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Solved Assignment July Dec 2016

MS-26 (Sample Copy)

Course Code
Course Title
Assignment Code
Assignment Coverage

MS - 26
Organisational Dynamics
MS-26/TMA/SEM - II/2016
All Blocks

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1. Why do groups get formed? What are the stages of group development in an organizational situation?
Relate the process with your organizational experience or the ones you are aware of. Briefly describe the
organization and the situation you are referring to.
A group can be defined as ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------area of study in organizational
behavior.
There are two main theories for why people form groups. According to Science News, the first theory derives from an
evolutionary need to belong to a group in order to increase chances of survival. According to the University of Kentuckys Derek
Lane, the second theory is a sociological perspective that insists people form groups in order to achieve goals and seek acceptance
from peers.
Group formation allows protection from other groups and allows group members to divide tasks. Survival depends on cooperation
between group members, as group members share duties ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------also
achieve social acceptance within a peer group, as each group consists of varying rules and structures that require conformity for
acceptance.
After a group is initially formed, it does not immediately function a highly effective team until it has gone through various stages
of development and ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------of these four stages, in fact some groups never advance to the later
stages because of the internal conflicts.

Five Stages of Group DevelopmentGroups tend to develop in stages. As you work with a support group, or with almost any group of people who are working ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- how to manage the challenges can have a big impact on how your group progresses.

As with many things, the progress of ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- is added, or for various other reasons. Having said that, heres an overview of how groups typically develop and progress.

The group members of different groups and a document on the importance of communication for group
development.
Stage 1 -- -----------------------------------------:
Group members are learning what to do, how the group will operate, whats expected, and whats acceptable. Students watch the
facilitator
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------and
comfortable, and many will do only limited sharing until that comfort zone is established.

Some students will be comfortable sharing openly even on the first day, either because they enjoy this type of interaction, or
because they already feel comfortable with the ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------open and respectful. You may want to
begin your group with some low risk warm-up activities that help them get to know each other or get more comfortable in the
group setting.
Stage 2 -- Power Struggle (Storming):
A things progress, its normal for some power struggles to emerge. As students become more comfortable, they may challenge
each other or the facilitators, attempt to form cliques and exclude or ignore certain students, and push limits. This can be
frustrating for everyone involved, but it helps to know its just a stage, and things tend to get much better once its past.
As a facilitator, one of your main challenges ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------they have in common, and building a more
cohesive group.
Stage 3 Cooperation and Integration ----------------------------:
This is where being in group becomes fun and enjoyable ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------is still important, but the
facilitator can step back a little and let group members initiate more and move forward together.
As a facilitator, you can stay aware and help the group get back on track as needed, encourage participation and creativity, and
enjoy the flow of the --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, and fine tune as needed.
Stage 4 -------------------------- (Performing):
Not every group reaches this level, and if you ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------of The whole is greater than the sum of
its parts.
I worked with a group of students in one school ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, because they all knew each other and
had their own sets of histories and struggles.
Id say we got to Stage 3 in the second semester of the first year. But in the second and third years, we spent most of the time in
this synergy mode, ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I ever worked with. Many of them stayed in touch even after they left our school some are still connected now.
Stage 5 Closure --------------------------------------:
The closure stage of a group can be confusing and disconcerting if you dont know its coming. After weeks or months of a
smoothly ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- for no apparent
reason. Students may bicker with and criticize each other, and anger may surface in unexpected ways.
This is a normal part of group process. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------than to be vulnerable. Students who have
abandonment issues may become especially argumentative or unruly.
As a facilitator, one of the best things you can do is explain to the students whats happening, validate their feelings, set clear
boundaries, and treat the whole situation as another opportunity to learn and practice a vital skill how to say goodbye. You can
facilitate a group closure activity, a party, or a ceremony, and find ways for students to thank and celebrate each other, and honor
what theyve achieved as a group.

