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This chapter aims to present the background of the study, the statement of
the problem, the specific problem, the significance of the study, the scope and
limitations, and the definition of terms used.

Background of the Study

Time, of most of the things in life, has no value to be bought. No one is

able to control or direct it to ones satisfaction. It is simply constant. It moves at
the same rate regardless of who you are and what you are trying to accomplish.
Thus, it has no respect to anyone consequently people would always try to make
the most out of their time in accordance to what they believe they must do first.
As people struggle in making most of their time, they have come to the
organization of their activities with different methods, techniques and information
which we commonly refer to as time management.
The youth today has no hold of his/her time; most of them do things
randomly or whatever they face in life. They are socially, mentally and physically
busy. A fourth year student is being put on a hectic schedule and much pressure.
They are now entering a critical stage of being formed into the best and last of
their high school education. Time to them is money, once spent on either
important or unimportant things; its taken away from their hands, there is no
turning back. Some would say that the last year of high school is almost
unbearable; still some are on the top of their game.

Even Sean Covey said that:

life for teens is no longer a playground. Its a jungle
out thereLooking back, Im actually amazed that I
survived. Barely.
These high school students might not have the time for everything but to
do more in less time is an achievement for them. Their time as a senior is mostly
spent with school works, different curricular and co-curricular activities and they
obviously get themselves too preoccupied.
From Stephen R. Coveys point of view there are many beliefs, demands
and complaints of teens which are then reasons of their behavior, habits and how
they manage their time. According to him, these thoughts are some like:
I need more time...I want to enjoy my life more. Im
always running around. I never have time for myselfMy
friends and family want more of mebut how do I give it to
them?...Im always in crisis because I procrastinate, but I
procrastinate because Im always in crisisI have no
balance between my personal life and workIt seems like
when I take time from one for the other, it just makes matters
worseTheres too much stressTheres too much to do
and its all good. How do I choose?
These points of views have huge impacts on how students plan and make
up their daily routines. Even though they are greatly bothered, there are still
instances that tempt students to kill some of their precious time not minding
whats more important. It is in this context that this study entitled, Time
Management is conducted.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine the efficiency of the time management of

NDGM 4th Year Crme Class Students S.Y. 2008-2009.
Specifically, it seeks to find answers to the following questions:
1. Have the time management of NDGM 4th year students belonging in
the crme class help them to become a better student?
2. What are the implications of the findings of the study to the 4th year
students of Notre Dame of Greater Manila?
3. How important is it to have an efficient time management to NDGM 4 th
year students belonging in the crme class?

Thesis Statement

The efficiency of time management of 4th year students belonging in the

crme class presents the current condition/manner on how students manage
their time in the various activities they involve themselves into which may
determine the factors of the efficient way of time management for students.

Significance of the Study

Determining the efficiency of the time management of selected 4 th year

High School students in Notre Dame of Greater Manila in the class of St. Eugene
would be beneficial to many and would become a big help for improvements in
managing time.

The findings of this study would be helpful in the following ways:

To the students. This study clearly is intended to help students be
conscious and aware of how they spend their time. Looking on the things they do
everyday, hopefully it will help them realize if theyre on the right track.
To the parents and teachers. Having been able to learn how their
students/sons/daughters manage their time, theyll have a step ahead on guiding
and molding these teens to positively potential people and better yet to have an
open-mind to them.

Scope and Limitations

The coverage of this study focuses on how efficient is the time

management of NDGM 4th year students belonging in the crme class throughout
the school year 2008-2009. Causes and factors affecting the students time
management are also comprehended. Ways on effective time managing, stress
management, goal setting and similar topics are also reviewed upon.
The researchers will then determine these through various contexts,
references and previous studies of foreign and local authors. Most importantly,
this study is based upon the students themselves.

