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BIOLOGY 11

Second Long Examination


(Sample)
I.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the letter of the best answer. USE CAPITAL LETTERS.

1. The function of the brightly-colored bracts in some plants (e.g. the Christmas flower, Euphorbia
pulcherrima) is:
A. To store pigments other than chlorophyll a and b.
B. To protect the parts of the flower involved in sexual reproduction.
C. To attract agents of pollination.
D. To serve as alternate warehouses of starch.
2. Ms. Terry, a girl who is bored out of her mind, decides to remove all the bark of a tree with a
chain saw. Which of the following is the consequence of her action?
A. The plant dies, because oxygen cannot be absorbed any more by the leaves.
B. The plant dies, because the leaves are not able to get water.
C. The plant dies, because the roots are not able to get food.
D. The plant dies, because the stem loses the protection it needs to fend off unwanted pests.
3. What is the purpose of pits in vessels and tracheids?
A. They help facilitate migration of water molecules between neighboring cells.
B. They help establish a communication pathway for neighboring vessels and tracheids.
C. They help lessen the accumulated internal pressure inside the plant.
D. They help give support to the sclerenchyma cells.
4. Which of the following best describes the lateral root?
A. It originates from the root epidermal cells.
B. It originates from the outermost layer of the roots vascular cylinder.
C. It originates from the root cortex.
D. It originates from root ground tissue.
5. What is the effect of cutting off the shoot apical meristem of some garden plants?
A. It promotes apical dominance, hence stimulating the longitudinal growth of the plant.
B. It removes apical dominance, hence stimulating the growth of axillary buds.
C. It promotes apical dominance, hence inhibiting lateral growth of the plant.
D. It removes apical dominance, hence inhibiting the plant from exhibiting further growth.
6. Which of the following is the odd one out?
A. Potato
B. Gabi

C. Carrot

7. These are the points in the stem where the leaves are attached.
A. Internodes
B. Axillary buds
C. Petioles

D. Onion
D. Nodes

8. In a cross section of a leaf, the palisade mesophyll layer is largely composed of:
A. Collenchyma cells B. Sclerenchyma cells C. Parenchyma cells
D. Vascular bundles
9. What type of xylem differentiation is exhibited in a dicot root?
A. Exarch
B. Endarch
C. Both A and B

D. Neither A nor B

10. What is the difference between the 2O xylem cells of spring wood and summer wood?
A. The 2O xylem cells of spring wood have thinner cell walls than the 2O xylem cells of summer
wood.
B. The 2O xylem cells of spring wood have thicker cell walls than the 2O xylem cells of summer
wood.
C. The 2O xylem cells of spring wood have smaller diameters than the 2O xylem cells of spring
wood.
D. The 2O xylem cells of spring wood contribute to stem support unlike the 2O xylem cells of
summer wood, which do not.
For nos. 11 15, the specimen in consideration is a dicot. Use the following choices: (choices
may be used once, more than once, or not at all.)
A. Root
B. Leaf
C. Stem
D. None of the above
A, C
B
D
C
C

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Exhibit/s secondary growth.


Exhibit/s only primary growth.
Vascular bundles are scattered.
Vascular bundles are arranged around an axis.
Pith is present.

16. Which of the following statements about trichomes and root hairs is true?
A. They are both outgrowths of the epidermis.
B. They both function to reduce water loss.
C. They are both short-lived.
D. They both function to defend the plant against predators.
17. During a hot, summer day, one would expect the stomata of a leaf to be:
A. Closed; in order to minimize water loss
B. Open; in order to allow gas exchange
C. Closed; in order to facilitate photosynthesis via efficient harvesting of light energy
D. Open; in order to increase the rate of transpiration
18. What facilitates the transpirational pull on xylem sap?
A. Cohesion
B. Adhesion
C. Both A and B