ExampleInternational Game Technology ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------employees, from management


to operations, currently in their database, IGT has a uniquely far-reaching ability to apply Emergenetics insights.
Strategic Development with Emergenetics IGT also focuses on a strategy integration model, where Emergenetics meshes with
other key training methods to advance many offerings for employees.
Emergenetics and Tuckmans Group Development Model: To enhance --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, allowing IGTs groups to connect to the humanity of the people involved and get a sense of each persons strengths
and preferences.

Emergenetics and Trust Building: IGT is a ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------discovery within


the group:

What kind of thinking and behavioral spectrum do we have on the group and how can we catalyze our strengths for the
groups goals?

Emergenetics and Leadership Development: IGT utilizes ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------based on the groups overall Emergenetics make-up and the teams objectives.
Overall, IGT has created a robust framework for employee and organizational development with the Emergenetics model and one
that advances their goals and empowers their people.

Example 2Case Studies on group Development


Energizing groups
Challenge: To help the president of a university re-energize his group of vice presidents and get them behind a new vision for the
school.
Approach: After interviewing each group member, ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------what they
saw, but through a customized program of meetings and retreats, the group members learned techniques for improving dialogue
and began to build trust.
Result: These executives had been working together -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------behind the new
vision. This also resulted in buy-in common vision throughout the university administration.
Crisis Intervention
Challenge: To help the top group of an international ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------than a
year, and as a group, they didn't know how to work with this new leader nor with one another. A crisis was building that had the
potential to derail the entire company: a lack of international coordination across development sites that had the potential impact
on future sales and therefore market share market share.

Approach: After conducting a series of interviews, ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------to learn to


understand one another better. This in turn led to more effective listening skills, and building trust.
Result: By the end of the weekend, the president ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------got to market
on time and on budget.

2. What is Stress? What is the concept and stages of Burnout? Describe the concepts relating to your
organizational experience or the ones you are aware of. Briefly describe the organization and the situations you
are referring to.
Stress is an individuals adaptive response to a stimulus that carries excessive psychological or physical demands. The stressor is
the stimulus that induces stress. Stress generally follows a cycle known as the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS).
According to this idea, individuals ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. In many situations, the
resistance phase may end the GAS.
However, prolonged exposure to a stressor without ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------can have
very negative consequences. It is also important to understand that stress can be caused by good as well as bad things.
Stress can be caused by a wide variety of things. Positive stress may result in an increase in energy, enthusiasm, and motivation.
Negative stress has more serious consequences. The common causes are organizational stressors and life stressors.
Stress ---------------------------:
Burnout is a general feeling of exhaustion ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ pressure and too few
sources of satisfaction. The effects of burnout are mostly, constant fatigue and feelings of frustration and helplessness.
Individual ------------------------------------------ Stress:
People have different ways of managing stress---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------to avoid role
overload, ambiguity, and conflict. Finally, people can manage stress by developing and maintaining support groups.
Organizational ------------------------------------- Stress:
Organizations have a vested interest in helping their employees manage stress. Firms can use institutional programmes and
wellness programmes. Institutional efforts to manage stress are based on established organizational mechanisms. Organizations
can redesign especially stressful jobs, rearrange work schedules, and eliminate rotating shifts.
Also, the organizational culture can help manage stress. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------stress
by showing managers clearly, where they are in their careers at present and where they would like to be. While developing any
type of stress-management programme, managers need to balance the costs and benefits.

BurnoutAccording to the publishers of Merriam----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------that is accepted as


standard. Some approaches to define it are:

A syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among
individuals who do "people work" of some kind.

A progressive loss of idealism, -------------------------------------------------------------- of the conditions of their work.

A state of physical, emotional, --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- of a negative self-concept and negative attitudes towards work, life and other people.

A syndrome of inappropriate ------------------------------------------------------------------------- and emotional symptoms.

A state of exhaustion and ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- and capability.

However, despite the differences, ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, and/or negative


consequences.

