = 1.302 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
Frictional loss = 43,000 ftlb/min
(c)
cto
= 12.4
p
(112)to = 12.4
187.5
to = 20.8 F
Solve for to 2
Page 36 of 63
Solution:
L = 2 in.
D = 2 in.
cd D = 0.001
cd = (0.001)(2) = 0.0020 in
r ns
S =
cr p
D
r = = 1 in
2
500
ns =
= 8.33 rps
60
2
6
1 3.4 10 (8.330 )
S = 0.1925 =
p
0.0010
p = 147 psi
W = pDL = (147 )(2)(2) = 588 lb
(b)
r
f = 4.505
cr
f = 4.505
0.001
f = 0.004505
F = f W = (0.004505)(588) = 2.649 lb
Dn (2)(500)
vm =
=
= 261.8 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (2.649 )(261.8) = 693.5 ft lb min
(c) Q = hcr Ab tb
hcr = 2 Btu hr sq. ft. F = 0.18 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 25DL = 25(2)(2) = 100 sq.in.
Q =Uf
(0.18)(100)(tb ) = 693.5
tb = 38.53 F
toa = 2tb = 2(38.53) = 77 F
to = 77 + 100 = 177 F , near 160 F
satisfactory.
(d) to = 177 F , = 3.4 106 reyn
Figure AF 16
Use SAE 40 oil, = 3.3 106 reyn
r
S =
cr
ns
Page 38 of 63
6
1 3.3 10 (8.33)
S =
= 0.187
147
0.0010
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.187
ho cr = 0.4923
compatible.
q
= 4.16
rcr ns L
q
= 4.16
(1)(0.001)(8.33)(2)
q = 0.0693 in3 sec
(f)
574.
An 8 x 9in. full bearing (consider L D = 1 for table and chart use only)
supports 15 kips with n = 1200 rpm ; cr r = 0.0012 ; construction is medium
heavy with a radiatingandconvecting area of about 18 DL ; air flow about the
bearing of 80 fpm may be counted on (nearby) pulley; ambient temperature is
90 F. Decide upon a suitable minimum film thickness. (a) Compute the
frictional loss and the steady state temperature. Is additional cooling needed
for a reasonable temperature? Determine (b) the temperature rise of the oil as
it passes through the loadcarrying area and the grade of oil to be used if it
enters the bearing at 130 F, (c) the quantity of oil needed.
Solution:
D = 8 in.
L = 9 in.
W = 15,000 lb.
n = 1200 rpm.
1200
ns =
= 20 rps
60
cr r = 0.0012
Page 39 of 63
r
f = 3.22
cr
f = 3.22
0.0048
f = 0.003864
F = f W = (0.003864)(15,000) = 57.96 lb
Dn (8)(1200)
vm =
=
= 2513 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (57.96 )(2513) = 145,654 ft lb min
Q = hcr Ab tb
hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F
va0.6
ft lb min sq.in. F
D 0.4
(80)0.6 = 0.103 ft lb min sq.in. F
hc = 0.017
(8)0.4
hcr = hc + hr = 0.103 + 0.108 = 0.211 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 18DL = 18(8)(9 ) = 1296 sq.in.
Uf =Q
hc = 0.017
145,654 = (0.211)(1296)tb
tb = 533 F , very high, additional cooling is necessary.
(b)
cto
p
= 14.2
Page 40 of 63
r
S =
cr
ns
p
2
4 (20 )
S = 0.121 =
0.0048 208
= 1.8 106 reyn
Figure AF 16, = 1.8 reyns , 143 F
Use SAE 10W
q
= 4.33
rcr ns L
q
= 4.33
(4)(0.0048)(20)(9)
q = 14.96 in3 sec
(c)
575.
Solution:
D = 3.5 in.
L = 3.5 in.
cr r = 0.0012
r = D 2 = 1.75 in.
cr = (0.0012)(1.75) = 0.0021 in
ho 0.0007 in
Page 41 of 63
r ns
(a) S =
cr p
300
ns =
= 5 rps
60
= 2.8 106 reyn
2
6
1.75 2.8 10 (5)
S = 0.0954 =
p
0.0021
p = 102 psi
W = pDL = (102)(3.5)(3.5) = 1250 lb
r
f = 2.71
cr
1.75
f = 2.71
0.0021
f = 0.00325
F = f W = (0.00325)(1250) = 4.0625 lb
Dn (3.5)(300 )
vm =
=
= 275 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (4.0625)(275) = 1117 ft lb min
(b) Q = hcr Ab tb
hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F
va0.6
ft lb min sq.in. F
D 0.4
0.6
(
80 )
hc = 0.017
= 0.143 ft lb min sq.in. F
(3.5)0.4
hcr = hc + hr = 0.143 + 0.108 = 0.251 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 25DL = 25(3.5)(3.5) = 306.25 sq.in.
Uf =Q
hc = 0.017
1117 = (0.251)(306.25)tb
Page 42 of 63
cto
= 12.12
p
(112)to = 12.12
102
to = 11 F
to1 + to 2 = 2(129) = 258 F
to 2 to1 = 11 F
2to 2 = 269 F
to 2 = 135 F < 140 F
reasonable
A 10in. full journal for a steamturbine rotor that turns 3600 rpm supports a
20kip load with p = 200 psi ; cr r = 0.00133 . The oil is to have
= 2.06 106 reyn at an average oil temperature of 130 F. Compute (a) the
minimum film thickness (comment on its adequacy), (b) the fhp, (c) the
altitude angle, the maximum pressure, and the quantity of oil that passes
through the loadcarrying area (gpm).(d) At what temperature must the oil be
introduced in order to have 130 F average? (e) Estimate the amount of heat
lost by natural means from the bearing (considered oil bath) with air speed of
300 fpm. If the amount of oil flow computed above is cooled back to the
entering temperature, how much heat is removed? Is this total amount of heat
enough to care for frictional loss? If not, what can be done (i11.21)?
Page 43 of 63
ns
p
2
6
5
2.06 10 (60 )
S =
= 0.35
200
0.00665
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.35
ho cr = 0.647
= 65.66o
r
f = 7.433
cr
q
= 3.90
rcr ns L
p
= 0.495
pmax
cto
= 30.8
p
qs
= 0.446
q
Page 44 of 63
r
f = 7.433
cr
f = 7.433
0
.
00665
f = 0.0099
F = f W = (0.0099)(20,000) = 198 lb
Dn (10)(3600)
vm =
=
= 9425 fpm
12
12
Fvm
(198)(9425) = 56.55 hp
fhp =
=
33,000
33,000
(c) = 65.66o
p
200
pmax =
=
= 404 psi
0.495 0.495
q = 3.90rcr ns L
q = 3.90(5)(0.00665)(60)(10) = 77.805 in3 sec
q = (77.805 in3 sec )(1 gpm 231 in3 )(60 sec min ) = 0.21 gpm
(d)
cto
= 30.8
p
(112)to = 30.8
200
to = 55 F
t
tave = ti + o
2
55
130 = ti +
2
ti = 102.5 F
(e) Q = hcr Ab tb
hr = 0.108 ft lb min sq.in. F
va0.6
ft lb min sq.in. F
D 0.4
0.6
(
300 )
hc = 0.017
= 0.207 ft lb min sq.in. F
(3.5)0.4
hcr = hc + hr = 0.207 + 0.108 = 0.315 ft lb min sq.in. F
Assume
hc = 0.017
Page 45 of 63
Solution:
L D =1
D = 3.5 in
L = 3.5 in
W = 1500 lb
n = 300 rpm
300
ns =
= 5 rps
60
W
1500
p=
=
= 122.45 psi
DL (3.5)(3.5)
Table 3.1, medium running fit,
D = 3.5 in
RC 5 or RC 6
Use RC 6
Average cd = 0.0052 in
Page 46 of 63
1.75
f = 4.505
0.00275
f = 0.00708
F = f W = (0.00708)(1500) = 10.62 lb
Dn (3.5)(300 )
vm =
=
= 275 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (10.62 )(275) = 2921 ft lb min
Q = hcr Ab tb
Assume hcr = 0.516 ft lb min sq.in. F
Medium construction
Ab = 15.5DL = 15.5(3.5)(3.5) = 189.875 sq.in.
Oilring bearing
toa = 2tb
Q =Uf
(0.516)(189.875)(tb ) = 2921
Page 47 of 63
ns
p
2
1.75 (5)
S = 0.1925 =
0.00275 122.45
= 11.6 106 reyn
ns
p
2
6
1.75 11.6 10 (5)
S = 0.0446 =
p
0.00275
p = 527 psi
W = pDL = (527 )(3.5)(3.5) = 6456
580.
A 2500kva generator, driven by a water wheel, operates at 900 rpm. The weight
of the rotor and shaft is 15,100 lb. The lefthand, 5 in, full bearing supports the
larger load, R = 8920 lb . The bearing should be above mediumheavy
construction (for estimating Ab ). (a) Decide upon an average clearance
considering both Table 3.1 and 11.1, and upon a minimum film thickness
( ho cr 0.5 is on the safer side). (b) Investigate first the possibility of the
bearing being a selfcontained unit without need of special cooling. Not much air
movement about the bearing is expected. Then make final decisions concerning
oilclearance, and film thickness and compute all the parameters given in the text,
being sure that everything is reasonable.
Solution:
n = 900 rpm
900
ns =
= 15 rps
60
D = 5 in
W = R = 8920 lb
Page 48 of 63
ns
p
2
2.5 (15)
S = 0.1925 =
0.00255 356.8
= 4.8 106 reyn
r
f = 4.505
cr
2 .5
f = 4.505
0.00255
f = 0.00460
F = f W = (0.00460 )(8920) = 41.032 lb
Dn (5)(900)
vm =
=
= 1178 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (41.032 )(1178) = 48,336 ft lb min
Q = hcr Ab tb
MediumHeavy
Ab = 20.25DL = 20.25(5)(5) = 506.25 sq.in.
Assume hcr = 0.516 ft lb min sq.in. F
Q =Uf
Page 49 of 63
(0.516)(506.25)(tb ) = 48,336
tb = 185 F , very high
Therefore, special cooling is needed.
cto
= 19.25
p
(112)to = 19.25
356.8
to = 61 F
Assume ti = 100 F
61
tave = 100 + 130 F
2
Figure AF 16, = 4.8 reyns , 130 F
Select SAE 30 oil. = 6.0 reyns
r
S =
cr
ns
p
2
6
2.5 6.0 10 (15)
S =
= 0.242
356.8
0.00255
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , S = 0.242
SAE 30 oil at 130 F
ho
= 0.569
cr
= 61.17o
r
f = 5.395
cr
q
= 4.04
rcr ns L
cto
= 22.75
p
p
= 0.4734
pmax
Oil, SAE 30
cr = 0.00255 in
ho = 0.569(0.00255) = 0.00145 in
PRESSURE FEED
581.
An 8 x 8in. full bearing supports 5 kips at 600 rpm of the journal; cr = 0.006 in. ;
let the average = 2.5 106 reyn . (a) Compute the frictional loss U f . (b) The
Page 50 of 63
ns
p
2
6
4 2.5 10 (10 )
S =
= 0.1422
78.125
0.006
f = 3 .6
0.006
f = 0.0054
F = f W = (0.0054)(5000) = 27 lb
Dn (8)(600)
vm =
=
= 1257 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (27 )(1257 ) = 33,940 ft lb min
3
(
0.006) (40) 1 2 (4)
q = 2.5
tan
[1 + 1.5(0.57)2 ]in3
3(2.5 106 )
Page 51 of 63
sec
(33,940 ft lb
to = 11.2 F
583.
A 4in. 360o bearing, with L D = 1 , supports 2.5 kips with a minimum film of
ho = 0.0008 in. , cd = 0.01 in. , n = 600 rpm. The average temperature rise of the oil
is to be about 25 F. Compute the pressure at which oil should be pumped into the
bearing if (a) all bearing surfaces are smooth, (b) there is a longitudinal groove at
the oilhole inlet. (c) same as (a) except that there is a 360o circumferential
groove dividing the bearing into 2in. lengths.
Solution:
D = 4 in
L = 4 in
r = 2 in
W = 2500 lb
cd = 0.010 in
cr = 0.005 in
n = 600 rpm
600
ns =
= 10 rps
60
to = 25 F
W
2500
p=
=
= 156.25 psi
DL (4)(4)
ho = 0.00080 in
ho 0.0008
=
= 0.16
cr
0.005
Table AT 20, L D = 1 , ho cr = 0.16
r
f = 1.44 , = 0.84
cr
2
f = 1.44
0.005
f = 0.0036
F = f W = (0.0036)(2500) = 9 lb
Dn (4)(600)
vm =
=
= 628 fpm
12
12
U f = Fvm = (9 )(628) = 5652 ft lb min = 1130 in lb sec
S = 0.0343
Page 52 of 63
ns
p
2
2 (10 )
S = 0.0343 =
0.005 156.25
= 3.35 106 reyn
U f = cqto
cr3 pi 1 2 r
2
3
tan
1 + 1.5 in sec
3
L
0.404 =
3(3.35 106 )
pi = 12.5 psi
(b) Longitudinal groove
q=
sec
2.5cr3 pi 1 2 r
2
3
tan
1 + 1.5 in sec
3
L
2.5(0.005) ( pi ) 1 2 (2)
2
tan
1 + 1.5(0.84) in3 sec
6
3 3.35 10
4
pi = 5 psi
(c) Circumferential groove
0.404 =
2 rcr3 pi
q=
1 + 1.5 2 in3 sec
3L
2 (2)(0.005) ( pi )
2
0.404 =
1 + 1.5(0.84) in3 sec
6
3 3.35 10 (4 )
pi = 5 psi
) [
BEARING CAPS
584.
Solution:
Page 53 of 63
ho
hav = cr 1 + 0.741 in
cr
2
0.00106
hav = (0.00175)1 + 0.741
= 0.00195 in
0.00175
585.
A
partial
160o
bearing
has
a
160o
L = 2 in ., cd = 0.002 in ., ho = 0.0007 in ., n = 500 rpm , and
For the cap only, what is the frictional loss?
Solution:
c d = 0.002 in
c r = 0.001 in
ho = 0.0007 in
ho 0.0007
=
= 0 .7
cr
0.001
Page 54 of 63
cap;
D = 2 in .,
= 2.5 106 reyn .
