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-

f(x)dx=
F x +C
()

,
,

2012

: .., ...

: ..

" " .

04 2012 . 8.

, 2012

1. .

ax b

1.1. R x, k
cx

ax b

R x, k
cx d

ax b k
t .
cx d

- , , k
.

.
1.1.

dx
.
x x

.
x t 2 . dx 2tdt .

dx

x x

2tdt

1.2.

dt
2 ln t 1 C 2 ln
t 1

x 1 C .

1 x dx
.
1 x x

.
1 x

1 x

t 2.

x:

1 t2
1 x t xt , x t 1 1 t , x
.
1 t2
2

dx:

dx

2t (1 t 2 ) 2t (1 t 2 )
(1 t 2 ) 2
3

dt

4tdt
(1 t 2 ) 2

4t

1 t 2 2

4t 2
1 t 2 1t 2

1 t 2 dt

1 t

dt

4t 2dt .
1t 2 t 2 1

1 x dx
4t
1 t2
= t

dt
1 x x
(1 t 2 )2 1 t 2

4t 2dt

4t 2dt

(1 t )(1 t ) (1 t )(t
2

1)

,
. .

4t 2
2

4t 2

(1 t )(t 1)

(1 t )(t 1)(t 1

At B

1 t2

C
D

.
t 1 t 1

4t 2 At t 2 1 B t 2 1 C t 11 t 2 D 1 t 2 t 1.
t 3 0 A C D,
t 2 4 B C D,
t 1 0 A C D,
t 0 0 B C D.
1- 3-

A 0.

2- 4- 4 2 B, B 2.
1- 2- :

C D 0,

C D 2.
C 1, D 1.
,

4t 2
2

(1 t )(t 1)

2
2

t 1

1
1

.
t 1 t 1

2
2

dt

dt

t 1

dt
2 arctg t ln t 1 ln t 1 C
t 1
4

2 arctg t ln

t 1
C.
t 1

1 x dx
1 x
= 2 arctg
ln
1 x x
1 x

2 arctg

1 x
1
1 x
1 x
1
1 x

1 x
1 x 1 x
ln
C.
1 x
1 x 1 x

. . ! . .

t 2 . t 2 z .
4z
A
B

,
( z 1)( z 1) z 1 z 1
4 z Az 1 B z 1 ,

4 A B,
B 2, A 2 ,

B
,

4z
2
2

.
( z 1)( z 1) z 1 z 1
t ,

4t 2
(t 2 1)(t 2 1)

2
t2 1

2
t2 1

. .
1.3.

xdx
.
x 1 3 x 1

.
, x 1 t 6 .
: x t 6 1, dx 6t 5dt.
5

xdx

x 1 3 x 1

(t 6 1)6t 5dt
t3 t2

(t 2 1)(t 4 t 2 1)t 5dt

t 2 (t 1)

t 1t 4 t 2 1t 3dt 6

t 7 t 6 t 5 t 4 t 3 dt

t 9 t8 t 7 t6 t5 t 4
6 C .
9 8 7 6 5 4

x,

3
4
7
xdx
2
3
6
2
3
6

4
7
x 1 3 x 1 3

x 1

5
2
6
x 1 6 3 x 1 3 C.
5
2

1.4.

x 1 xdx.
3

1 x t 3 , x t 3 1, dx 3t 2 dt,

x 3 1 x dx (t 3 1) t 3t 2 dt 3 (t 6 t 3 ) dt .

3 (t 6 t 3 )dt

3t 7 3t 4

C.
7
4

x:

x 3 1 x dx

3
7

1 x 3 43 1 x 3

C.

1
2

dx
.
(1 3 x ) x

66 x 6 arctg 6 x C.

x 3 x dx.

2
5

1 x2
dx .
x
x

x 2 x 6 3 x C.
x2 x
x2
C.
ln
x
x2 x

1.2. ,

ax 2 bx c

ax 2 bx c . .
1.5.

dx

4x 4x 5

.
.

4 x 2 4 x 5 4 x 2 4 x 1 4 (2 x 1) 2 1 .

dx

4x 4x 5

dx

(2 x 1) 1

1
2

d (2 x 1)
2

(2 x 1) 1

dx
x2 a2

dx
4 x2 4x 5

ln x x 2 a 2 C .

ln 2 x 1 (2 x 2)2 1 C .

( 2 x 1) 2 1 4 x 2 4 x 1 .
,

dx
4x2 4x 5

ln 2 x 1 4 x 2 4 x 1 C .
7

1.6.

( x 3)dx

8 2x x

.
.

( x 1)2 9 9 ( x 1)2 .

