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Chapter 5 Principles of Convection heat transfer (Text: J. P. Holman, Heat Transfer, 8 th ed., McGraw Hill, NY)

Consider a fluid flow over a flat plate with different temperatures (Fig 5-1)

q

=−

since

T

kA

∂ x ∂ T
x
T

x

=

(

hA T T

)

depends on velocity of the steram

h

=

f (, fluid flow pattern

)

We term the heat transfer depends on relative motions as convection heat transfer. The problem is how to evaluate/predict/estimate the value of h for various flow pattern?

Flow Classification: (fig. )

Evaluation of convection heat transfer

1. Analytical solution of the fluid temperature distribution

2. Analogy between heat & momentum transfer

3. Dimensional analysis+experimental data in terms of dimensionless No.

Viscous flow (Fig)

Laminar boundary layers on a flat plate (Fig.)

Assumptions: 1 incompressible, steady flow, 2.

dP

dy

=

0

, 3. constant physical

properties, and 4. viscous shear force in y-dir are negligible.

Conservation of Mass (Fig.)

u

v

ρρρ + = u + ++ ρ v ∂ x ∂ y ∂ u ∂
ρρρ
+
=
u
+
++
ρ
v
x
∂ y
u
v
+ = 0

x

y

udy

vdx

(

dx )( dy

dy ) dx

Continuity eq . for boundary layer

Conservation of momentum (fig.)

F

x

= increase in momentum flux in x dir

Sheu Long Jye Dep. of Mechanical Engineering Chung Hua University ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

τ

∂ ⎫ τ =− μ u dx ⎪ y ∂ y 2 ⎪ ⎬ ∂
τ =−
μ
u dx
y
∂ y
2
∂ u
net shear force
μ
2
u
∂∂
u
∂ y
=−
μ dx
[ ∂
+
(
)
dy
]
y + dy
∂ ∂∂
y
yy
⎭ ⎪

Shear force at the button face is

Shear force at the top face is

pressure force over the left face is Pdy

pressure force over the right face is

[

P

+

 

P

P

dx ] dy

net pressure f orce

x

x

dxd y

uvdx

v

 

u

dx

∂∂ vu

2

u

P

 

+

ρρ

y

udydx

+

ρ

v

x

 

+

ρ

∂∂ yx

dydx

=−

y

2

(

μ

x

)

ρ

(

u

u

+= ∂ u

v

)

2

∂∂ uP

Momentum eq for B L

 

x

y

 

μ

2

∂∂ yx

 

.

.

.

dydx

dxdy

Conservation of Energy

Further assumptions: 1. negligible heat conduction in x-dir (Fig.)

Viscous shear force:

μ

y

u dx

The distance which it moves per unit time in respect to the control volume is:

the viscous energy is :

μ (

u

)

2

y

dxdy

u dy

y

If we neglect the 2 nd order differential terms, the energy equation can be derived as

T T

T

(

∂∂ uv

)]

k

2

T

(

u

c u ++ v = + μ 2 ∂ x ∂ y ∂∂ xy ∂
c u
++
v
=
+
μ
2
x
∂ y
∂∂ xy
∂ y
∂ y
∂∂ TT
2 T
μ
u
2
+=
α
+
.
.
.

ρ

u

v

∂∂ x y

y

2

+

(

cy

ρ

)

energy eq for B L

[

dxdy

dxdy

)

2

dxdy

Order of magnitude analysis for the two terms on the right hand side

uuy

,

2

T

δ

T

∴ α 2 ∂ y ∼ α δ 2 2 μ ∂ u 2 μ
α
2
∂ y
α δ
2
2
μ
∂ u
2 μ
U

(

ρ

cy

)

2

ρ δ

c

If the ratio of these quantities is small, i.e.,

μ U

2

ρα

c

T

<< 1

,

The viscous dissipation is small in comparison with conduction term.

Sheu Long Jye Dep. of Mechanical Engineering Chung Hua University ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

Pr

Pr

ν ρν

c

c

μ

==

α

2

U

<<

1

k

=

k

cT

= Prandtl No

.

∂∂ TT

2 T

u

u

Prandtl

+ v = α 2 ∂∂ xy ∂ y 2 ∂ u v = ν
+
v
=
α
2
∂∂ xy
∂ y
2
u
v
=
ν

∂∂ uu +

∂∂ xy

y

2

number

controls

distributions.

energy eq .

momentum eq .

the

relation

between

the

velocity

and

temperature

Approximate integral boundary layer analysis

Consider the control volume in the B.L. (Fig)

Momentum flow across AB :

Momentum flow across CD :

δ

0

δ

0

(

x

)

()

x

2

u dy

ρ

2

u dy

ρ

+

d

dx

[

δ

0

()

x

2

u dy ] dx

ρ

And from the continuity eq. fluid also enters the C.V. across face BD at a rate of

d

dx

[

δ

0

(

x

)

udy ] dx .

