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SCI PUBLICATION P341

Guidance on meeting the Robustness Requirements in Approved Document A (2004 Edition)

A G J Way MEng, CEng, MICE

Document A (2004 Edition) A G J Way MEng, CEng, MICE Published by: The Steel Construction

Published by:

The Steel Construction Institute Silwood Park Ascot Berkshire SL5 7QN

Tel:

01344 623345

Fax:

01344 622944

by: The Steel Construction Institute Silwood Park Ascot Berkshire SL5 7QN Tel: 01344 623345 Fax: 01344

2005 The Steel Construction Institute

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Publications supplied to the Members of the Institute at a discount are not for resale by them.

Publication Number: SCI P341

ISBN 1 85942 163 6

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data.

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

FOREWORD

Under the 2004 Amendment of the Building Regulations 2000, the changes to Part A (Structure) include important changes to the limits on application for buildings designed to avoid disproportionate collapse. The guidance given in the revised Approved Document A on how to meet the requirements to avoid disproportionate collapse has also changed.

This publication provides designers of hot-rolled steel framed buildings with the necessary guidance to enable them to ensure compliance with the disproportionate collapse requirements of the Regulations.

The author is indebted to his colleagues at the SCI for their input and advice, in particular to Charles King and Tom Cosgrove. In addition, a number of other individuals have contributed to this guide and their input is gratefully acknowledged:

Stuart Alexander – WSP Group

Professor D Blockley – University of Bristol

Roger Davies

– Gifford & Partners Ltd

Chris Dolling

– Corus Construction and Industrial

Geoff Harding – Office of the Deputy Prime Minister

Roger Pope – Consultant

David Moore – The British Constructional Steelwork Association Ltd

The preparation of this guide was funded entirely by Corus Construction and Industrial, and their support is gratefully acknowledged.

Contents

Page No.

FOREWORD

iii

SUMMARY

vi

1 INTRODUCTION

1

1.1 Robustness, Integrity, Disproportionate collapse, and Tying

1

1.2 The Building Regulations Part A and Approved Document A

1

1.3 BS 5950

2

1.4 Eurocode 1

2

1.5 Disproportionate collapse

2

2 CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDINGS

4

2.1

Introduction

4

3 CLASS 1 BUILDINGS

11

3.1 The requirements for Class 1 buildings

11

3.2 How BS 5950-1:2000 applies to Class 1 buildings

11

3.3 Practical solutions for Class 1 buildings

12

4 CLASS 2A BUILDINGS

13

4.1 The requirements for Class 2A buildings

13

4.2 How BS 5950-1:2000 applies to Class 2A buildings

13

4.3 Practical solutions for Class 2A buildings

13

5 CLASS 2B BUILDINGS

15

5.1 The requirements for Class 2B buildings

15

5.2 How BS 5950-1:2000 applies to Class 2B buildings

17

5.3 Practical solutions for Class 2B buildings

26

6 CLASS 3 BUILDINGS

27

6.1 The requirements for Class 3 buildings

27

6.2 Risk Assessment

27

6.3 Critical Situations for Design

28

6.4 Hazards

28

6.5 Risk Reduction Measures

29

6.6 Sources of further guidance

30

6.7 Unclassified Buildings

31

7 REFERENCES

32

APPENDIX A

WORKED EXAMPLE

35

A.1

Introduction

36

A.2

Member sizes

39

A.3

Disproportionate collapse checks using fin plate

beam-to-column connections

40

A.4

Disproportionate collapse checks using flexible end plate

beam-to-column connections

43

SUMMARY

This publication provides guidance on designing hot-rolled steel framed buildings to avoid disproportionate collapse. Consideration of disproportionate collapse is required for all buildings in order to satisfy Requirement A3 of Part A of the Building Regulations.

Guidance for each of the four classes of building specified in Approved Document A (2004 edition) is provided. The guidance includes explanation of the requirements, advice on which Clauses of BS 5950-1:2000 are applicable to each building type, and practical guidance concerning tying of the structural frame to provide robustness.

A worked example of the calculations for a Class 2B building is also included.

Table 2.1

Building Classification

Class

Building type and occupancy

1

Houses not exceeding 4 storeys.

Agricultural buildings

Buildings into which people rarely go, provided no part of the building is closer to another building, or area where people do go, than a distance of 1.5 times the building height

2A

5 storey single occupancy houses

Hotels not exceeding 4 storeys

Flats, apartments and other residential buildings not exceeding 4 storeys

Offices not exceeding 4 storeys

Industrial buildings not exceeding 3 storeys

Retailing premises not exceeding 3 storeys of less than 2000 m 2 floor area in each storey

Single storey educational buildings

All buildings not exceeding 2 storeys to which members of the public are admitted and which contain floor areas not exceeding 2000 m 2 at each storey

2B

Hotels, flats, apartments and other residential buildings greater than 4 storeys but not exceeding 15 storeys

Educational buildings greater than 1 storey but not exceeding 15 storeys

Retailing premises greater than 3 storeys but not exceeding 15 storeys

Hospitals not exceeding 3 storeys

Offices greater than 4 storeys but not exceeding 15 storeys

All buildings to which members of the public are admitted which contain floor areas exceeding 2000 m 2 but less than 5000 m 2 at each storey

Car parking not exceeding 6 storeys

3

All buildings defined above as Class 2A and 2B that exceed the limits on area and/or number of storeys

Grandstands accommodating more than 5000 spectators

Buildings containing hazardous substances and/or processes

Note 1: For buildings intended for more than one type of use the Class should be that pertaining to the most onerous type.

Note 2: In determining the number of storeys in a building, basement storeys may be excluded provided such basement storeys fulfil the robustness requirements of Class 2B buildings.

BUILDING TYPE BUILDING CLASS Agricultural Class 1 Class 1 Building where people rarely go Is
BUILDING TYPE
BUILDING CLASS
Agricultural
Class 1
Class 1
Building where
people rarely go
Is building height times
1.5 less than the distance
to another building or area
where people go?
Yes
Class 2A
No
Class 1
No
Yes
Is building multi
occupancy?
Class 2A
Yes
Residential
Is building less than or
equal to 4 storeys?
Yes
Yes
Class 2B
No
Is building 5 storey single
occupancy housing?
No
Is building less than or
equal to 15 storeys?
Class 3
No
Yes
Class 2A
Hotel or Office
Is building less than or
equal to 4 storeys?
Yes
No
Is building less than or
equal to 15 storeys?
Class 2B
No
Yes
Industrial
Is building less than or
equal to 3 storeys?
Class 3
No
Class 2A
Class 3
Is building less than or
equal to 3 storeys and
less than 2000 m 2 floor
area in each storey?
Yes
Class 2A
Retail
Yes
Does building have less
than 2000 m 2 floor area in
each storey?
Class 2B
Yes
No
No
Is building less than or
equal to 15 storeys?
Class 3
No
Class 2A
Yes
Educational
Is building single storey?
Class 2B
Yes
No
Is building less than or
equal to 15 storeys?
Class 3
No
Yes
Class 2B
Hospital
Is building less than or
equal to 3 storeys?
No
Class 3
Yes
Class 2B
Car park
Is building less than or
equal to 6 storeys?
No
Class 3
Class 2A
Public
Is building less than or
equal to 2 storeys and
less than 2000 m 2 floor
area in each storey?
Yes
Class 2B
Yes
No
Is floor area less than
5000 m 2 in each storey?
Class 3
No
Yes
Class 2B
Grandstand
Is capacity less than or
equal to 5000 spectators?
No
Class 3
Class 3 Building containing hazardous substance and/or processes Note 1: For buildings intended for more
Class 3
Building containing
hazardous
substance and/or
processes
Note 1: For buildings intended for more than one type of use the Class should be that pertaining to the
most onerous type.

Note 2: In determining the number of storeys in a building, basement storeys may be excluded provided such basement storeys fulfil the robustness requirements for Class 2B buildings.

Figure 2.1

Flowchart for building classification

The following Sections provide further guidance on building classification for some specific situations. The NHBC has also produced some guidance [8] on building classification, which is available from their website, www.nhbc.co.uk.

2.1.2 Mezzanine floors

Each situation needs to be judged on its own merits. As an approximate guide a mezzanine floor should only be considered as a storey if it is greater than 20% of the building footprint. Guidance on the design of mezzanine floors for lateral stability is provided in Advisory Desk note AD267 [9] .

2.1.3 Habitable roof spaces

Habitable areas of roof space should be included as a storey irrespective of the slope of the roof.

2.1.4 Buildings with a varying number of storeys

For buildings with varying numbers of storeys that fall into more than one class, the robustness measures for the more onerous class may need to continue until a structural discontinuity (such as a movement joint) is reached. However, each case should be considered on its merits, even where the only areas of more onerous class are common parts such as stairwells.

Example

Figure 2.2 shows a block of flats partly of 4 storeys and partly of 5 storeys. Class 2B robustness measures should be applied to the 5-storey areas and extending to a suitable structural discontinuity in the 4-storey area and Class 2A robustness measures may be applied to the remaining 4-storey area.