D. Neither A nor B

19. Which of the following statements is true?


A. All water molecules must take the symplastic route in order to enter the xylem.
B. Water molecules taking the apoplastic route will reach the xylem by travelling along the
cortical cells.
C. Water molecules taking the symplastic route travel to the stele by solely crossing cytoplasmic
channels called plasmodesmata.
D. Water molecules can shift from the apoplastic route to the symplastic route anytime.
20. Consider a part of the woody stem which has experienced secondary growth for ten years. What
type of cell is present in the most number?
A. Secondary xylem
C. A and B occur in equal amounts
B. Secondary phloem
D. Not enough information given
21. Ms. Terry, the same girl who mindlessly killed a tree in Multiple Choice question number two,
decides to hammer a nail into the bark of another tree, upon which she hung a sign saying SAVE

THE TREES. She hammered the nail 10 cm above the ground. What can be said about the nail
after five years?
A. The nail is now more than 10 cm above the ground, and it penetrates the bark more deeply
than before.
B. The nail is still 10 cm above the ground, and it penetrates the bark more deeply than before.
C. The nail is still 10 cm above the ground, and it didnt penetrate the bark any further than
before.
D. The nail is now more than 10 cm above the ground, and it didnt penetrate the bark any
further than before.
22. Ms. Terrys friend, the nature-lover Ms. Tee, decides to have a trip to a swamp filled with
mangrove trees. She then notices the pneumatophores of the mangrove trees. She then wonders
what the function of these structures is. If Ms. Tee asked you what the function of
pneumatophores is, what are you supposed to tell her?
A. They provide more support to the mangrove trees stems.
B. They provide an alternate means of reproduction for the mangroves.
C. They provide the mangroves an alternate site for gas exchange.
D. They provide the mangroves a better site for food storage.
23. Which of the following best describes the growth of plants?
A. Plants exhibit indeterminate growth, which means that they can grow continuously.
B. Plants exhibit determinate growth, which means that they can only grow up to a certain size.
C. Plants can exhibit determinate growth by cutting off their apical meristems.
D. Plants can exhibit both indeterminate and determinate growth during the course of their life.
24. Now, Ms. Terry wants to threaten Ms. Tee by expressing her evil intention to remove all the
heartwood of a certain tree. I will do it! I will really do it! threatened Ms. Terry. I dont care,
said nature-lover Ms. Tee. Ms. Terry was flabbergasted by this. Why did Ms. Tee not care about
Ms. Terrys threat?
A. Removing the heartwood would only do minimal damage to a tree, it would not totally kill
the tree.
B. Removing the heartwood would be beneficial to the tree, since it will help facilitate stem
elongation.
C. Removing the heartwood would not affect the tree in anywaythe tree will not be harmed,
the tree will not be benefited.
D. Removing the heartwood would greatly harm the tree; Ms. Tee was just being sarcastic.
II.

bulliform cells
passive diffusion
sclereids
collenchyma cells

water and minerals

MATCHING TYPE. Match the descriptions in Column A to the items they describe in
Column B.
Column A
1. It facilitates the rolling of leaves in some
monocots.
2. Mode of transport which is observed in
the absorption of water by the root.
3. These are cells which have lignified 2O
walls and are specialized for support.
4. These cells are often found just below
the epidermal cells of young stems. They
function for support.
5. The components of xylem sap are _____

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.

Column B
Sclereids
Lenticels
Vessels
Tracheids
Companion cells
Ground meristem
Procambium
Passive diffusion
Active transport
Collenchyma cells

plasmodesmata
sieve tubes

ground meristem
tracheids

root pressure

III.

phellogen = cork cambium

IV.
1 cork
2 cork cambium
3 2 phloem
4 v. cambium
5 2 xylem
6 1 xylem

and ___.
6. It connects the companion cell to the
sieve-tube element.
7. In some plants, these help in the loading
of sugars into the chains of cells which
comprise the phloem of angiosperms.
8. The cortex originated from this primary
tissue.
9. This is the more primitive of the two
types of water-conducting cells of the
xylem.
10. This is the main cause of guttation.