ρ

The flow of x-dir momentum into the C.V. across upper face is

U

d

dx

[

δ

0

(

x

)

udy ] dx

ρ

Adding up the x-dir momentum

d

δ

x

()

2

 

dd

()

=−

dx

[

0

 

u dy ] dx U

ρ

dx

[

udy dx

]

dx

δδ

∫∫

[

xx

()

ρρ

u ( U

00

u )] dy dx

The net forces acting on the C.V. is

dP dP P δ − ( P + dx ) δτ − dx =− δ
dP
dP
P
δ
(
P
+
dx
)
δτ
dx
=−
δ
w
dx
dx
dP
1
P
2
[
=
0
since P
+=
ρ
U
0 &
dx
2
∂ y
d
δ
(
x
)
du
ρ
u ( U
u ) dy
==
τμ
w
dx
0
dy

dx

= 0]

y = 0

τ

w

dx

Integral momentum eq . for B . L

.

Evaluation of friction coefficient

Sheu Long Jye Dep. of Mechanical Engineering Chung Hua University ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

1. assume u(y) the form of polynomials u ( y ) =+a by + cy + dy

2

3

The constants are evaluated by applying the boundary conditions

⎫ ⎪ y = 0 u = 0, ⎪ 2 ⎪ 3 U U δ
y
=
0
u
=
0,
2
3 U
U
δ
y
=
uU =
,
a
=
0,
b
=
,
c
=
0,
d
=−
3
2
δ
2
δ
y
=
δ ∂ u
= 0, ⎪
y
2
2
u
u
u
∂∂ uP
P
y
=
0
=
0
ρ
u
+
v
=
μ
,
uv ==
0,
=
0
2
2
y
∂ x
∂ y
∂∂ yx
∂ x
u
3
yy 1
3
→=−
(
)
U
2
δ
∞ 2 δ

2. Substituting the expression into the integral momentum eq. yields

d 31 y y 31 + y y du 23 3 ∫ δ ρ U
d
31
y
y
31 +
y
y
du
23
3
δ ρ
U
[
(
) ][1
(
) ]
dy
==
τμ
w
dx
0
22
δδ
22
δδ
dy
d
δ
2 3
39
U
(
ρ
U
) =
dx
∞ 2
280
μ δ
2
δ
140
ν
x
=
+
C
(
δ
=
0
at x
=→ =
0
C
0)
2
13 U
δ
4.64
=
1/2
x Re
x
3. To evaluate friction coefficient du 3 U 3 μ U τμ ∞ == μ
3. To evaluate friction coefficient
du
3
U
3
μ U
τμ
==
μ
=
w
dy
2
δ 9.28
x
y = 0
τ
0.647
w
C =
=
fx
1
1/2
Re
2
ρ
U
x
2

Re

1/2

x

y = 0

Similarly, the integral energy equation(Fig) We negelect the kinetic energy term and shear work term

enthalpy enter across AB :

δ

0

t

(

x

)

ρ cuTdy

enthalpy leaves across CD :

δ

0

()

x

cuTdy

ρ

+

d

dx

[

δ

0

t

()

x

cuTdy dx

ρ

]

The enthalpy carried into the C. V. across the upper face is

Sheu Long Jye Dep. of Mechanical Engineering Chung Hua University ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

cT

d

dx

δ

[

0

t

(

x

)

udy dx

ρ

]

Heat conducted across the interface between the fluid and the solid surface is

kdx

dT dy
dT
dy

y

=

0

The net work done within the element is

Conservation of energy gives

[

μ

δ

0

t

(

x

)

() du

dy

2

dy ] dx

dd δ () x δ () x ∂ T t t cT [ ∫ ρ
dd
δ
()
x
δ
()
x
T
t
t
cT
[
ρ
udy dx
][
ρ
ucTdy ] dx kdx
dx
0
dx
0
∂ y
y = 0
d
δ
()
x
μ
δ
()
x
du
T
t
t
2
u T
(
−+
T dy
)
(
)
dy
=
α
integral energy eq . for B . L
.
dx
0
ρ
c
0
dy
∂ y
y = 0