Definition of terms

For better understanding of this study, the following operational terms are
Time is limited; constant in motion; continued progress of events and existence
Time Management - how a person directs his everyday activities by overseeing
it in great relation with his time
NDGM 4th Year Students teenage people aging from 14-17 years old studying
in the fourth year high school level of Notre Dame of Greater Manila
Consequently as a result
Procrastinate delay or postpone an action; put off doing something
Pertinent relevant or applicable to a particular matter
Convoluted extremely complex and difficult to follow
Comprehend grasp mentally; understand
Efficient Time Management is when one is able to finish all necessary or
more things in less time and with less effort.



This chapter aims to present the background literature and studies related
to the present study.

Foreign Literature

Time Management and Its Importance

Getting the most out of every day is what requires one to effectively
manage his time. Learning how to manage time successfully is the key to
accomplishing what he must and want. Time management as defined by the
University of Iowa as,
one of the hardest things to do but one of the most
important because when time is goneits gone, you cant
retrieve it and you cant store it up for later use.
To accomplish ones goal is another reason why people manage their time.
It is stated by Gene Donohue,
A goal is realistic if you stand reasonably good odds of
accomplishing it, given enough time and effortand indeed,
mountains can be moved if given enough time and effort.
Almost any goal, no matter how difficult, can be made easier by
breaking it down into several smaller goals, to be tackled one at
a time.

Time management is given concern globally. The world today is faced with
so many distractions from the advancement of technologies and various
entertainments. People are then confused on what they are to do first while
staying focused on their goals. As Stephen Covey explains from his book First
Things First most people are driven by the concept of urgency. But to really
effect positive change in our lives, we need to reorganize the way we spend our
time; based on the concept of importance - not urgency.
The ability to get things done and overcome procrastination is one of the
most important skills to master if one wishes to attain balance in life. The point is
not just to cut down activities, but to make sure those important things are done
first and not just urgent or things which satisfies emotions.
Effects of Time Management
Poor time management can cause a lot of stress. When things gets out of
place and put on dead time, there are a lot of consequences. Cramming is one of
the most common habits of students caused by undone work on time or having to
do an activity a blink near the due date. Well, mostly students are tempted to laze
around, do nothing or do whatever they want to especially now that there are a
lot of distractions. Of course, things you dont like to do do not motivate you.
Sometimes, you choose a pleasurable activity over an important activity. It
doesnt always happen that your important chore is an enjoyable but to choose
unimportant from important mostly ends with cramming. Cases of cramming
usually go through with a lot of stress, lack of sleep, and unfinished school works.
Worse case scenarios would be failing grade marks and mental absence. Its
even stressful to think that he/she is not done yet with whatever he/she must do.
But if one plans, knows his objectives, avoids temptations, stress-inducing pitfalls
can be easily avoided. It is always a solution to analyze schedules,
responsibilities, and daily tasks. If there are so many things one must go over
with, try to distinguish between the shoulds and the musts. Drop tasks that

arent truly necessary to the bottom of the list or eliminate them entirely.
According to the group of Melinda Smith, M.A.:





commitment of ones self, prioritizing tasks, breaking projects

into small steps and delegating responsibility are ways on how
a person can avoid stress. And easily gets the job done.

Local Literature

When talking about time, Filipinos are known for being late. When a
particular time is given, it is expected for a Filipino to come in late but this can
now be proven wrong although it is still claimed by some authors.
A particular author would be Johanna Francisco in 2003. According to her,
Filipino Time is the coined phrase for the embarrassing
affliction of tardiness among Filipinos. It is curious and mind
boggling how the general population of a certain nation could
possibly be chronically late. And yet, it has been tried and
tested to be true to this very day. Try having a party with the
invitation stating an arrival time of 4 pm, and people will start
trickling in at 5 or 6 pm.
This might still sound a bit harsh having heard that Filipinos cannot
really race with time but nowadays is different. Time tends to change
people and in this reality, Filipinos are the present of their past. To catch
up with the modern economy, many Filipinos now have also introduced
techniques, methods, and information on managing time for the new