= 1
ho
= 1 0 .7 = 0 .3
cr
Solution:
2
r ns
S =
cr p
400
ns =
= 6.67 rps
60
W 10,000
p=
=
= 156.25 psi
DL (8)(8)
2
6
1 3.4 10 (6.67 )
S =
= 0.145
156.25
0.001
(a) Table AT 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.145
r
f = 2.021
cr
= 0.6367
r
f = 2.021
cr
f = 2.021
0.001
f = 0.002021
Page 55 of 63
f = 3.65
0.001
f = 0.00365
F = f W = (0.00365)(10,000) = 36.5 lb
Dn (8)(400)
vm =
=
= 838 fpm
12
12
U f 1 = Fvm = (36.5)(838) = 30,587 ft lb min
CAP:
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )
Page 56 of 63
F=
Avips
hav
0.00495
U f 2 = Fvm = (9.645)(838) = 8083 ft lb min
Total Frictional Loss
= U f 1 + U f 2 = 30,587 + 8083 = 38,670 ft lb min
587.
Solution:
2
r ns
S =
cr p
1200
ns =
= 20 rps
60
W 10,000
p=
=
= 156.25 psi
DL (8)(8)
6
1 (2.5 10 )(20 )
S =
= 0.32
156.25
0.001
(a) Table AT 22, L D = 1 , S = 0.32
= 0.5417
ho
= 0.4583
cr
r
f = 3.18
cr
q
= 2.60
rcr ns L
Page 57 of 63
f = 3.18
0.001
f = 0.00318
F = f W = (0.00318)(10,000) = 31.8 lb
Dn (8)(1200)
vm =
=
= 2513 fpm
12
12
U f 1 = Fvm = (31.8)(2513) = 79,913 ft lb min , 2.42 hp
CAP:
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )
cr = 0.001r
D
r = = 4 in
2
cr = 0.001(4) = 0.004 in
12
vips = (2513) = 503 ips
60
1 160
1 160
A=
DL =
( )(8)(8) = 89.36 sq.in.
2 180
2 180
2.5 106 (89.36)(5036)
F=
= 23.1 lb
0.00487
U f 2 = Fvm = (23.1)(2513) = 58,050 ft lb min , 1.76 hp
Total Frictional Loss
= U f 1 + U f 2 = 79,913 + 58,050 = 137,963 ft lb min
Uf
137,963
= 4.18 hp
33,000 33,000
(b) Full Bearing, L D = 1 , S = 0.32
fhp =
Page 58 of 63
f = 6.86
0.001
f = 0.00686
F = f W = (0.00686)(10,000) = 68.6 lb
U f 1 = Fvm = (68.6 )(2513) = 172,392 ft lb min , 5.224 hp
CAP:
hav = cr (1 + 0.74 2 )
0.00440
U f 2 = Fvm = (25.54 )(2513) = 64,182 ft lb min , 1.946 hp
Total Frictional Loss
= U f 1 + U f 2 = 172,392 + 64,182 = 236,574 ft lb min
fhp =
Uf
33,000
236,574
= 7.17 hp
33,000
Page 59 of 63
(e) Equation(o)
U f 1 = cqto
12
U f 1 = 79,913 ft lb min = 79,913 in lb sec = 15,983 in lb sec
60
U f 1 = 15,983 = (112 )(6.656 )to
to = 21.4 F
Table 22.
cto
= 17.834
p
112to
= 17.834
156.25
to = 24.9 F
(f) Q = hcr Ab tb
assume hcr = 0.516 ft lb min sq.in. F
Ab = 25DL = 25(8)(8) = 1600 sq.in.
t
tb = oa
2
assume ambient = 100 F
180 100
tb =
= 40 F
2
Q = (0.516 )(1600 )(40 ) = 33,024 ft lb min < U f 1
Therefore not enough to cool the bearing.
(g) Qr + Q = U f 1 + U f 2
Qr + 33,024 = 137,963
Qr = 104,939 ft lb min
Qr = 20,988 in lb sec
Qr = cqto
20,988 = (112)q(12)
q = 15.62 in3 sec
(h) Fig. AF 16, 180 F, = 2.5 106 reyn
use SAE 30 oil
Page 60 of 63
A 0.5 x 0.75in. journal turns at 1140 rpm. What maximum load may be
supported and what is the frictional loss if the bearing is (a) SAE Type I, bronze
base, sintered bearing, (b) nylon (Zytel) water lubricated, (c) Teflon, with
intermittent use, (d) one with carbon graphite inserts.
Solution:
(a) f = 0.12
Dn (0.5)(1140)
vm =
=
= 149.23 fpm
12
12
pvm = 50,000
p(149.23) = 50,000
p = 335 psi
W = pDL = (335)(0.5)(0.75) = 126 lb
F = f W = (0.12)(126) = 15.12 lb
U f = Fvm = (15.12 )(149.23) = 2256 ft lb min
(b) f = 0.14 ~ 0.18 , use f = 0.16
pvm = 2500 , water
p(149.23) = 2500
p = 16.75 psi
W = pDL = (16.75)(0.5)(0.75) = 6.28 lb
F = f W = (0.16)(6.28) = 1.005 lb
U f = Fvm = (1.005)(149.23) = 150 ft lb min
(c) vm > 100 fpm
f = 0.25
pvm = 20,000 , intermittent
p(149.23) = 20,000
p = 134 psi
W = pDL = (134)(0.5)(0.75) = 50.25 lb
F = f W = (0.25)(50.25) = 12.5625 lb
U f = Fvm = (12.5625)(149.23) = 1875 ft lb min
(d) pvm = 15,000
p(149.23) = 15,000
p = 100.5 psi
W = pDL = (100.5)(0.5)(0.75) = 37.69 lb
assume f = 0.20
Page 61 of 63
A bearing to support a load of 150 lb at 800 rpm is needed; D = 1 in. ; semilubricated. Decide upon a material and length of bearing, considering sintered
metals, Zytel, Teflon, and graphite inserts.
Solution:
Dn (1)(800)
vm =
=
= 209.44 fpm
12
12
assume, L = D = 1 in
W
150
p=
=
= 150 psi
DL (1)(1)
pvm = (150)(209.44) = 31,416
Use sintered metal, limit pvm = 50,000
THRUST BEARINGS
592.
A 4in. shaft has on it an axial load of 8000 lb., taken by a collar thrust
bearing made up of five collars, each with an outside diameter of 6 in. The
shaft turns 150 rpm. Compute (a) the average bearing pressure, (b) the
approximate work of friction.
Solution:
(a) p =
4W 4(8000 )
=
= 283 psi
Do2
(6)2
A 4in. shaft, turning at 175 rpm, is supported on a step bearing. The bearing
area is annular, with a 4in. outside diameter and a 3/4 in. inside diameter.
Take the allowable average bearing pressure as 180 psi. (a) What axial load
may be supported? (b) What is the approximate work of friction?
Solution:
Dn
vm =
12
Page 62 of 63
(a) p =
4W
Do2 Di2
2 3
W = (4) (180) = 2182 lb
4
4
(b) U f = f Wvm = (0.065)(2182 )(108.81) = 15,433 ft lb min
2
 end 
Page 63 of 63
The radial reaction on a bearing is 1500 lb.; it also carries a thrust of 1000 lb.;
shaft rotates 1500 rpm; outer ring stationary; smooth load, 8hr./day service, say
15,000 hr. (a) Select a deepgroove ball bearing. (b) What is the rated 90 % life
of the selected bearing? (c) For b = 1.34 , compute the probability of the selected
bearing surviving 15,000 hr.
Solution:
Fx = 1500 lb
Fy = 1000 lb
( )
F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
C r = 1.2 , outer ring stationary
assume Ct = 1.8
F e = 0.56(1.2)(1500) + (1.8 )(1000) = 2808 lb
1
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe = (1350) 3 (2808) = 31,034 lb
Br
To check:
Fz
1000
=
= 0.03125
Fs 32,000
Table 12.2, Ct = 1.96 , Q = 0.2246
Fz
1000
=
= 0.556 > Q
C r Fx (1.2)(1500)
F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
F e = 0.56(1.2)(1500) + (1.96)(1000) = 2968 lb
1
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe = (1350 ) 3 (2968 ) = 32,803 lb
Br
B 3
31,800 = 10 (2968 )
1 mr
B10 = 1230 mr
628
1 b
ln
B P
(c)
=
B10 1
ln
P10
1
1
ln = ln
0.9
P10
B10 = 1230 mr
B = 1350 mr
1
1 1.34
ln
1350 P
=
1230 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.8875
602.
A certain bearing is to carry a radial load of 500 lb. and a thrust of 300 lb. The
load imposes light shock; the desired 90 % life is 10 hr./day for 5 years at
n = 3000 rpm . (a) Select a deepgroove ball bearing. What is its bore? Consider
all bearings that may serve. (b) What is the computed rated 90 % life of the
selected bearing? (c) What is the computed probability of the bearing surviving
the specified life? (d) If the loads were changed to 400 and 240 lb., respectively,
determine the probability of the bearing surviving the specified life, and the 90 %
life under the new load.
Solution:
Fx = 500 lb
Fz = 300 lb
Assume Cr = 1
Fz
300
=
= 0.6
Cr Fx (1.0)(500 )
Fz
Table 12.2,
>Q
Cr Fx
(a) F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
Cr = 1
Assume Ct = 1.8
F e= 0.56(1)(500) + (1.93)(300) = 820 lb
For light shock, service factor ~ 1.1
F e= (1.1)(820 ) = 902 lb
629
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe = (1350 )3 (2770) = 30,614 lb
Br
B10 = (5)(365)(10)(60 )(3000)(106 ) = 3285 mr
1
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe = (3285)3 (902 ) = 13,409 lb
Br
Table 12.3,
Bearing No. Fr , lb
Fs , lb
217
14,400
12,000
312
14,100
10,900
Bore
85 mm
60 mm
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1
B 3
14,100 = 10 (965)
1
B10 = 3119 mr
( )
1 b
ln
B P
(c)
=
B10 1
ln
P10
use b = 1.125
B10 = 3119 mr
630
1
ln
3285 P
=
3119 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.8943
1
1.125
(d) Fx = 400 lb
Fz = 240 lb
Cr = 1
Fz
240
=
= 0.6
Cr Fx (1.0)(400)
Table 12.2
Ct = 2.15
Q = 0.21 < 0.6
F e= 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz
F e= 0.56(1)(400 ) + (2.15)(240) = 740 lb
F e= (1.1)(740) = 814 lb
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1
B 3
14,100 = 10 (814)
1
B10 = 5197 mr
1
1 b
ln
B
P
=
B10 1
ln
P10
1 1.125
ln
3285 P
=
5197 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.939
Life:
B10 = (YR )(365)(10 )(60)(3000 )(106 ) = 5197
YR = 8 years
631
The smooth loading on a bearing is 500lb radial, 100 lb. thrust; n = 300 rpm . An
electric motor drives through gears; 8 hr./day, fully utilized. (a) Considering
deepgroove ball bearings that may serve, choose one end specify its bore. For
the bearing chosen, determine (b) the rated 90 % life and (c) the probability of
survival for the design lufe.
Solution:
Fx = 500 lb
Fz = 100 lb
Table 12.1, 8 hr./day fully utilized, assume 25,000 hr
B10 = (25,000 )(60)(300 )(106 ) = 450 mr
(a) assume Cr = 1
Fz
100
=
= 0.2
Cr Fx (1.0)(500 )
F
consider Q > z
Cr Fx
Fe = Cr Fx = (1.0 )(500) = 500 lb
1
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe = (450)3 (500) = 3832 lb
Br
Table 12.3
Bearing No. Fr , lb
Fs , lb
207
4440
3070
306
4850
3340
305
3660
2390
Select 305, Fr = 3660 lb , Fs = 2390 lb
Bore (Table 12.4) = 25 mm
Fz 100
=
= 0.0418
Fs 2390
Table 12.2, 0.22 < Q0.26
F
Q> z
Cr Fx
Fe = Cr Fx = (1.0 )(500) = 500 lb
(a)
B 3
3660 = 10 (500)
1
B10 = 392 mr
Rated Life:
B10 = (HR )(60)(300 )(106 ) = 392
HR 22,000 hr
632
1 b
ln
B
P
(c)
=
B10 1
ln
P10
b = 1.125
1
1 1.125
ln
450 P
=
392 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.884
605.
A No. 311, singlerow, deepgroove ball bearing is used to carry a radial load of
1500 lb. at a speed of 500 rpm. (a) What is the 90 % life of the bearing in hours?
What is the approximate median life? What is the probability of survival if the
actual life is desired to be (b) 105 hr., (c) 104 hr.?
Solution:
Table 12.3, No. 311
Fs = 9400 lb
Fr = 12400 lb
Fx = 1500 lb
assume Cr = 1
Fe = Cr Fx = (1)(1500 ) = 1500 lb
1
B 3
(a) Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1
B 3
12400 = 10 (1500 )
1
B10 = 565 mr
( )
( )
( )
633
1
ln
B
P
=
B10
1
ln
P10
b = 1.125
1
b
1 1.125
ln
3000 P
=
565 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.502
(c) 104 hr
( )
( )
B10
1
ln
P10
b = 1.125
1
b
1 1.125
ln
300 P
=
565 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.950
606.
Solution:
Fx = 350 lb
Fe = Cr Fx
outer race stationary, Cr = 1
Fe = (1)(350 ) = 350 lb
Table 12.1
634
( )
1
B 3
(a) Fr = 10 Fe = (3600 )3 (350 ) = 5364 lb
Br
Table AT 12.3
earing No.
Fr , lb
Fs , lb
208
5040
3520
209
5660
4010
306
4850
3340
307
5750
4020
Use No. 209 Fr = 5660 lb
Table 12.4, Dimension
Bore = 45 mm
O.D. = 85 mm
Width of Races = 19 mm
Max. Fillet r = 0.039 mm
90 % Life:
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1
B 3
5660 = 10 (350)
1
B10 = 4229 mr
( )
1 b
ln
B
P
=
B10 1
ln
P10
b = 1.125
1 1.125
ln
3600 P
=
4229 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.916
% failures = 1 0.916 = 0.084 = 8.4 %
Median Life = 5(58,740) = 293,700 hrs
635
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1
B 3
5900 = 10 (350)
1
B10 = 4790 mr
( )
1 b
ln
B
P
=
B10 1
ln
P10
b = 1.125
1 1.125
ln
3600 P
=
4790 1
ln
0.9
P = 0.926
% failures = 1 0.926 = 0.074 = 7.4 %
Median Life = 5(66,530) = 332,650 hrs
608.
( )
1 b
ln
B
P
=
B10 1
ln
P10
b = 1.125
1
ln
4.8 0.995
=
B10 1
ln
0.9
B10 = 72 mr
1
1.125
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe = (72 )3 (240) = 998.4 lb
Br
Table 12.3
Select No. 201, Fr = 1180 lb
VARIABLE LOADS
610.
A certain bearing is to carry a radial load of 10 kip at a speed of 10 rpm for 20 %
of the time, a load of 8 kips at a speed of 50 rpm for 50 % of the time, and a load
of 5 kips at 100 rpm during 30 % of the time, with a desired life of 3000 hr.; no
thrust. (a) What is the cubic mean load? (b) What ball bearings may be used?