2A 2B Movement joint Flats Flats
2A
2B
Movement
joint
Flats
Flats

Figure 2.2

Classification of 4 and 5 storey flats

2.1.5 Mixed use buildings

For buildings intended for more than one type of use the class should be that pertaining to the most onerous type. Where different occupancies are in horizontally adjacent parts of the same building, the same approach to robustness measures may be adopted as described in Section 2.1.4 for buildings with varying numbers of storeys,. i.e. the robustness measures for the more onerous class may need to continue horizontally until a structural discontinuity (such as a movement joint) is reached. Each case should be considered on its merits.

The following series of examples illustrate the classification of mixed use buildings.

Examples

2 storeys of flats over 1 storey of retailing premises (as shown in Figure 2.3)

should be considered as 3 storeys of retailing premises. Therefore, apply Class 2A robustness measures to the whole building, or apply Class 2B robustness measures to the whole building if floor area of retailing premises is 2000m² or more.

Flats 2A, or 2B if retail premises>2,000 m² Shop
Flats
2A, or 2B if retail
premises>2,000 m²
Shop

Figure 2.3

Classification of 2 storey flats over 1 storey retail

2 storeys of flats over 2 storeys of retailing premises (as shown in Figure 2.4) should be taken as 4 storeys of retailing premises. Therefore, apply Class 2B robustness measures to the whole building.

Flats

Shop

Shop

robustness measures to the whole building. Flats Shop Shop 2B Figure 2.4 Classification of 2 storey

2B

Figure 2.4

Classification of 2 storey flats over 2 storey retail

Figure 2.5 shows 4 storeys of flats adjacent to 5 storeys of offices. Class 2B robustness measures should be applied to the 5-storey office area and extending to a suitable structural discontinuity in the 4-storey residential area and Class 2A robustness measures should be applied to the remaining 4-storey residential area.

2A 2B Movement joint Flats Offices
2A
2B
Movement
joint
Flats
Offices

Figure 2.5

Classification of 4 storey flats attached to 5 storey offices

2.1.6 Buildings with basements

To qualify as a basement storey for the purpose of building classification, the distance between external ground level and the top surface of the basement floor should be at least 1.2 m for a minimum of 50% of the plan area of the building.

The minimum robustness measures required to the part of the building above the basement depend on the total number of storeys and the robustness measures applied to the basement storey.

In determining the number of storeys for classification, basement storeys may be excluded if such basement storeys fulfil the robustness requirements of Class 2B buildings.

The basement can be for habitable accommodation or parking. The following examples illustrate the appropriate robustness measures to be applied.

Examples

Figure 2.6 shows examples of single occupancy houses over basements and the classes of robustness
Figure 2.6 shows examples of single occupancy houses over basements and the
classes of robustness measures to be applied.
2A
2B
1 or
2A
1
2B
2B
3 storey over
basement
4 storey over
basement
5 storey over
basement
6 storey over
basement

Figure 2.6

Classification of single occupancy houses over basements

Figure 2.7 shows examples of flats above basements and the classes of robustness measure to be applied.

Flats
Flats
3 Flats
3
Flats

2B

Flats
Flats
Flats 2A 2B Flats 2B
Flats
2A
2B
Flats
2B

2A

3 storey over basement

4 storey over basement

5 storey over basement

15 storey over basement

16 storey over basement

Figure 2.7

Classification of flats over basements

3 CLASS 1 BUILDINGS

3.1 The requirements for Class 1 buildings

Class 1 buildings are ‘low consequence’ buildings such as small residential properties, agricultural buildings and buildings where people rarely go. Therefore, the robustness requirements for Class 1 buildings are modest. Approved Document A states in Clause 5.1.b:

For Class 1 buildings - Provided the building has been designed and constructed in accordance with the rules given in this Approved Document, or other guidance referenced under Section 1, for meeting compliance with requirement A1 and A2 in normal use, no additional measures are likely to be necessary.

This requirement means that provided the structural steel frame of the building has been designed to BS 5950-1 [3] then this is sufficient and no further action to avoid disproportionate collapse is required. However, the guidance of Approved Document A includes the words “…no additional measures are likely to be necessary”. This is a reminder that, in designing to avoid disproportionate collapse, it is important to consider each individual structure using engineering judgement together with BS 5950 and Approved Document A rather than simply assume that no potential collapse scenarios need to be considered.

3.2 How BS 5950-1:2000 applies to Class 1 buildings

BS 5950-1 states that Clause 2.4.5.2 Tying of buildings should be applied to all buildings (which includes Class 1) and recommends that:

Columns should be tied in two directions, approximately at right angles, at each principal floor level

All ties (along the edges of the building and along each column line) and their end connections should be capable of resisting a factored tensile load of at least 75 kN

Horizontal ties should also be provided at roof level, except where steelwork only supports cladding that weighs not more than 0.7 kN/m 2 and that carries only imposed roof loads and wind loads.

Figure 3.1 shows which members need to be designed as ties under Clause 2.4.5.2 of BS 5950-1. In practice, the required tying capacity of 75 kN is achieved by any reasonable member and connection, see Section 3.3.

Beams between columns are ties Secondary beams are not ties
Beams between columns
are ties
Secondary beams
are not ties

Figure 3.1

Ties required in Class 1 buildings

3.3 Practical solutions for Class 1 buildings

As stated in BS 5950 members that are required to be horizontal ties, as defined in Section 3.2, should have a tension capacity of at least 75 kN. This is easily satisfied for any hot-rolled section with a cross-section area of 3 cm 2 or higher.

The end connections of horizontal ties should also have tension capacities of at least 75 kN. All the standard connections for simply supported beams given in SCI publication P212 [10] can carry at least 75 kN in tension.

Bolt capacities for M16 and M20 8.8 bolts in S275 steel are shown in Table 3.1. All reasonable connections will have at least two bolts (and usually more), which will provide the necessary connection capacity.

Table 3.1

Bolt capacities for grade 8.8 bolts in S275 steel

Bolt Diameter

Nominal tension

Shear capacity

Bearing capacity (8 mm plate)

capacity

M16

70 kN

58.9 kN

58.9 kN

M20

110 kN

91.9 kN

73.6 kN

Note: Tabulated capacities are calculated in accordance with BS 5950-1:2000,

Clause6.3

4 CLASS 2A BUILDINGS

4.1 The requirements for Class 2A buildings

Class 2A buildings are ‘medium consequence’ buildings such as low rise flats, offices, hotels, industrial buildings and relatively small public buildings. The robustness requirements for Class 2A buildings are given in Approved Document A, Clause 5.1.c as:

For Class 2A buildings - Provide effective horizontal ties, or effective anchorage of suspended floors to walls, as described in the Codes and Standards listed under paragraph 5.2 for framed and load-bearing wall construction.

The guidance in Approved Document A for Class 2A buildings does not mention notional removal of members if ‘effective horizontal ties’ are not provided. This is in contrast to the requirements for Class 2B buildings, see Section 5.1. If effective horizontal ties or anchorage of floors to walls can not be provided (for whatever reason) then an acceptable approach may be to re- classify the building as Class 2B and use the notional removal of members approach (see Section 5.2).

4.2 How BS 5950-1:2000 applies to Class 2A buildings

BS 5950-1, Clause 2.4.5.2, which applies to all buildings, requires horizontal ties to have a minimum capacity of 75 kN as explained in Section 3.2. For steel framed buildings designed to BS 5950-1 there is no difference between the robustness provisions for Class 1 and Class 2A buildings.

The tying requirements of BS 5950-1 for Class 1 and Class 2A buildings are thus the same, as were the requirements for buildings with less than or equal to four storeys under the 1991 Building Regulations.

4.3 Practical solutions for Class 2A buildings

As explained in Section 3.3, ordinary beam connections are easily able to meet the requirement for tying.

4.3.1 Floor systems

Although there are no requirements in the Building Regulations or in BS 5950-1 to tie the floor system (such as precast units or steel deck with in-situ concrete) to the structural frame in Class 2A buildings, there are obvious benefits in terms of structural robustness, practicality, safety during construction and mobilising floor diaphragm action.

Fixing of decking

Decking sheets should be fixed to the top of the supporting structure. All fixings (e.g. shot-fired pins) should be made through the troughs in the decking. Fixings should be at approximately 300 mm centres (or in every trough) along the end supports and at 600 mm centres (or in alternate troughs) along the

internal supports. As an absolute minimum, each sheet should be connected at least twice to each permanent support.

The fixings, together with welded shear studs (if present), normally provide lateral restraint to the beams during the construction stages.

Further advice on fixing of decking and types of fixing is provided in SCI publication P300 [11] .

Fixing of precast units

Detailed guidance for fixing and tying of precast units is provided in Section

5.2.5.

Further guidance regarding precast units is given in SCI publication

P287 [12] .

