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# Thematic Unit Plan: Real

## World Applications of PreCalculus

TJ Miller
Education 142

Theme
Statement
3
Lessons, Objectives, Standards, and Literacy Strategy
Chart..4
Text
Overview
13
Lesson One: Exploring
Graphs14
Lesson Two: Component Form and Magnitude of
Vectors18
Lesson Three: Vector Operations and Direction
Angles.21
Lesson Four: Review of the Unit

## Lesson Five: Plotting Points in the Polar Coordinate

System..28
Lesson Six: Converting Polar and Rectangular
Coordinates..34
Lesson Seven: Quiz
Review
36
Lesson Eight: Limacon Polar
Curves..38
Lesson Nine: Lemniscate and Rose Polar
Curves..44
Lesson Ten: Unit Test
Review51

## Real World Applications of Mathematics

The following unit plan is made for a high school level pre-calculus class. The overall
goal of this unit is to get students to understand the relationship between mathematics and the

real world. Mathematics is an important tool for solving real world problems in almost every
context but there are certain skills that need to be learned before this mathematics can be applied.
Throughout his unit students learn different skills that are put to use to solve a myriad of
different problems. By the end of this unit, students will be able to solve basic problems
regarding force acting on a moving object and how the speed of that object is effected; how
working in different planes can affect functions and how to convert functions between planes;
the practicalities of the unit circle; as well as some practical uses for polar curves.
This unit will cover some Iowa Common Core State Standards for mathematics as well as
some literacy standards when it comes to science and technical subjects. Each mathematical
standard was chosen through careful consideration in cooperation with the goals and objectives
for each lesson. The literacy standards were chosen to enhance the comprehension potential of
each lesson so that students could learn and retain information to the best of their ability.

Lesson/
Day
Number
1
Function
s

Student
Objectives

Iowa Core
Curriculum
Standard
Students will be
Interpret functions
able to recognize a that arise in
variety of graphs as applications in
5

Literacy
Strategy
Think/Pair/Share
strategy will be
used in the launch

functions.

## terms of the context

(F-IF.B)
Initiate and
participate
effectively in a
range of
collaborative
discussions (one-onone, in groups, and
teacher-led) with
diverse partners on
texts, and issues,
building on others'
ideas and
expressing their
own clearly and
persuasively.
CCSS.ELALITERACY.SL.11-12.1

for students to
brainstorm and
remember
different important
types of graphs.

Translate
quantitative or
technical
information
expressed in words
in a text into visual
form (e.g., a table or
chart) and translate
information
expressed visually
or mathematically
(e.g., in an
equation) into
words.
CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.9-10.7
Students will be
able to interpret
and define the key
features of graphs.

## For a function that

models a
relationship
between two
quantities, interpret
key features of
6

The mathematics
vocabulary word
wall will be utilized
for important
graph-related
vocabulary.

## graphs and tables in

terms of the
quantities, and
sketch graphs
showing key
features given a
verbal description of
the relationship. (FIF.B.4)
Determine the
meaning of symbols,
key terms, and
other domainspecific words and
phrases as they are
used in a specific
scientific or
technical context
11-12 texts and
topics. CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.1112.4
Translate
quantitative or
technical
information
expressed in words
in a text into visual
form (e.g., a table or
chart) and translate
information
expressed visually
or mathematically
(e.g., in an
equation) into
words.
CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.9-10.7
2
Compon
ent

Students will be
able to express a
vector in

Recognize vector
quantities as having
both magnitude and
7

Vocabulary words
of importance will

Form
and
Magnitu
de of a
Vector

component form
when given an
initial point and
terminal point.

direction. Represent
vector quantities by
directed line
segments, and use
appropriate symbols
for vectors and their
magnitudes (e.g., v,
|v|, ||v||, v). (NVM.A.1) (DOK 1)

classroom word
wall for future
reference.

Determine the
meaning of symbols,
key terms, and
other domainspecific words and
phrases as they are
used in a specific
scientific or
technical context
11-12 texts and
topics. CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.1112.4

3
Vector
Operatio
ns and
Directio
n Angles

Students will be
able to find the
magnitude of a
vector.

Find the
components of a
vector by
subtracting the
coordinates of an
initial point from the
coordinates of a
terminal point. (NVM.A.2) (DOK 1)

A graphic
organizer will be
utilized for
students to take
notes while
watching a video.

Students will be
able to perform
scalar
multiplication of
vectors.

Perform operations
on vectors. (N-VM.B)

## The GIST strategy

will be used as
students
summarize what
textbooks.

Determine the
central ideas or
conclusions of a
text; summarize
complex concepts,
processes, or
information
presented in a text
8

by paraphrasing
them in simpler but
still accurate terms.
CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.1112.2
comprehend
science/technical
11-CCR text
complexity band
independently and
proficiently.
CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.1112.10
Students will be
able to determine
the direction angle
of a vector.

Perform operations
on vectors. (N-VM.B)
Determine the
central ideas or
conclusions of a
text; summarize
complex concepts,
processes, or
information
presented in a text
by paraphrasing
them in simpler but
still accurate terms.
CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.1112.2
comprehend
science/technical
11-CCR text
complexity band
9

## The GIST strategy

will be used as
students
summarize what
textbooks.

independently and
proficiently.
CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.1112.10

4
Unit
Circle

Students will be
able to apply vector
operations and
direction angles to
real-world problems
in order to solve
them.

Solve problems
involving velocity
and other quantities
that can be
represented by
vectors. (N-VM.A.3)
(DOK 1,2)

## Students will write

a short story
incorporating
vector
mathematics.

Students will be
able to examine
and understand the
relationship/equival
ency between
degrees.

measure of an angle
as the length of the
arc on the unit circle
subtended by the
angle. (F-TF.A.1)
(DOK 1)

The mathematics
vocabulary word
wall will be utilized
for important unit
circle-related
vocabulary that is
vital to this unit.