What roller bearings?
Solution:
1
n = n + n
1
+ n3
For 1 min.
n1 = (0.2 )(10 ) = 2 rev
n 2 = (0.5)(50 ) = 25 rev
n3 = (0.3)(100 ) = 30 rev
n = 2 + 25 + 30 = 57 rev
F1 = 10 kips
F2 = 8 kips
637
F3 = 5 kips
1
1
B
Fr = 10 Fe = (10.26 )3 (6880) = 14,950 lb
Br
Table 12.3, Ball Bearing
Use Bearing No. 217, Fr = 14,400 lb
A deepgroove ball bearing No. 215 is to operate 30 % of the time at 500 rpm
with Fx = 1200 lb and Fz = 600 lb , 55 % of the time at 800 rpm with
Fx = 1000 lb and Fz = 500 lb , and 15 % of the time at 1200 rpm with
Fx = 800 lb and Fz = 400 lb . Determine (a) the cubic mean load; (b) the 90 % life
of this bearing in hours, (c) the average life in hours.
Solution:
Bearing No. 215, Fr = 11,400 lb , Fs = 9,250 lb
Table 12.2, Fz Fs
At 30 % of the time, 500 rpm
Fz
600
=
= 0.065
Fs 9250
Ct = 1.66
Q = 0.266
Fz
600
=
= 0.5 > Q
Cr Fx (1)(1200 )
Fe1 = 0.56Cr Fc + Ct Fz = 0.56(1)(1200 ) + (1.66)(600 ) = 1668 lb
At 55 % of the time, 800 rpm
Fz
500
=
= 0.054
Fs 9250
Ct = 1.73
638
F 3n + F23n2 + F33n3 + L 3
(a) Fm = 1 1
n = n + n
1
+ n3
F1 = 1668 lb
F2 = 1425 lb
F3 = 1184 lb
For 1 min.
n1 = (0.3)(500 ) = 150 rev
n 2 = (0.55)(800) = 440 rev
n3 = (0.15)(1200) = 180 rev
(b) Fe = Fm = 1434 lb
1
B 3
Fr = 10 Fe
Br
1
B 3
11,400 = 10 (1434 )
1
B10 = 503 mr
For 1 min = 770 rev
639
( )
A shaft for the generalpurpose gearreduction unit described in 489 has radial
bearing reactions of RC = 613 lb and RD = 1629 lb ; n = 250 rpm . Assume that
the unit will be fully utilized for at least 8 hr./day, with the likelihood of the same
uses involving minor shock. (a) Select ball bearings for this shaft. (b) Select
roller bearings. (c) What is the probability of both bearings C and D surviving for
the design life?
Solution:
3
Problem 489, D = 1 in = 1.375 in
8
Ref: Design of Machine Members, Doughtie and Vallance
Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr
at C. Fr = RC = 613 lb
K t = 1.0
K p = 1. 0
K o = 1.0
Ks = 3
Kr Na
Nc
N a = 250 rpm
N c = 500 rpm
K r = 1.5
Ks = 3
(1.5)(250) = 0.90856
500
K a = 1.0
Ha
H c K rel
Table 12.1, 8 hr/day, fully utilized, Text
H a = 25,000 hr
Kl = 3
H c = 10,000 hr
assume K rel = 1.0 for 90 % reliability
Kl = 3
25,000
= 1.3572
10,000
640
Ha
H c K rel
1.58 = 3
25,000
10,000 K rel
K rel = 0.634
Table 93, Reference
Probability = 95.8 %
at D, Bearing No. 407, Deepgroove bearing, Fc = 2290 lb
Fc = 2290 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856)(1)(1627 )
K l = 1.547
Kl = 3
Ha
H c K rel
641
1.547 = 3
25,000
10,000 K rel
K rel = 0.675
Table 93, Reference
Probability = 93.3 %
(c.2) at C, Roller Bearing No. 207, Fc = 1540 lb
Fc = 1540 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856)(1)(613)
K l = 2.765
Kl = 3
Ha
H c K rel
2.765 = 3
25,000
10,000 K rel
K rel = 0.118
Table 93, Reference
Probability = 98.8 %
at D, Roller Bearing No. 407, Fc = 2660 lb
Fc = 2660 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0.90856 )(1)(1627 )
K l = 1.80
Kl = 3
Ha
H c K rel
1.80 = 3
25,000
10,000 K rel
K rel = 0.43
Table 93, Reference
Probability = 95.7 %
615.
A shaft similar to that in 478 has the following radial loads on the bearings, left
to right: 803 lb, 988 lb, 84 lb, and 307 lb; no thrust. The minimum shaft diameter
at the bearings are 1.250 in, 1.125 in, 1.000 in, and 1.0625 in. Assume that the
service will not be particularly gentle; intermittently used, with n = 425 rpm . (a)
Select ball bearing for this shaft. (b) Select roller bearings.
Solution:
Ref: Design of Machine Members by Doughtie and Vallance
Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr
K a = 1.0
642
Kl = 3
Ha
H c K rel
H c = 10,000 hr
Table 12.1, Text, H a = 10,000 hr (intermittent)
90 % reliability, K rel = 1.0
Kl = 3
10,000
= 1. 0
10,000
K o = 1.0
K p = 1. 0
K r = 1.5 assumed
Ks = 3
Kr Na
Nc
N a = 425 rpm
N c = 500 rpm
Ks = 3
(1.5)(425) = 1.0844
500
K t = 1.0
(a) Ball Bearing
(a.1) 803 lb, D = 1.250 in
Fc = (1.0 )(1.0 )(1.0)(1.0)(1.0844)(1.0)(803) = 870 lb
Table 97, Ref.
Tworow spherical type, 207
Fc = 880 lb
Bore = 1.3780 in
(a.2) 988 lb, D = 1.125 in
Fc = (1.0 )(1.0)(1.0)(1.0)(1.0844)(1.0 )(988) = 1071 lb
Table 97, Ref.
Tworow spherical type, 306
Fc = 1050 lb
Bore = 1.1811 in
(a.3) 84 lb, D = 1.000 in
Fc = (1.0 )(1.0 )(1.0)(1.0)(1.0844)(1.0)(84) = 91 lb
643
644
INTERMITTENT SERVICE
DESIGN PROBLEMS
631.
A pair of gears with 20o fulldepth teeth are to transmit 10 hp at 1750 rpm of the
3in. pinion; velocity ratio desired is about 3.8; intermittent service. Use a
strength reduction factor of about 1.4, with theload at the tip and teeth
commercially cut. Determine the pitch, face width, and tooth numbers if the
material is cast iron, class 20.
Solution:
D p n p (3)(1750)
vm =
=
= 1374 fpm < 2000 fpm
12
12
10 hp < 20 hp
Commercially cut gears, vm < 2000 fpm
600 + vm
Fd =
Ft
600
33,000hp 33,000(10 )
Ft =
=
= 240 lb
vm
1374
600 + 1374
Fd =
(240 ) = 790 lb
600
Fs =
sbY
K f Pd
assume b =
Fs = Fd
(8000)(10)(0.33) = 790
(1.4)Pd2
Pd = 4.89
use Pd = 5
N p = Pd D p = (5)(3) = 15
Y = 0.289
Page 1 of 57
633.
A pair of gears with 20o fulldepth teeth are to transmit 5 hp at 1800 rpm of the
pinion; mw = 2.5 ; N p = 18 teeth; commercially cut teeth; intermittent service;
K f 1.45 . (a) Determine the pitch, face width, and tooth numbers if the material
is cast iron, class 25. (b) The same as (a) except that the pinion is to be made of
phosphor gear bronze (SAE 65, Table AT 3).
Solution:
Load at tip, Table AT 24, 20o F.D.
N p = 18 , Y = 0.308
N g = (2.5)(18) = 45 , Y = 0.399
vm =
D p n p
12
N p 18
Dp =
=
Pd
Pd
n p = 1800 rpm
(18)(1800 )
2700
12 Pd
Pd
Commercially cut teeth
vm =
Page 2 of 57
Pd
2700
8482.3
600 +
600 +
Pd 550 Pd
Pd
(19.4523Pd )
Fd =
=
600
600
14.1372
Fd = 19.4523Pd 1 +
Pd
Fs =
sbY
K f Pd
10
Pd
(a) Cast iron, class 25,
sn = 0.4su = 0.4(25) = 10 ksi = 10,000 psi
assume b =
Fs = Fd
Pinion is weaker
(10,000)(10)(0.308) = 19.4523P 1 + 14.1372
d
Pd
(1.45)(Pd )2
14.1372
21,241
= 19.4523Pd 1 +
2
Pd
Pd
Pd = 7.16
use Pd = 7
Face width b
(10,000 )(b )(0.308) = 19.4523(7 )1 + 14.1372
(1.45)(7 )
7
b = 1.355 in
8
12.5
<b<
Pd
Pd
1.143 < b < 1.786
say b = 1.5 in
Summary of answers:
Pd = 7
1
b = 1 in
2
Page 3 of 57
14.1372
27,517
= 19.4523Pd 1 +
2
Pd
Pd
Pd = 8
use Pd = 8
Face width b
(10,000 )(b )(0.399) = 19.4523(8)1 + 14.1372
(1.45)(8)
8
b = 1.252 in
8
12.5
<b<
Pd
Pd
1 < b < 1.5625
1
say b = 1.25 in = 1 in
4
Summary of answers:
Pd = 8
1
b = 1 in
4
N p = 18
N g = 45
Page 4 of 57
634.
Solution:
N
18
Dp = p =
Pd
Pd
18
(1800 )
D p n p
Pd
8482.3
vm =
=
=
12
12
Pd
33,000hp 33,000(120 )
Ft =
=
= 466.85Pd
vm
8482.3
Pd
120 hp > 20 hp
use Buckinghams equation
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Assume a material of steel, as rolled AISI 1050,
su = 102 ksi
For carefully cut teeth, Fig. AF 20, e = 0.001 in (min.)
Table AT 25, steel on steel, 20o F.D.
C = 1660
Try b =
10
Pd
Fd = 466.85Pd +
8482.3
10
1660 + 466.85 Pd
0.05
Pd
Pd
2
8482.3
10
+ 1660 + 466.85Pd
0.05
Pd
Pd
Page 5 of 57
424 16,600
+ 466.85Pd
Pd Pd
Fd = 466.85Pd +
424 16,600
+
+ 466.85Pd
Pd Pd
1
2
sbY
K f Pd
Weak pinion
Table AT 24, N p = 18 , Y = 0.522 (Load near middle, 20o F.D.)
Fs =
(51,000) 10 (0.522)
Pd
(1.5)Pd
Fs =
177,480
Pd2
Fs = N sf Fd
= mw
N g = (1.5)(18) = 27
Summary of first computation
Material, AISI 1050, as rolled
Accurately cut gears
Pd = 5
b = 2.0 in
N p = 18
N g = 27
Page 6 of 57
Fd
5331
5342
Fs
7099
11093
N sf ( 1.25)
1.33
2.08
636.
1
b = 1 in . For the teeth, determine (a) the endurance , (b) the dynamic load, (c)
2
the service factor (13.18).
Solution: 5 hp < 20 hp
N p = 24 , 20o F.D.
Y = 0.337 , Load at tip
assume K f = 1.45 average
(a) Fs =
sbY
K f Pd
(3)(1150)
= 903.2 fpm
12
33,000hp 33,000(5)
Ft =
=
= 182.7 lb
vm
903.2
1200 + vm
1200 + 903.2
Fd =
Ft =
(182.7 ) = 320 lb
1200
1200
(c) N sf =
637.
Fs 523
=
= 1.63
Fd 320
Page 7 of 57
Solution:
16.5 hp < 20 hp
D p n p
vm =
12
N p 25
Dp =
=
= 5 in
Pd
5
n p = 900 rpm
vm =
(5)(900)
12
= 1178 fpm
Ft = 459 lb
Page 8 of 57
Ft vm
(459)(1178) = 16.4 hp
=
33,000
33,000
The rating is not too low or too high.
hp =
Ft = 686 lb
hp =
Ft vm
(686 )(1178) = 24.5 hp
=
33,000
33,000
Ft = 551 lb
hp =
638.
Ft vm
(551)(1178) = 19.7 hp
=
33,000
33,000
A pair of commercially cut spur gears transmits 10 hp at 1750 rpm of the 25tooth pinion. The teeth are 20o full depth with 6 pitch; material , cast iron, class
9
30; face width is 1 in .; N g = 40 . Allow for stress concentration. (a) Compute
16
Page 9 of 57
Np
Pd
D p n p
25
= 4.167 in
6
12
(4.167 )(1750)
vm =
= 1909 fpm
12
For commercially cut gears
600 + vm
Fd =
Ft
600
33,000hp 33,000(10 )
Ft =
=
= 173 lb
vm
1909
600 + 1909
Fd =
(173) = 723.4 lb
600
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
(12,000)1 9 (0.340)
Fs =
16
(1.45)(6)
= 732.8 lb
Fs 732.8
=
1 .0
Fd 723.4
(b) Carefully cut gears
1200 + vm
1200 + 1909
Fd =
Ft =
(173) = 448.2 lb
1200
1200
F
732.8
N sf = s =
= 1.635
Fd 448.2
(13.18) Singlecylinder compressore
1.5 < N sf < 1.75
(a) N sf =
Page 10 of 57
CONTINUOUS SERVICE
DESIGN PROBLEMS
NOTE: When using Buckinghams Fd equation and a K f is used, as intended in design
for continuous service, use Y for load near middle.
639.
The pinion of a pair of steel gears, transmitting 110 hp at 2300 rpm, is to have a
1
diameter of about 4 in .; mg 2.3 ; 20o fulldepth teeth; the drive is to a
3
centrifugal pump, continuous service. (a) Decide upon Pd , b , N p , N g , and the
material to be used. Consider the strength with the load near the middle of the
profile. (b) The same as (a) except that it is not expected that the maximum
loading will occur for more than 107 cycles, can you justify changes in your
previous answers?
Solution:
110 hp > 20 hp
1
D p = 4 in
3
n p = 2300 rpm
1
D p n p
3
vm =
=
= 2609 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(110 )
Ft =
=
= 1391 lb
vm
2609
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Fig. AF 19, vm = 2609 fpm
Maximum permissible error = 0.0012 in
Fig. AF 20
Use carefully cut gears
Expected errors = 0.001 in
Table AT 25, steel on steel, 20o F.D.