5 CLASS 2B BUILDINGS

5.1 The requirements for Class 2B buildings

Class 2B buildings are ‘high consequence’ buildings and as such the robustness requirements are significantly more stringent than those for Class 2A buildings. Typical Class 2B buildings include residential, office and retail buildings between four and fifteen storeys, hospitals less than four storeys and car parks less than seven storeys. The robustness requirements for Class 2B buildings are given in Approved Document A, Clause 5.1.d. However, the typographical presentation in Approved Document A is misleading as it gives the impression that horizontal ties are invariably required. The ODPM intend to reprint the Approved Document to clarify the intention. The following is the text as it is expected to be reprinted.

For Class 2B buildings:

a) Provide effective horizontal ties, as described in the Codes and Standards listed under paragraph 5.2 for framed and load-bearing wall construction,… together with effective vertical ties, as defined in the Codes and Standards listed under paragraph 5.2, in all supporting columns and walls,

or alternatively

b) Check that upon the notional removal of each supporting column and each beam supporting one or more columns, or any nominal length of load-bearing wall (one at a time in each storey of the building) that the building remains stable and that the area of floor at any storey at risk of collapse does not exceed 15% of the floor area of that storey or 70 m 2 , whichever is smaller, and does not extend further than the immediate adjacent storeys (see Diagram 25).

Where the notional removal of such columns (or beams supporting one or more columns) and lengths of walls would result in an extent of damage in excess of the above limit, then such elements should be designed as a "key element" as defined in paragraph 5.3 below.

Note: The requirements for Class 2B buildings are very similar to the requirements for buildings over four storeys given in the 1992 Edition of Approved Document A.

The principle of providing horizontal ties notionally allows for the removal of the support provided by a column and the remaining beam members to support the loads by forming catenaries, as shown in Figure 5.1. The robustness rules are not meant to fully describe systems of structural mechanics but are considered as prescriptive rules intended to produce structures that perform adequately in accidental circumstances.

Column removed
Column removed

Figure 5.1

Concept of horizontal ties

In summary, Class 2B buildings either require a) horizontal and vertical ties, or b) a check can be carried out to ensure that the removal of any single supporting member will not cause an unreasonable area of the structure to fall down i.e. will not cause disproportionate collapse. The rest of the building is only required to remain stable and not necessarily serviceable for use. If the removal of any supporting member would cause disproportionate collapse then it should be designed as a ‘key element’. The limiting area for disproportionate collapse is shown in Diagram 25 of Approved Document A (reproduced here as Figure 5.2). The limit of 70 m 2 given in Approved Document A can be quite limiting with regard to many practical span arrangements in steel structures. The recommended limit given in prEN 1991-1-7 [5] is more generous at 200 m 2 .

The scope of this publication only covers hot-rolled steel-framed buildings; therefore, the requirements concerning load-bearing walls are not discussed here.

concerning load-bearing walls are not discussed here. Area at risk of collapse limited to 15% of

Area at risk of collapse limited to 15% of the floor area of that storey or 70 m², whichever is the less, and does not extend further than the immediate adjacent storeys.

does not extend further than the immediate adjacent storeys. Column notionally removed Plan Section Note: Three

Column

notionally

removed

Plan

Section

Note:

Three storeys may be affected by the notional removal of one column section but no more than two floors.

Figure 5.2

Maximum allowable area at risk of collapse (reproduced from Approved Document A, Diagram 25)

5.2

How BS 5950-1:2000 applies to Class 2B buildings

All buildings now need to be designed to avoid disproportionate collapse. However, Class 2B buildings can be considered to be “specially designed to avoid disproportionate collapse” and therefore Clause 2.4.5.3 of BS 5950-1 [3] is applicable, as is Clause 2.4.5.4 for the design of key elements, if required. The requirements of Clause 2.4.5.3 and its sub-clauses a) to e) are described in the following Sections. As explained in Section 1.3, BS 5950-1 is being amended and reworded to clarify which clauses are applicable in conformance with the new regulations.

In BS 5950-1, there are three possible routes that can be adopted for designing to avoid disproportionate collapse:

Provision of tying

Notional removal

Key element design.

BS 5950-1, Clause 2.4.5.3 states that if any of the first three sub-clauses a) to c) are not met then, the building should be checked, each storey in turn, to ensure that disproportionate collapse would not be precipitated by the notional removal, one at a time, of each column (or beam supporting one or more columns). The guidance for Class 2B buildings in light of the 2004 edition of Approved Document A may be re-expressed as:

1) If any of the sub-clauses a), b) or c) are not met, then each storey in turn should be checked to ensure that disproportionate collapse would not be precipitated by the notional removal, one at a time, of each column (or transfer beam).

2) If sub-clause d) is not met then, each storey in turn should be checked to ensure that disproportionate collapse would not be precipitated by the notional removal, one at a time, of each element of the systems providing resistance to horizontal forces.

3)

If heavy floor or roof units are used, sub-clause e) should be satisfied.

Clause 2.4.5.3 of BS 5950-1 further states

If the notional removal of a column, or of an element of a system providing resistance to horizontal forces, would risk the collapse of a greater area [than 15% of the floor area or 70 m 2 ], that column or element should be designed as a key element, as recommended in Clause 2.4.5.4.

The design process for considering the notional removal of elements is described in Section 5.2.6.

The requirements of BS 5950-1 for Class 2B buildings are essentially the same as the requirements were for buildings with greater than four storeys under the 1991 Building Regulations.

Appendix A presents a fully worked example for the tying checks and design to avoid disproportionate collapse for a Class 2B building.

5.2.1 General Tying

Clause 2.4.5.3 a) General tying, describes which horizontal members should be designed as ties and the tensile loads that the ties and their end connections should be capable of resisting. General tying is notionally intended to enable beams to bridge damaged areas of structure by hanging as catenaries (as shown in Figure 5.1). Examination of the equations in Clause 2.4.5.3 shows that the tying force is generally equal to the shear reaction, but is not less than 75 kN. Figure 5.3 indicates which members need to be considered as ties under Clause 2.4.5.3 a).

In the next revision to BS 5950-1 it is likely that there will be a reduction factor that may be applied to the required tying capacities of horizontal ties and their connections. Table 5.1 shows the values proposed at the time of writing for the reduction factor n. The proposed tying capacity requirements are:

- for internal ties: 0.5(1.4 gk + 1.6 qk) st L n

- for edge ties: 0.25(1.4 gk + 1.6 qk) st L n

Where

but not less than 75 kN

but not less than 75 kN

gk

is the specified dead load per unit area of the floor or roof

L

is the span

 

qk

is the specified imposed floor or roof load per unit area

st

is

the

mean

transverse spacing of the ties adjacent to that being

checked

 

n

is

a factor

related to the number

of storeys in the structure see

Table 5.1.

Table 5.1

Proposed reduction factors for required tie capacities

Number of storeys in building

Reduction factor, n

5 or more

1.0

4

0.75

3

0.50

2

0.25

1

0

Note: In determining the number of storeys in a building, basement storeys may be excluded provided such basement storeys fulfil the robustness requirements of Class 2B buildings.

The use of a reduction factor recognises that for lower rise buildings there are fewer floors potentially available to collapse onto the structure below.

In Class 1 and Class 2A buildings, only the beams along the column lines need to be designed for general tying. For Class 2B buildings, the members which may be ties when designing to avoid disproportionate collapse are shown in Figure 5.3. The beams not on the column lines (e.g. A to B) do not have to be designed as ties provide that the beams on the column lines are designed for the additional share of tying force.

A

A B All beams may be ties Figure 5.3 Members which may be ties in Class

B

All beams may be ties

Figure 5.3

Members which may be ties in Class 2B buildings

Frequently, ties may be discontinuous, or have no ‘anchor’ at the end distant to the column. Two examples are shown in Figure 5.3, where at points A and B, there is no reaction to the tie force assumed in the beam. The connection is simply designed for the applied tie force. This situation is also common at external columns, where only the local design of the connection is considered. The column itself is not designed to resist the tying force.

5.2.2 Edge columns

Tying to edge columns is required to ensure that the edge columns cannot become separated from the building. Clause 2.4.5.3 b) Tying of edge columns, states that ties connected to edge columns should be capable of resisting the larger of the following forces:

The design loads for general tying specified in Clause 2.4.5.3 a)

1% of the factored vertical dead and imposed load in the column at that level.

By observation, 1% of the factored load in the column only becomes the more critical load if there are a great many storeys (100 storeys if all floors are identical, and this would then be a Class 3 building). Columns carrying transfer trusses or similar massive loads may have high axial loads, and 1% of the factored axial load should always be considered in such cases.

For any member also acting as a restraint to a column, a force of 1% of the column load needs to be resisted by the restraint members in each restraint direction, in accordance with Clause 4.7.1.2 of BS 5950-1.

5.2.3 Vertical tying

Vertical tying is provided by the tension capacity of column splices as required by Clause 2.4.5.3 c) Continuity of columns. This clause requires that all column splices should be capable of resisting an axial tension equal to the largest factored vertical dead and imposed load reaction applied to the column at a single floor level located between that column splice and the next column splice down (or to the base). When applying this clause it is the largest total reaction applied to the column at a floor level that should be used (i.e. the reactions from all the beams connected to the column at that floor level).