Determine the
meaning of symbols,
key terms, and
other domainspecific words and
phrases as they are
used in a specific
scientific or
technical context
11-12 texts and
topics. CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.1112.4
Students will be
able to label a unit
circle with angle
measures in the
degrees as well as
functions of

## Extend the domain

of trigonometric
functions using the
unit circle (F-TF.A)

## The use of a unit

circle graphic
organizer will help
students
remember the
Determine the
aspects of the unit
meaning of symbols, circle that they
10

5
Polar
coordina
te
System

trigonometry.

## key terms, and

other domainspecific words and
phrases as they are
used in a specific
scientific or
technical context
11-12 texts and
topics. CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.1112.4

need to remember
and utilize
throughout this
unit.

Students will be
able to use the Unit
Circle and
landmark angle
measures as a tool
for estimating the
measure of angles.

Determine the
meaning of symbols,
key terms, and
other domainspecific words and
phrases as they are
used in a specific
scientific or
technical context
11-12 texts and
topics. CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.1112.4

## The use of a unit

circle graphic
organizer will help
students
remember the
aspects of the unit
circle that they
need to remember
and utilize
throughout this
unit.

Students will be
able to interpret
polar functions
enough to find
values to graph
when given an
equation.

Translate
quantitative or
technical
information
expressed in words
in a text into visual
form (e.g., a table or
chart) and translate
information
expressed visually
or mathematically
(e.g., in an
equation) into
words. CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.9-10.7

The text
dependent
questioning
strategy is being
implemented here
as students are
working through a
guided discovery
that prompts them
thoughtful
the general
understanding and
structure of the
text (online
graphing resource)
that they are

11

engaging with.
Students will be
able to plot points
in the polar
coordinate system.

Represent complex
numbers and their
operations on the
complex plane. (NCN.B)
Represent complex
numbers on the
complex plane in
rectangular and
polar form
(including real and
imaginary
numbers), and
explain why the
rectangular and
polar forms of a
given complex
number represent
the same number.
(N-CN.B.4) (DOK
1,2)

6
Converti
ng
Coordin
ates
(All three
of the
Common
Core
State
Standard
s and
both
literacy
strategies
are used
to meet
both
objective
s)
7

Students will be
able to convert
given coordinates
in a polar plane to
those in a
rectangular plane.
Students will be
able to convert
given coordinates
in a rectangular
plane to those in a
polar plane.

Students will be

## Represent complex numbers

Jigsaw strategy
and theirwill
operations on th
be implemented so
Represent complex numbers
that students
on the can
complex plane in re
(including real and imaginary
take notes
numbers),
and
and explain wh
of a given complex number
decipher
represent
important
the same numbe
information on
Initiate and participatetheir
effectively
own while
in a range of collabor
groups, and teacher-led)
learning
with diverse
from their
building on others' ideas
peers.
and expressing their own clear
LITERACY.SL.11-12.1
Math journals will
be utilized for
students to reflect
on the process of
understanding
their text as well
as the difficulties
in teaching their
peers.
The I have, who
12

Unit
Circle
and
Converti
ng
Coordin
ates
Review
+ Quiz

able to correctly
identify angle
measures on the
unit circle.

measure of an angle
as the length of the
arc on the unit circle
subtended by the
angle. (F-TF.A.1)
(DOK 1)
Determine the
meaning of symbols,
key terms, and
other domainspecific words and
phrases as they are
used in a specific
scientific or
technical context
11-12 texts and
topics. CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.1112.4

Students will be
able to correctly
calculate the sine,
cosine, and tangent
of the angle
measures on the
unit circle.

## Extend the domain

of trigonometric
functions using the
unit circle (F-TF.A)

Students will be
able to convert
from polar to
rectangular
coordinates and
vice versa.

Represent complex
numbers and their
operations on the
complex plane. (NCN.B)
Represent complex
numbers on the
complex plane in
rectangular and
polar form
(including real and
imaginary
numbers), and
13

has..? strategy
mathematics in
order for students
to practice
understanding of
characteristics of
the unit circle.

## The I have, who

has..? strategy
mathematics in
order for students
to practice
understanding of
characteristics of
the unit circle.

## explain why the

rectangular and
polar forms of a
given complex
number represent
the same number.
(N-CN.B.4) (DOK
1,2)
8
Limacon
Polar
Curves

Students will be
able to apply what
graphs in the
rectangular plane
to graphs in the
polar plane.

Represent complex
numbers on the
complex plane in
rectangular and
polar form
(including real and
imaginary
numbers), and
explain why the
rectangular and
polar forms of a
given complex
number represent
the same number.
(N-CN.4.)

Think/Pair/Share
strategy will be
used in the launch
for students to
brainstorm
important
characteristics to
look for when
graphing
equations.

Students will be
able to identify the
different types of a
limacon curves.

complex multistep
procedure when
carrying out
experiments, taking
measurements, or
performing technical
specific results
based on
explanations in the
text.
CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.1112.3

The text
dependent
questioning
strategy is being
implemented here
as students are
working through a
guided discovery
that prompts them
thoughtful
the general
understanding and
structure of the
text (online
graphing resource)
that they are
engaging with.

14

Students will be
able to generalize
the forms of polar
graphs after
exploration and
examples.

9
Rose
and
Lemnisc
ate
Polar
Curves

Students will be
able to identify the
different types of
polar curves as well
as their general
form.

## Using the equation

given, students will
be able to predict
the graph of the
polar function or
vice versa.

Translate
quantitative or
technical
information
expressed in words
in a text into visual
form (e.g., a table or
chart) and translate
information
expressed visually
or mathematically
(e.g., in an
equation) into
words.
CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.9-10.7
Represent complex
numbers on the
complex plane in
rectangular and
polar form
(including real and
imaginary
numbers), and
explain why the
rectangular and
polar forms of a
given complex
number represent
the same number.
(N-CN.4.)
Translate
quantitative or
technical
information
expressed in words
in a text into visual
form (e.g., a table or
chart) and translate
information
expressed visually
or mathematically
(e.g., in an
equation) into
words.
15

Outline framework
will be used for
notetaking so that
student can focus
on the content
organize it.