C = 1660
10
Try b =
Pd
4 (2300)
Page 11 of 57
10
0.05(2609)1660 + 1391
Pd
Fd = 1391 +
1
2
10
0.05(2609) + 1660 + 1391
Pd
16600
130.45
+ 1391
Pd
Fd = 1391 +
1
16600
2
130.45 +
+ 1391
Pd
Wear Load
Fw = D pbQK g
Q=
2m g
mg + 1
2(2.3)
= 1.394
2 .3 + 1
with Pd = 5 , Fd = 4478 lb
Pd = 4 , Fd = 4919 lb
1 10
Pd = 5 , Fw = 4 (1.394 )K g = 4478
3 5
K g = 371
1 10
Pd = 4 , Fw = 4 (1.394 )K g = 4919
3 4
K g = 326
Use Pd = 5 ,
Page 12 of 57
Fd
4478
4919
Fw
4422
5527
use N g = 50 , N p = 22
D p = 4.4 in
50
= 10 in
5
For s , average BHN = 400
Dg =
Use
Y = 0.694
Pinion:
Gear:
Pinion is weaker
sbY
(59,953)(2.5) = 17,633 lb > F
Fs =
=
d
(1.7)(5)
K f Pd
Summary of answer:
Pd = 5
b = 2.5 in
N p = 22
N g = 50
Material:
Pinion:
Gear:
Page 13 of 57
640.
Solution:
D p = 3.2 in
n p = 2400 rpm
vm =
D p n p
(3.2)(2400)
= 2011 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(160 )
Ft =
=
= 2626 lb
vm
2011
160 hp > 20 hp
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Fig. AF 19, vm = 2011 fpm
Maximum permissible error = 0.0015 in
Fig. AF 20
carefully cut gears
Expected errors = 0.001 in
Table AT 25, steel on steel, 20o F.D.
C = 1660
10
Try b =
Pd
10
0.05(2011)1660 + 2626
Pd
Fd = 2626 +
1
2
10
0.05(2011) + 1660 + 2626
Pd
Page 14 of 57
100.55
+ 2626
Pd
Fd = 2626 +
1
16600
2
100.55 +
+ 2626
Pd
Fw = D pbQK g
Q=
2(1.56 )
= 1.22
m g + 1 1.56 + 1
2m g
39.04 K g
10
Fw = (3.2) (1.22)K g =
Pd
Pd
Fw = Fd
For Pd = 5
Fd = 5991 lb
39.04 K g
Fw =
= 5991
5
K g = 767
For Pd = 4
Fd = 6532 lb
39.04 K g
Fw =
= 6532
4
K g = 651
Table AT 26,
Use Steel (600), carburized case hardened, and same 1010 cycles, 20o F.D.
K g = 750
Using Pd = 5 , b =
10
= 2 in
5
1
Say b = 2 in
2
Page 15 of 57
Summary of answer:
Pd = 5
b = 2.5 in
N p = 16
N g = 25
39.04(1680 ) 65,587
=
Pd
Pd
Iteration: Fw Fd
Pd
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Fd
5560
5421
5311
5222
5148
5086
5033
Use Pd = 13
10
b = in
13
N p = D p Pd = (3.2 )(13) = 42 , Y = 0.667
To check for strength
sbY
(150,000)(10)(0.667) = 3482 lb < F
Fs =
=
d
K f Pd
(1.7)(13)2
Therefore use Fs N sf Fd
For lobe blower, 1.25 < N sf < 1.5
Assume Y = 0.50
Page 16 of 57
Fw
9370
8198
7287
6559
5962
5466
5045
(150,000)(10)(0.50) = 441,177
sbY
=
K f Pd
Pd2
(1.7 )(Pd )2
Iteration:
Pd
Fs
7
9004
8
6894
Fs =
Use Pd = 8
10 10
b=
=
= 1.25 in
Pd
8
N p = Pd D p = (8)(3.2 ) = 25.6
Fd
5560
5421
N sf
1.619
1.272>1.25
say 26
N g = mg N p = (1.56 )(25.6 ) = 40
Summary of answer:
Pd = 8
1
b = 1 in
4
N p = 26
N g = 40
641.
Gears with 20o fulldepth teeth are to transmit 100 hp continuously at 5000 rpm
with mg = 4 ; pinion D p = 3 in. ; the drive is subjected to minor shocks with
frequent starts. First calculations are to be made for carburized pinion teeth of
AISI E3310, SOQT 450F, and the gear of cast steel, SAE 0175, WQT. Decide
upon Pd , b , N p , and N g .
Solution:
D p n p (3)(5000)
vm =
=
= 3927 fpm
12
12
Fig. AF 19, max. per/ error. e = 0.00075 in
Use precision gears, error, e = 0.0005 in
Table AT 25, steel on steel, 20o F.D.
C = 0.5(1660) = 830
33,000hp 33,000(100 )
Ft =
=
= 840 lb
vm
3927
10
b=
Pd
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Page 17 of 57
Fd = 840 +
1
10
2
0.05(3927 ) + 830 + 840
Pd
8300
196.35
+ 840
Pd
Fd = 840 +
1
8300
2
196.35 +
+ 840
Pd
Fd
2833
2633
2488
2378
Use Pd = 8
Check for wear
Fw = Fd
Fw = D pbQK g
Q=
2m g
mg + 1
2(4 )
= 1 .6
4 +1
Page 18 of 57
Fs
9059
6291
4622
3539
N sf
3.2
2.4
1.9
1.49
b=
K g = 396
K g = 396 < for carburized teeth
Therefore
Pd = 8
1
b = 1 in
4
N p = D p Pd = (3)(8) = 24
N g = mg N p = (4 )(24 ) = 96
Summary of answer:
Pd = 8
1
b = 1 in
4
N p = 24
N g = 96
A 20tooth (20o F.D.) pinion is to transmit 50 hp at 600 rpm, the service being
indefinitely continuous in a conveyor drive; mw = 2.5 . The original pplan is to
use a nodulariron casting, 806003, for each gear. Determine suitable values for
the pitch, face width, and diameters. (Warning: compute C .)
642.
Solution:
N p = 20
Dp =
Np
Pd
20
Pd
20
(600 )
D p n p
Pd
3142
=
=
vm =
12
12
Pd
33,000hp 33,000(50)
Ft =
=
= 525Pd
vm
3142
Pd
b=
10
Pd
Fd = Ft +
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Page 19 of 57
Fd = 525Pd +
Fd = 525Pd +
3142 10
C + 525Pd
0.05
Pd Pd
2
3142 10
+ C + 525Pd
0.05
Pd Pd
157.1 10C
+ 525Pd
Pd Pd
157.1 10C
+
+ 525Pd
Pd
Pd
1
2
Fs N sf Fd
E = 23 106 psi
(
(
)
)
k 23 106
= k 11.5 106
C=
=
6
Eg + E p
2 23 10
k = 0.111e for 20o full depth
kE p E g
Fs =
(40,000)(10)(0.50) = 117,647
(1.7 )Pd2
Pd2
Fs
Fd
Iteration: Use Fig. AF 19 and Fig AF 20.
3142
vm =
Pd
e
C
Pd
5
628.4
0.00225
2872
4
785.5
0.002625
3351
N sf =
Page 20 of 57
Fd
Fs
4765
5005
4706
7353
Fs
Fd
0.99
1.46
N sf =
20
= 5 in
Pd
4
2mw
2(2.5)
Q=
=
= 1.43
m w + 1 2 .5 + 1
Fw = (5)(3.0)(1.43)(248) = 5320 lb > Fd
Summary of answer:
Pd = 4 , commercially cut gears
b = 3 in
D p = 5 in
Dp =
Dg = mw D p = (2.5)(5) = 12.5 in
643.
Solution:
Dd = 4.8 in
n p = 1000 rpm
vm =
D p n p
(4.8)(1000)
= 1257 fpm
12
12
Fig. AF 19, max. permissible error, e = 0.00225 in
Carefullycut, e = 0.001 in
kE g E p
C=
Eg + E p
k = 0.111e for 20o full depth
Phosphorbronze pinion SAE 65
sn = 24,000 psi
E p = 16106 psi
Cast iron gear, class 35
sn = 0.4su = 0.4(35,000) = 14,000 psi
E g = 14.5 106 psi
Page 21 of 57
C=
(14,000)(2.5)(0.7224) = 3718 lb
(1.7 )(4)
Fs N sf Fd
The 20o fulldepth teeth for a pair of steel gears are to transmit 40 hp at 1200 rpm
of the 20tooth pinion; mg = 3 ; continuous service and indefinite life: The driven
machine is an offandon reciprocating compressor. (a) Determine the pitch, face
width, and steel (with treatment), considering at least three alternatives, including
carefully cut teeth. For the gear teeth decided on, what would be the power
capacity if only intermittent service (wear not considered) were required? (c) If a
limited life of 107 cycles were satisfactory?
Solution:
Page 22 of 57
Np
20
Pd
Pd
n p = 1200 rpm
Dp =
20
(1200 )
D p n p
P
6283
vm =
= d
=
12
12
Pd
Ft =
33,000hp 33,000(40)
=
= 210 Pd
vm
6283
P
d
Fd = Ft +
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
For carefully cut, e = 0.001 in
Table AT 25, steel on steel, 20o F.D.
C = 1660
Fw = Fd
Fw = D pbQK g
assume b =
10
Pd
Fd = 210 Pd +
Fd = 210 Pd +
6283
10
1660 + 210 Pd
0.05
Pd
Pd
314 16600
+
+ 210 Pd
Pd Pd
2mw
2(3)
Q=
=
= 1 .5
mw + 1 3 + 1
20 10
300
Fw = (1.5)(K g ) = 2 K g
Pd
Pd Pd
Pd = 5
Page 23 of 57
2
6283
10
+ 1660 + 210 Pd
0.05
Pd
Pd
314 16600
+ 210 Pd
Pd Pd
1
2
b=
Page 24 of 57
Fs =
(90,750)(2)(0.544) = 11,616 lb
sbY
=
(1.7)(5)
K f Pd
Fs = N sf Fd
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
D p n p (4)(1200)
vm =
=
= 1257 fpm
12
12
C = 1660
b = 2 in
0.05(1257 )[1660(2) + Ft ]
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05(1257 ) + [1660(2) + Ft ]2
62.85(3320 + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
62.85 + (3320 + Ft )2
Fs = N sf Fd
11,616 = 1.4 Fd
Fd = 8297 lb
By trial and error method
Ft = 4900 lb
Fv
(4900)(1257 ) = 186.6 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(b) 107 cycles, Table AT 26
Use Pd = 4 , K g = 252
Sum of BHN = 500
e = 0.00125 in
C = 1.25(1660)
314 1.25(1660)(10)
0.05
+ 210 Pd
Pd
Pd
Fd = 210 Pd +
1
314 1.25(1660)(10)
2
+
0.05
+ 210 Pd
Pd
Pd
Pd = 4
Fd = 3870 lb
Page 25 of 57
10 10
=
= 2.5 in
Pd
4
N
20
Dp = p =
= 5 in
Pd
4
Dg = mg D p = (3)(5) = 15 in
b=
Page 26 of 57
Fd = Ft +
0.05(1571)[2075(2.5) + Ft ]
1
0.05(1571) + [2075(2.5) + Ft ]2
78.55(5187.5 + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
78.55 + (5187.5 + Ft )2
Fs = N sf Fd
16,550 = 1.4 Fd
Fd = 11,821 lb
By trial and error method
Ft = 6800 lb
Fv
(6800)(1571) = 324 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
645.
Solution:
N p = 18
Dp =
Np
Pd
18
Pd
18
(600 )
D p n p
Pd
2827
vm =
=
=
12
12
Pd
33,000hp 33,000(100)
Ft =
=
= 1167 Pd
vm
2827
P
d
Fd = Ft +
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Page 27 of 57
2827
10
3320 + 1167 Pd
0.05
Pd
Pd
Fd = 1167 Pd +
Fd = 1167 Pd +
2
2827
10
+ 3320 + 1167 Pd
0.05
Pd
Pd
141.35 33200
+ 1167 Pd
Pd Pd
2
141.32 33200
+
+ 1167 Pd
Pd
Pd
Fw = D pbQK g
2(2.5)
= 1.43
m g + 1 2 .5 + 1
Table AT 26, 20o F.D., carburized, indefinite
K g = 750
Q=
2m g
18 10
193,050
Fw = (1.43)(750) =
Pd2
Pd Pd
Fw Fd
Iteration:
Pd
5
6
Will not equal
Using precision cut gears
C = 0.5(1660) = 830
Page 28 of 57
Fd
8355
9181
Fw
7722
5363
141.35 8300
+ 1167 Pd
Pd Pd
Fd = 1167 Pd +
141.32 8300
+
+ 1167 Pd
Pd
Pd
Pd
5
1
2
Fd
7680
Fs =
Pd = 5 , precision cut
b = 2 in
N
18
D p = p = = 3.6 in
Pd
5
Dg = mw D p = (2.5)(3.6 ) = 9 in
Material, E3310, SOQT 450 F
(b) Flame hardened, 4150 OQT 1100 F
BHN 359
Sum of BHN = 718
K g = 287
Fw = D p bQK g = (3.6 )(2 )(1.43)(287 ) = 2955 lb
Page 29 of 57
Fw
7722
Fs =
sbY
K f Pd
A 6ft. ball mill runs at 24.4 rpm, the drive being through 14 1/2o involute spur
gears; Pd = 2 , N p = 15 , N g = 176 , b = 5 in ., and hp = 75 . The material of the
pinion is SAE 1040, BHN = 180; of the gear, 0.35% C cast steel, BHN = 180. (a)
Check for strength and wear and give your decision as to the service to be
expected. (b) The foregoing pinion wore out. Actually, the first step was to
replace it with one made of SAE 3140, OQT 1000 F. Would you expect this to
cure the trouble? (c) The drive in (b) also wore out. The following solution which
maintained the same gear diameters, pitch and face, was proposed: 20o fulldepth
teeth; pinion of SAE 3140 with BHN = 350; gear of SAE 1045 with BHN = 280.
Would you predict that these gears will give long service? What are the
approximate tempering temperatures to get the specified hardness?
Solution:
n g = 24.4 rpm
vm =
Dg ng
12
N
176
Dg = g =
= 88 in
Pd
2
(88)(24.4)
vm =
= 3373 fpm
12
33,000hp 33,000(75)
Ft =
=
= 734 lb
vm
3373
Fig. AF 19, max. per. Error = 0.0008 in for vm = 3373 fpm
Fig. AF 20, precision cut, Pd = 2 , e = 0.0010 in 0.0008 in
Table AT 25, e = 0.0010 in
C = 1600 , 14 1/2o F.D.
Page 30 of 57
Fd = Ft +
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
b = 5 in
Fd = 734 +
0.05(3373)[1600(5) + 734]
1
2
= 6354 lb
Np
15
= 7.5 in
2
Pd
b = 5 in
2N g
2(176 )
Q=
=
= 1.843
N p + N g 15 + 176
Sum of BHN = 180 + 180 = 360, 14 1/2o F.D.