K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.

Bulliform cells
Sieve tubes
Water and minerals
Sugars and oxygen
Plasmodesmata
Root pressure
Fibers

IDENTIFICATION. Identify what is asked.


suberin
1. The Casparian strip is made of _________________,
which accounts for the strips
impervious property to water.
region of maturation
2. The regionsunken
of the
root where root hairs begin to appear is called _______________________.
stomata, hypodermis,
lobed mesophyll, cuticle
3. The _________________________
in gymnosperms is an adaptation for the prevention of
water loss during cold season.
phelloderm
phellem (cork)
4. The phellogen is composed of the ________________
and the 5. ____________________.
petiole
6. The _______________
is a stalk connecting the leaf to the stem.
outer
7. The _______________
end of a leaf is called the leaf apex.
leaves
8. The purple, edible part of Allium cepa are actually modified _______________.
quiescent
center
9. Another name for the center of the apical meristem is the ______________________.
tangential / lamellar
10. This type of collenchyma cell exhibits thickened corners. ______________________

SEQUENCING. Arrange the items as asked.


A. An old part of the stem. If one were to hammer a nail to the center of an old stem, in what
order will the nail encounter the following structures? The answers to this question are for
numbers 1 up to 6.
A. Vascular cambium
D. 2O phloem
B. Cork cambium
E. Cork
O
C. 1 xylem
F. 2O xylem
B. Generation of a transpirational pull. Arrange the following events in order from the first
occurring event up to the last occurring event. The answers to this question are for numbers 7
up to 11. (Source of events: Campbell, 8th edition)
A. Evaporation of the water film causes the air-water interface to retreat farther into the cell
wall and to become more curved, which increases surface tension and transpiration rate.
B. Water from the surrounding cells and air spaces are pulled.
C. Water vapor diffuses from the moist air spaces of the leaf to the drier air outside via
stomata.
D. Water from the xylem is pulled into the surrounding cells and air spaces to replenish the
water that was lost.
E. Water vapor lost by transpiration is replaced by evaporation from the water film coating
mesophyll cells.

7 transpiration (water vapor diffuses from moist air spaces in leaf to drier air outside via stomata)
8 water vapor lost by transpiration is replaced by evaporation from the water film coating mesophyll cells
9 evap of water film (boundary layer) causes air-w interface to retreat farther into CW, become more
curved, wc increases surface tension and transpiration rate
10 water from surrounding cells and air spaces are pulled
11 water from x is pulled into surrounding cells & air spaces to replenish lost water

C. Apoplastic route. Suppose a water molecule is absorbed by the root from the soil. Trace the
water molecules path until it reaches the vessels of the xylem. The answers to this question
are for numbers 12 to 15.
12 root epidermis
A. Endodermis
13 cortex
B. Cortex
14 endodermis
C. Stele
15 stele
D. Root epidermis
V.

ANALOGY. Complete the following analogies:


1. stomata : transpiration :: ________________
: guttation
hydathodes
heavily lignified
2. gymnosperm epidermis : heavily cuticularized :: gymnosperm hypodermis : __________
reduce water loss
3. root hair : increase surface area :: trichome : ______________________
leaf sheath
4. dicot : petiole :: monocot : ____________________
5. vascular cambium : residual procambium and some cells of pericycle :: cork cambium :
cortex
____________________________
ground tissue pith & cortex
6. protoderm : epidermis :: ground meristem : _______________
7. phloem outer, xylem inner : collateral :: phloem outer, xylem in between 2 phloem :
radial
__________________
active cotransport
8. water : passive diffusion :: minerals : ______________________
chlorenchyma
9. epidermal cells : boundary parenchyma :: photosynthetic tissues : ___________________
guttation
10. transpiration : H2O (g) :: _________________
: H2O (l)
-ENDTOTAL POINTS: 70 points