8 2 x x 2 x 2 2 x 8 ( x 2 2 x 1 9)

( x 3)dx
8 2x x

tdt

9t

x 1 t . dx dt .

t 1 3
dt
2
9t

t4
9t

1 d 9 t2

4
2
2
2
9t
9t
dt

dt

dt
9t

1
t
2 9 t 2 4 arcsin C .
2
3
, 9 t 2 8 2 x x 2 ,

dx
8 2 x x2

8 2 x x 2 4 arcsin

x 1
C .
3

1.7.

( x 2 3x 1)dx
2

x 6 x 12

Pn ( x )dx
2

ax bx c

Qn 1 ( x ) ax 2 bx c

Pn ( x )
,

dx
2

(*)

ax bx c

n , Qn1 ( x ) n 1 -

,
(*)
8

x.

n2 .

Pn ( x ) x 3x 1 , ,

( x 2 3 x 1)dx
2

( Ax B ) x 2 6 x 12

x 6 x 12

dx

. (**)

x 6 x 12

x2 3x 1
x 2 6 x 12

A x 2 6 x 12

( Ax B )(2 x 6)
2

2 x 6 x 12

x 6 x 12

( 2).

x 2 3 x 1 A( x 2 6 x 12) ( Ax B )( x 3) .
:

x 2 3x 1 Ax 2 6 Ax 12 A Ax 2 Bx 3 Ax 3B .
x 2 3x 1 2 Ax 2 9 Ax 12 A Bx 3B

x -

1
9 B 3
2

1
12 3B 1

x
1 2A

x 3 9 A B
x 0 1 12 A 3B

15
;
2

31
.
2

(**)
. .

( x 2 3 x 1)dx

15
31
1
x x 2 6 x 12
2
2
x 2 6 x 12 2

15
31
1
x x 2 6 x 12
2
2
2

d ( x 3)
( x 3)2 3
9

dx
2

x 6 x 12

15
31
1
x x 2 6 x 12 ln x 3 x 2 6 x 12 C .
2
2
2
1.3.

R x, a 2 x 2 dx ,

R x, a 2 x 2 dx ,

R x, x 2 a 2 dx

:
)

a 2 x 2 a 2 a 2 cos2 t a 2 (1 cos2 t ) a sin t .

x a cos t .

b)

x a tg t .

a 2 x 2 ,

a 2 x 2 a 2 a 2 tg 2 t a 1 tg 2 t a

a 2 x 2 ,

1
cos 2 t

a
.
cos t

x 2 a 2 ,

a
.
cos t
2

x a

a2
cos2 t

a a

1 cos2 t
cos2 t

sin 2 t
cos2 t

a tg t .

, ,
.
1.8.

9 x2
dx .
x

.
x 3 cos t .

9 x 2 9 9 cos 2 t 3 sin t ; dx 3 sin tdt .

10

9 x2
3 sin t 3 sin t
sin 2 t
1 cos2 t
dx
dt 3
dt 3
dt
x
3 cos t
cos t
cos t

1
1

3
cos t dt 3 cos t
dt
cos t
cos t

x
x
t
1
3sin t 3 ln tg C 3 sin arccos 3 ln tg arccos C .
3
3 4
2 4
3
1.9.

x2 1

dx .

.
x

1
.
cos t

x 1

cos 2 t

1 cos 2 t
cos 2 t

sin t
1
sin t
. dx

sin
t
)
dt

dt
cos t
cos 2 t
cos 2 t
.

x2 1
x2

dx

1 cos2 t

dx
cos t

sin t sin t cos2 t

cos t cos2 t

dt

sin 2 t
dt
cos t

dt
t
cos tdt ln tg sin t C
cos t
2 4

1
1
1
ln tg arctg sin arctg C .
x 4
x
2
1.4.

x m (a bx n ) p ,

a b , m , n p . -

.. , , :
1)

p ;
11

2)

m 1
;
n

3)

m 1
p .
n

,
:

p . x t k , k -

1.

m n.

2.

m 1
. a bx n t s , s n

3.

m 1
p . a bx n x n t s , s n

p.

p.

1.10.
3

1 4 x
dx .
x

1

x 2 1

1
1 3
x 4 dx .

1
1
1
, m , n .
3
2
4

p , 1.

m 1

1
1
4
2
2.
1
2
4

, , 2.
1 4 x t 3 . x ( t 3 1) 4 ,

dx 4(t 3 1) 3 3t 2 dt 12t 2 (t 3 1) 3 dt .
12

1 4 x
dx
x

t 12t 2 (t 3 1)3 dt
3

(t 1)

12 t 3 (t 3 1)dt

t7 t4
12 (t t )dt 12 C
7 4

12 3
(1 4 x )7 33 (1 4 x ) 4 C .
7

1.11.

dx
2

(1 x 2 )3

x 2 1 x 2

3
2

dx .