Table At 26, K g = 46.3
Fw = (7.5)(5)(1.843)(46.3) = 3200 lb
Strength:
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
s = 250 BHN = 250(180) = 45,000 psi
Pinion is weaker, N p = 15 , 14 1/2o F.D. (involute)
Y = 0.415 , Load near middle
K f = 1 .7
Fs =
(45,000)(5)(0.415) = 27,463 lb
(1.7 )(2)
Page 31 of 57
Fs =
(45,000)(5)(0.6376) = 42,194 lb
sbY
=
(1.7)(2)
K f Pd
Wear, Fw = D pbQK g
Sum of BHN = 180 + 311 = 491, 14 1/2o F.D.
Table AT 26, K g = 92.4
Fw = (7.5)(5)(1.843)(92.4) = 6386 lb
Fw Fd , this will cure the trouble.
(c) Pinion, SAE 3140, BHN = 350
sn = 250 BHN = 250(350) = 87,500 psi
Gear, SAE 1045, BHN = 280
s n = 250 BHN = 250(280) = 70,000 psi
Table AT 25, 20o F.D., e = 0.001 in
C = 1660
Fd = 734 +
0.05(3373)[1660(5) + 734]
1
2
= 6512 lb
A 22tooth pinion, transmitting 110 hp at 2300 rpm, drives a 45tooth gear, both
steel; 20o full depth; Pd = 5 , b = 1.5 in .; The manufacturing process is expected
to result in a maximum effective error of e = 0.0016 in . (a) Compute
Buckinghams average dynamic load. Compute Fs and Fw if the material is (b)
casecarburized AISI 8620, DOQT 300 F, (c) AISI 8742, OQT 950 F, (d)
inductionhardened AISI 8742. (e) Suppose your company carries a stock of the
foregoing materials. For a minimumservice factor of 1.2, which material do you
Page 32 of 57
Dp =
vm =
Np
Pd
D p n p
22
= 4.4 in
5
=
(4.4)(2300)
= 2649 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(110 )
Ft =
=
= 1370 lb
vm
2649
(a) Dynamic Load
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
For e = 0.0016 in , Table AT 25, steel, 20o F.D.
C = 1.6(1660) = 2656
b = 1.5 in
0.05(2649)[2656(1.5) + 1370]
Fd = 1370 +
= 4819 lb
1
0.05(2649) + [2656(1.5) + 1370]2
(b) AISI 8620, DOQT 300 F carborized
Table AT 26, 20o F.D.
K g = 750 , 1010 cycles indefinite
Table AT 11, Rc = C 64
Figure AF 4, BHN = 700
sn = 250(700) = 175,000 psi
N p = 22
Table AT 24, Load near middle, 20o F.D.
Y = 0.559
K f = 1 .7
Strength
sbY
(175,000)(1.5)(0.559) = 17,263 lb
Fs =
=
(1.7)(5)
K f Pd
Wear
Fw = D pbQK g
Page 33 of 57
Q=
2N g
N p + Ng
2(45)
= 1.3433
22 + 45
Fw = (4.4)(1.5)(1.3433)(750) = 6649 lb
(c) AISI 8742, OQT 950 F
BHN = 358.5
sum of BHN = 2(358.5) = 717
Table AT 26, 20o F.D.
K g = 286
sn = 250(358.5) = 89,625 psi
Strength
sbY
(89,625)(1.5)(0.559) = 8841 lb
Fs =
=
(1.7 )(5)
K f Pd
Wear
Fw = D pbQK g
Fw = (4.4)(1.5)(1.3433)(286) = 2536 lb
(d) Induction hardened, AISI 8742
Table AT 26, 20o F.D.
K g = 555 at 1010 cycles
sn = 250(500) = 125,000 psi
Strength
sbY
(125,000)(1.5)(0.559) = 12,331 lb
Fs =
=
(1.7 )(5)
K f Pd
Wear
Fw = D pbQK g
Fw = (4.4)(1.5)(1.3433)(555) = 4921 lb
(e)
FS = 8841 lb
(ii) indefinitely continuous service
Fw F d
Fd = 4819 lb
use AISI 8620, DOQT 300 F
Page 34 of 57
648.
Solution:
N p = 16
N g = 25
Dp =
vm =
Np
Pd
D p n p
12
Fd = Ft +
16
= 3.2 in
5
=
(3.2)(2400)
12
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
= 2011 fpm
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
error, e = 0.0012 in
Table AT 25, 20o F.D.
C = 1.2(1660) = 1992
0.05(2011)[1992(1.5) + Ft ]
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05(2011) + [1992(1.5) + Ft ]2
100.55(2988 + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
100.55 + (2988 + Ft )2
(a) Case carburized AISI 8620, SOQT 300 F
K g = 750
BHN = 700
sn = 250(700) = 175,000 psi
N p = 16 , Y = 0.503 , Table AT 24, 20o F.D., Load near middle
Page 35 of 57
Q=
2N g
N p + Ng
Wear:
Fw = D pbQK g
2(25)
= 1.22
16 + 25
100.55(2988 + Ft )
1
100.55 + (2988 + Ft )2
Ft = 2635 lb
(2635)(2011) = 160 hp
Fv
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
Page 36 of 57
3
The data for a pair of gears are: 20o F.D. teeth, b = 1 in , Pd = 6 , N p = 26 ,
4
N g = 60 , n p = 2300 rpm ; asrolled AISI 1050; carefully cut teeth; N sf = 1.2 . (a)
Strength alone considered, find the horsepower that may be transmitted. (b)
Determine the required surface hardness in order for Fw = Fd , and specify a
treatment that would make the gears long lasting in continuous service.
Solution:
N
26
Dp = p =
= 4.333 in
Pd
6
D p n p (4.333)(2300)
vm =
=
= 2609 fpm
12
12
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
For carefully cut teeth, Pd = 6 , 20o F.D.
C = 1660
0.05(2609)[1660(1.75) + Ft ]
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05(2609 ) + [1660(1.75) + Ft ]2
130.45(2905 + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
130.45 + (2905 + Ft )2
(a) Strength
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
For as rolled AISI 1050, BHN = 229
sn = 250(229 ) = 57,250 psi
or sn = 0.5su = 0.5(102.000) = 51,000 psi
use s = 51,000 psi
Page 37 of 57
Fs =
(51,000)(1.75)(0.588) = 5145 lb
(1.7)(6)
Fs = N sf Fd
5145 = 1.2 Fd
Fd = 4288 lb
Fd = 4288 = Ft +
130.45(2905 + Ft )
1
130.45 + (2905 + Ft )2
Ft = 1400 lb
Fv
(1400)(2609) = 110 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(b) Fw = Fd = 1400 lb
Wear
Fw = D pbQK g
Q=
2N g
N p + Ng
2(60 )
= 1.395
26 + 60
Fw = (4.333)(1.75)(1.395)K g = 4288 lb
K g = 405
Table of BHN = 838
BHN1 = 229
BHN 2 = 838 229 = 609
Therefore use carburized teeth.
650.
Solution:
N
24
Dp = p =
= 4.8 in
Pd
5
Page 38 of 57
vm =
D p n p
(4.8)(1000)
= 1257 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(18)
Ft =
=
= 473 lb
vm
1257
Carefully cut:
kE g E p
C=
Eg + E p
k = 0.111e for 20o fulldepth
Fig. AF 20, e = 0.001 in , Pd = 5
C=
Fd = Ft +
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
0.05(1257 )[743(2) + 473]
Fd = 473 +
= 1622 lb
1
0.05(1257 ) + [743(2) + 473]2
(a) Fs N sf Fd
N sf = 1.0 , smooth load
sbY
K f Pd
Gear: castiron, class 25, 20o F.D.
N g = mg N p = (5)(24 ) = 120
Fs =
Fs =
Page 39 of 57
2m g
mg + 1
2(5)
= 1.667
5 +1
s 2 sin 1
1
+
K g =
1.4 E p E g
Pinion, manganese gear bronze
s = su = 75 ksi
= 20o
(75,000 )2 sin 20 1
1
Kg =
+
= 205
6
6
1 .4
16 10 11.5 10
Fw = (4.8)(2)(1.667 )(205) = 3281 lb > Fd
Therefore, indicates long life.
A 20tooth pinion. 20o F.D., drives a 100tooth gear. The pinion is made of SAE
1035, heat treated to Rockwell C15; the gear is cast iron class 35, HT; Pd = 3 ,
b = 2.5 in .; carefully cut teeth; pinion speed n p = 870 rpm , smooth load. (a) For
a continuous service, indefinite life, what is a safe horsepower? (b) For
intermittent service (wear unimportant), compute the safe horsepower.
651.
Solution:
N p = 20
N g = 100
Dp =
vm =
Np
Pd
D p n p
12
Fd = Ft +
20
= 6.667 in
3
=
(6.667 )(870)
12
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
1
= 1519 fpm
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Carefully cut gears, steel and cast iron, 20o F.D.
Pd = 3 , Fig. AF 20, Table AT 25
e = 0.0016 in
C = 1.6(1140) = 1824
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Page 40 of 57
Fd = Ft +
Fd = Ft +
0.05(1519)[1824(2.5) + Ft ]
1
0.05(1519) + [1824(2.5) + Ft ]2
75.95(4560 + Ft )
1
75.95 + (4560 + Ft )2
(a) Continuous ser vice
Strength:
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
Pinion: SAE 1035, Rc = C15
Fig. AF 4, BHN = 200
sn = (250)(200) = 50,000 psi
N p = 20
Table AT 24, 20o F.D., load near middle
Y = 0.544
snY = (50,000)(0.544) = 27,200 psi
Gear: Cast iron, class 35
sn = 0.4su = 0.4(35,000) = 14,000 psi
N g = 100
Table AT 24, 20o F.D., load near middle
Y = 0.755
snY = (14,000)(0.755) = 10,570 psi
Gear is weaker
K f = 1 .7
Fs =
(14,000)(2.5)(0.755) = 5181 lb
(1.7)(3)
Wear:
Fw = D pbQK g
Q=
2N g
N p + Ng
2(100 )
= 1.667
20 + 100
s 2 sin 1
1
K g =
+
1.4 E p E g
= 20o
s = 0.4 BHN 10 = 0.4(200) 10 = 70 ksi = 70,000 psi
E p = 30106 psi
Page 41 of 57
Kg =
+
= 122
6
6
1 .4
30 10 14.5 10
Fw = (6.667 )(2.5)(1.667 )(122) = 3390 lb
Fw = Fd
3390 = Ft +
75.95(4560 + Ft )
1
75.95 + (4560 + Ft )2
Ft = 700 lb
Fv
(700)(1519) = 32 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(b) Fs = N sf Fd
N sf = 1.0 , smooth load
5181 = Ft +
75.95(4560 + Ft )
1
75.95 + (4560 + Ft )2
Ft = 2000 lb
Fv
(2000)(1519) = 92 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
652.
Solution:
N
25
Dp = p =
= 3.125 in
Pd
8
D p n p (3.125)(1140 )
vm =
=
= 933 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(75)
Ft =
=
= 2653 lb
vm
933
Table AT 25, e = 0.001 in , 20o F.D.
C = 1660
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Page 42 of 57
Fd = 2653 +
0.05(933)[1660(1.5) + 2653]
1
2
= 4680 lb
D p n p
(3.125)(1750 )
= 1432 fpm
12
0.05(1432)[1660(1.5) + Ft ]
Fd = Ft +
= 4680 lb
1
0.05(1432 ) + [1660(1.5) + Ft ]2
Ft = 2260 lb
Fv
(2260)(1432) = 98 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
654.
12
Solution:
N
31
D p = p = = 5.167 in
Pd
6
D p n p (5.167 )(600)
vm =
=
= 812 fpm
12
12
0.05vm (Cb + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2
Commercial cut, e = 0.001 in , 20o F.D., Pd = 6
Table AT 25
C = (2)(1660) = 3320
0.05(812)[3220(3.25) + Ft ]
Fd = Ft +
1
0.05(812) + [3220(3.25) + Ft ]2
40.6(10,465 + Ft )
Fd = Ft +
1
40.6 + (10,465 + Ft )2
Strength:
Pinion: SAE 2335, bhn = 300
sn = 250(300) = 75,000 psi
N p = 31 , Table AT 24, Load near middle, 20o F.D.
Y = 0.6115
Page 43 of 57
(62,500)(3.25)(0.728) = 14,498 lb
sbY
=
(1.7 )(6)
K f Pd
Wear load:
Fw = D pbQK g
Q=
2N g
N p + Ng
2(70 )
= 1.386
31 + 70
Page 44 of 57
Solution:
Pinion as weaker
(200 + vm )Ft
Fd =
v
200 + m
4
D p n p (4)(850)
vm =
=
= 890 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(12 )
Ft =
=
= 445 lb
vm
890
(200 + 890)(445) = 1148 lb
Fd =
890
200 +
4
Strength: s = 6000 psi
sbY
Fs =
Pd
10
and Y = 0.33 , 20o F.D. Load at tip.
assume b =
Pd
Fs = Fd (smooth load)
(6000)(10)(0.33) = 1148 lb
Fs =
Pd2
Pd = 4.15
use Pd = 4
10 10
b=
=
= 2.5 in
Pd
4
say b = 3 in
N p = D p Pd = (4 )(4 ) = 16
Page 45 of 57
Solution:
D p n p (1.25)(1750)
vm =
=
= 573 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(0.75)
Ft =
=
= 43 lb
vm
573
Fd = (VF )Ft
For molded teeth, vm < 4000 fpm
VF = 1
Fd = (1)(43) = 43 lb
Load near middle, assume Y = 0.50
Fs = Fd
say s = 4.6 ksi = 4600 psi , 13.27
10
b=
Pd
sbY (4600 )(10 )(0.50 )
Fs =
=
= 43
Pd
Pd2
Page 46 of 57
A 10in. Textolite pinion, driving a hardened steel gear, transmits power at 400
rpm; Pd = 2.5 , b = 5 in ., 14 1/2o F.D. teeth. Determine the safe horsepower (a)
for smooth, continuous, indefinite service, and also (b) for limitedlife
intermittent service.
Solution:
D p = 10 in
n p = 400 rpm
vm =
D p n p
(10)(400)
= 1047 fpm
12
12
(200 + vm )Ft
Fd =
v
200 + m
4
Strength
sbY
Fs =
Pd
s = 6000 psi
b = 5 in
Pd = 2.5
N p = Pd D p = (2.5)(10 ) = 25
Table At 24, 14 1/2o F.D. Load at tip.
Y = 0.305
(6000)(5)(0.305) = 3660 lb
Fs =
2 .5
Wear load, Table At 26, 14 1/2o F.D.