CCSS.ELALITERACY.RST.9-10.7
10
Test
Review

Students will be
able to identify
important functions
and polar curves.

All mathematics
standards covered
in this unit.

Learning Stations
are utilized for
students to review
before their unit
exam.

Students will be
able to solve
problems involving
vectors.
Students will be
able to convert
polar and
rectangular
coordinates.
Students will be
able to fully label a
blank unit circle.

Text Overview
Textbook: Precalculus: Graphical, Numerical, Algebraic
This textbook was selected for its comprehensive study of applications of
trigonometry when it came to polar mathematics. This unit focuses solely on
chapter 6: Applications in Trigonometry, and the information it provides on
vectors, polar and rectangular graphs/coordinate conversion, and polar
graphs.
Demana, F. D. (2011). Precalculus: Graphical, numerical, algebraic. Boston:
Online Texts:
a. This video instructs students on how to find the component form
of a vector as well as how to calculate the magnitude of a vector.
2. https://www.desmos.com/calculator/ulxhe9tosg
16

## a. This online graphing calculator program helps students explore

the process of plotting points on a polar plane and how
manipulating certain numbers changes where the points are
placed.
3. www.desmos.com/calculator
a. This online graphing calculator helps students explore the
relationships between different polar functions and graphs.
Students can color code their graphs according to their functions
so it is extremely user friendly.
Magazine/Newspaper Article: See Lesson 1: Exploring Graphs
Students are asked to search magazine articles in order to find examples of
functions in every day photographs. As they interact with this medium of
text, it is important for them to notice the different types of graphs that exist
all around us and how, although they might not all look exactly the same, we
can adapt some of the graph characteristics to show real representations of
functions.
Poem/Short Fiction Piece: Diary of a Salmon by Daniel Carter (2016)
http://www.poetrysoup.com/poem/diary_of_a_salmon_760724
This short poem outlines the daily thoughts of a salmon as he or she goes
about their life. In the lesson it is being used with, students are asked to find
how fast a salmon is swimming given the speed of the current and the angle
the salmon is moving at. This poem is being utilized as a piece of information
as in order to solve the math problem, as it is important to know that salmon,
unlike other fish, swim upstream. Had it been assumed that they swam
downstream (with the current) then the outcome of that problem would be
much different.
Secondary Lesson Plan Template
Topic:
Exploring Graphs

Pre-Calculus

Length of class:
50

LEARNING GOALS:
Students will identify the parent functions of important graphs.
Students will create three examples of graphs modeled by real images.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Students will be able to recognize a variety of graphs as well as their parent functions.
17

Students will be able to interpret and define the key features of graphs.
STANDARDS:
Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context (F-IF.B)
For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features
of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features
given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals
where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums
and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. (F-IF.B.4)
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and
phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades
11-12 texts and topics. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.11-12.4
MATERIALS NEEDED:
Magazines (amount dependent on class size)
White printer paper
Markers/colored pencils/crayons
Glue
Scissors
Protractors/rulers/straight edge
Graph Exploration Activity paper (Enough for 3/student)
Word wall cards

18

## LESSON PLAN SEQUENCE & PACING:

Launch: 10 minutes
o Students will be prompted to think/pair/share with a partner and write
down as many functions and/or graph types as they can.

o
o

## Example: Parabola and/or y= x

After a few minutes, show students the parent graphs of functions and have
them name the equation associated with it.
The finished product should be a comprehensive list of important functions
to know. It should include:

f ( x )= x ,

f ( x )=csc x ,

f ( x )=2

f ( x )=x ,

f ( x )=sin x ,

f ( x )=sec x ,

f ( x )=x 2 ,

f ( x )=x 3 ,

f ( x )=cos x ,

f ( x )=|x| ,

f ( x )=tan x ,

f ( x )=cot x .

## Review: 5-10 minutes

o Quickly review/teach key graph-related vocabulary and put them on the
word wall so that students can use it later in the activity/unit.
Intercepts
Intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or
negative
Relative maximums and minimums
Symmetries
End behavior
Periodicity

o Students will use the list that we collaborated on to complete a graph
discovery activity (attached).
o In this activity students will be asked to look through magazines in order to
find pictures that model the functions and graph types that we will be
working with.
o Once they find a picture that they want to use (example: Mountain) they will
put it on the Graph Exploration Activity Paper (attached).
o On this paper, they will write the Parent Function of their picture (ex:

## f ( x )=|x| ), the modified function of their picture (ex:

f ( x )=|x| ), as well

## as the defining characteristics that helped them make that assumption.

19

They will repeat this step twice so that there are a total of three different
graphs represented on three separate papers.

## Close/Presentation: The rest of class

o Students will partner up and explain one of their three graphs to each other.
o Students will then turn in all 3 graphs for assessment based on the rubric
below.

Assessment:
0

Presentatio
n:

Presentation
is lacking
elements.
Cannot be
Not
appropriate
for hanging
on the wall of
the
classroom.

Presentation
is hard to
understand
even with
explanation
by the
presenter. Not
appropriate
for hanging
on the wall.

Presentation
is hard to
understand
without
explanation
by the
presenter. Not
a good
representatio
n of the
graph.

Presentation
is easy to
with. May be
lacking some
organization.
Appropriate
for hanging
on the wall.

Understan
ding:

Student is
unable to
explain why
the photo
they chose is
relevant and
are unable to
relate it to the
graph of a
function.

Student
shows
understandin
g of the
relationship
between the
graph and the
function, but
is unable
explain why
the 3 graph
characteristic
s are relevant
and relate the
photo the
graph, then to
the equation.

Student
shows
understandin
g of the
relationship
between the
graph and the
function, but
is only able to
explain why 1
of the 3 graph
characteristic
s are
relevant.

Student
shows
understandin
g of the
relationship
between the
graph and the
function, but
is only able to
explain why 2
of the 3 graph
characteristic
s are
relevant.