Evaluation of heat transfer coefficient

4. assume T(y) the form of polynomials T ( y ) =+e fy + gy + hy

2

3

The constants are evaluated by applying the boundary conditions

⎫ ⎪ y = 0 TT = , w ⎪ ⎪ 3 TT − (
y
=
0 TT =
,
w
⎪ ⎪
3
TT −
(
TT −
)
δ
w
s
y
=
uT =
,
e
=
0,
f
=
,
c
=
0,
d
=−
t
3
2
δ
2
δ
T
y =
δ
=
0,
t
y
2
2
∂∂ TT +
u
y =
0 T
=
0
u
v
=
α
,0
uv
==
2
2
y
∂∂ xy
∂ y
θ T T
3
y
1
y
w
3
→=
=
(
)
θ
T
− T
2
δδ
2
wt
t

5. Substituting the expression into the integral energy eq. yields

Sheu Long Jye Dep. of Mechanical Engineering Chung Hua University ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

d δ d δ t t ∫ () T −= T udy ∫ () θ
d
δ
d
δ
t
t
()
T
−=
T udy
()
θ θ
udy
dx
0
dx
0
d
δ
3
1
y
31 y
y
dT
3
αθ
t
3
3
=
θ
U
[1
−+ y
(
) ][
(
) ]
dy
=
α
=
dx
0
2
δ
2
δ
22
δδ
dy
2
δ
tt
y = 0
t
Assume
δ δ
>
,
let
ς δδ
=
/
t
t
d
33
3
αθ
2
4
θ
U
[(
δς
ς
)
=
dx
20
280
2
δς
4
2
for
δδ ς
<
→ <
1
the term
ς
<<
ς
t
3
d
3
αθ
2
θ
U
(
δς
) =
20
dx
2
δς
1 d ς δα 2 d U (2 δς + ς ) = ∞ 10
1
d ς
δα
2 d
U
(2
δς
+
ς
)
=
10
dx
dx
δς
1
d ς
d
δα
22
3
U
(2
δς
+
ςδ
)
=
10 ∞
dx
dx
δς
140
ν
280
ν
x
2
But d
δδ
=
dx
& δ
=
13
U
13
U
d ς
13 α
2
ς
3 +
4 x
ς
=
dx
14
ν
13 α
3
− 3/4
ς
=
Cx
+
14 ν
with BCs
δ
== 0 at x
x or
ς
== 0 at x
x
t
0
0
δ
x
t
− 1/3
0
3/4
1/3
ς
==
1 Pr
[1
(
)
]
δ
1.026
x
6. To evaluate the convection heat transfer coefficient −∂ ∂ kTy ( ) 3 k
6. To evaluate the convection heat transfer coefficient
−∂ ∂
kTy
(
)
3 k
3
k
y = 0
h =
==
x
T
− T
2 δ
2
δς
w
t
U
x
1/3
1/2
0
3/4
− 1/3
h
=
0.332
k
Pr
(
∞ )
[1
(
)
]
x
ν x
x
x
x
1/3
1/ 2
3/4
− 1/3
Nu == hx
0.332 Pr
Re
[1
(
0 )
]
x
x
k
for x = 0
x
0
h x
x
1/3
1/2
Nu =
= 0.332Pr
Re
x
x
k

Average heat transfer coefficient

Sheu Long Jye Dep. of Mechanical Engineering Chung Hua University ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

∫ L h dx x 0 h = ∫ L dx 0 hL Nu L
∫ L
h dx
x
0
h
=
∫ L
dx
0
hL
Nu
L ==

k

= 2 h

x = L

2

Nu

x L

=

=

0.664Pr

1/3

Re

1/2

L

The foregoing analysis based on the assumption that the fluid properties were constant throughout the flow. When there is an appreciable variation between wall and free-stream condition, it is recommended that the properties be evaluated at the so-called film temperature, T f .