K g = 46
Fw = D pbQK g
Q 1 .5
Fw = (10)(5)(1.5)(46) = 3450 lb
Page 47 of 57
3450 =
1047
4
Fs = 1277 lb
Fv
(1277)(1047) = 40 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(b) Intermittent service
Fs = Fd
(200 + 1047 )Ft
3660 =
1047
200 +
4
Fs = 1355 lb
Fv
(1355)(1047) = 43 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
658.
5
in .
8
(a) What safe horsepower may be transmitted for longlife? (b) For 107 cycles?
A 16pitch Zytel pinion, with 26, 20o F.D. cut teeth, rotates at 600 rpm; b =
Solution:
D p n p
vm =
12
N
26
Dp = p =
= 1.625 in
Pd 16
(1.625)(600)
vm =
= 255 fpm
12
Cutteeth, vm < 4000 fpm
VF = 1.2
Fd = (VF )Ft
Fd = Ft
(a) Long life, 5 108 cycles
Pd = 16
s = 2.3 ksi = 2300 psi
sbY
Fs =
Pd
For N p = 26 , 20o F.D., Load near middle
Y = 0.588
Page 48 of 57
(2300) 5 (0.588)
8
= 53 lb
16
Fs = 53 = 1.2 Ft
Ft = 44 lb
(44)(255) = 0.34 hp
Fv
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
Fs =
(4200) 5 (0.588)
8
= 96.5 lb
16
Fs = 96.5 = 1.2 Ft
Ft = 80 lb
Fv
(44)(255) = 0.34 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
Fs =
CASTTOOTH GEARS
659.
A pair of castiron spur gears, ASTM 20, with cast teeth, transmits 10 hp at 125
rpm of the pinion; mw = 5 , D p 8 in . Determine Pc , b , N p , N g .
Solution:
D p n p (8)(125)
vm =
=
= 262 fpm
12
12
600 + vm
Fd =
Ft
600
33,000hp 33,000(10 )
Ft =
=
= 1260 lb
vm
262
600 + 262
Fd =
(1260) = 1810 lb
600
Fs = 0.054sbPc
say b = 2.5Pc
s = 0.4su = 0.4(20) = 8 ksi = 8000 psi
Fs = 0.054(8000 )(2.5)Pc2 = 1080 Pc2
Fs = Fd
1080 Pc2 = 1810
Pc = 1.29 in
Page 49 of 57
660.
Design the cast teeth for a pair of castiron spur gears to transmit 35 hp at 50 rpm
of the pinion; mw 2.5 . Decide upon a suitable grade of cast iron and find Pc , b ,
D p , Dg , and center distance.
Solution:
Using castiron, class 35
sn = 0.4su = 0.4(35) = 14 ksi = 14,000 psi
33,000hp 33,000(35) 1,155,000
Ft =
=
=
vm
vm
vm
600 + vm
Fd =
Ft
600
Try N p = 20
Dp =
vm =
Pc N p
D p n p
12
=
=
20 Pc
= 6.366 Pc
(6.366 Pc )(50)
12
Ft =
1,155,000 13,860
=
83.33Pc
Pc
Fd =
600 + 83.33Pc
600
= 83.33Pc
=
P
Pc
c
Fs = 0.054sbPc
b = 2.5Pc
Fs = 0.054(14,000 )(2.5)Pc2 = 1890 Pc2
Fs = Fd
23.1(600 + 83.33Pc )
Pc
Pc = 2.117 in
1890 Pc2 =
use Pc = 2 in
PN
20(2)
Dp = c p =
= 12.73 in
Page 50 of 57
b = 2.5Pc = 2.5(2) = 5 in
1
1
C = (D p + Dg ) = (12.73 + 31.83) = 22.28 in
2
2
Summary:
Pc = 2 in
D p = 12.73 in
Dg = 31.83 in
b = 5 in
C = 22.28 in
661.
A manufacturers catalog specifies that a pair of gray castiron spur gears with
cast teeth will transmit 7.01 hp at a pitchline speed of 100 fpm; N p = 20 ,
Pc = 1.5 in ., b = 4 in . Compute the stress and specify the grade of cast iron that
should be used.
Solution:
vm = 100 fpm
33,000hp 33,000(7.01)
Ft =
=
= 2313.3 lb
vm
100
600 + vm
600 + 100
Fd =
Ft =
(2313.3) = 2699 lb
600
600
Fs = 0.054sbPc
Fs = Fd
0.054s (4)(1.5) = 2699
s = 8330 psi
s 0.4su
8330 0.4su
su = 20,825 psi = 21 ksi
use Cast Iron, ASTM 25, su = 25 ksi
ARMS AND RIMS
662.
Page 51 of 57
Solution:
1
1
(a) Hub diameter = 2 Ds = 2 2 = 4 in , for cast iron
2
4
7
Rim thickness = 0.56 Pc = 0.56 = 0.44 in in
16
4
7
Bead = 0.56 Pc = 0.56 = 0.44 in in
16
4
(b) Elliptical section
Page 52 of 57
8000 =
At the hub
h = 2.4 in
h
h1 = = 1.2 in
2
At the pitch circle
h
h = = 1.2 in
2
h
h1 = = 1.2 in
2
(c) Cross shape
6Z
h2
G1 = 0.75G
h = 2.4 in
G=
Z=
h3
, 13.32
64
(2.4)3
Z=
= 0.6786 in 3
64
At the hub
6(0.6786 )
G=
= 0.71 in
(2.4)2
G1 = 0.75(0.71) = 0.53 in
h = 2.4 in
h
At the pitch circle, h = = 1.2 in
2
G = 0.71 in
G1 = 0.53 in
Page 53 of 57
664.
Solution:
(a) Commecially hobbed
1
2
m
50 + v
Ft
50
Fw = D pbQK g
Fd =
Q=
2N g
Ng N p
2(75)
= 2.727
75 20
20
= 2.5 in
Pd
8
Fw = (2.5)(1.5)(2.727 )(112) = 1145 lb
Dp =
For strength:
sbY
Fs =
K f Pd
N p = 20 , Y = 0.320 at the tip
(8000)(1.5)(0.320) = 369 lb
(1.3)(8)
D p n p (2.5)(1150 )
=
=
= 753 fpm
Fs =
vm
12
Fs = Fd
12
1
50 + (753)2
Fd = 369 =
Ft
50
Ft = 238 lb
hp =
Ft vm
(238)(753) = 5.43 hp
=
33,000
33,000
Page 54 of 57
78 + vm2
Fd =
Ft
78
1
2
Fd = 369 =
78 + (753)
Ft
78
Ft = 273 lb
hp =
666.
Ft vm
(273)(753) = 6.23 hp
=
33,000
33,000
A planetary gear train is composed of four gears the sun gear B , two planet
gears C , as shown. Gears B and C have 20 teeth each, gear D has 60; Pd = 10 ,
1
b = 1 in ., 20o F.D. teeth, cast iron, class 20, nB = 1750 rpm . (a) Determine the
4
speed of the arm. (b) What horsepower may be transmitted continuously? Note
that the dynamic load (AGMA equation , 13.15) depends on the speed of tooth
engagement, which is not the absolute pitch line speed of B (pitchline speed
relative to arm for B C ). Check the speed of tooth engagement of both B C
and C D . (c) If the designer wishes to increase the power transmitted by using
three planet gears, instead of two, what changes must be made in tooth numbers
so that the gears can be assembled with the planets 120o apart?
Solution:
nL = enF + na (1 e )
(20)(20)
1
e=
=
(20)(60)
3
nF = nB = 1750 rpm
nL = 0 = nD
1
1
0 = (1750 ) + na 1 +
3
3
na = 437.5 rpm
(assumed)
vm =
D p nB A
12
Page 55 of 57
Np
(nB n A ) 20 (1750 437.5)
D p
10
=
=
= 687 fpm
12
12
vm =
Dg nD A
12
N
g
Dp
(nD n A ) 60 (0 437.5)
10
=
= 687 fpm
12
12
sbY
K f Pd
Let K f = 1.2
s = 0.4su = 0.4(20) = 8 ksi = 8000 psi
For N = 20 , Y = 0.32 , load at tip, 20o F.D.
(8000)1 1 (0.32)
Fs =
4
(1.2)(10)
= 267 lb
Fs = Fd
600 + 687
267 =
Ft
600
Ft = 124 lb
hp =
Ft vm
(124)(687) = 2.6 hp
=
33,000
33,000
Page 56 of 57
use Pd = 7
N = DPd = (2)(7 ) = 14 teeth
 end 
Page 57 of 57
For continuous duty in a speed reducer, two helical gears are to be rated at 7.4 hp
at a pinion speed of 1750 rpm; m w 2.75 ; the helix angle 15o ; 20o F.D. teeth in
the normal plane; let N p = 21 teeth, and keep b < 2 D p . Determine the pitch, face,
N g , and the material and heat treatment. Use throughhardened teeth with a
maximum of 250 BHM (teeth may be cut after heat treatment).
Solution:
= 15o
n = 20o
D p n p
vm =
12
N p 21
Dp =
=
Pd
Pd
n p = 1750 rpm
21
(1750)
Pd
9621
vm =
=
12
Pd
33,000hp (33,000 )(7.4 )
Ft =
=
= 25.38 Pd
vm
9621
P
d
b 2 Dp
21 42
b = 2 =
Pd Pd
0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos
Fd = Ft +
lb
1
2
2
0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos )
Table AT 25
Assume C = 1660
= 15o
Fd = 25.38Pd +
9621
42
25.38Pd + 1660 cos 2 15 cos15
0.05
Pd
Pd
9621
42
+ 25.38Pd + 1660 cos 2 15
0.05
Pd
Pd
Page 1 of 14
1
2
lb
Fd = 25.38 Pd +
465
65050
25.38 Pd +
Pd
Pd
481
65050
+ 25.38 Pd +
Pd
Pd
Fd
3967
4758
Fw
3708
5046
use Pd = 6
21 21
Dp =
=
= 3.5 in
Pd
6
42 42
b=
=
= 7 in
Pd
6
9621 9621
vm =
=
= 1604 fpm
Pd
6
Fig. AF 19, permissible error = 0.0018 in
Fig. AF 20
Use carefully cut gears, Pd = 6
Error = 0.001 in is o.k.
For material
Strength
sbY cos
Fs =
K f Pd
Page 2 of 14
1
2
lb
21
= 23
cos cos3 15
Table AT 24, Load near middle
N ep = 23 , n = 20o FD
N ep =
Y = 0.565
assume K f = 2.0
Fs = N sf Fd
assume N sf = 2.0
s (7 )(0.565) cos15
= (4758)(2)
(2 )(6)
s = 29,892 psi
s
use sn = u
3
su = 3(29,892) = 89,676 psi
Use C1050, OQT 1100 F,
su = 122 ksi , BHN = 248 < 250
Ans.
Pd = 6
b = 7 in
N g = mw N p = (2.75)(21) = 58
Material. C1050, OQT 1100 F
703.
Solution:
(4.75)(1750)
vm =
= 2176 fpm
12
33,000hp (33,000 )(50 )
Ft =
=
= 758 lb
vm
(2176)
Dynamic load:
0.05vm Ft + Cb cos 2 cos
Fd = Ft +
lb
1
2
2
0.05vm + Ft + Cb cos
Fig. AF 19, vm = 2176 fpm
Permissible error = 0.0014 in
Page 3 of 14
b(4.75)(1.619 )(270 )
= 2225b
cos 2 15
2
Fw Fd , bmin = 2 Pa =
= 4.69 in.
Pd tan
By trial and error method
Fw =
b
5
6
Fd
5203
5811
Fw
11125
13350
use b = 5 in
Material:
Strength:
sbY
sbY cos
Fs =
=
K f Pdn
K f Pd
Np
N ep =
cos3
N p = Pd D p = (5)(4.375) = 22
22
= 25
cos3 15
Table AT 24, Load near middle
N ep =
Page 4 of 14
1
2
lb
s (5)(0.580) cos15
= 0.32955s
(1.7 )(5)
Fs = N sf Fd
for 24 hr/day service, heavy shock loading
N sf = 1.75
Fs =
0.32955s = (1.75)(5203)
s = 27,629 psi
s
use sn = u
3
su = 3(27,629) = 82,887 psi
Table AT 9
Use 4150, OQT 1200 F,
su = 159ksi , BHN = 331 < 350
Ans.
Pd = 5
b = 5 in
Material. 4150, OQT 1200 F
705.
Design the teeth for two herringbone gears for a singlereduction speed reducer
with mw = 3.80 . The capacity is 36 hp at 3000 rpm of the pinion; = 30o ; F.D.
teeth with n = 20o . Since space is at a premium, the initial design is for N p = 15
teeth and carburized teeth of AISI 8620; preferably b < 2 D p .
Solution:
N
15
Dp = p =
Pd
Pd
b 2Dp
b = 2 Dp =
vm =
30
Pd
D p n p
12
15
(3000)
P
11,781
vm = d
=
12
Pd
Page 5 of 14
Pd
Dynamic load
0.05vm Ft + Cb cos 2 cos
Fd = Ft +
lb
1
2
0.05vm + Ft + Cb cos 2
Ft =
n = 20
= 30 o
Assume C = 1660 , Table AT 25, 20o FD
11,781
30
101Pd + 1660 cos 2 30 cos 30
0.05
Pd
Pd
Fd = 101Pd +
lb
1
2
11,781
30
+ 101Pd + 1660 cos 2 30
0.05
Pd
Pd
510
37,350
101Pd +
Pd
Pd
Fd = 101Pd +
lb
1
2
589
37,350
+ 101Pd +
Pd
Pd
Wear load
bD pQK g
Fw =
cos 2
2 mg
2(3.80)
Q=
=
= 1.583
mg + 1 3.80 + 1
For AISI 8620, carburized, 20o FD
K g = 750 for 1010 cycles
30 15 (1.583)(750) 712,350
Fw =
=
2
Pd2
Pd Pd cos 30
By trial and error, Fw Fd
Pd
Fd
Fw
5
4433
28,494
4
5454
44,522
6
3817
19,788
8
3173
11,130
9
3008
8794
Page 6 of 14
Pd
5
4
6
8
9
11,781
Pd
2356.2
1963.5
1683
1473
1309 fpm
vm =
use Pd = 9
Fd = 3008 lb
Fw = 5794 lb > Fd
30 30
b=
=
= 3.3 in
Pd
9
use b = 3.0 in
To check for strength
sbY
sbY cos
Fs =
=
K f Pdn
K f Pd
Np
N ep =
cos3
N p = 15
15
= 23
cos3 30
Table AT 24, Load near middle
N ep = 23 , n = 20o FD
N ep =
Y = 0.565
assume K f = 1.7
Page 7 of 14
CHECK PROBLEMS
707.