The intention of providing vertical ties in addition to horizontal ties is to share the floor loads among all the floors, recognising that some floors are not as heavily loaded as others. This provides an additional level of robustness that will assist the remaining structure support the loads after an accidental event, as shown by Figure 5.4. If the column splice in Figure 5.4 did not have sufficient tying capacity, the displacement of beams A and B would be significantly greater and the beams could potentially collapse.

Splice A B Column removed
Splice
A
B
Column removed

Figure 5.4

Concept of horizontal and vertical ties

In practice, providing vertical tying should not be an onerous obligation, as most splices designed for adequate stiffness and robustness during erection are likely to be sufficient to carry the axial tying force. SCI publication P212 [10] has details of standard splices, and quotes axial tension capacities to simplify the design checks. Either bearing or non-bearing column splices (as shown in Figure 5.5) can be used to satisfy the vertical tying requirements. Non-bearing splices will generally have higher tension capacities because they require thicker cover plates and more bolts for normal design.

Division plate Air gap Bearing Non-bearing
Division
plate
Air gap
Bearing
Non-bearing

Figure 5.5

Column splice details

Table 5.2 gives indicative tensile axial capacities for standard bearing-type column splices with cover plates.

Table 5.2

Typical bearing type column splice tensile capacities (with flange cover plates)

Upper Column

Lower Column

Tensile Capacity (kN)

203

UC

203 UC

736

254

UC

254 UC

736

305

UC

305 UC

1588

203

UC

254 UC

500

The capacities quoted in Table 5.2 are limited by bolt shear, and adding additional bolts can easily increase capacities. Detailed design checks for bearing and non-bearing column splices are provided in SCI publication P212 [10] .

Note:

It is likely to be more difficult to provide the necessary tensile capacities with ‘cap and base’ type column splices.

5.2.4 Bracing systems

Clause 2.4.5.3 d) Resistance to horizontal forces requires at least two sets of bracing (or other system for resisting horizontal force) in each orthogonal direction. No substantial part of the structure can be braced by only one set of bracing in the direction being considered. Thus, for buildings designed to avoid disproportionate collapse, the bracing arrangement in Figure 5.6 would not be satisfactory.

Y X
Y
X

3 sets of bracing in Y direction

1 set of bracing in X direction

Figure 5.6

Unsatisfactory bracing arrangement for Class 2B buildings

BS 5950-1 allows moment resisting joints, cantilever columns, shear walls and stair and lift cores, as well as triangulated bracing, to be used as systems for resisting horizontal force.

5.2.5 Floor units

Clause 2.4.5.3 e) Heavy floor units requires that precast concrete or other heavy floor or roof units are effectively anchored in the direction of their span, either to each other over a support, or directly to their supports as, recommended in BS 8110. The tying forces between floor units may be calculated from BS 8110-1:1997 [13] Clause 3.12.3.4.

The intention of this clause is to prevent floor units simply falling through the steel frame if the steelwork is moved or removed, or the floor units are uplifted as a result of accidental loading (e.g. explosion).

BS 5950-1 only requires anchorages in the direction of the span of the precast units, as the steel beams provide ties in the orthogonal direction.

Tying of the floor units to the beams may be necessary for purposes other than reducing sensitivity to disproportionate collapse, such as to mobilise floor diaphragm action against wind loading. Further guidance on the use and design of precast units is provided in SCI publication P287 [12] .

Tying across internal supports

If the precast units have a structural topping, it may be possible to use the reinforcement in the topping to carry the tie forces, as shown in Figure 5.7 a), or to provide additional reinforcing bars. Alternatively, it may be possible to expose the voids in the pre-cast planks and place reinforcing bars between the two units prior to concreting, as shown in Figure 5.7 b).

two units prior to concreting, as shown in Figure 5.7 b). Reinforcement in topping Reinforcement in

Reinforcement in topping

as shown in Figure 5.7 b). Reinforcement in topping Reinforcement in core with concrete infill a)

Reinforcement in core with concrete infill

a) With structural topping

b) Without structural topping

Figure 5.7

Tying precast units

Special measures will be needed where precast planks are placed on shelf angles, as shown in Figure 5.8, and with Slimflor construction, unless the tie forces can be carried through the reinforcement in topping, above the top flange of the steelwork. When it is not possible to use reinforcement in the topping, straight reinforcement bars tying the precast units together are usually detailed to pass through holes in the steel beam web.

Reinforcing bar Figure 5.8 Precast units on shelf angles
Reinforcing
bar
Figure 5.8
Precast units on shelf angles

Tying to edge beams

Anchorage is best accomplished by exposing the voids in the plank, and placing U-shaped bars around studs welded to the steelwork, as shown in Figure 5.9(a). In this Figure, the studs have been provided in order to achieve adequate anchorage (not for composite design of the edge beam in this case). Other, more complicated solutions involve castellation of the plank edge (often on site), so that the plank fits around the stud, and similar U-bars located in the voids prior to concreting (Figure 5.9(b)).

U-bar U-bar Plank castellated around shear studs Minimum flange width = 230 mm Minimum flange
U-bar
U-bar
Plank castellated
around shear studs
Minimum flange
width = 230 mm
Minimum flange
width = 120 mm
(a)
(b)

Figure 5.9

Tying of precast planks to edge beams

It should be noted that loading a beam on only one side produces significant torsion in the beam itself, which may well be the critical design case. The eccentricity must be accounted for in design of the member and its connections.

In some circumstances, the floor units cantilever past the edge beam. Tying in these situations is not straightforward, and a solution should be developed in collaboration with the frame supplier and floor unit manufacturer.

5.2.6 Notional removal of members

The notional removal of members or elements is required if BS 5950-1 [3] Clause 2.4.5.3 b), c) or d) are not satisfied, as described in Section 5.2.

It is recognised that in the event of an incident, it is unlikely that the structure will be subjected to its full design load. Therefore, the load cases below should be used when checking for the consequences of notional removal of members.

Design load when not considering overturning:

= 1.05 × (1.0 × Dead load + 0.33 × Imposed Load + 0.33 × Wind Load)

Design load for overturning (Dead load is assumed to be supplying a restoring moment):

= 0.90 × Dead load + 1.05 × (0.33 × Imposed Load + 0.33 × Wind Load)

Note: If the building being considered is used predominately for storage, or the imposed load is of a permanent nature, the full imposed load should be used.

If the notional removal of any element would result in the collapse of an area greater than 70 m 2 or 15% of that floor (or roof) area, that element should be designed as a key element, as recommended in Clause 2.4.5.4.

Notional removal of columns

To determine the consequences of the notional removal of a column, the beams supported by the removed column (and their end connections) may be checked in catenary action. Additional support provided by the column section above the section which is notionally removed (see Figure 5.4), may be taken into account. However, in determining the magnitude of this support, the designer should consider the strength of the member’s connections and the resistance of the structure supporting that member. In most cases the notional removal of a column section will cause the supported beams to collapse. In this situation the

floors below should be checked for the debris loading from the collapsed floors. It is not necessary to consider the impact loading of the debris. The load combinations given above may be used with the dead load component modified to include the debris.

Notional removal of elements of the system for resisting horizontal forces

If the notional removal of any element of the system for resisting horizontal forces causes that system to fail (e.g. because a mechanism forms), then that part of the building stabilised solely by the system should be considered to have collapsed. In most cases this is likely to constitute disproportionate collapse. Providing redundancy in the bracing (e.g. cross-bracing in which both members can resist forces in compression) may be used to increase the robustness of the system. Also note that at least two bracing systems are required, see Section 5.2.4.

If a system for resisting horizontal forces is moment resisting connections (i.e. frame action), then each element of the frame with a moment resisting joint is part of that system and should be notionally removed, one at a time.

If the system for resisting horizontal forces is a concrete core, then each storey high segment of wall forming part of the core should be considered as an element of that system and notionally removed, one at a time. The length of load-bearing wall to be considered as one element, is defined in Approved Document A, as 2.25 times the storey height or the length between lateral supports (e.g. returns), whichever is greater.

If the system for resisting horizontal forces is triangulated bracing (as shown in Figure 5.10), then each element of the bracing system should be notionally removed, one at a time. This includes the beam and column members forming part of the bracing truss.

beam and column members forming part of the bracing truss. Figure 5.10 Triangulated bracing elements 5.2.7

Figure 5.10 Triangulated bracing elements

5.2.7 Key elements

Approved Document A states in Clause 5.3 that a key element:

Should be capable of sustaining an accidental design loading of 34 kN/m 2 applied in the horizontal and vertical directions (in one direction at a time) to the member and any attached components (e.g. cladding

etc.) having regard to the ultimate strength of such components and their connections. Such accidental design loading should be assumed to act simultaneously with 1/3 of all normal characteristic loading (i.e. wind and imposed loading).