Required
Component
s:
Graph/Phot
o, Parent
Function,
Modified
Function,
Defining
Characteris

none of the
required
components.

Student only
required
component.

of the
required
components.

of the
required
components.

Well
organized and
can be easily
Appropriate
for hanging
on the wall. Is
easy to follow
along with
and is a good
representatio
n of the
graph.
Student
shows a
complete
understandin
g of the graph
and how it
relates to the
function that
it represents.
Student can
thoroughly
explain why
the 3 graph
characteristic
s are relevant
and relate the
photo to the
graph, then to
the equation.
all 4 of the
required
components.

20

tics
Explanation of Literacy Strategies/Skills:
This lesson begins by asking students to recall and access prior knowledge of functions
and their graphs while using the strategy of think/pair/share. Through this, students are
able to work collaboratively with one other partner which allows them someone to
bounce ideas off of while holding them accountable for participation. Once the class has
come up with a comprehensive list, the strategy of a classroom word wall is
implemented. A classroom definition will be assigned to the key graph-related vocabulary
that is important for students to know. These words will be hung up on a word wall to be
utilized/referenced for the rest of the unit. Students who may be struggling to understand
a word or remember its definition can look to the word wall to remind themselves of what
it means in terms of this class. This prevents students from looking up the word
themselves and interpreting a possibly confusing definition. English language learning
students can specifically benefit from this strategy.
Name___________________________

## Parent Function: __________________

Function________________________

Modified

Defining Characteristics:

21

## Secondary Lesson Plan Template

Topic:
Component form and Magnitude of Vectors

Pre-Calculus

Length of class:
50 Minutes

LEARNING GOALS:
Students will understand the notation of a vector in component form.
Students will understand that finding the magnitude of a vector is finding the length of a
vector.
Students will understand the process of calculating magnitude.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Students will be able to express a vector in component form when given an initial point and
terminal point.
Students will be able to find the magnitude of a vector
STANDARDS:
1. Recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction. Represent vector
quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their
magnitudes (e.g., v, |v|, ||v||, v). (N-VM.A.1) (DOK 1)
2. Find the components of a vector by subtracting the coordinates of an initial point from the
coordinates of a terminal point. (N-VM.A.2) (DOK 1)
MATERIALS NEEDED:
Technology to play video for entire class
Graphic organizer for information

22

LEARNING PLAN

## Launch: 5-10 minutes

o Review as a class some vocabulary/formulas that students may have forgotten.
Add these words and definitions to the word wall in the classroom.

## The Pythagorean theorem :a +b =c

Ray: a portion of a line which starts at a point and goes off in a particular
direction to infinity.

Distance Formula:

(x x ) +( y y )
2

Introduce new vocabulary for this unit and place them on the word wall.
Initial point: starting point of a line segment
Terminal point: ending point of a line segment
Vector: a directed line segment.

v2 >

## Graphic Organizer Note Taking: 20 minutes

o The class will watch a video on vectors and how to find their magnitude which
o As the video is playing, students will take notes on provided graphic organizer
(following) and the video will be paused after key points so that there is time to
write in information.
The 5 important ideas of the video will be discussed as a class and stated
for the students; however, students can choose what/how supporting
information is written on their organizers.
Differentiation: Fill in all 5 headings as well as a few of the key points to
each idea.
o Once the video is over show students a few examples of vectors on the board
and have them work out the magnitudes of them as practice. Most students, if
not all, have experience with the distance formula so they will most likely catch
on quickly.

## Practice Problems: 20-25 minutes

o Students will work on practice problems that will be handed in at the end of
class as a form of assessment for understanding. (Beginning on Pg. 457) All of
these problems will be real world modeling scenarios that are represented
through vectors.

## Explanation of Literacy Strategies/Skills:

This lesson also begins by the review/covering of important vocabulary words and
formulas for students to know. These defined words will be added to the classroom word wall
23

## as a reference for students throughout the unit. Vocabulary study in a mathematics

classroom, especially in early lessons in a unit, is essential for student understanding of the
material. Without an understanding of formulas and frequently used words, students may not
have a solid understanding of mathematical processes and ideas.
Once the vocabulary has been discussed students will be provided with a graphic
organizer in order to take notes on the video they will be watching in class. As the video is
paused for note taking, the key points of the video will be discussed/revealed to students.
These will go in the heading spots of the graphic organizer. After that, students can choose to
write down information on those topics in whatever way they pleasegraphically/with
visuals, algebraic examples, words and definitions, etc. This allows students to stay on track
with the main ideas while still expressing some creativity when it comes to their note making.
By being provided with the opportunity to be creative in their note taking, students may be
able to retain the information that is learned a little better. They will also be able to
strengthen their skills of determining what is and is not important information to write down
when taking notes.

24

## Secondary Lesson Plan Template

Topic:
Vector operations and direction angles

Pre-calculus

Length of class:
50 Minutes

LEARNING GOALS
Students will consider the necessary skills to apply their knowledge of vectors.
Students will participate in a GIST activity in order to learn material.
Students will create a short story involving vectors.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Students will be able to perform vector addition and scalar multiplication of vectors.
Students will be able to determine the direction angle of a vector.
Students will be able to apply vector operations and direction angles to real-world
problems in order to solve them.
STANDARDS
Perform operations on vectors. (N-VM.B)
Solve problems involving velocity and other quantities that can be represented by
vectors. (N-VM.A.3) (DOK 1,2)
MATERIALS NEEDED:
Textbook
Pencil and Paper

25

LEARNING PLAN

Launch: 5-10
o Students will read the short poem Diary of a Salmon by Daniel Carter.
It can be found at:
http://www.poetrysoup.com/poem/diary_of_a_salmon_760724
This poem will provide students with the information that salmon,
unlike other fish, swim upstream and against the current. This means
that the current effects them differently than it would other fish and
that the current is acting as a force to slow the fish down. This
information will be useful once students have all of the tools to solve
the problem posed below.
o Students will then be asked to solve the following problem: During part of
its migration, a salmon is swimming at 6mph, and the current is flowing at 3
mph at an angle of 7. How fast is the salmon moving?
o As of right now, students dont have the tools to answer that question. Once
they realize this they will brainstorm what information they might need in
order to solve this problem.
o Possible answers for needed information:
How the rate of the current effects the speed of the salmonif at all.
How to model the situation using visuals or numbers.
How the angle of the fish effects its speed?