The data for a pair of carefully cut gears are: Pdn = 5 , n = 20o , = 12o ,
b = 3.5 in. , N p = 18 , N g = 108 teeth; pinion turns 1750 rpm. Materials: pinion,
SAE 4150, OQT to BHN = 350; gear, SAE 3150, OQT to BHN = 300. Operation
is with moderate shock for 8 to 10 hr./day. What horsepower may be transmitted
continuously?
Solution:
N
Dp = p
Pd
Pd = Pdn cos = (5)cos15 = 4.89
18
Dp =
= 3.681 in
4.89
Wear load
bD pQK g
Fw =
cos 2
b = 3.5 in.
2Ng
2(108)
Q=
=
= 1.7143
N p + N g 18 + 108
Table AT 26, n = 20o
Sum of BHN = 350 + 300 = 650
K g = 233
Fw =
(3.5)(3.681)(1.7143)(233) = 5379 lb
cos 2 12
Strength of gear
sbY
Fs =
lb
K f Pdn
For gear: SAE 3150, OQT to BHN = 300
su = 151 ksi
Page 8 of 14
(87,500)(3.5)(0.534) = 19,240 lb
(1.7 )(5)
19,240 = 1.5Fd
Fd 12,827 lb
Therefore use Fd = Fw = 5379 lb
Fd = Ft +
lb
1
0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos 2 )2
Fig. AF 20, carefully cut gears, Pdn = 5 , e = 0.001 in
Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20o FD
C = 1660
D p n p (3.681)(1750)
vm =
=
= 1686 fpm
12
12
0.05(1686) Ft + 1660(3.5) cos 2 12 cos12
Fd = Ft +
lb
1
2
0.05(1686) + Ft + 1660(3.5) cos 12 2
82.46[Ft + 5559]
Fd = Ft +
= 5379 lb
1
84.3 + [Ft + 5559]2
Trial and error
Ft = 1800 lb
Fv
(1800)(1686) = 92 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
Page 9 of 14
708.
Two helical gears are used in a single reduction speed reducer rated at 27.4 hp at
a motor speed of 1750 rpm; continuous duty. The rating allows an occasional 100
% momentary overload. The pinion has 33 teeth. Pdn = 10 , b = 2 in. , n = 20o ,
= 20o , mw = 2.82 . For both gears, the teeth are carefully cut from SAE 1045
with BHN = 180. Compute (a) the dynamic load, (b) the endurance strength;
estimate K f = 1.7 . Also decide whether or not the 100 % overload is damaging.
(c) Are these teeth suitable for continuous service? If they are not suitable
suggest a cure. (The gears are already cut.)
Solution:
N
Dp = p
Pd
Pd = Pdn cos = (10) cos15 = 9.66
33
Dp =
= 3.42 in
9.66
D p n p (3.42)(1750)
vm =
=
= 1567 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(27.4 )
Ft =
=
= 577 lb
vm
1567
(a) Dynamic load
0.05vm (Ft + Cb cos 2 )cos
Fd = Ft +
lb
1
0.05vm + (Ft + Cb cos 2 )2
Fig. AF 20, carefully cut gears, Pdn = 10 , e = 0.001 in
Table AT 25, steel and steel, 20o FD
C = 1660
b = 2 in
Fd = 577 +
Page 10 of 14
1
2
= 2578 lb
sbY
(45,000)(2)(0.645) = 3415 lb
=
(1.7 )(10)
K f Pdn
For 100 % overload
Ft = 2(577 ) = 1154 lb
Fs =
Fd = Ft +
lb
Fd = 1154 +
(c) Fw =
1
2
= 3475 lb
bD pQK g
cos 2
b = 2 in.
2mw
2(2.82 )
Q=
=
= 1.476
mw + 1 2.82 + 1
cos 2 15
Therefore not suitable for continuous service.
Cure: Through hardened teeth
For Bhn
2578
Kg =
(62.5) = 238
676
min Bhn = 0.5(650) = 325
709.
Two helical gears are used in a speed reducer whose input is 100 hp at 1200 rpm,
from an internal combustion engine. Both gears are made of SAE 4140, with the
pinion heat treated to a BHN 363 415, and the gear to 321 363; let the teeth
be F.D.; 20o pressure angle in the normal plane; carefully cut; helix angle
= 15o ; N p = 22 , N g = 68 teeth; Pd = 5 , b = 4 in . Calculate the dynamic load,
the endurance strength load, and the limiting wear load for the teeth. Should these
gears have long life if they operate continuously? (Data courtesy of the Twin
Disc Clutch Co.)
Solution:
Page 11 of 14
Fd = 2388 +
1
2
= 5930 lb
Assume K f = 1.7
Pinion
sn = 0.25BHN = 0.25(363) = 90.75 ksi
Np
22
N ep =
=
= 25
3
cos cos3 15
Table AT 24, Load near middle, n = 20o
Y = 0.580
sbY cos (90,750)(4 )(0.580) cos15
Fs =
=
= 23,925 lb
(1.7 )(5)
K f Pd
Gear
sn = 0.25BHN = 0.25(321) = 80.25 ksi
Np
68
N ep =
=
= 75
3
cos cos3 15
Table AT 24, Load near middle, n = 20o
Y = 0.735
sbY cos (80,250 )(4)(0.735)cos15
Fs =
=
= 26,811 lb
(1.7 )(5)
K f Pd
use Fs = 23,925 lb
Page 12 of 14
2Ng
2(68)
=
= 1.511
N p + N g 22 + 68
Fw =
(4)(4.4)(1.511)(270) = 7696 lb
cos 2 15
Since Fw (= 7696 lb ) > Fd (= 5930 lb ) these gears have long life if they operate
continuously.
CROSSED HELICAL
710.
Helical gears are to connect two shafts that are at right angles
( N1 = 20 , N 2 = 40 , Pdn = 10 , 1 = 2 = 45o ). Determine the center distance.
Solution:
D cos 1
N1 = 1
= Pdn D1 cos 1
Pcn
20 = (10)(D1 )cos 45
D1 = 2.83 in
N 2 = Pdn D2 cos 2
40 = (10)(D2 )cos 45
D2 = 5.66 in
C = 12 (D1 + D2 ) = 12 (2.83 + 5.66) = 4.25 in
712.
Two shafts that are at right angles are to be connected by helical gears. A
tentative design is to use N1 = 20 , N 2 = 60 , Pdn = 10 , and a center distance of 6
in. What must be the helix angles?
Solution:
= 1 + 2 = 90o
N1
D1 =
Pdn cos 1
N2
D2 =
Pdn cos 2
1
C = 2 (D1 + D2 )
Page 13 of 14
1 = 39.5o
2 = 50.5o
 end 
Page 14 of 14
Decide upon the pitch, face, N g , material, and heat treatment of a pair of straight
bevel gears to transmit continuously and indefinitely a uniform loading of 5 hp at
900 rpm of the pinion, reasonable operating temperature, high reliability;
mg 1.75 ; D p 3.333 in . Pinion overhangs, gear is straddle mounted.
Solution:
L = rp2 + rg2
tan p =
1
2
1
1
=
mg 1.75
p = 29.75o
L sin p = rp
L sin 29.75 =
3.333
2
L = 3.358 in
33,000hp
Ft =
lb
vm
D p n p (3.333)(900)
vm =
=
= 785.4 fpm
12
12
33,000(5)
Ft =
= 210 lb
785.4
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
1
50 + vm2 50 + (785.4 ) 2
VF =
=
= 1.56
50
50
One gear straddle, one not
K m = 1.2
Table 15.2, uniform
N sf = 1.0
D p = 3.333 in
Page 1 of 17
= 393
Fs = F d
(19,000)(1.0)(0.240)
Pd
1
(0.71)(1)(1.5) = 393
Pd = 11
say Pd = 10
10 10
so that b =
=
= 1.0 in
Pd 10
Dg = D p mg = (3.333)(1.75) = 5.833 in
Page 2 of 17
say N g = 58
Use Pd = 10 , b = 1.0 in , N g = 58
Material = steel, min. Bhn = 300
752.
A pair of steel Zerol bevel gears to transmit 25 hp at 600 rpm of the pinion;
mg = 3 ; let N p 20 teeth; highest reliability; the pinion is overhung, the gear
straddle mounted. An electric motor drives a multicylinder pump. (a) Decide
upon the pitch, face width, diameters, and steel (with treatment) for intermittent
service. (b) The same as (a) except that indefinite life is desired.
Solution:
N
20
Dp = p =
Pd
Pd
20
(600)
D p n p
Pd
1000
vm =
=
=
fpm
12
12
Pd
10
Let b =
Pd
Dynamic load
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
33,000hp
lb
vm
33,000(25)
Ft =
= 262.6 Pd
1000
Pd
Ft =
1000
50 +
1
2
Pd
50 + vm
1.121
1.121
VF =
=
= 1 + 12 = 1 +
50
50
Pd
Pd
Table 15.2, electric motor drives a multicylinder pump
Service factor, N sf = 1.25
2
Pd
Pd
Page 3 of 17
(15,000) 10 (0.205)(4.6)
1.121
= 394 Pd 1 +
P
d
1.121
66,408
=
394
P
d 1 +
Pd2
P
d
Pd = 4.814
say Pd = 5
10 10
b=
=
= 2.0 in
Pd
5
Pd
Pd (0.71)(1.0 )(3)
N p 20
=
= 4 in
Pd
5
K t = 1.0
Dp =
Page 4 of 17
Pd = 5
Fw = Fd
2
2
(4)(2)(0.083) scd 2 1.5 = 394(5)1 + 1.121
(2800) (1.0)(1.25)
5
Dg = mg D p = (3)(4 ) = 12 in
steel, min. BHN = 360
(15,000) 10 (0.205)(1.0)
1.121
= 394 Pd 1 +
P
d
1.121
14,437
= 394 Pd 1 +
2
Pd
P
d
Pd = 2.799
say Pd = 3
10 10
b=
=
= 3.33 in
Pd
3
Pd
Pd (0.71)(1.0)(3)
Wear load
Page 5 of 17
Fw = D pbI 2
C e K t Cr
N p 20
=
= 6.67 in
Pd
3
Fw = Fd
Dp =
2
(6.67 )(3.33)(0.083) scd 2 1.0 = 394(3)1 + 1.121
(2800) (1.0)(1.25)
3
Dg = mg D p = (3)(6.67 ) = 20 in
steel, min. BHN = 240
753.
Decide upon the pitch, face, and number of teeth for two spiralbevel gears for a
speed reducer. The input to the pinion is 20 hp at 1750 rpm; mg 1.9 ; pinion
overhung, gearstraddle mounted. It is hoped not to exceed a maximum D p of 4
3/8in.; steel gears with minimum 245 BHN on pinion and 210 BHN on gear.
The gear is motordriven, subject to miscellaneous drives involving moderate
shock; indefinite life against breakage and wear with high reliability. If the gears
designed for the foregoing data are to be subjected to intermittent service only,
how much power could they be expected to transmit?
Solution:
(a) vm =
D p n p
(4.375)(1750)
= 2000 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(20 )
Ft =
=
= 330 lb
vm
2000
Dynamic load
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
One gear straddle, one not
K m = 1.2
Table 15.2
Motordriven, moderate shock
Page 6 of 17
70 + vm2 2
VF =
, spiral
70
1
70 + (2000) 2
VF =
= 1.254
70
Fd = (1.254)(1.25)(1.2)(330) = 621 lb
1
Wear load
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
D p = 4.375 in
(116,000)2 1.0
Fw = (4.375)(b )(0.12)
(2800)2 (1.0)(1.25)
Fw = Fd
721b = 621
b = 0.8613 in
7
say b = in = 0.875 in
8
Strength of gear
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
sd = design flexural stress
min. BHN = 210
sd = 15.4 ksi
Size factor, assume K s = 0.71
Page 7 of 17
= 721b
= P
Pd
(0.71)(1)(1.5)
d
Fs = Fd
3543
= 621
Pd
Pd = 5.7
say Pd = 6
7
Then, Pd = 6 , b = in , N p = D p Pd = (4.375)(6 ) = 26
8
N g = mw N p = (1.9 )(26 ) = 50
(b) Intermittent service only
Strength
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
sd = 15,400 psi (Gear)
For Pd = 6 , K s = 0.64
For indefinite service, K l = 4.6
K t = 1.0 , K r = 1.5
Geometry factor, Fig. 15.6, N p = 26 , N g = 50
J = 0.292
(15,400)(0.875)(0.292) 4.6 = 3142 lb
Fs =
(0.71)(1)(1.5)
6
Wear load
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
D p = 4.375 in
K t = 1.0
scd = 116 ksi
Ce = 2800
Page 8 of 17
(116,000)2 1.5
Fw = (4.375)(0.875)(0.116 )
(2800)2 (1.0)(1.25)
= 1098 lb
use Fw = Fd
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
1098 = (1.254)(125)(1.2)Ft
Ft = 584 lb
Fv
(584)(2000) = 35 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
CHECK PROBLEMS
755.
Solution:
D 15
D p = g = = 5 in
mg
3
D p n p (5)(500)
vm =
=
= 655 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(45)
Ft =
=
= 2267 lb
vm
655
Dynamic load
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
1
50 + vm2 50 + (655) 2
VF =
=
= 1.512
50
50
One gear straddle, one not
K m = 1.2
Page 9 of 17
Fs =
(30,000)(2.375)(0.205)
5143
1
(0.71)(1)(K ) = K
r
r
Fs = Fd
5143
= 4113
Kr
K r = 1.25 < 1.5 will not perform high reliability.
Wear load
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
D p = 5 in
b = 2.375 in
Table 15.3, scd = 225 ksi
(225,000)2 1
Fw = (5)(2.375)(0.083)
(2800)2 (1)(Cr )
Fw = Fd
Page 10 of 17
6364
Cr2
Since K r < 1.5 ,this will not perform high reliability but 1 in 100, K r 1.12 < 1.25
756.
Solution:
N
16
Dp = p =
= 5.333 in
Pd
3
D p n p (5.333)(800)
vm =
=
= 1117 fpm
12
12
33,000hp 33,000(15.26 )
Ft =
=
= 451 lb
vm
1117
Dynamic load
Fd = (VF )N sf K m Ft
1
50 + vm2 50 + (1117 ) 2
VF =
=
= 1.668
50
50
One gear straddle, one not
K m = 1.2
Page 11 of 17
(4,600)(3)(0.184)
1
Fs =
D p = 5.333 in
b = 3 in
Table 15.3, scd = 50 ksi , castiron class 30
(50,000)2 1
Fw = (5.333)(3)(0.077 )
(2250)2 (1)(1.25)
An 870rpm motor drives a belt conveyor through bevel gears having 18 and 72
3
teeth; Pd = 6 , b = 1 in . Both gears are straddlemounted. What horsepower may
4
these gears transmit for an indefinite life with high reliability if both gears are (a)
castiron, class 40; (b) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F; (c) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F,
flame hardened (d) AISI 8620, SOQT 450 F?