Stages of Burnout
Veningle and Spradley (1981) have identified five distinct stages of burnout.
1. Honeymoon Stage: In the honeymoon ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------stress are formed in
this stage which are often not useful in coping with later challenges,)
2. Fuel Shortage Stage: In this stage, there is a vague feeling of loss, fatigue and confusion. The symptoms are job
dissatisfaction, inefficiency, -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, drinking and smoking. Future difficulties are signalled at this stage.
3. Chronic Symptom Stage: The physiological symptoms become more pronounced and demand attention and help at this stage.
Common -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- exhaustion overtakes the individual.
4. Crisis Stage: When these feelings and ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------are some of the
better-known symptoms of the crisis period. They may become acute.
5. Hitting the Wall Stage: The phrase "hitting the wall" is taken from athletics. It is said that a marathon actually begins at the
"twenty-mile mark with six miles yet to go". It is at ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the end of
a professional career. While recovery from this stage may elude some, others may be resourceful enough to tide over the crisis.
Caldwell and lhrke (1994) have observed that when an individual burns out, there are five stages to his/her symptoms.

The individual who burns out ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. One cannot become emotionally
exhausted uness there is first an emotional commitment.

The initial enthusiasm soon gives way to stagnation as the individual realises that he or she will not be able to solve all
the problems the organization faces.

This leads to frustration -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- problems are not being resolved.

This frustration may eventually lead to apathy towards the organization.

Eventually, the only way an individual ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- of counselling or, more likely, leaving the situation that caused the burnout.

Example 1-

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Example 2-

Example 3-

TATA MOTORS strategies for managing Burnout


1.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Effective communication can also change employee views. Managers can use
better signs and symbols which are not misinterpreted by the employees.

2.

Encourage ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. This will reduce role stress.

3.

Grant the --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, and greater responsibility.

4.

The Company goals ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ feedback on how


well they are heading towards these goals.

5.

Encourage decentralization.

6.

Have a fair ---------------------------------------------------------- and salary structure.

7.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- job enrichment.

8.

Creates a -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- environment.

9.

Have --------------------------------------------------------------------- procedure.

10. Appreciates the ------------------------------------------------------------------------- their targets.

3. Explain the concept of self empowerment, and Power enhancers of leaders in organizational set ups.

Explain power enhancers with examples you are aware of. Describe the context and the organization you are
referring to.
Concept of self empowermentBeing self-empowered is ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------just what does that mean?
Empowerment is considered to be made up of five components:

Your ------------------------------------------------- worth


Your right ---------------------------------------------- choices
Your --------------------------------------------------- to opportunities
Your right ------------------------------------------------------- your own life
Your ability to ------------------------------------------------ in which you live.

Being empowered goes beyond just having control over your own life and destiny; it encompasses a number of interrelated and
interdependent factors.
Every time you allow someone or ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- your life, they have defeated and dis-empowered you.
Conversely, when you decide to be a self-empowered, loving, caring, person, the success and happiness that you desire will begin
to attract the very people, events and milestones that re-enforce your empowered life.
When you understand that you ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- your life and the path you choose to set for yourself.
The core of the empowerment process is the individual. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------like
Mahatma Gandhi who demonstrated the highest degree of authenticity. He practiced what he preached.
Each individual needs to take charge of himself/ herself, and take steps for self-empowerment, Five lessons can be learned from
Mahatma Gandhi about self-empowerment.
1.

Develop a strong identity, mainly in relation to the race, class, country or vocation. This identity should give a sense of
pride to oneself. Distinguish this identity from pseudo or narrow identities.

2.

Break out of the narrow or pseudo identities, eg. of sex, language, caste, religion etc. In other words, empowerment
means emancipation from narrow identities. This thought is at the core of the Indian culture. For example, --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. He used to say that he was first a mother and
then a man. His emphasis on values of non-violence, caring, compassion, empathy etc. was to balance the tilt which was
more on male values of confrontation, competition, aggression etc.

3.

Expand your identity to larger identities - or connect with others. But before connecting with others, connect with
yourself. After integration of the self, by connecting within with several aspects of the self, connecting with others add a
qualitatively different dimension to empowerment. Individuals and groups are no more in isolation. Connecting is
empowerment. With his deep identity of --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, through his life, taught millions of young Indians these basic lessons of empowerment. Connecting with larger
groups and significant individuals in other parts of world, gave a higher degree of empowerment. The youth during the
freedom struggle used to participate in meeting to --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------over the world.