Lesson:10-15 minutes
o Students will do a Generating Interactions between Schemata and
Text (GIST) activity with their textbook.
pages 458 and 459 as well the information about direction angles on pages
460 and 461. As they read, they will need to write down any information
that they think is important to understanding both vector addition/scalar
multiplication and finding direction angles.
o Once they are finished the class will collaborate on a final GIST of the
text.
o Differentiation: Provide students with a graphic organizer to take notes while
reading so that they can organize key points and information.

## In class problems: 10 minutes

o Students will apply what they have learned the past 2 days to a few real
world example problems using vectors.
o During part of its migration, a salmon is swimming at 6mph, and the current
is flowing at 3 mph at an angle of 7. How fast is the salmon moving?
Vector of current= <.37, -2.98>
Velocity vector of salmon= <0,6>
Net velocity vector is therefore <.37, 3.02>
The speed of the salmon is the magnitude of the velocity
vector=3.04mph
o

## A jet is flying on a bearing of 65 at 500 mph. Find the component form of

the velocity of the airplane. (Recall that the bearing is the angle that the line
26

## of travel makes with due north, measured clockwise)

500 mph=magnitude of the vector, bearing of 65 means that the
direction angle is 25. <43.15, 211.31>
o

Erika and Jack are out on a river boat tour of the Mississippi river. They were
having so much fun that they lost track of time. It is now 4:50pm and they
need to be somewhere for dinner at 6pm. The restaurant they are headed to
is up river about 55 miles. If a boat is traveling up river at 50 mph at a
bearing of 5 and the river current is flowing at a rate of 2 mph, will Erika
and Jack make it to dinner on time?
Vector of current: <.174, -1.99>
Velocity vector of Boat: <0, 50>
Net velocity vector is therefore <.174, 48.00>
The speed of the boat with the currents effect is about 48.00mph
It would take the boat 68 minutes and 45 seconds to reach their
destination and since they have 70 minutes to get there they will just
make it in time.

## Task: The rest of class/homework

o Students will write a short story involving vectors/outside force acting
upon other vectors/a moving object.
o The story will involve 3 different instances of this effect with enough info for
classmates to solve these stories.
o Students will also need to work out a solution to their story problem.
o For example, a story about 2 boats sailing course could be used. They would
need to discuss how fast the boats were going and in what direction. One of
the boats would need to change course at least once in order to fit the
requirements. But perhaps the story concludes on a cliffhanger of whether
or not the two boats would crash into each other and it is up to the reader to
figure out if they did or not.

## Explanation of Literacy Strategies/Skills:

At the end of this lesson students should be able to apply what they have learned
about vectors to real-world scenarios. In order to learn the necessary information,
students will do a GIST activity where they read their textbook then write down the main
points of the information that they read. I would not anticipate this material being overly
difficult for a pre-calculus student; however, at the end of the allotted time the class will
come together and make sure that everyone understands the key points from the text.
The GIST activity will help students attain the essential elements of information before
they put that information into practice so that when they eventually need to solve
problems they will feel more confident in their ability.
Once students have had the opportunity to put these skills to practice, they will then
be tasked with writing their own story problems involving vectors. By writing their own
story problems, students are engaging with the material in a way that is different than
before. They are being allowed to get creative by writing their story on whatever topic
they would like, but are still working with the topics of vectors to cement the idea that
they have been working with. By writing and solving their own problems, students will
also have opportunities to identify any misconceptions that they may have about solving
these types of problems.
27

Diary of a Salmon
Daniel Carter
Day 1
on his way to Prince William Sound.
He protested that I go downstream.
But to the current he is bound.
Day 2
I encountered a fly on the surface.
But it was the ploy of a man.
To eat me was his plan.
My escape did him a disservice.
Day 3
Today I came across a bear.
By accident I entered her lair.
Her approaches, she kept deploying.
And her cubs were winy and annoying.
Day 4
An assault from an eagle came upon me.
From above, the attack I did not see.
A glare threw him off by an inch.
Certainly, Im lucky to be free
28

Day 5
Today the river was crowded,
by comrades going to the same place.
Because of them my passage was shrouded.
And I couldnt get them out of my face.
Day 6
My journey has been long.
Against the current, one must be strong.
The objective of my journey may end in vain.
At least, unlike others, I went against the grain.

## Copyright Daniel Carter | Year Posted 2016

Secondary Lesson Plan Template
Topic:

Pre-Calculus

Length of class:
50 minutes

LEARNING GOALS:
Students will be more familiar with and review the unit circle.
Students will understand the relationship between angle measures in the form of degrees
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Students will be able to label a unit circle with angle measures in the form of radians and
degrees.
Students will be able to examine and understand the relationship/equivalency between
Students will be able to use the Unit Circle and landmark angle measures as a tool for
estimating the measure of angles.
STANDARDS:
Extend the domain of trigonometric functions using the unit circle (F-TF.A)
Understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle
29

## subtended by the angle. (F-TF.A.1) (DOK 1)

MATERIALS NEEDED:
Blank Unit Circle graphic organizer for students
Elmoto show students where to fill things in on the circle as they follow along
Angle measure cards (3 or more sets)each set with different difficulties.
Colored tape to make a unit circle on the floor
Word wall cards
LEARNING PLAN

## Launch: 5-10 minutes

o Review concepts and vocabulary of the unit circle. Add the ones that are
most important for this unit to the word wall.
Pi/2Pi and where they fall on the unit circle
Sine/Cosine/Tangent (and how to find it on the unit circle)

## Unit Circle Lesson: 15 minutes

o Pass out blank copies of the unit circle graphic organizer and explain to
students that they will be filling in angle measures as well as important
characteristics of them.
Work through labeling the unit circle in degrees first, prompting
students to give the answers of where the degrees are (this should be
mostly review).
Move on to filling in the radians of those same spots. Again,
prompting students to recall what these are and where they go.
Finally, find the sine, cosine, and tangent values for the angle
measures that are labelled.
Most of this should be review, although students might get stuck on
the sine, cosine, and tangent calculations.