From this requirement and from BS 5950-1 it can be determined that the design load for a key element is:

= 1.0 × Accidental load + 1.05 × (1.0 × Dead load + 0.33 × Imposed Load + 0.33 × Wind Load)

For the value of accidental loading to be applied, BS 5950-1 refers to BS 6399-1 [14] , where the accidental loading is also given as 34 kN/m 2 . BS 5950-1 recommends that any other structural component that provides “lateral restraint vital to the stability” of a key element should also be designed as a key element. The design of a key element is demonstrated in the worked example in Appendix A.

When considering the accidental loading on a large area (e.g. on a floor slab supported by a transfer beam), it is reasonable to limit the area that is subjected to the 34 kN/m 2 load because a blast pressure is unlikely to be this high on all the surfaces of a large enclosed space. The maximum area is not defined in the code or in Approved Document A, but could be inferred from the length of load-bearing wall to be considered (Approved Document A, Section 5.3), which

Therefore, a

is 2.25 times the storey

maximum area that would be subjected to the 34 kN/m 2 could be a 6.5 × 6.5 m square.

height, say 2.25

×

2.9

=

6.5 m.

For the design of a key element, it is necessary to consider what components, or proportion of components, will remain attached to the element in the event of an incident. The application of engineering judgement will play a major part in this process. For framed construction the walls and cladding will normally be non-structural. Therefore, it is likely that the majority of these will become detached from the key element during an incident, as shown in Figure 5.11. For the column member key element shown in Figure 5.11, an accidental load of 34 kN/m 2 should be applied over a width of ‘B’ for accidental loading about the major axis. The column section should be checked for the combination of moments and axial load using the design load case given above. The accidental loading about the minor axis over a width of ‘D’ (in this case) also needs to be considered. The accidental loading should only be considered as acting in one direction at a time and there is no requirement to consider a diagonal loading case i.e. at angle to the major and minor axes.

B

loading case i.e. at angle to the major and minor axes. B D Key element Part
D Key element
D Key element

Part of component

Part of component that remains attached to key element after an incident

that is detached from key element during an incident

Plan view

Figure 5.11 Component attached to a key element (column)

Determining the width ‘B’ is very subjective. An estimation of what will remain attached to the key element (during a loading of 34 kN/m 2 ) will obviously depend on what is attached and how it is fixed to the element.

If BS 5950-1 Clause 2.4.5.3 is satisfied either by the provision of tying or by notional removal, no members of the building need to be designed as key elements.

5.3 Practical solutions for Class 2B buildings

5.3.1

Connections

In most situations, horizontal ties will require end connections that have tying capacities similar to their shear load. Table 5.3 gives approximate tying capacities for commonly used nominally pinned connections. Exact tying capacities for these connections can be obtained from P212 [10] .

Table 5.3

Typical simple connection tying capacities

Connection type

Tying capacity (as a percentage of its shear capacity)

Fin Plate

100 – 210 %

Double Angle Cleat

60 – 230 %

Flexible End Plate

40 – 140 %

(see note*)

*Note:

Percentages given are for connections with end plates of 10 mm and 12 mm thick. Standard end plates are 8 mm or 10 mm, but to improve tying capacities end plates of 10 mm or 12 mm may be used. These can still be considered as simple connections (i.e. nominal pins) for the analysis and design.

When the tying capacities of the connections given in Table 5.3 are used in combination with the tying reduction factors given in Table 5.1, it can be seen that all standard fin plate and angle cleat connections will be sufficient for buildings up to three storeys.

Tying capacities do not need to be provided entirely by the steel frame. For example, in composite construction a certain amount of the required horizontal tying can be provided by the concrete slab reinforcement, provided that it is designed and detailed for this purpose. SCI publication P213 [15] provides guidance on utilising slab reinforcement in the connection design.

6 CLASS 3 BUILDINGS

6.1 The requirements for Class 3 buildings

Class 3 buildings are ‘very high consequence’ buildings such as grandstands (with capacity for over 5000 spectators), buildings greater than 15 storeys, hospitals over three storeys and buildings containing hazardous substances and/or processes. The requirements for Class 3 buildings given in Approved Document A, Clause 5.1.e are different in nature to those for the other classes of building (see below).

For Class 3 buildings - A systematic risk assessment of the building should be undertaken taking into account all the normal hazards that may reasonably be foreseen, together with any abnormal hazards.

Critical situations for design should be selected that reflect the conditions that can reasonably be foreseen as possible during the life of the building. The structural form and concept and any protective measures should then be chosen and the detailed design of the structure and its elements undertaken in accordance with the recommendations given in the Codes and Standards given in paragraph 5.2.

Despite stating the need for a risk assessment and the selection of critical situations for design, this guidance is vague and provides the designer with little assistance on what is actually required or how to proceed. The following Sections provide direction to the designer and sources of further information. It is important that the degree of complexity of the risk assessment is appropriate for the building being considered. When dealing with Class 3 buildings, the designer needs to use applied common sense to ensure that there are no weak links in the building which, if damaged, would result in substantial and disproportionate damage.

The ODPM intend to produce specific guidance on dealing with Class 3 buildings. It is not known when this guidance is likely to be published.

Although not specifically stated in Approved Document A, all the provisions of robustness that are recommended for Class 2B Buildings should also be applied to Class 3 Buildings, unless there are specific reasons why they are not appropriate.

It must be remembered that the objective is to design against disproportionate collapse, not against collapse from any cause. If the event is sufficiently large then a total collapse of the building may not be considered as disproportionate (see reference 7 for further discussion).

6.2 Risk Assessment

The purpose of a risk assessment is to determine whether there are any unacceptable risks and if so to suggest steps to mitigate the risks. The basic steps required for a risk assessment are given below:

1.

Identify hazards (see Section 6.4) to form the basis of a risk register. This is an absolute minimum for Class 3 buildings, to demonstrate that the possible hazards have at least been thought about by the designer.

2. Determine or estimate the severity of the consequences of each hazard.

3. Assess the likelihood of each hazard occurring.

4. Estimate the risk of each hazard. The risk is usually expressed as a function of the severity and the likelihood for each hazard.

5. Evaluate which hazards have unacceptable levels of risk.

6. Propose risk mitigation measures for any unacceptable risks.

The hierarchy of risk control is a) to prevent the hazard from occurring, b) to reduce the probability of the hazard occurring, and c) to reduce the severity of the consequences. Further guidance is provided in Section 6.5.

6.3 Critical situations for design

The guidance given in Approved Document A states that critical situations for design should be considered. This consideration is partly covered by the creation of a risk register (step 1, Section 6.2). However, having identified the possible hazards, their possible effects on the building need to be addressed and whether or not they are likely to cause disproportionate collapse.

The effect on the building of hazards will be difficult to judge accurately because by their very nature they are unexpected actions. A possible solution to this problem could be to consider the effect on the building of the notional removal of a group of columns, provided that a hazard which could cause this can be foreseen. For example, a building at the bottom of a railway embankment could be hit by a derailed locomotive causing the removal of more than one external column. If this damage caused disproportionate collapse to part of the building, then action would need to be taken (see Section 6.5). It could also be argued that a Class 3 Building should not be located where such an incident is possible.

Determining whether collapse is disproportionate, is not a straightforward issue. The only guidance which is given in Approved Document A is for the notional removal of one column where damage not exceeding 70 m 2 or 15% of the floor area (whichever is less) is considered proportionate. Therefore, if a hazard causes the removal of two columns, it seems reasonable to double this limit and so forth for more columns up to the recommended 200 m 2 limit from prEN 1991-1-7 [5] .

6.4 Hazards

Hazards are events that cause undesired affects i.e. harm to people, loss of life, damage to property or environmental damage. However, Part A of the Building Regulations is mainly concerned with the safety of people in and around buildings. Hazards may be accidental or deliberate. Approved Document A states that “normal” and “abnormal hazards” should be considered. Reference 16 includes a list of possible hazards that may be considered, along with proposals for designing to comply with the guidance in Approved Document A.

Abnormal hazards can be considered as hazards that are specific to certain buildings, either because of their location (e.g. train impact, rock fall) or due to their political, commercial or historical importance (e.g. terrorist attack). Normal hazards can be considered as non building-specific hazards (e.g. gas explosion, vehicle impact, design error). The categorisation of hazards as normal or abnormal is largely immaterial, provided that all the “reasonably foreseeable” hazards are considered.

In addition to the disproportionate collapse considerations, it may be a requirement of certain buildings that they are designed to resist specific hazards (e.g. earthquakes, terrorist explosions). Buildings constructed in seismic zones should be designed to resist the affects of earthquakes using the appropriate design code (e.g. Eurocode 8 [17] ). Comprehensive guidance for designing buildings to resist terrorist explosions is given in SCI publication P244 [18] . Any hazard that has been specifically addressed outside the disproportionate collapse requirements need not be reconsidered in the risk assessment required for Class 3 buildings. However, it should still be listed in the risk register.

6.5 Risk Reduction Measures

6.5.1 Preventing hazards

Totally preventing hazards from occurring is not possible for all types of hazard. However, significantly reducing the consequences (see 6.5.3) or their probability (see 6.5.2) is often achievable.