T =

f

T

w

+

T

2

For constant heat flux wall

hx 1/3 1/2 Nu = = 0.453Pr Re x L k q x w Nu
hx
1/3
1/2
Nu
=
= 0.453Pr
Re
x
L
k
q x
w
Nu
=
x kT (
− T
)
w
1
1
qx
qL k
/
w
w
T −= T
∫ L
( T
T ) dx
=
∫ L
dx
=
w
w
1/2
1/3
L
0
L
0
kNu
x 0.6795Re
Pr
or q
=
3 h
(
T
T
)
w
2 xL =
w

Other relations Churchill & Ozee:

Nu

x

=

C Re

1

1/2

x

Pr

1/3

1 +

⎝ ⎜

C

2

Pr

⎠ ⎟

2/3

⎦ ⎥

1/4

for Re Pr

x

>

100

isothermal flat plate C

1

=

0.3387,

C

2

constant heat flux plate C

1

=

0.4637,

0.0468

=

C

2

=

0.0207

The relation between fluid friction and heat transfer

Sheu Long Jye Dep. of Mechanical Engineering Chung Hua University ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

2 ρ U ∂ u τ ∞ = C = μ w f 2 ∂
2
ρ
U
∂ u
τ
=
C
=
μ
w
f
2
∂ y
w
3
yy 1 (
3
for U u =
)
2 δ
2
δ
3 μ
U
3
μ
UU (
τ
∞∞
1/2
=
=
)
w 2 δ
2 4.64
ν
x
C
μ U
U
1
fx 3
1/2
1/2
=
(
)
=
0.323Re
2
x
2 2 4.64
ν
x
ρ
U
Nu
h
x
x
2/3
1/2
=
= 0.332Pr
Re
x
Re Pr
ρ
cU
x
h
Nu
x
x
St
=
=
,
Stanton No
.
x
ρ cU
Re Pr
x
2/3
1/2
St
Pr
= 0.332Re
x
x
C
2/3
f x
St
Pr
=
Reynold Colburn Analogy
x 2

Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer

Fig.

In turbulent flow, u = u + u ', u : mean velocity , u ': fluctuation

Shear stress:

Heat transfer:

τ

=

+

u

ρ

q

(

νε

M

=−

),

y

+

ε

M

), u

 

A

(

ρα ε

c

H

y

: eddy viscosity

ε

M

: eddy diffusivity

Turbulent heat transfer based on fluid-friction analogy

St

Pr

2/3

=

C fx

x 2

still holds,

Experimental values for C f for turbulent boundary layer

C =

=

fx

0.0592Re

0.370(log Re )

1/5

x

,

x

5

×<

10

10

5

2.584

,

7

Re

x

10

<<

<

Re

x

7

10

9

Average friction coefficient for a flat plate with a laminar boundary layer up to Re crit and turbulent thereafter can be calculated from

Sheu Long Jye Dep. of Mechanical Engineering Chung Hua University ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

0.455 A = −< , Re C f 2.584 L (log Re ) Re L
0.455
A
=
−<
,
Re
C f
2.584
L
(log Re )
Re
L
L
or
0.074
7
C
=−
A Re
,
<
10
f
1/5
L
Re
Re
L
L

10

9

Re crit

 

3x10 5

5x10 5

 

10

6

3x10 6

 

A

1055

 

1742

 

3340

8940

Applying the fluid-friction analogy

St

Pr

2/3

=

C

fx

2/3

1/5

5

x

2

7

St

Pr

=

0.0296Re

5

10

×<

Re

<

10

 

x

,

xx

St

Pr

2/3

=

0.185(log Re )

2.584,

10

7

Re

<<

10

9

 

x

xx

 

Average heat transfer over the entire laminar-turbulent boundary layer is

C 2/3 f St Pr = 2 5 7 2/3 for Re = × 5
C
2/3
f
St
Pr
=
2
5
7
2/3
for
Re
= ×
5
10 , Re
< ⎯⎯→=
10
St
Pr
0.037 Re
crit
L
1/3
0.8
Nu == hL
Pr
(0.037 Re
871)
L
L
k
for higher Reynold number
hL
− 2.584
1/3
7
Nu =
=
[0.228Re (log Re )
871]Pr
,
10
L
L
L
k

1/5

L

<

871Re

L

1

Re

L

<

9

10 , Re

crit

5

10

5

The average heat transfer coefficient is defined as

1 ( x crit h = ∫ L 0
1
(
x
crit
h
=
L
0

h dx

lam

+

L

x

crit

h dx

turb

)

An alternative equation by Whitaker

1/4 ⎛ μ ⎞ 0.43 0.8 ∞ Nu = 0.036Pr (Re − 9200) , ⎜
1/4
μ
0.43
0.8
Nu =
0.036Pr
(Re
9200)
,
L
L
μ
w
μ
5
6
0.7
<< Pr
380, 2
×
10
<
Re
<
5.5
×
10 , 0.26
<
L
μ
w

< 3.5

Turbulent boundary layer thickness

Outside the laminar sublayer, the velocity profile can be described by

u

y

U

δ

= (

)