4.

Gandhiji emphasized the need of going back to self whenever in doubt. Whenever his action resulted in unintended
violence, he used to ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- discussed his analysis with his
colleagues. Gandhi's lesson was that the core of all empowerment is self, a liberated self strengthened with introspection
and reflection.

5.

And finally, he emphasized the need to go beyond the self and served other individuals, groups and the society. This was
the link between individual empowerment and empowerment in the society. Gandhiji gave up his busy schedule, he used
to find time to serve needy (eg. taking care of a --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, Chapter 50 or what Mehta (1994) calls social achievement), along with internal locus of control is the basis
of individual empowerment, and a building block of social empowerment.

Power enhancers of leaders in organizational set upsLeadership is increasingly seen as catalyst ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tasks and from the
use of his/her discretion in most routine matters. Let us take the example of house or vehicle allotment. A leader has directive
influence if he/she uses his/her discretion to allot vehicles --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------enhancers rather than as leadership substitutes.
What are these power enhancers? Based on the research literature, and interviews with some senior Indian managers, a list of
power enhancers was prepared, and then edited. Finally, the following 14 power enhancers were selected.
ProfessionalizationFour enhancers fall within this category.
1.

Competence Building: Professionalization is attained ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ contributes to this the more competent people there are
in an organization, the greater the opportunity the leader will have to exercise higher leadership functions.

2.

Rewards System: Rewards play an important role in ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- to these, the leaders then have great resources available to
them, adding to their overall power. In this way, rewards are very effective power enhancers.

3.

Feedback System: A well- developed system of giving to the --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- by the leader. In fact, the feedback system in a releases time to leaders to perform this function.

4.

Professionalism: A professional orientation in the ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- persons with expertise in their fields, use of appropriate technology, and periodical competence
building of personnel at various levels. Leadership in a professional organization deals with functions at higher levels.

Team work:
Team work is an effective power ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- are common with the next factor and will be discussed later.
5.

Strong Teams: "Strong and cohesive teams" are a major power enhancer. The more cohesive the teams are, the more the
leader is able to exercise high- level power, leaving most of the internal matters to the teams.

6.

Self-Governing Teams: When teams can ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------real


leaders in attending to resource mobilisation, boundary management, competence building and consultation when needed
by the group. Branches of organizations with enough autonomy have the same effect.

Formalization-

Informality in organizations ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------factor (tasks and roles) and are


discussed first, followed by two others.
7.

Satisfying Tasks: intrinsically satisfying tasks are likely to promote both formalization and team building. Well designed tasks which are seen as worthwhile by ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------contribute to the effective use of discretion by the concerned employees, and thereby enhance power in the system.

8.

Rules and Procedures: Clear rules and procedures --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, amenities etc. Although not directly related to team building, such rules reduce bickering and help in
building of teams.

9.

Organizational Structure: A clear well-defined structure helps in formalization. The structure reduces the leader's
discretion in many ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- the power available to increase expertise in the organization.

10. Management Systems: In effective organizations --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------well, without any need for the leaders to attend to them.
Expert PowerDevelopment of expert power in -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- There are three enhancers in this category, one (staff functions) being common with the previous factor of formalization,
11. Staff functions: Advisory and staff functions ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- these help to develop expertise. Power is then
distributed and gets multiplied, and strengthens the leader's ability to lead the organization.
12. Objective Rewards: when rewards are decided on --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------to a team. This will release the leader's time and energy for higher level tasks.
13. Spatial Distance: Divisionalisation --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------with the leader whose power is also enhanced.
Task Clarity and AutonomyThere is- only one enhancer in this group, although self-governing teams can also be included here.
14. Task Clarity: Well defined --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- their power,
as also the power of the leader who need not be bothered with these matters.
In brief, leaders can empower people and teams at. various level, thereby ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- a 3 pronged approach to empowerment.

The organization I am referring here is Tata Steel.