The overall building concept can have significant influence on the type and magnitude of hazards that need to be addressed. This includes the building location and proximity to specific hazards. For example, should a hospital be located near a railway or chemical works? The building structural form must also be considered. Large parts of the building should not be reliant on one or two critical members, where possible loads should be distributed between many members and alternative load paths should be present which could be utilised in the event of an incident.

Some hazards can be avoided. Deliberate or accidental vehicular impact on the building may be prevented by the installation of suitable external barriers. Excluding explosive materials from a building will avoid the hazard of their explosion.

6.5.2 Reducing the probability of hazards

The likelihood of hazards such as design or construction errors can be reduced by improving procedures and applying additional precautions for critical elements.

A simple but effective method of reducing the likelihood of terrorist attack is to have security checks on people entering the building.

6.5.3 Reducing the consequences of hazards

There are many measures that can be adopted to reduce the consequences of hazards. Providing increased levels robustness (e.g. providing reserves of strength, alternative load paths, and resistance to degradation) is the most obvious. Sub-dividing larger buildings with movement joints can be used to restrict the spread of collapse. Sprinklers can be installed to control the spread

of fire and venting panels can be installed to reduce the blast loading from explosions. Traffic calming measures can be used to reduce the speed of accidental vehicular impact.

Failure of beams supporting one or more columns and structure providing lateral stability is likely to have particularly severe consequences and standard tie forces may prove inadequate in this particular situation. It is recommended that either element removal or key element design is used.

6.6 Sources of further guidance

The following references offer further guidance when a risk assessment for Class 3 Buildings is necessary.

pr EN 1991-1-7 [5]

This document contains a great deal of helpful information and guidance that can be applied to Class 3 Buildings. Annex B provides guidance on risk assessment methods, acceptance criteria and mitigation measures. Section 3 includes guidance on identifying accidental actions. Sections 4 (Impact) and 5 (Internal Explosions) provide guidance on the size of loads that accidental actions might cause. This is likely to be a key source of guidance for engineers designing Class 3 buildings.

SCI publication P244 [18]

This publication provides guidance on the protection of commercial buildings and personnel from the effects of explosions caused by the detonation of high explosives. It is aimed at engineers and architects who are involved in building designs where this type of protection is required. Particularly useful topics that are covered are; calculation of blast loads, structural design approach and non- structural enhancements.

BS 7974: 2001 [19]

This code of practice provides a framework for developing a rational method for designing buildings using fire safety engineering. However, there are several aspects that could be applied more generally to Class 3 Buildings, particularly the Qualitative Design Review (QDR).

ISO 2394:1998 [20]

This International Standard specifies general principles for the verification of the reliability of structures subjected to known or foreseeable types of action. Section 8 provides guidance on the principles of probability-based design and Annex B provides examples of permanent, variable and accidental actions. The information contained within this standard is similar to that contained in EN1990 Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design [21] .

A theory of structural vulnerability [22]

This paper presents a theory of structural vulnerability based on structural form and connectivity. The theory enables identification of weak links within a structure and therefore determines elements or groups of elements that may require special attention when considering structural robustness.

Engineering Safety [23]

This publication provides information on many issues relating to safety and risk. Subjects of particular interest for dealing with Class 3 buildings are risk assessments and acceptability of risk. Descriptions of how the theory may be applied to different civil engineering projects are included.

6.7 Unclassified Buildings

Approved Document A suggests alternative approaches for buildings which either,

(a)

do not fall into any of the classifications of Table 11 (Table 2.1 of this publication), or

(b)

are buildings “for which the consequences of collapse may warrant particular examination of the risks involved”.

For (a), the alternative approach suggested consists of following the guidance given in two reports referenced in Approved Document A. The report titles are given incorrectly in Approved Document A; they should be:

Guidance on Robustness and Provision against Accidental Actions, July 1999 [24]

Proposed Revised Guidance on meeting Compliance with the requirements of Building Regulation A3: Revision of Allott and Lomax proposals. Project report number 205966 [25]

Both of these reports (available from the ODPM website) provide methods for determining the risk category of buildings. They may be used to classify buildings which do not fall into the descriptions listed in Table 11 (Table 2.1 of this publication). However, no risk assessment guidance or recommendations for design are provided, which means their usefulness is limited.

For (b), it is recommended that buildings should be considered as Class 3 buildings and the guidance given in Section 6 of this publication should be followed.

26

7

REFERENCES

1. Building Regulations 2000 (SI 2000/2531) As amended by:

The Building (Amendment) Regulations 2001 (SI 2001/3335), The Building (Amendment) Regulations 2002 (SI 2002/440) The Building (Amendment)(No. 2) Regulations 2002 (SI 2002/2871) The Building (Amendment) Regulations 2003 (SI 2003/2692) The Building (Amendment) Regulations 2004 (SI 2004/1465)) The Stationery Office

2. Building Regulations 2000 – Approved Document A (2004 Edition) Structure Approved Document A – Amendments 2004 The Stationery Office

3. BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building BS 5950-1:2000 Code of practice for design – Rolled and welded sections

4. Advisory Desk Note 280 Structural integrity of light gauge steel structures, Building Regulations – Approved Document A (2004) New Steel Construction, vol. 13 (1), Jan 2005

5. prEN 1991-1-7 (July 2004) Eurocode 1: Actions on structures Part 1-7: General actions - Accidental Actions CEN Document (Not a public document)

6. Safety in tall buildings and other buildings of large occupancy The Institution of Structural Engineers, 2002

7. SHANKAR NAIR, R.qq Progressive Collapse Basics AISC, Modern Steel Construction, March 2004

8. Technical Guidance Note: The Building Regulations 2004 Edition – England and Wales Requirement A3 – Disproportionate Collapse NHBC, 2004

9. Advisory Desk Note 267 Notional horizontal forces and industrial platforms New Steel Construction, vol. 11 (5), Sept/Oct 2003

10. Joints in Steel Construction: Simple connections (P212) The Steel Construction Institute and The British Constructional Steelwork Association, 2002

11. COUCHMAN, G. H., MULLET, D. L. and RACKHAM, J. W. Composite slabs and beams using steel decking: Best practice for design and construction (P300) The Steel Construction Institute, 2000

12. HICKS, S. J. and LAWSON, R. M. Design of composite beams using precast concrete slabs (P287) The Steel Construction Institute, 2003

13. BS 8110 Structural use of concrete BS 8110-1:1997 Code of practice for design and construction British Standards Institution, 1997

14. BS 6399-1:1996 Loading for buildings. Code of practice for dead and imposed loads British Standards Institution, 1996

15. Joints in steel construction: Composite connections (P213) The Steel Construction Institute, 1998

16. ALEXANDER, S.qq The New Approach to Disproportionate Collapse The Structural Engineer, vol. 82, Issue 23, December 2004

17. ENV 1998-1-1:1996 Eurocode 8: Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures. General rules. Seismic actions and general requirements for structures British Standards Institution, 1996

18. YANDZIO, E. and GOUGH, M. Protection of buildings against explosions (P244) The Steel Construction Institute,1999

19. BS 7974: 2001 Application of fire safety engineering principles to the design of buildings British Standards Institution, 2001

20. ISO 2394: 1998 Second Edition General principles on reliability for structures British Standards Institution, 1998

21. BS EN 1990:2002 Eurocode 0: Basis of structural design British Standards Institution, 2002

22. LU, YU, WOODMAN and BLOCKLEY A theory of structural vulnerability The Structural Engineer, vol. 77, Issue 18, September 1999

23. BLOCKLEY, D. Engineering Safety McGraw-Hill, 1992

24.

Guidance on robustness and provision against accidental actions (www.odpm.gov.uk) ODPM, 1999

25.

Proposed revised guidance on meeting compliance with the requirements of Building Regulation A3: Revision of Allot and Lomax proposal. Project report number: 205966 (www.odpm.gov.uk) ODPM, 2001

26

Steelwork design guide to BS 5950-1:2000. Volume 1: Section properties and member capacities (Sixth Edition) (P202) The Steel Construction Institute and The British Constructional Steelwork Association,, 2001

APPENDIX A

WORKED EXAMPLE

Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 CALCULATION SHEET A.1
Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 CALCULATION SHEET A.1
Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 CALCULATION SHEET A.1
Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 CALCULATION SHEET A.1

Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944

SL5 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 CALCULATION SHEET A.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

CALCULATION SHEET

A.1

4.0

4.0
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0   5.0

4.0

4.0
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0   5.0

4.0

4.0
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0   5.0

4.0

4.0
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0   5.0

4.0

4.0
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0   5.0

4.0

4.0
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0   5.0

4.0

4.0
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0   5.0

4.0

4.0
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0   5.0

4.0

4.0
4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0   5.0
 
 

5.0

5.0

Introduction

9.0

A

B C

9.0 9.0

A.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0   5.0 Introduction 9.0 A B

Job No.