## Unit Circle Assessment: 25-30 minutes

o Once students have their unit circle filled in, pass out 1 card to each student
with a different angle measure written on it (make sure there is an even
mixture of degree measures and radian measures).
o Have students use these cards to work together and organize themselves
around a large scale unit circle that has been formed on the floor in tape.
The only values that are pre-marked on the circle are 0/360 degrees (0/2pi
o Once students have organized themselves in order around the circle, check
their answers and see if they are in the correct order, if they are not, prompt
students to rearrange themselves into the correct order using questioning:
Are you sure these are all in the correct spot?
How can you use the people around you to determine if you are
30

o
o
o

correct or not?
What other things can you use to determine if you are correct?
Retrieve the cards from students, shuffle them up, and repeat this process
as many times as necessary. (until students can confidently choose where
they should be along the circle.)
After that, replace those angle measure cards with more difficult to place
numbers as well as measures of sine, cosine, and tangent. (Example:
Sin()=1; 90 degrees is the answer)
Differentiation: If students catch on much faster than expected then the
class can be broken into two groups and those groups could race each other.
If they end up in different orders, then students can debate/reason out
which side is correct and which side is not.

## Explanation of Literacy Strategies/Skills

Once again, the vocabulary in this lesson will be reviewed, defined, and placed upon
the classroom word wall to serve as a reference to students. Once that is taken care of,
students will be given another graphic organizer to use; however, this one does not allow
for much creativity of information as there are correct answers in terms of what
information goes where and what it looks like. Students can use the unit circle as a study
resource as knowing how to label angle measures as well as knowing the values of their
since, cosine, and tangent are things that will be necessary to know later in this unit and
even in the rest of pre-calculus.

31

32

## Secondary Lesson Plan Template

Topic:
Plotting Points in the Polar Coordinate
System

Pre-Calculus

Length of class:
50 Minutes

LEARNING GOALS:
Students will complete an exploration activity on plotting polar coordinates.
Students will use what they learn about plotting polar coordinates to play a connect 4
type of game.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Students will be able to interpret polar functions enough to find values to graph when
given an equation.
Students will be able to plot points in the polar coordinate system.
STANDARDS:
Represent complex numbers and their operations on the complex plane. (N-CN.B)
Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form
(including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms
of a given complex number represent the same number. (N-CN.B.4) (DOK 1,2)
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual
form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or
mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.9-10.7
MATERIALS NEEDED:
Laptops/tablets/computer lab access
Red and black pens
Polar Coordinates Exploration sheets
Polar Coordinates Connect 4 sheets
LEARNING PLAN

33

## Launch: 5-10 minutes

o The class will quickly review graphing strategies in the Cartesian
(rectangular) plane as those strategies are the same ones that should be
used when it comes to graphing functions in the Polar Plane with those
coordinates.
When asked to graph a function but the function itself is all youre
given, you choose values for the variable (x) and plug them in to get
values out (y).
Keeping track of these values in a type of chart is easy to read and
graph.

## Ex: the function is y- x

16

25

36

49

o Once students have sufficiently reviewed Cartesian graphing techniques,
they will be given an exploration task (following) on how to plot points in the
polar plane.
o After everyone has completed the exploration, the class will come together
to discuss the results.
Students will share out answers and ideas to identify any
misunderstandings that students might have.

## Connect 4 Game: 15 minutes

o Students will conclude the class by finding a partner to play a polar graphing
version of the game connect 4 with(following).
o Students will need to label each move that they make as well as list the
coordinates that they intended to plot.
This will help identify any students who think they understand where
points should be plotted but may not actually put them in the correct
spot.

## Explanation of Literacy Strategies/Skills

I believe that during this lesson, students are benefiting from the strategy of text
the general understanding, structure, and meaning of elements in the text. In a nontraditional sense, text here is referring to the online graphing utility Desmos; however, I
believe that the strategy still translates well. Through the questions in this exploration,
students are able to discover the properties of graphing polar coordinates without being
explicitly told how to do it. This will help students form deeper connections with the
material that they are learning.

34

Name_______________
Graphing Polar Coordinates:
In this exploration you will be examining the polar plane as well as learning
how to plot points in the polar plane. To begin, go to the following website:
https://www.desmos.com/calculator/ulxhe9tosg
Examine the graph and information that you are given, what are 3
observations that you can make based on what you see?
1.

2.

3.

Move the r, a, s, and b sliders around. What do you notice about them? What
happens when you move each one?/What do those sliders control?

35

What do you think the (r cos(a), r sin(a)) and the (s cos(b), s sin(b)) are
doing? Why do you think that?
Set r=1 and a=90. What do you notice about the points on the graph in
relation to the (r cos(a), r sin(a))?

## In the Cartesian Coordinate System (the x, y plane) you plot an x-coordinate

and a y-coordinate and points are written in an ordered pair (x, y).
In the Polar Coordinate System, which is being displayed on the website you
are exploring, you plot an angle and a radius and points are written as (r, ).
In polar coordinates r is a directed distance and theta is the angle from
the positive x-axis and is measure in a counter-clockwise direction.
In the Cartesian coordinate system, each point only has 1 name, such as (-2,
4), (6, -17), etc. No two points in that system can be named something
different yet be plotted in the same spot.
In the Polar Coordinate System; however, a point can be represented by
many different names yet be plotted in the same spot. For example, look at
the graph below.
If you were to list the
coordinates of point A, you
would most likely say that it

## is at (1, 6 ) or (1, 30).

It is important to remember
that for the Polar Coordinate
System, points can be
plotted after any number of
rotations around the unit
circle.
For example, point A could
also technically be at (-1,
7
11
),
(1,
), (1,
6
6
Looking at the graph above:
What are 4 different ways to write coordinates for B?