1/7

Sheu Long Jye Dep. of Mechanical Engineering Chung Hua University ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

∂ u This profile fails to derive τ w since →∞ ∂ y y =
u
This profile fails to derive τ w since
→∞
y
y
= 0
2
C
ρ
U
f
7
− 1/5
τ
=
and for
Re
<=
10 ,
C
0.0592Re
w
x
fx
x
2
ν
1/5
2
τ
= 0.0296(
)
ρ
U
w
U x
substitute into integral mom. eq .
d
δ
yy
ν
1/7
1/7
1/5
[1
(
)
](
)
dy
=
0.0296(
)
dx
0
δ
δ
U x
d
δ
72
ν
1/5
1/5
=
0.0296(
)
x
dx U x
7
1. fully turbulent from the leading edge
δ
==
0
at x

2. laminar up to

ν 5 5 R =× 5 10 , δδ = at x =× 5 10
ν
5
5
R
5
10 ,
δδ
=
at x
5
10
crit
lam
crit
U
72
5
1/5
4/5
4/5
δ δ
−=
0.0296(
ν )
(
x
x
)
lam
crit
7
U
∞ 4
δ
1/5
1
=
0.381Re
10256 Re
x
x

x

δ

lam

=

Heat transfer in laminar tube flow (Fig)

Velocity profile

∂ u 2 π r dp = τπ 2 rdx = 2 πμ r dx
u
2
π
r dp
=
τπ
2
rdx
=
2
πμ
r dx
r
1
dp
du
=
r
dr
2
μ
dx
1
dp
2
u
=
rC +
4
μ
dx
B C at r
=
r , u
=
0
0
1
dp
2
2
ur ()
=
(
r
r
)
0
4
μ
dx

0,

5.0

δ

x

x

crit

=

0.381Re x

(5

×

5

10 )

1/ 2

1/5

Sheu Long Jye Dep. of Mechanical Engineering Chung Hua University ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

the velocity at the centerline

2

r dp

0

u =−

0

4

u

1

= −

μ

2

r

dx

u

0

2

r

0

Heat transfer: (Fig)

Assume a constant heat flux at wall,

dq

w

dx

= 0

The heat flow conducted into and out of the annular element are

∂ T q =− k 2 π rdx r ∂ r ∂ q r =
∂ T
q
=−
k
2
π
rdx
r
r
q
r
= q
dr
q r + dr
r
+ ∂ r

The net heat convected out of the element is

2

π

rdr cu

ρ

T

x

dx

The energy balance gives

1

T

1

T

∂∂ ( r ∂∂

ur r

r

) =

α

x

Assume heat flux qw=constant, then the temperature increases linearly with x, i.e.

T

x

= C

Boundary conditions:

T

= ∂ r ∂ T k
=
r
T
k

r

0

at r

== q

w

The solution is

=

0

const at r

.

=

r 0

T

T

T

c

1 Tr (

u

2

4

−+ r

)

0 const at r . = r 0 T T T c 1 ∂ Tr (

α x

−= T

c

1

α

0

4

16

2

r

0

Tru r [(

4

xr

0

2

0

0

)

2

12

1

4

(

r

r

0

)

4

]

=

C

ln

rC

+

: centerline temperature

The bulk temperature Local heat transfer

Sheu Long Jye Dep. of Mechanical Engineering Chung Hua University ljsheu@chu.edu.tw

q hT

"

=

w

T

b

=

r

0

T

b

(

),

2

=

ρπ

r

0

0

ruc Tdr

T

0

p

2

ρπ

ruc dr

p

is so-called bulk temperature or energy average fluid temperature across the tube.

2 7 u r ∂ T 0 0 T = T + b c 96
2
7
u
r ∂ T
0
0
T
= T
+
b
c
96
α
x
2
3
u
r ∂ T
0
0
T
= T
+
w c
10
α
x
T
q =
hA ( T
−=
T
)
kA
w
b
r
r
=
r 0
kTr
(
)
24
k
48
k
r
=
r
h =
0
==
TT
11
r
11
d
w
b
0
0
hd
0
Nu
=
= 4.364
d
k

Turbulent heat transfer in tube

St Pr

Nu

Nu

d

d

=

f

,

2/3

f : friction factor

3/4

d

Pr

1/3

0.8

d

Pr

0.4

8

= 0.0395Re

= 0.023Re

(

evaluated at bulk temperature

)

Sheu Long Jye Dep. of Mechanical Engineering Chung Hua University ljsheu@chu.edu.tw