These are the 10 basic principles of time management one should

take note of according to Pastor Arnold Perona:
1. Live in the present for you cannot change what
happened, as life is to be lived today, and as the future depends
on what we do today. 2. Value your activity and ask yourself if
every minute is really worth it. 3. Create a daily written schedule
where you must respond accordingly to your activity. Mental
schedule; sequence is very important; you need to know what
you will be doing in the next 24 hours. 4. Prioritize your tasks by
starting with the most difficult (if it doesn't work for you, start
with the least difficult task). 5. Use short period of time
effectively and maximize your 15 minute break, take a power
nap, do something productive and relaxing at the same time. If
you want to be remembered forever; plant a tree, bear a child,
write a book! 6. Do not allow others to determine your schedule,
set aside distractions. 7. Working smart beats those who work
hard, prioritize and plan. 8. Recognize time wasters. Do not put
one over yourself. Stand on your feet and think quickly. Do not
concentrate on irrelevant questions/issues. Train well to avoid
time wasters. God gives us two ends; to sit down and to think.
9. Focus on personal productivity- poor discipline is your
problem. Do not mind what's happening in your left or what's
happening in your right, but rather focus on what's in front of
you. Live according to your personal standards. Discipline your
self. 10. The words of success are to do it now. Do not
procrastinate. Tomorrow is nothing more than a series of today.
There is no time to waste on idle dreams, every minute counts.
It makes no difference because we all have 24 hours to spend
equally; no one has the right to say "I don't have time!"



This chapter presents and discusses the research method, the subjects of
the study, the instrument used and the procedure undertaken.

The Research Method

The study made use of the descriptive method to determine the efficiency
of the time management of NDGM 4th year students belonging in the crme class
S.Y. 2008-2009. Randomly selected students from the class were given highlyprepared questionnaires to serve as the instrument for this research. The
questionnaire answered by the respondents was then analyzed for the
researchers to determine the time management of the selected 4 th year students.
It was qualitative in approach to enable the researcher to analyze carefully the
efficiency of each students time management. Descriptive method of research is
a fact finding study with adequate and accurate interpretation of the findings. It
describes with emphasis what actually exist such as current conditions,
practices, situations, or any phenomena since the present study or investigation
was concerned with the efficiency of the time management of these students.
The descriptive method of research was the most appropriate method to be

The Subjects of the Study

The subjects of the study were randomly chosen. The researchers drew
lots with the students class numbers written on folded papers. The result
consisted of fifteen (15) NDGM 4th crme class students SY 2008-2009 ranging
from 15-17 years of age. From the previous quarter, there were no written
records of failing marks from these students on any major and/or minor subject.
All students were treated equally in class and were given same school works by
the teachers. Projects, home works, quizzes, etc. were given or submitted on
same given dates and times. The only difference to be considered on their
backgrounds will be their attitude, obligations, objectives and lives inside and
outside of their homes.

The Instrument

To determine the efficiency of the time management of students, the

researchers constructed an easy and formulated questionnaire for the
respondents. It consisted of questions that the students can easily answer and
can provide the researchers enough information about their time management.
The questionnaire consisted of four parts. The first part was where the
respondents would provide personal information which was needed and relevant
to the topic. Names were not asked from the respondents for privacy purposes.
On the second part, a scaled response was used for the researchers to know
how effective their time management is by knowing their performance in different
priorities. This part was an extension of the efficiency of time management and
was used to study on the how and when will one have an efficient time
management. On the third part, a scaled response was used for the researchers
to know on how the respondents think about the effectiveness of their time

management using different study methods. This part was answered based on
the insights of the respondents and also from their own experiences as students
about having an efficient time management. The last part of the questionnaire
consisted of multiple choices questions from which the respondents checked the
time they allot for certain activities. From this part, the researchers were able to
determine how respondents allot time for their different priorities.
The questionnaire that was done contained only questions which are
related to the said topic. In determining whether the respondents are observing
an efficient or inefficient time management, the researchers had set their
perception on what an efficient and inefficient time management is.