3 m 1 2 1
1

.
m 2 , m 2 , p .
2
n
2
2
m 1
1 3
p 2 .
n
2 2
1 x2
.
x

, 3. 1 x 2 t 2 x 2 . t

2 2

x (t 1) 1 , 1 x t x , x (t 1)

dx t (t 1)

x 1 x
2

3
2 dt .

3
2

1 x 1

1
2,

t2 1
2

1
dx (t 2 1) 2 2tdt ,
2

t
dx (t 1) 2
t 1

(t 1)t tdt

(t 2 1)
t2

t2 1 1
t2 1
3
2

t (t 1)

t2 1

3
2 dt

dt 2 1dt
t

1
x
1 x2
t C

1 x2
t
x

13

t2

C.

. .
,
.
1.12.

dx

x 1

.
. .
1. t

dx

x 1

tdt
1
t

1
1
1
. x , dx 2 dt .
x
t
t

ln t 1 t 2 C ln

ln

dt
t

1 t
t

dt
1 t

1
1
1 2 C
x
x

1 x2 1
x
C ln
C.
2
x
1 x 1

2. .

dx

x 1

(1 x )

1
2 dx .

1 m 1
0.
m 1 , n 2 , p .
2
n
tdt

x 2 1 t 2 . x t 2 1 , dx

t 1

dx
2

x 1

tdt
2

t 1 t 1 t

dt
2

1 t 1
1
x2 1 1
ln
C ln
C.
2
2 t 1
2
x 1 1
14

, , 1.
:

1
x2 1 1
1
x2 1 1
ln
C ln

2
2
2
2
x 1 1
x 2 1 1

1
x
x
C ln
ln
C.
2
2 x 2 1 1
x 1 1
3.
dx

dt

dx
x2 1

tg

x 2 1 tg 2 t 1

,
cos2 t

dt

cos t tg t
2

1
cos t

1
cos2 t

x tgt .
1
.
cos t

dt

sin t
cos t
cos t

dt
t
arctgx
ln tg C ln tg
C .
sin t
2
2

1 cos
arctg x 1 cos arctg x

, tg

.
2
sin
2
sin arctg x

cos arctg x

1
1 x

ln tg

x
1 x

arctg x
1 cos arctg x
C ln
C
2
sin arctg x

1
ln

sin arctg x

1
2
1 x 2 C ln 1 x 1 C .
x
x

1 x2
.
, , , .
.

15

1
2

2
5

dx
1 3 x

66 x 6 arctg 6 x C.

x 2 dx.
x

1
x

x 2 x 6 3 x C.

x 3 x dx.

x 1

x 2
x

C.
2

dx
4 x2 2 x 1
x 2dx
1 2 x x2
34

x 2 ln

1
1
1
3

ln x x
C.
2
4
4 16

x 1
x 3
2
C.
1 2 x x 2 arcsin
2
2 2

x 1
dx
x

12
7

7
1 3

34

4
1 3

C.

2.
2.1.

Rsin x,cos x dx

tg 2x t.

-. ,

sin x, tg x, cos x tg 2x (. ):
sin x

2 tg 2x
1 tg 2 2x

, cos x

1 tg 2 2x
1 tg 2 2x

, tg x

2 tg 2x
1 tg 2 2x

, :

tg

sin x

2t
1 t

x
t,
2

, cos x
2

dx
1 t2
1 t

16

2 dt
1 t2

, tg x 2t
2
1 t

2.1.

dx
3 cos x

x
x
1 t2
tg t. cos x tg , cos x
.
2
2
1 t2
x t: x 2 arctg t, dx

2dt
1 t2

cos x dx :
2 dt
2
2
1 t 3 1 t 2
1 t

33t22dt1t 2 t 2dt2

1 arctg t
2
2

C.

x,

dx
=
3 cos x

dx
.
sin x

1
2

arctg

tg 2x
2

C.

2.2.

.

sin x

2 tg 2x
1 tg2 2x

. x 2 arctg t, dx

2dt
1 t

x dx :

dx
=
sin x

2 dt
1 t 2

1 t 2
2t

dt
x
ln t C ln tg C .
t
2

, tg x t .
x arctg t , dx

dt
1 t2

(. ), 2

sin x

t2

, cos2 x
.
2
1 t
1 t2

2.3.

dx

5 sin

x
17

dx

5 sin

dt

(1 t ) 5
2

dt

5 6t

1
6

dt

5t

t 2
1 t 2

dt

5 5t

t2

1 6
6
arctg
t C
6 5
5

1
6
arctg
tg x C .
5
30

2.4.

tg xdx .

t 4 dt

tg xdx 1 t
2

t4 1 1

(t 2 1)(t 2 1)
1

dt
2
2

t2 1
t

1
t

(t 1)dt

t3
t arctg t C
t2 1 3
dt

1
1
tg x tg x arctg tg x C tg x tg x x C .
3
3
2.2. sin m x cosn xdx

sin m x cos n xdx .