BCB987

Job Title

Subject

Client

SCI

9.0 9.0 Job No. BCB987 Job Title Subject Client S C I 9.0 Figure A.1 6.0

9.0

9.0 Figure A.1 6.0 6.0

Figure A.1

6.0

6.0

Sheet

1 of

13

S C I 9.0 Figure A.1 6.0 6.0 Sheet 1 of 13 Rev. A Jun 2003
S C I 9.0 Figure A.1 6.0 6.0 Sheet 1 of 13 Rev. A Jun 2003
S C I 9.0 Figure A.1 6.0 6.0 Sheet 1 of 13 Rev. A Jun 2003

Rev. A

C I 9.0 Figure A.1 6.0 6.0 Sheet 1 of 13 Rev. A Jun 2003 Oct
C I 9.0 Figure A.1 6.0 6.0 Sheet 1 of 13 Rev. A Jun 2003 Oct

Jun 2003

Oct 2003

BS 5950-

1:2000

Worked Example

Rev. A Jun 2003 Oct 2003 BS 5950- 1:2000 Worked Example Tying and the avoidance of
Rev. A Jun 2003 Oct 2003 BS 5950- 1:2000 Worked Example Tying and the avoidance of

Tying and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse of a Class 2B building

Made by

MDH

Checked by

ASM

6.0

6.0

6.0

6.0

Date

Date

Tying and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse of a Class 2B building

The ten-storey building shown in Figure A.1 has been designed on the basis of “Simple Design” in accordance with the recommendations of BS 5950-1:2000. All storeys are 4.0 m high, apart from the ground to first floor, which has a height of 5.0 m. The columns are laid out on a 6 m × 9 m grid with the primary beams spanning 6 m and the secondary beams spanning 9 m as shown in Figure A.2. The spacing of the secondary beams is 3.0 m. A composite flooring system is used with steel decking spanning between the secondary beams. All the secondary and primary beams are assumed to act compositely with the floor slab. The steel frame is of simple construction, with two braced bays on each of the four sides providing lateral stability.

Check that the building meets the requirements of Approved Document A and BS 5950-1:2000 in terms of structural integrity and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse.

Approved Document A and BS 5950-1:2000 in terms of structural integrity and the avoidance of disproportionate
Approved Document A and BS 5950-1:2000 in terms of structural integrity and the avoidance of disproportionate
Approved Document A and BS 5950-1:2000 in terms of structural integrity and the avoidance of disproportionate
Approved Document A and BS 5950-1:2000 in terms of structural integrity and the avoidance of disproportionate
Approved Document A and BS 5950-1:2000 in terms of structural integrity and the avoidance of disproportionate

Tying and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse of a Class 2B building

6.0

6.0

6.0

6.0

6.0

6.0

GH I D E F A B C
GH
I
D
E
F
A
B
C
9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0

9.0

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0

9.0

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0

9.0

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0

9.0

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
6.0 6.0 GH I D E F A B C 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 Figure A.2

Figure A.2

3.0 (typ.)

Composite decking panel
Composite decking
panel

6.0

9.0

9.0

Figure A.3

Primary beam

Sheet

panel 6.0 9.0 Figure A.3 Primary beam Sheet 2 of 13 In the first instance, check

2 of 13

In the first instance, check that integrity is achieved by ensuring that the five conditions listed in sub-Clause 2.4.5.3 of BS 5950-1:2000 are satisfied. Where this is not possible, the designer must check that the removal of any individual member does not lead to disproportionate collapse as defined in BS 5950-1:2000 and Approved Document A. Finally, if the removal of a member would cause disproportionate collapse, this member must be designed as a key element. All three stages of this process are demonstrated in this example.

In practice, these checks must be carried out on all members to ensure adequate robustness throughout the structure. However, in this example, the checks are only performed on a typical secondary beam, an edge column and an internal column. These columns are denoted B and E respectively in Figure A.2.

Secondary beams (also acting as tie beams)

Primary beams (also acting as tie beams)

The composite floor system comprises steel decking spanning between the secondary beams, as shown in Figure A.3, with a 125 mm thick slab in grade C30 concrete.

Secondary beams

Rev. A

Tying and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse of a Class 2B building

Sheet

3 of 13

Rev. A

A.1.2

Unfactored roof and floor loads

 

Dead load (assume the same for roof and floor)

 

S/w concrete

S/w decking

S/w beams

Total s/w

= 2.67 kN/m 2 = 0.17 kN/m 2 = 0.15 kN/m 2 = 2.99 kN/m 2

 

Allow 0.5 kN/m 2 for ceilings and services.

Total unfactored dead load

= 3.49 kN/m 2

Imposed load Roof: 1.0 kN/m 2 Floor: 5.0 kN/m 2 + 1.0 kN/m 2 (partitions)

= 6.0 kN/m 2

A.1.3

Unfactored cladding loads

The external beams carry a brick and block cavity wall plastered on one side. From BS 648:1964, the weight of the wall is 3.76 kN/m 2 . Since the storey height is 4.0 m, the distributed load on each external beam is w clad = 4.0 × 3.76 = 15.04 kN/m

A.1.4

Factored roof loads

Edge column B

Edge columns support an area of 27 m 2 WN roof,B = ((3.49 × 1.4) + (1.0 × 1.6)) × 27

= 175 kN

Internal column E

Internal columns support an area of 54 m 2

WN roof,E

= ((3.49 × 1.4) + (1.0 × 1.6)) × 54

= 350 kN

A.1.5

Factored floor loads on secondary beams

 

Edge beams

w

= (15.04 × 1.4) + (1.5 × 3.49 × 1.4) + (1.5 × 6.0 × 1.6)

= 42.8 kN/m

Total load per beam = 42.8 × 9.0 = 385.2 kN

 

Internal beams

w

= (3.0 × 3.49 × 1.4) + (3.0 × 6.0 × 1.6)

= 43.5 kN/m

Total load per beam = 43.5 × 9.0 = 391.5 kN

 

A.1.6

Factored floor loads on primary beams

It is assumed that the entire slab loading is carried by the secondary beams and then transferred to the primary beams as point loads. Therefore, the only loads applied to the primary beams are the internal secondary beam reactions. Each internal primary beam supports two secondary beams.

Total load per beam

= 2 × 0.5 × 391.5

= 391.5 kN

Tying and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse of a Class 2B building

Sheet

4 of 13

Rev. A

A.1.7

Factored floor loads on columns

 

Edge column B

 

Column B supports 2 edge beams and 1 primary beam and carries half the load from each beam.

WN floor,B = (2 × 0.5 × 385.2) + (0.5 × 391.5)

= 581 kN

Internal column E

Column E supports 2 internal secondary beams and 2 internal primary beams and carries half the load from each beam.

WN floor,E = (2 × 0.5 × 391.5) + (2 × 0.5 × 391.5) = 783 kN

 

A.2

Member sizes

The composite beams were designed using the BDES* software and the column sizes were estimated using the member capacity tables in SCI publication P202 [26] . In sizing the beams, the final composite condition and the construction stage non-composite condition were both checked. Since the internal and external beams experience similar loading, only the internal beams were considered. For simplicity, the columns were sized for compression only. In practice, they would have to be designed as columns in simple construction, following the procedure outlined in Example 14. *Available from www.corusconstruction.com/page_679.htm

A.2.1

Beam sizes

Secondary beams

 

406

× 140 × 46 UB in grade S355.

Primary beams

457

× 152 × 52 UB in grade S355.

A.2.2

Column sizes

The factored loading, effective lengths and selected column sizes for columns B and E are given in Tables A.1 and A.2 respectively.

Tying and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse of a Class 2B building Sheet 5 of
Tying and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse of a Class 2B
building
Sheet
5 of 13
Rev. A
Table A.1
Edge column B
Column
L
Factored load
Selected section
Factored load
Resistance
eff
location
(m)
ex. column
(all S355)
inc. column
(kN)
s/w (kN)
s/w (kN)
Roof-9
4.0
175
305×305×97UC
175
3310
9-8
4.0
756
305×305×97UC
761
3310
P202
8-7
4.0
1337
305×305×97UC
1348
3310
Page D-6
7-6
4.0
1918
305×305×97UC
1934
3310
6-5
4.0
2499
305×305×97UC
2520
3310
5-4
4.0
3080
305×305×97UC
3107
3310
4-3
4.0
3661
305×305×137UC
3693
4620
3-2
4.0
4242
305×305×137UC
4282
4620
2-1
4.0
4823
305×305×198UC
4870
6780
1-0
5.0
5404
305×305×198UC
5462
5920
Table A.2
Internal column E
Column
L
Factored
Selected section
Factored
Resistance
eff
location
(m)
load ex.
(all S355)
load inc.
(kN)
column s/w
column s/w
(kN)
(kN)
Roof-9
4.0
350
305×305×97UC
350
3310
9-8
4.0
1133
305×305×97UC
1138
3310
P202
8-7
4.0
1916
305×305×97UC
1927
3310
Page D-6
7-6
4.0
2699
305×305×97UC
2716
3310
6-5
4.0
3482
305×305×137UC
3504
4620
5-4
4.0
4265
305×305×137UC
4295
4620
4-3
4.0
5048
305×305×198UC
5085
6780
3-2
4.0
5831
305×305×198UC
5879
6780
2-1
4.0
6614
305×305×283UC
6674
9200
1-0
5.0
7397
305×305×283UC
7473
8030
It is assumed that the columns are spliced every two storeys and that lateral
restraint is provided at every floor. It is further assumed that the columns may
be treated as pin-ended between the floor levels.
A.3
Disproportionate collapse checks using fin
plate beam-to-column connections
Designing Class 2B buildings to satisfy the five conditions listed in 2.4.5.3 of
BS 5950-1:2000 will meet the requirements of Approved Document A. These
five conditions are considered in the Sections below. It is assumed that fin
plates are used for all beam-to-column connections.