The Procedure

Identifying the Subject

The subjects of the study were the 4th year students of Notre Dame
of Greater Manila School Year 2008-2009 belonging in the class of St.
Eugene. The researchers randomly selected fifteen (15) students by
means of draw lots with the members of the class class number written in
each paper.
Preparing the Instrument
The researchers selected a questionnaire as their instrument. The
researchers have thought that having a questionnaire as their instrument
would be the most effective way in determining the efficiency of the time
management of the students. The questionnaire consisted of questions
which were easy for the respondents to answer and at the same time,

helped the researchers in determining how efficient the selected students

were in managing their time.
Validating the Instrument
The materials prepared by the researchers were validated by some
students and professionals.
The materials were then subjected for try out by 3 students who
belong to the Publication Club. They have commented on some parts of
the questionnaire which they thought should be revised:
1. The questions must be relevant to the topic and must contain only
the questions that would help the researchers in determining the
efficiency of time management of selected 4-St. Eugene students.
2. The questionnaire must not contain words that are difficult to
Feedback System
The instrument then went through evaluation. The researchers
introduced the questionnaire to people from different professions. The
researchers asked for comments and suggestions for improvements from
these evaluators. The researchers responded positively to the given
comments and suggestions and revised the questionnaire for this study.
The questionnaire then was reviewed upon until the last procedure.

Administering the Instrument

After the instrument has been done and has gone through
criticisms and revisions, the researchers came to know on how selected
students from the 4th year level of Notre Dame of Greater Manila in the
class of St. Eugene would respond to this study.
The following were observed in its administration:
1. The survey questionnaires were distributed to the fifteen (15) selected
students from the class of 4-St. Eugene in Notre Dame of Greater
Manila S.Y. 2008-2009.
2. Only 8-10 minutes were given to the respondents to answer the
3. After the given time, the researchers collected the questionnaires.



This chapter presents, interprets and analyzes the data gathered.

Efficiency of the Time Management of Male and Female Students
Belonging in the Crme Class S.Y. 2008-2009



















As shown in Table 1, 15 students were questioned of the efficiency of their

time management, 8 of which are male and 7 are female. Of the male
respondents, 5 or 33.33% and 4 or 26.67% of the female students observe an
efficient time management. 2 of 8 male students or 13.33% and 1 of 7 female
students or 6.67% observe a somehow efficient time management. On the
contrary, 1 of 8 male students or 6.67% and 2 of 7 female students or 13.33% of
the respondents observe an inefficient time management.
The data gathered shows that majority of the respondents practices an
efficient time management while there is an equal amount of respondents who
practices a somehow efficient and inefficient time management. The majority who
practices an efficient time management is probably because of the respondents
belongingness in the crme class.
Being part of the crme class, he/she, having an efficient time
management is probably the cause of him/her in excelling in class and being able
to balance his/her time with his/her family, friends and other convoluted needs.
The practice of a somehow efficient time management stands within the average
and consequently, it can be assumed that students who practice this, ranks in the
middle of the class or stays upon mediocre. On the other hand, having a total
ineffective time management, a student might have the most difficult time
organizing his time and this probably is because he might be occupied with more
activities than the others.
There is an exceptional need that these students attain their most
outstanding reach for their preparation in college or the pursuit of more
sophisticated needs in the near future and therefore shall be guided accordingly.

The counseling of the school shall be within reach and so as the guidance of a





















Table 2
Preparedness of Male and Female Students Belonging in the Crme
Class S.Y. 2008-2009 in Carrying Out Their School Activities

As shown in table 2, there are 3 male students or 20.00% and 2 female

students or 13.33% are doing the different school activities and exercises in a
prepared manner. There are also 3 male or 20.00% and 2 female or 13.33%
students who responded to have a somehow prepared manner in their studying
methods. On the other hand, there are 2 male or 13.33% and 3 female or
20.00% of the respondents who work in an unprepared manner or those who
crams in doing school activities and exercises.
Following a specific condition, the students have been categorized
according to their different study methods. The table shows that there is an equal
number of respondents on each category. There are five students who were
classified on each.