36

_______________

_______________
_______________
_______________
What are 4 different ways to write coordinates for C?
_______________

_______________
_______________
_______________
What are 4 different ways to write coordinates for D?
_______________

_______________
_______________

_______________

## Connect 4 with Polar Coordinates

Name of Player One (Black)______________________
Name of Player Two (Red)_______________________
Each player will take turns plotting points to try to get 4 points of the same color in a row. The
other player will need to plot points to block their opponent from getting 4 in a row while also
trying to plot 4 points of their color in a row. Be sure to write down and label the coordinates
you and your partner plotted while playing each round.

37

38

## Secondary Lesson Plan Template

Topic:
Converting Polar and Rectangular
Coordinates

Pre-Calculus

Length of class:
50 minutes

LEARNING GOALS
Students will take notes and learn the process of polar and rectangular coordinate
conversion through the use of their textbook and learning from each other.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Students will be able to convert given coordinates in a polar plane to those in a
rectangular plane.
39

## Students will be able to convert given coordinates in a rectangular plane to those in a

polar plane.
STANDARDS
Represent complex numbers and their operations on the complex plane. (N-CN.B)
Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form
(including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms
of a given complex number represent the same number. (N-CN.B.4) (DOK 1,2)
MATERIALS NEEDED:
Textbook
Paper and Pencil
Math journals (kept in classroom)
LEARNING PLAN

Launch: 5 minutes
o Quickly review how to list and plot polar coordinates as was discussed in the
previous days lesson.
o Ask students how those coordinates might compare to the types of
coordinate plots that we are used to. (rectangular coordinates)
Jigsaw Part 1: 15 minutes
o Half of the class will learn how to convert polar to rectangular coordinates
while the other half will learn how to convert from rectangular to polar
coordinates.
Those converting polar to rectangular will start on page 488 of their
textbook.
Those converting rectangular to polar will start on page 489 of their
textbook.
o Students will write down the process for conversion, taking important notes
as they go along. They will also write down 3 examples (besides the ones
provided in their assigned reading section) to use as tools when they later
teach their peers.
Those converting polar to rectangular will choose 3 examples from
questions 15-22 on page 492.
Those converting rectangular to polar will choose 3 examples from
questions 27-30 on page 492. (only using the constraints of part a)
o Once they have solved their example problems, they will need to be
checked with the teacher for correctness before moving on.
Jigsaw Part 2: 15 minutes
o Students will get together in groups of 42 students who studied polar to
rectangular coordinate conversion and 2 who studied rectangular to polar
coordinate conversion.
o Students will then teach each other the methods of conversion that they
40

explanation.

## Math Journal: 10 minutes

o Students will write in their math journals responding to the prompt: How
well were you able to interpret the information given in your textbook? Was
it hard to teach other students after just learning the material? Why or why
not?
o This will allow for an informal assessment of the students ability to read and
understand our textbook/mathematical language and if any students had
major problems, those can be addressed the following day.

## Explanation of Literacy Strategies/Skills

Now that students know how to graph polar coordinates, it is important that they
know how to convert from rectangular coordinates (those on the Cartesian plane) to polar
coordinates (those on the polar plane). I decided to use a jigsaw strategy for this lesson
because when it comes to coordinate conversion, once you understand how one way
works it is pretty easy to understand how to convert back the other way. Since the
material shouldnt be too hard for pre-calculus students to catch on to, I thought I would
give them a collaborative/social aspect to what they were learning. This is especially
helpful because students will get to see as many examples as they want/need since each
group should have at least three different ones to share and they will also each have (at
least) one other person to talk to/ask questions to before they present their information
to their peers.
Once students are done with their task for the day they are asked to reflect on the
process in their math journals. Math journals are a great way to informally assess how a
student is doing and how they are feeling about the material that is being covered as
they are not as shy to express themselves on paper as they are face to face.

## Secondary Lesson Plan Template

41

Topic:
The Unit Circle and Converting
Polar/Rectangular Coordinates Quiz Review

Pre-Calculus

Length of class:
50 Minutes

LEARNING GOALS
Students will do a review activity to recall the unit circle properties as well as practice
converting coordinates.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Students will be able to correctly identify angle measures on the unit circle.
Students will be able to correctly calculate the sine, cosine, and tangent of the angle
measures on the unit circle.
Students will be able to convert from polar to rectangular coordinates and vice versa.
STANDARDS:
Extend the domain of trigonometric functions using the unit circle (F-TF.A)
Understand radian measure of an angle as the length of the arc on the unit circle
subtended by the angle. (F-TF.A.1) (DOK 1)
Represent complex numbers and their operations on the complex plane. (N-CN.B)
Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form
(including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms
of a given complex number represent the same number. (N-CN.B.4) (DOK 1,2)
MATERIALS NEEDED:
I have, who has? Cards
Wipeout Cards
LEARNING PLAN

Launch:
o Students will be asked to take out their notes on the unit circle and vectors.
They will spend 5 silent minutes looking over and refreshing their memory
on those topics before the review activities.

## Review Game Number 1:

o The class will participate in a game of I have, who has? to review the
unit circle.
o Students will all be given an answer of an angle measure (in degrees or
radians) as well as a sine, cosine, or tangent problem to solve.

42

o
o
o

The first student starts by listing their problem. Example: Who has the
The student whose card reads 60 then says I have 60, who has the
This continues on until the person who first shared their equation is able to

## Review Game Number 2:

o Students will complete a wipeout activity to convert polar coordinates to
rectangular coordinates and vice versa.
o Students will be put into team of 3 or 4 based on their skill level.
1 lower student
1-2 average students
o Practice problems will be written on cards and each card will have a different
number on the back. Teams will work together to solve each problem (order
doesnt matter) to eventually wipe out all of the problems. A competition
aspect can be given to it to see which team completes it first.