1. n , .
sin x t .
2. m , .
cos x t .
3. m n . :

1
1
cos 2 x (1 cos 2 x ) ; sin 2 x (1 cos 2 x ) .
2
2
18

4. m n .
tg x t .
2.5.

cos

xdx.

.
m 0 , n 4 . , 3.

2

1
1 cos 2 x
2
cos x
1 2 cos 2 x cos 2 x .
2
4

cos 2 2 x

cos 4 xdx

1 cos 4 x
.
2

1
1 cos 4 x
1 2 cos 2 x
dx
4
2
2

1
3
1
1
3 1

cos 2 x cos 4 x dx x sin 2 x sin 4 x C.

8
8
4
32
8 2

2.6.

sin 3 x

cos

dx.

.
m 3 , n 4 , , 2.
cos x t . , sin xdx dt, sin 2 x 1 cos 2 x,

sin 3 x

cos

dx =

(1 cos2 x ) sin xdx

dt

t t
2

cos x
4

t2 1
t

1 t 3
1
1
dt
C

C.
t
3
3 cos x cos x

2.7.

(1 t 2 )dt

dx

cos x sin x .
3

19

dt

.
m 1 , n 3 ; m n 4 . 4.
tg x t . x arctg t , dx

sin x

1 t2

dx

cos x sin x (1 t )

(1 t 2 ) 4
1 t

dt

1 t2

1 t2

dt
1

, cos x

dt

(1 t 2 )3 1 t 2

(1 t 2 )2 dt
1 t

(1 t 2 )dt

t3
1
t C tg x tg3 x C .
3
3
2.3.

sin cos

1
sin( sin( )) ;
2

sin sin

1
cos( cos( )) ;
2

cos cos

1
cos( cos( )) .
2

2.8.

sin 2 x cos 5 xdx.

1
(sin( 2 x 5 x ) sin( 2 x 5 x )) dx
2

1
1
1
(sin( 3x ) sin 7 x )dx
sin 3 xdx
sin 7 xdx
2
2
2

20

1
1
cos 3x cos 7 x C .
6
14
2.9.

sin x cos x

1 cos

dx.

1
sin 2 x
dx
2 1 1 cos 2 x
2

1
2

sin 2 x
dx
3 cos 2 x

d (3 cos 2 x )
1
ln 3 cos 2 x C .
3 cos 2 x
2

5
6

sin 3 x
dx
cos x

x
sin x ln tg C
2 4

sin 4 x

1
3
tg x sin 2 x x C
4
2

cos

dx

sin x dx

1
C
cos x 1

cos x 1

dx
5 4 sin x 3 cos x

x
2 tg
2

dx

1
arctg 2 tg x C
2

1 sin x
sin 3x sin 4xdx
2

1
1
sin x sin 7 x C
2
14

21

a b2

a 2 2ab b 2 ;

a b 3 a 3 3a 2b 3ab 2 b 3 ;
C

a 0 1;
a x a y x y;

a x a y a x y ;

x y

a xy ;

a x b x a bx ,b 0;

( a 0,a 1 )

a log

x , x 0;

log a xy log a x log a y , xy 0;

x
y

log a

log a x log a y , xy 0;

log a x log a x, x 0;
log a x 2 m 2m log a x , x 0,m N;

log a b

log x b
,x
log x a

0, x 1,b 0;

log a b

1
,b
log b a

0,b 1;

k

k

22

sin 2 cos2 1;
tg 2 1

1
,
cos 2

ctg 2 1

cos 2
sin 2

1
,
sin 2

2 n,n Z;
n,n Z;

1
;
tg 2 1

cos

1
;
2
ctg 1

sin

1
2

tg 1
1
2

ctg 1

cos 2 cos 2 sin 2 ;

cos 2 2 cos 2 1;
cos 2 1 2 sin 2 ;

cos2

1 cos 2
;
2

sin 2

1 cos 2
;
2

sin cos 12 sin sin ;

sin sin 12 cos cos ;
cos cos 12 cos cos ;
sin

cos

2 tg 2
1 tg 2 2
1 tg 2 2
1 tg 2

, 2n, n Z;

, 2n,n Z

23

1. .. . .: , 2000.
1. .., .. .
. .: , 1984.
2. .., .., .. . . 1. ., 2004.
3. ..
. . 1,2. .: , 1996.
4. . . .
.: -, 2011.
5. .., .., .. . . .: . 2007.

24

1. ..

ax b

.
1.1. R x, k
cx

ax 2 bx c .

1.2. ,

1.3.
.

10

1.4. .

11

2. .

16

2.1.

Rsin x,cos x dx ..........................

2.2. sin x cos xdx

16

2.3. ...

20

22

24

25

18

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