Tata Steel Limited (formerly Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO)) is an Indian multinational steel-making company
headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------million tonnes after
SAIL.
Tata Steel has manufacturing operations in 26 countries, including Australia, China, India, the Netherlands, Singapore, Thailand
and the United Kingdom, and employs around ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------as per Brand


Finance.
In Tata Steel leaders can empower people and teams at various level, thereby multiplying power in an organization.
1. Share --------------------------------

Share ---------------------------------------- information.

Help --------------------------------business.

Build ------------------------------------------ information

Create ----------------------------------------- possibilities

2. Create ------------------------------ structure

Create a ------------------------------------------------------- little pictures

Clarify --------------------------------------------- collectively

Create new ------------------------------------------------------------- empowerment

Establish new ------------------------------------------------------------ processes

Use ------------------------------------- of training

3. Let teams ---------------------------- hierarchy

Provide ---------------------------------------- for new skills

Provide ------------------------------------------------ for change

Gradually ---------------------------------------------- of control

Work ------------------------------------------------ stage

Acknowledge the fear factor.

4. Briefly describe the forms of strategic alliances. Also describe briefly the tenets of strategic alliances.
Draw from your experience or knowledge referring to the operational aspects of strategic alliances and
critically analyse the reasons what makes or mars strategic alliances in organizational setups.
A strategic alliance is an agreement between two or more parties to pursue a set of agreed upon objectives needed while
remaining independent organizations. This form of ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------will be greater than those from
individual efforts. The alliance often involves technology transfer (access to knowledge and expertise), economic specialization,
shared expenses and shared risk.
For example, an oil and natural gas ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------with an analytics company to improve its

Forms of strategic alliancesThere are a variety of arrangements for joint developments and alliances. Some may be very formalized inter-organizational
relationships; at the other extreme there can ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, the form of the
alliance is likely to be influenced by asset management, asset separability and asset appropriability.
Thus, alliances may take the form of networks opportunistic alliances, subcontracting Iicenses and franshises, consortia, joint
ventures and acquisitions and mergers.
Joint ventures are typically ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------two or more organizations in a
joint venture arrangement and would typically be more focused on a particular venture or projects.

In joint ventures and consortia, the inter-organizational ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------on


effects in that company. For example, expertise can be specifically used for the joint venture without its removal harming the
parent organization.
As against joint ventures and consortia, networks are arrangements whereby two or more organizations work in collaboration
whereby two or more organizations work in collaboration without formal relationships, but through a mechanism of mutual
advantage and trust.'
More opportunistic alliances might also arise which are likely to be more focussed around particular ventures or projects, but may
not be formalized. Such kind of alliances are more ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------if the assets
involved were split off into a separate organization, there would be high risk of their being appropriated by another party involved.
This is particularly found in the case of the know-how and skills of the different parties involved.
There may exist other arrangements in between the formal and informal ones, such as franchising, licensing, subcontracting. In
franchising, the franchiser hold specific activities such as --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------advantages, for example, by setting up distribution or manufacturing in a country in which it would find problem in operation.
The concept of partnerships for profit and growth is nothing new. Businesses have long been inclined to lean towards this form of
organizational arrangement for achieving cross-border growth. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, and policies Were oriented towards satisfying the home country shareholders. This arrangement did not create serious conflict of
interests at the time, partly because of previous historical ties, and* partly because of the clearly understood teacher - disciple role
of the partners.
The rationale for cross-border business partnerships, if anything, has become even more compelling than ever before, given the
following megatrends

Explain -----------------------------------------Universalization ------------------------------ and tastes


Rapid dispersal ------------------------------------ rate of its obsolescence
Internationalization ------------------------------------ markets
The ------------------------------------------ competition

The implications of these developments are clear: The markets -------------------------------------------------------- to service efficiently
The risks of technology --------------------------------------------------------- for forming alliances
The internationalization ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- in turn creates the need for local partners to foster investor confidence
The emergence of --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- companies

