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:

a n s n a n 1 s n1 ... a1 s a0 0
n 1, n 2

=>

n3

=>

n4

=>

a 0 ,1, 2 0 ,

(1)

a 0 ,1,2 ,3 0
,

a1 a 2 a 0 a 3
a 0 ,1, 2,3, 4 0

2
2
a1 a 2 a3 a 0 a3 a 4 a1

(2)

(3)

a n z n a n1 z n1 ... a1 z a 0 0
a1 a0 0
n 1,

a1 a0 0
a 2 a1 a0 0

a 2 a1 a0 0 n 2 ,
a a 0
0
2
a3 a 2 a1 a0 0
a a a a 0
2
1
0
3
2
2
a3 a0 a0 a 2 a1 a3 0 n 3 .
3a a a a 0
0
2
1
3
3a3 a 0 a 2 a1 0
(4)
d e aT , c e bT , 02 a 2 2
x(t )
X (s )
X (z )
1
Tzd
te at
2
( s a)
( z d )2
s
z 2 zd (1 aT )
e at 1 at
( s a) 2
( z d )2

Z-,

x (t )

X (s )

(t )

1(t )

1s

z
z 1

1 s2

Tz
( z 1) 2

t2 2

1 s3

e at

1
sa
a
s( s a )

1 e at

a
1

at 1 e at 2
s ( s a)
a

X (z )

1 e

at

1 at

T 2 z ( z 1)
2( z 1)3
z
z d
(1 d ) z
( z 1)( z d )

sin( t )

zT
(1 d ) z

2
( z 1)
a ( z 1)( z d )

1 at
e sin(t )

e at e bt

cos( t )

a2
s(s a) 2
ba
( s a )( s b)

s 2
s
2
s 2
1
2
s 2as 02
2

z
zd (1 aT ) z 2

z 1 a ( z 1)( z d )
z (d c)
( z d )( z c)
z sin( T )
2
z 2 z cos( T ) 1
z 2 z cos( T )
z 2 z cos( T ) 1
z
d sin(T )
2
z 2 z cos( T ) d
2

lim v(t ) lim sV (s ) , v(kT ) lim( z 1)V ( z )


t

z 1

s0

(5)

( ):

1
2

Gn ( j )
d J n .
n ( j ) H n ( j )

(6)

Gn ( j ) b0 ( j ) 2 n 2 b1 ( j ) 2 n 4 ... bn 1
H n ( j ) a 0 ( j ) a1 ( j )
n

n 1

... a n

H n ( j ) a 0 ( j ) n a1 ( j ) n 1 ... a n
J1

b0
b0 a 0 b 1 a 2
a 2 b0 a 0 b1 a 0 a1b2 a3
, J2
, J3
2a 0 a1
2a 0 a1
2a 0 a 0 a 3 a1 a 2

(7)
(8)
(9)

(10)

( ):

Rv (0)

1
1
B( z ) B( z 1 ) 1
1
(
)
S
z
z
dz

z dz J n
v
2j | z|1 A( z ) A( z 1 )
2j | z| 1

A( z ) an z n an 1 z n 1 ... a1 z a0
B( z ) bn z bn 1 z
n

n 1

... b1 z b0

(11)

(12)
(13)

J1

b12 b02 2b0b1a0 a1


a12 a02

(14)

J2

b0 b1 b2 2 b0 b1 b2 2 4b0b2
1

2a2 a0 a0 a1 a2
a0 a1 a2
a2

(15)

, ( ):

u2

1
2

S (z) K (z)

2
du ,
1 u 2
z

(16)

1 ju
1 ju

Gn ( ju ) b0 ( ju ) 2 n 2 b1 ( ju ) 2 n 4 ... bn 1
H n ( ju ) a0 ( ju ) a1 ( ju )
n

n 1

... a n

H n ( ju ) a0 ( ju ) a1 ( ju )
n

J1

n 1

... a n

b0
b0 a 0 b 1 a 2
a 2 b0 a 0 b1 a 0 a1b2 a3
, J2
, J3
2 a 0 a1
2a 0 a1
2a 0 a 0 a 3 a1 a 2

(17)
(18)
(19)

(20)

ln f (YkM , )

u (k )

(21)

M u (t , , ) y (t l ,k , k , k )

f YkM | k C exp l ,k k k 2
n

l 1

(22)

I k yl ,k h(tl ,k k ) cos( 0 k )t l ,k 0 ,
M

(23)

l 1

Qk yl ,k h(tl ,k k ) sin (0 k )t l ,k 0 .

(24)

l 1

I k Early yl ,k h t l ,k k
cos( 0 k )t l ,k 0 ,
( Late )
2

l 1
M

Qk Early yl ,k h tl ,k k
sin ( 0 k )tl ,k 0
( Late )
2

l 1

1.

(25)
(26)

2


(
)

th ( I p )Q p

sign( I p )Q p

sin( )

I pQp

sin( 2 )

Qp I p

tg ( )



/ ().
()
U .
.

U.

.
2

U .

,
.
U .

90 (
)
.

.
U .
o

Arctg (Q p I p )

2.
3


( )

I E2 QE2 I L2 QL2
I E2 Q E2 I L2 QL2
I E2 QE2 I L2 QL2

2
E

QE2 I L2 QL2


.
U .
0.5 c .

U .

0.5 c .

.

U 2 .

0.5 c .

I E I L I P QE QL QP

U 2 .

0.5 c .

,
.

3.
4

( )

I p (k )Q p (k 1) I p (k 1)Q p (k )

(k )Q p (k 1) I p (k 1)Q p (k )

sign I p (k )Q p (k 1) I p (k 1)Q p (k )
I p (k )Q p (k 1) I p (k 1)Q p (k )

Arctg
I (k )Q (k 1) I (k 1)Q (k )
p
p
p
p

U .

.
2

U .

.
U .

4.

5.

6.

( -):

d
x Fx H (t ) ,
dt

Q(t ) M
(t )T (t ).

(t ) c x (t ) ,


r (t ) Cx (t ) n (t ) ,

R(t ) M n (t )T n (t ).

(27)
(28)
(29)
(30)
(31)

d
x (t ) F (t ) x (t ) K KB (t ) r (t ) Cx (t ) ,
dt
K KB (t ) D(t )C T R 1 .
d
D(t ) F (t ) D(t ) D(t ) F (t )T HQ(t ) H T K KB (t )CD (t ) .
dt

(32)
(33)
(34)

( ):

(k ) c x (k ) .

x (k ) x (k 1) (k 1) ,

r ( k ) C x ( k ) v (k ) ,

(35)
(36)
(37)

x (k ) (k ) x (k 1) ,
~
M (k ) (k )M (k 1) (k )T Qk 1 T .
1
~
~
K (k ) M (k )C T CM (k )C T R1 ,
~
~

x (k ) x (k ) K (k ) r (k ) Cx (k ) ,

~
~
M (k ) M (k ) K (k )CM (k ) .

(38)
(39)
(40)
(41)
(41)