Tying and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse of a Class 2B building

Sheet

6 of 13

Rev. A

A.3.1

General tying

 

Horizontal ties should be arranged in continuous lines throughout each floor and roof level in two approximately perpendicular directions. All members acting as ties and their end connections should be designed to resist a tensile force equal to the end reaction of the member under factored loads or 75 kN, whichever is greater.

2.4.5.3

a)

Typical secondary beam (406 × 140 × 46 UB in grade S355)

   

The connection should be designed to resist the beam-to-column reaction in shear and then checked to ensure that it has an adequate tying capacity. The values of shear capacity and tying capacity used in this example have been obtained from P212 Joints in steel construction: Simple connections [10] and are based on the steel connection alone. No allowance has been made for the capacity of the reinforcement in the concrete to carry some of the load.

Try 290 x 150 x 10 mm fin plate in S275 with two lines of 4 bolts. Basic requirement 1: Reaction Shear capacity Reaction under factored loads = 196 kN Shear capacity = 289 kN

 

P212

Table H.30

196

kN < 289 kN

Therefore the shear capacity is adequate.

 

Basic requirement 2: Tying force Tying capacity Required tying force = 196 kN Tying capacity = 488 kN

P212

196

kN < 488 kN

Table H.30

Therefore the tying capacity is adequate.

 

Typical primary beam (457 x 152 x 52 UB in grade S355)

Try 290 x 100 x 10 mm fin plate in S275 with a single line of 4 bolts. Basic requirement 1: Reaction Shear capacity Reaction under factored loads = 196 kN Shear capacity = 212 kN

P212

Table H.29

196

kN <212 kN

Therefore the shear capacity is adequate.

 

Basic requirement 2: Tying force Tying capacity Required tying force = 196 kN Tying capacity = 334 kN

P212

196

kN < 334 kN

Table H.29

Therefore the tying capacity is adequate.

 

A.3.2

Tying of edge columns

Horizontal ties should be provided to hold the vertical perimeter columns in position. These ties should be capable of resisting a tying force, acting perpendicular to the edge, equal to the greater of 1% of the maximum factored vertical load in the column adjacent to that level or the load specified in the general tying requirement.

2.4.5.3

b)

Tying and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse of a Class 2B building

Sheet

7 of 13

Rev. A

Consider the lowest level, where the load in the column is greatest. From Table 23.1, the load in the column = 5462 kN 1% of 5462 kN = 54.62 kN The tying force specified in A.3.1 = 196 kN. Therefore, the general tying requirement is critical in this case.

   

A.3.3

Continuity of columns

The column splices should be capable of resisting a tensile force equal to the largest factored vertical reaction applied to the column at a single floor level located between the column splice under consideration and the next column splice down.

2.4.5.3

c)

Basic requirement: Applied vertical floor load Column splice capacity For the purpose of this example, consider column E as a typical internal column. The factored vertical load applied to the column from each floor is WN floor,E = 783 kN.

 

Consider the weakest splice in that column (that between 305 × 305 × 97UC and 305 × 305 × 97UC). From Table H.32 of P212 [10] , the capacity of one external flange cover plate is 794 kN.

Table H.32

P212

Splice capacity = 2 × 794 kN

= 1588 kN

783 kN < 1588 kN Therefore the column splice capacity is adequate.

A.3.4

Resistance to horizontal forces

 

Condition d) of Clause 2.4.5.3 states that there must be more than one system of bracing stabilizing the structure in two approximately orthogonal directions. In this Example, this is satisfied by the braced bays shown in Figure A.1

2.4.5.3

d)

A.3.5

Heavy floor units

 

Heavy precast floor units are not used in this Example, so condition e) of Clause 2.4.5.3 does not apply. If heavy precast floor units are used, the designer must ensure that they are sufficiently secure against dislodgement.

2.4.5.3

e)

A.3.6

Conclusion

 

Having satisfied the five conditions in Clause 2.4.5.3 of BS 5950-1:2000, it may be assumed that this building meets the requirements of the regulations for the avoidance of disproportionate collapse.

Tying and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse of a Class 2B building

Sheet

8 of 13

Rev. A

A.4

Disproportionate collapse checks using flexible end plate beam-to-column connections

 

As an alternative to fin plate connections, this Section considers the use of flexible end plates.

A.4.1

General tying

Typical secondary beam (406 x 140 x 46 UB in grade S355)

 

Try 290 x 150 x 8 mm flexible end plate in S275 with 4 rows of bolts. Basic requirement 1: Reaction Shear capacity Reaction under factored loads = 196 kN Shear capacity = 378 kN

P212

Table H.21

196

kN < 378 kN

Therefore the shear capacity is adequate.

 

Basic requirement 2: Tying force Tying capacity Required tying force = 196 kN Tying capacity = 226 kN

P212

Table H.21

196

kN < 226 kN

Therefore the tying capacity is adequate.

 

Now consider the situation in which the designer is unable to use such a deep secondary beam and opts instead for the slightly heavier 305 × 165 × 54 UB in

S355.

Try 220 x 150 x 8 mm flexible end plate in S275 with 3 rows of bolts. Basic requirement 1: Reaction Shear capacity Reaction under factored loads = 196 kN Shear capacity = 333 kN

P212

Table H.21

196

kN < 333 kN

Therefore the shear capacity is adequate.

 

Basic requirement 2: Tying force Tying capacity Required tying force = 196 kN Tying capacity = 175 kN 196 kN > 175 kN Therefore the tying capacity is NOT adequate and it is necessary to check for disproportionate collapse. (In practice it may be more convenient to change the connection detail and increase the tying capacity.)

Table H.21

P212

A.4.2

Check for disproportionate collapse

If any of the first three conditions listed in Clause 2.4.5.3 of BS 5950-1:2000 are not satisfied, the building should be checked to ensure that the removal of any one column would not lead to disproportionate collapse. Collapse is said to be disproportionate if at any given level it exceeds 15% of the floor or roof area or 70 m 2 . For the purpose of this example, this check has been restricted to column E. In practice, each column should be checked in turn.

2.4.5.3

Tying and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse of a Class 2B building

Sheet

9 of 13

Rev. A

The checks performed in Section A.4.1 have already established that the tying capacity of the flexible end plate connections is inadequate, so the current check becomes one of measuring the area supported by the column. In this case, the removal of column E would lead to the collapse of a section of floor measuring 12 m × 18 m, i.e. 216 m 2 (and possibly more as the floor areas directly above could also collapse). Therefore, there is a risk of disproportionate collapse and the member should be designed as a key element using the accidental loading specified in BS 6399-1, i.e. 34 kN/m 2 .

 

A.4.3

Key element design

 

The area to which the accidental loading is applied is dependent on the type of cladding or floor decking and, in particular, its integrity under blast loading. In this example, it is assumed that there is partitioning running between columns D, E and F, but none in the perpendicular direction. As the partitioning is not load-bearing, it is reasonable to assume that it is mostly blown out by the blast, leaving only a small section as shown in Figure A.4. In this case, the breadth of partitioning remaining after the blast is estimated to be B + 200 mm.

2.4.5.4

 

B + 200

 
   
   
 
D
D
 
B
B

Figure A.4

In the design of key elements, the accidental loading should be applied in all directions, but only in one direction at a time. This means checking column E in bending about both the major and minor axes. The ordinary dead and imposed loads must also be taken into account (there is no wind loading on column E) and should be applied simultaneously with the accidental loading. However, the imposed load can be reduced to one third of its normal value for this check, with a γ f factor of 1.05. The same γ f should also be applied to the dead load, but the accidental load should be factored by 1.0.

2.4.5.3

All of the calculations below relate to the column length between ground and first floor levels. In practice, all levels should be checked.

Section properties

 

The size of the internal column between ground and first floor levels is 305 x 305 x 283 UC, grade S355.

Tying and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse of a Class 2B building

Sheet

10 of 13

Rev. A

From section property tables:

   

Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Depth between fillets Area of cross-section Plastic modulus Plastic modulus Elastic modulus Elastic modulus Radius of gyration Radius of gyration

D

= 365.3 mm = 322.2 mm = 26.8 mm = 44.1 mm = 246.7 mm = 360 cm 2 = 5110 cm