Solution:
N
18
D p = p = = 3 in
Pd
6
D p n p (3)(870)
vm =
=
= 683 fpm
12
12
Dynamic load
Page 12 of 17
50 + vm2 50 + (683) 2
=
= 1.523
50
50
Fd = (1.523)(1.0)(1.0)Ft = 1.523Ft
VF =
(7000)(1.75)(0.204)
1
Fs =
= 434 lb
6
(0.64)(1)(1.5)
Wear:
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
D p = 3 in
3
b = 1 in
4
Table 15.3, scd = 65 ksi , castiron class 40
= 230 lb
Fd = Fw
1.523Ft = 230
Ft = 151 lb
Fv
(151)(683) = 3 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(b) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F, BHN = 300
Strength
sd = 19,000 psi
Fs =
(19,000)(1.75)(0.204)
1
(0.64)(1)(1.5) = 1178 lb
Wear:
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
= 640 lb
Fd = Fw
1.523Ft = 640
Ft = 420 lb
Fv
(420)(683) = 8.7 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(c) AISI 5140, OQT 1000 F, Flame Hardened
Strength
sd = 13.5 ksi
Fs =
(13,500)(1.75)(0.204)
1
(0.64 )(1)(1.5) = 837 lb
Wear:
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
Page 14 of 17
= 1269 lb
Fd = Fs
1.523Ft = 837
Ft = 550 lb
Fv
(550)(683) = 11.4 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
(d) AISI 86200, SOQT 450 F, carburized
Strength
sd = 30 ksi (55 63 Rc)
Fs =
(30,000)(1.75)(0.204)
1
(0.64)(1)(1.5) = 1859 lb
Wear:
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
= 1779 lb
Fd = Fw
1.523Ft = 1779
Ft = 1168 lb
Fv
(1168)(683) = 24.2 hp
hp = t m =
33,000
33,000
758.
Solution:
N
20
Dp = p =
= 4 in
Pd
5
D p n p (4)(800)
vm =
=
= 838 fpm
12
12
Page 15 of 17
Ft =
50 + vm2 50 + (838) 2
VF =
=
= 1.579
50
50
assume K m = 1.0
Fd = (1.579 )(N sf )(1.0 )(591) = 933 N sf
Strength of bevel gear
s bJ K l
Fs = d
Pd K s K t K r
For AISI 4140, OQT 800 F, BHN = 429
sd = 24 ksi
assume K l = 1
Kt = 1
Pd = 5
K s = 0.675
Figure 15.5, N p = 20 , N g = 60
J = 0.205
2916
1
(24,000)(2)(0.205)
Fs =
= K
5
r
(0.675)(1)(K r )
Fs = Fd
2916
= 933 N sf
Kr
3.1254
Kr =
N sf
Wear load:
s2 C
Fw = D pbI cd2 l
C e K t Cr
BHN = 429
Table 15.3, scd = 190 ksi
Table 15.4, steel and steel, Ce = 2800
D p = 4 in
b = 2 in
Assume Cl = 1.0 , K t = 1.0
Fig. 15.7, N p = 20 , N g = 60
I = 0.083
Page 16 of 17
3058
Cr2
Fd = Fw
3058
Cr2
1.810
Cr =
N sf
933 N sf =
For strength, K r =
For wear, Cr =
3.1254 3.1254
=
= 3.1254
N sf
1
1.810 1.810
=
= 1.810
N sf
1
3.1254 3.1254
=
= 1.5627
N sf
2
1.810 1.810
For wear, Cr =
=
= 1.2799
N sf
2
For strength, K r =
 end 
Page 17 of 17
(a) Determine a standard circular pitch and face width for a worm gear drive with
an input of 2 hp at 1200 rpm of the triplethreaded worm; the 1.58in. ( Dw ) is
steel with a minimum BHN = 250; gear is manganese bronze (Table AT 3);
mw = 12 . Consider wear and strength only. Use a n to match the lead angle .
(See i16.13, Text.) (b) compute the efficiency.
Solution:
1200 + vmg
Ft lb
a) Fd =
1200
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
n
1200
ng = w =
= 100 rpm
mw
12
Dg = mw Dw tan
tan =
N t Pc
Dw
N P N m P (3)(12)Pc
Dg = mw Dw t c = t w c =
= 11.46 Pc
Dw
(11.45Pc )(100)
vmg =
= 300 Pc
12
33,000(2 ) 220
Ft =
=
300 Pc
Pc
1200 + 300 Pc 220 55(4 + Pc )
Fd =
=
lb
1200
Pc
Pc
Wear load
Fw = Dg bK w
say b = 2 Pc ,
Dg = 11.46 Pc
Fw = Fd
22.92 Pc2 K w =
Page 1 of 19
55(4 + Pc )
Pc
tan =
Pc
Pc (std)
36
50
0.678
0.605
5/8
24.4
20.7
5
in
8
Fw = Fd
55 4 +
(11.46) 5 (b)(50) = 5 8
8
8
b = 1.1365 in
5
say b = 1 in
32
To check for strength.
sYbPcn sYbPc cos
Fs =
=
n = 20o
Y = 0.392
= 20.7o
5
Pc = in
8
5
b = 1 in
32
(30,000)(0.392)1 5
5
cos 20.7
32 8
= 2530 lb > Fd
Fs =
use Pc =
b =1
5
in
8
5
in
32
Page 2 of 19
max
i16.11
16
25
n
14
20
(b) e = tan
cos n tan + f
n = 20o
= 20.7o
Dwnw (1.58)(1200 )
vr =
=
= 531 fpm > 70 fpm
12 cos
12 cos 20.7
0.32
0.32
=
= 0.0334
0.36
vr
(531)0.36
cos 20 0.0334 tan 20.7
e = tan 20.7
= 0.902 = 90.2%
cos 20 tan 20.7 + 0.0334
f =
792.
Solution:
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
n
1750
ng = w =
= 159.1 rpm
mw
11
PN
Pm N
P (11)(4 )
Dg = c g = c w t = c
= 14 Pc
vmg =
(14 Pc )(159.1)
= 583Pc
12
33,000(20 ) 1132
Ft =
=
583Pc
Pc
Page 3 of 19
1200
Pc
Pc
(a) Wear
Fw = Dg bK w
b = 2 Pc ,
Dg = 14 Pc
Fw = Fd
Pc
1132(1 + 0.4858 Pc )
28 Pc2 K w =
Pc
Table AT 27, steel, min. BHN = 250, and bronze
And by trial and error ethod
NP
4(Pc )
tan = t c =
= 0.6791Pc
Dw ( )(1.875)
Pc
Pc (std)
36
50
60
1.213
1.071
1.000
1
1
1.0
40.33
40.33
34.18
For phosphorbronze,
s = sn = 31,000 psi
Page 4 of 19
max
i16.11
16
25
35
n
14
20
25
use Pc = 1.0 in
b = 2.0 in
n = 25o
7
Dw = 1 in
8
7
Dg = mw Dw tan = (11)1 tan 34.18 = 14.0 in
8
1
1 7
C = (Dw + Dg ) = 1 + 14 = 7.9375 in
2
2 8
Equation (m)
(7.9375)0.875 = 2.785 in > 1.875 in , ok
C 0.875
Dw =
in =
2 .2
2 .2
Addendum and dedendum (by Dudley)
N g = mw N p = (11)(4 ) = 44
44
Or
Dg = 14 in
a = 0.2633 in
1
(b) e = tan
cos n tan + f
Dwnw (1.875)(1750 )
vr =
=
= 1038 fpm > 70 fpm
12 cos
12 cos 34.18
Page 5 of 19
f =
0.32
0.32
=
= 0.0263 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
0.36
vr
(1038)0.36
n = 25o , = 34.18o ,
cos 25 0.0263 tan 34.18
e = tan 34.18
= 0.94 = 94%
cos 25 tan 34.18 + 0.0263
recommendation for next trial
n = 30o
max = 45o
793.
Solution:
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
n
600
ng = w =
= 30 rpm
mw
20
PN
Pm N
P (20 )(4 ) 80 Pc
Dg = c g = c w t = c
=
80 Pc
(30)
vmg =
= 200 Pc
12
33,000(25) 4125
Ft =
=
200 Pc
Pc
1200 + vmg
Ft lb
Fd =
1200
1200 + 200 Pc 4125 687.5(6 + Pc )
Fd =
=
lb
1200
Pc
Pc
Page 6 of 19
Fw = Fd
687.5(6 + Pc )
80 Pc
(2 Pc )(K w ) =
Pc
687.5(6 + Pc )
50.93Pc2 K w =
Pc
Table AT 27, Hardened steel and chilled bronze
By trial and error method
Pc
Pc (std)
90
125
1.017
0.907
1.0
1.0
20
20
(b) e = tan
cos n tan + f
n = 20o
= 20o
Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 = 2.4 + 1.1 = 3.5 in
Dwnw (3.5)(600 )
vr =
=
= 585 fpm
12 cos
12 cos 20
0.32
0.32
f = 0.36 =
= 0.0323 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
vr
(585)0.36
cos 20 0.0323 tan 20
e = tan 20
= 0.9023 = 90.23%
cos 20 tan 20 + 0.0323
Page 7 of 19
max
i16.11
16
25
n
14
20
C=
1
C = (3.5 + 25.5) = 14.5 in
2
1.7
Amin = 43.2(14.5) = 4072 sq.in.
Temperature rise = t
Qc = hcr At ft lb min
Q = (1 e )(hpi ) = (1 0.9023)(25) = 2.4425 hp(33,000 ft lb min hp ) = 80,600 ft lb min
Figure AF 21, A = 4072 sq.in. = 28.3 sq. ft.
hcr = 0.42 ft lb min sq.in. F
Q = Qc
80,600 = (0.42)(4072)(t )
t = 47 F
with t1 = 100 F
t2 = 147 F < 150 F
Therefore, no special cooling needed.
794.
Solution:
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
n
1750
ng = w =
= 87.5 rpm
mw
20
PN
Pm N
P (20 )(4 ) 80 Pc
Dg = c g = c w t = c
=
Page 8 of 19
vmg =
= 583Pc
12
33,000(50 ) 2830
Ft =
=
583Pc
Pc
1200 + vmg
Ft lb
(a) Fd =
1200
1200 + 583Pc 2830 1375(2.06 + Pc )
Fd =
=
lb
1200
Pc
Pc
Wear load
Fw = Dg bK w
b = 2 Pc ,
80 Pc
Dg =
Fw = Fd
1375(2.06 + Pc )
80 Pc
(2 Pc )(K w ) =
Pc
1375(2.06 + Pc )
50.93Pc2 K w =
Pc
NP
tan = t c
Dw
Shelltype
Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 in
4 Pc
tan =
(2.4 Pc + 1.1)
Table AT 27, hightest castiron and manganese bronze
By trial and error and using Table AT 27 ( n )
Kw
Pc
Pc (std)
80
115
1.012
0.885
1.0
7/8
20
19.2
7
in
8
7
Dw = 2.4 Pc + 1.1 = 2.4 + 1.1 = 3.2 in
8
Fw = Fd
Page 9 of 19
max
i16.11
16
25
n
14
20
1375 2.06 +
80 7
8
(b )(115) =
7
8
8
b = 1.80 in
7
say b = 1 in
8
cos n f tan
(b) e = tan
cos n tan + f
= 19.2o
n = 20o
Dwnw
vr =
12 cos
nw = 1750 rpm
Dw = 3.2 in
Dwnw (3.2 )(1750 )
vr =
=
= 1552 fpm
12 cos
12 cos19.2
0.32
0.32
f = 0.36 =
= 0.0227 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
vr
(1552)0.36
cos 20 0.0227 tan 19.2
e = tan 19.2
= 0.9273 = 92.73%
cos 20 tan 19.2 + 0.0227
1
C = (3.2 + 22.35) = 12.75 in
2
1.7
A = 43.2(12.75) = 3272 sq.in.
Figure AF 1
3272
A=
= 22.7 ft 2
144
hcr = 0.43 ft lb min sq.in. F
Page 10 of 19
Solution:
33,000hp
Ft =
vmg
Dg ng
vmg =
12
nw 580
ng =
=
= 48.3 rpm
mw 20
PN
P m N (1.15278)(12 )(3)
Dg = c g = c w t =
= 13.21 in
vmg =
(13.21)(48.3)
12
= 167 fpm
1200 + vmg
Ft
(a) Fd =
1200
1200 + 167
Fd =
Ft
1200
33,000(16 )
Ft =
= 3162 lb
167
1200 + 167
Fd =
(3162 ) = 3602 lb
1200
Page 11 of 19
(b) Fs =
sYbPcn
sYbPc cos
N P (3)(1.15278)
tan = t c =
Dw
(3.136 )
= 19.34o
For manganesebronze, s = sn = 30,000 psi
For n = 25o , Y = 0.470
(30,000)(0.470) 2 1 (1.15278)cos19.34
Fs =
= 10,984 lb
Service factor
F 10,984
= 3.05
N sf = s =
3602
Fd
(c) Fw = Dg bK w
Dg = 13.21 in
b = 2.25 in
Table AT 27, hardenedsteel worn and manganese bronze gear
n = 25o
K w = 100
Fw = (13.21)(2.25)(100) = 2972 lb < Fd (= 3602 lb )
Therefore, not good for indefinitely continuous service
cos n f tan
(d) e = tan
cos n tan + f
Dwnw (1.15278)(580 )
vr =
=
= 185.5 fpm
12 cos
12 cos19.34
0.32
0.32
f = 0.36 =
= 0.0488 ( 70 < vr < 3000 fpm )
vr
(185.5)0.36
cos 25 0.0488 tan 19.34
e = tan 19.34
= 0.85 = 85%
cos 25 tan 19.34 + 0.0488
hp 16 hp
hpi = o =
= 18.82 hp
e
0.85
Page 12 of 19
Q = Qc
93,159 = (0.47 )(1233)(t )
t = 161 F
(f) Tangential components on the worm
cos n sin + f cos
cos 25 sin 19.34 + 0.0488 cos19.34
= 3162
Wt = Ft
= 1305 lb
cos 25 cos19.34 0.0488 sin 19.34
cos n cos f sin
on the gear
Ft = 3162 lb
radial components
Ft sin n
3162 sin 25
S=
=
= 1593 lb
cos n cos f sin cos 25 cos19.34 0.0488 sin 19.34
(g) = 19.34o > 5o , not selflocking
797.
Solution:
Page 13 of 19
(a) e = tan
cos n tan + f
= 28o57' = 28.95o