Tenets of strategic alliancesTenet of MaximizationSelfishness is the paradigm of the perfect joint venture. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------gets
more from it than the other. Therefore, the starting point is to short list the benefits that one can expect from the other.
Tenet of FlexibilityAnother fundamental principle of alliance is that the conditions governing the creation and the continuance of joint venture and
other collaborative arrangements change -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------as essentially mortal


enterprises, whose existence should be reviewed and if necessary, renewed at intervals instead of being assumed to be immortal.
However, no joint venture should start out with objectives common to both partners. The JVs between Godrej Soaps and Proctor
& Gamble for marketing and distributing soaps and detergents and between Coca-cola and Parle Group for bottling and
distribution of soft drinks disintegrated precisely because the objectives of the partners started overlapping.
It is, therefore, essential, to differentiate the gains -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------on getting
their own objectives fulfilled, with the harmony between the objectives ensuring that there is no collision of visions. Titan
industries even transferred its best selling - Aqura brand to the JV in order to make.it worth. Timex continued the relationship so
that the protection afforded by the partnership was not withdrawn.
Tenet of Clarity In order to ensure smooth functioning of joint venture, it is imperative to delineate the roles and responsibilities of
the partners. A crucial factor behind the smooth -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------to gain
synergistic benefits. However, the role of the partners should be reviewed constantly in view of the change in the comparative
advantages each partner will derive over a period of time.
Tenet -------------------- Addition
The basic premise of an alliance is a pooling of -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------conditions - not
as stand-alone skills, but as supporting elements to their transnational partners' abilities.
Tenet of Autonomy
One of the basic requisites for the successful ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- leaves the
effective management of his group's JVs to a management committee which meets at two-month intervals to iron out all issues
relating to the partnership and meets the CEO's to review operations.
Further, the partners must have the -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------either partner would be
better of by going it alone.
Tenet of -----------------------------One of the reasons for the fall out of any form of alliance is ownership. At the time of formation of alliance, when the partners are
unsure about the commercial viability of the alliance, -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------out the
issue amicably. Otherwise, the venture's possibility of success will be killed.
Matching Tenet
At times, alliances collapse because one of the -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------to corner the soft
drinks market.
It is, therefore, desirable for the partners to determine in advance the financial requirements of the venture, pattern of funding the
requirements and audit their financing capacities. They should discuss issues threadbare so as to avoid any misunderstanding in
future.

Operational aspects of strategic alliances and critically analyse the reasons what makes or mars strategic
alliances in organizational setups with example-

Strategic alliances are partnerships in which -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------to accomplish some of these goals in the past,
forming a strategic alliance is more cost-effective.

Starbucks

According to Rebecca Larson, assistant Professor of Business at Liberty University, Starbucks partnered with Barnes and Nobles
bookstores in 1993 to provide in-house coffee shops, -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NAACP, the sole purpose of which
was to advance the company's and the NAACP's goals of social and economic justice.

Apple

According to "An Overview of Strategic Alliances," -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------in a "legally defensible" manner,


according to a 2010 press release.

Hewlett Packard and Disney

Hewlett-Packard and Disney have a -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------, servers and workstations to create Disney's most
technologically advanced attraction.

Eli Lilly

Pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly has been forming alliances for nearly a century, according to its brochure, Power in Partnerships,
and was the first in their industry to establish an office devoted to alliance management. Lilly currently has over one hundred
partnerships around the world devoted to discovery, development, and marketing. For example, ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------and sell the product worldwide except in Japan, and the two companies will share rights in certain Asian countries.

Case study- With reasons what makes or mars strategic alliances in organizational setupsToshiba firmly believes that a single company cannot dominate any technology or business by itself. Toshibas approach is to
develop relationships with different partners for different technologies. Strategic alliances form a key element of Toshibas
corporate strategy. They helped the company to become one -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Conductor, Samsung,
Siemens, Sun Microsystems and Thomson.
Toshiba formed an alliance with Apple Computer to develop multimedia computer products. Apples strength lay in software
technology, while Toshiba contributed its manufacturing expertise. Toshiba created a similar tie-up with Microsoft for hand held
computer systems. In semiconductors, Toshiba, -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------has helped it become a world leader in
the production of memory chips.
The tie-up with IBM has enabled Toshiba to become -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------involved in
the management of strategic alliances. This helps in building personal equations and resolving conflicts.

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