Every student has his/her own study method and this

determines his/her preparedness in different school conflicts. From the results, it

can be concluded that there are still students who lack capability and
competency when it comes to study matters. Some may take school works as of
little or even no importance at all while some may take each as a vital task that
needs much time to prepare. All choices and preparations affect a persons time
management. As a result, students who are unprepared will definitely have
difficulties managing their time. There is a need for these students to be guided
thoroughly by the teachers, according to the importance of school matters.
Table 3
Allocation of Time of Male and Female Students Belonging
in the Crme Class S.Y. 2008-2009





















As shown in table 3, there are 4 male or 26.67% and 5 female or 33.33%

of the respondents have a balanced time with the different priorities a student
has. There are 3 male or 20% and 1 female or 6.67% of the respondents have a
somehow balanced time for their priorities. 1 male and 1 female or a total of

13.33% of the respondents are having an unbalanced time for their priorities as
Table 3 displays good results for there are majority of students who have a
balanced time management for their family, friends, studies, and other needs. Its
good to know that there are still students who know how to balance their time
between their priorities. Such results indicate that a healthy time management is
being undertaken. On the other hand, it is a disappointment for the 40% of the
students who have troubles balancing their time. It is still a serious advice for
these students to be oriented properly by either the school or the family.












recommendations made for the study.


The study generally aims to determine the efficiency of the time

management of NDGM 4th Year Students Belonging in the Cream Class S.Y.
2008-2009. The research aims to know the importance of having an efficient time

management. The study was discussed and surveyed on selected 4 th year crme
class students in S.Y. 2008-2009.
From the 30% respondents coming from the NDGM 4 th year students
belonging in the cream Class S.Y. 2008-2009, the following were found from the
More students from the crme class are practicing an efficient time
management compared to those who observe an inefficient time
The students from the crme class have equal variation in terms of their
preparation with their different school works.
Majority of the students from the crme class can balance their time
equally with their family, friends, studies and other activities.

Based from the findings from the instrument, more students from the
crme class are practicing an efficient time management compared to those who
observe an inefficient time management, it can be concluded that students are
striving to practice an efficient time management for them to be able to
accomplish their tasks without delay. Belonging in the crme class, students
have the eagerness to compete with their co-students and to be able to excel
more; students are managing their time efficiently.
In terms of study matters, it can be concluded that students using different
study techniques, can perform both efficiently and inefficiently. Depending on
their study methods, they may either finish a task early to fulfill other priorities or
procrastinate. From the results, it can also be concluded that there are still
students who lack capability and competency when it comes to study matters.

Majority of the students from the crme class can balance their time
equally with their family, friends, studies and other activities. This implies that
even though students are in the crme class, they dont only focus and give time
to their studies but also to their families, friends and other activities. The ability of
the students in equalizing their time with their different priorities show how well
students are being able to manage their time efficiently by not giving so much
time on one aspect of their priorities and not lacking time on the other aspects.
This also shows that despite all the school works, students still make time for
their pleasures and in spending quality time with family and friends.

For the success of further studies on this particular topic and for the
people involved in this study as well, the researchers would like to present
In gathering a more reliable source, future researchers may include more
respondents to have a more accurate result. And for the test of a much efficient
time management, the respondents can also be students who are from noncrme sections. As for the improvement of the instrument, future researchers
could be more definite and avoid repetition of questions to better determine the
efficiency of the students time management. To support this, the relevance of
each question should be taken into consideration. The researchers could have
also identified a definite basis on how to determine an efficient and inefficient
time management. Lastly, from the findings and results, it is exceptionally
recommended for the school to guide and counsel the students furthermore.