## Explanation of Literacy Strategies/Skills

The vocabulary strategy of I have, who has? is extremely useful, even when not
explicitly practicing vocabulary. I think that this strategy works well in a math classroom
as it can be used in terms of math problems and answers. By utilizing this strategy,
students will be able to get a comprehensive review of the unit circle and the solutions to
its trigonometric functions without the need to sit down and memorize the unit circle or
solve problem after problem on paper. This strategy encourages students to pay
attention to the review session and participate by solving every problem that is said out
loud because if not, they might miss when their answer is called which would stall the
process.

43

## Secondary Lesson Plan Template

Topic:
Limacon Polar Curves

Pre-Calculus

Length of class:
50 minutes

LEARNING GOALS:
Students will become familiar with the different types of a limacon polar curve as well as
its general forms.
Students will have a working understanding of rectangular and polar forms and how they
can represent the same number.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Students will be able to apply what they know about graphs in the rectangular plane to
graphs in the polar plane.
Students will be able to identify the different types of a limacon curve.
Students will be able to generalize the forms of polar graphs after exploration and
examples.
STANDARDS:
Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form
(including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms
of a given complex number represent the same number. (N-CN.4.)
Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking
measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on
explanations in the text.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.11-12.3
Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual
form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or
mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RST.9-10.7
MATERIALS NEEDED:
Limacon polar graph exploration activity
Computers/tablets/internet access

44

LEARNING PLAN

## Launch: 5-10 minutes

o Students will do a Think, Pair, Share to the question What are the
important characteristics to look for while graphing an equation? Make a list
of these characteristics.
First students will think to themselves and write down some ideas.
After two minutes or so, they will turn to their partner and discuss
their ideas. After three minutes or so, face front and be ready to share
with the class.
o The class will come up with a comprehensive list of ideas and review what
those ideas mean.

## Limacon Graph exploration: 40-45 minutes

o Students will do an exploration activity based on the Limacon polar graphs
using the lab following this and www.desmos.com/calculator.
o The lab will ask students to discover the general form of limacon curves, the
4 different types of limacon curves, symmetry, as well as the same function
in rectangular coordinates.
or (if there is not time at the end of class) answers will be discussed during
the next class.

## Explanation of Literacy Strategies/Skills

Similar to how I used it before, the Think/Pair/Share strategy will be used in a way that
allows students to collaborate in order to access prior knowledge and come up with a
comprehensive list of characteristics to look for when graphing equations. This allows for
them to draw on the memories of two students instead of one, which will hopefully lead
to a quickly put together list. Once the class collaborates, that list will be used to
reference throughout the exploration activity that students will be doing.
I feel that this lesson is another spot where the text dependent questioning strategy is
being utilized. Again, the text that is being referred to is an online graphing resource;
observations based on how they interact with this text. By doing this, they are able to
draw their own conclusions and interact with the material they are being asked to learn
in a more meaningful way.

45

## Polar Graph Exploration: The Limacon Curve

Use the following website to explore the different properties of a Limacon Curve.
The website is https://www.desmos.com/calculator
Type in the following functions:
a. r = 3+2sin()
b. r = 6+4sin()
c. r = 4+4sin()
What are some general characteristics of a Limacon Curve? Sketch it below.

The Limacon Curve can be divided up into four different graph types.
a. Limacon with an inner loop-- When
b. Cardioid-- When

a
b

a
b

)<1

)=1

## c. Dimpled Limacon-- When 1 <

d. Convex Limacon-- When

a
b

(
)

a
b

)<2
2

Sketch the graphs below and label them with the proper term above. (Hint: in the
first example, a=5 and b=4)
a. r = 5 + 4 sin ()

46

b. r = 7 + 7 sin ()

c. r = 8 + 2 sin ()

d. r = 2 + 3 sin ()

## The general form of the function is: ___________________________________________

Because:
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
If you replace Sin() with Cos(), how does the graph change? Pick one of the
graphs that you drew above and sketch the graph as well as the Cos() version of
that graph. How does the graph change?
Sine Graph

Cosine Graph
47

Describe the transformation occurring between the sine graph to the cosine graph.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Is the Limacon Curve Symmetrical about the x-axis, y-axis, and origin? (Hint: Pay
attention to when the function contains sin or cos.)
a. The y-axis? If so, when?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
b. The x-axis? If so, when?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
c. The origin? If so, when?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Compare and Contrast the Graphs in DIFFERENT planes
Create an example of an equation of a Limacon Curve. Graph it in the Polar Plane.
My equation is _____________________________________________________________
In the Polar plane is looks like

48

Now graph this equation in the rectangular plane. Sketch the graph in the space
below.

## Analyze the graph in the rectangular plane. Find the

a. Maximum and Minimum: __________________________________________________
b. Domain: __________________________________________________________________
c. Range: ____________________________________________________________________
d. Altitude: __________________________________________________________________
e. Period: ____________________________________________________________________
Do these characteristics relate to any of the characteristics of the graph in the polar
plane? If so, which ones? How do they relate? Explain your answer.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

49

## Secondary Lesson Plan Template

Topic:
Lemniscate and Rose Polar Curves

Pre-Calculus

Length of class:
50 minutes

LEARNING GOALS:
Students will have a working understanding of rectangular and polar forms and how they
can represent the same number.
Students will see how polar graphs can be used to simulate a real world application of
stained glass window design.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Students will be able to identify the different types of polar curves as well as their general
form.
Using the equation given, students will be able to predict the graph of the polar function
or vice versa.
STANDARDS:
Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form
(including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms
of a given complex number represent the same number. (N-CN.4.)

MATERIALS NEEDED:
Rose Curve Note Sheet
Lemniscate Note Sheet
Crayon/colored pencils/markers
Graph Paper

LEARNING PLAN

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## Launch: 5-10 minutes

o The class will quickly review the limacon curve, its four different forms, as
well as its general equation that was discussed the day before.

## Guided Note Taking: 20 minutes

o Students will use the provided note sheets to fill in important information
about the rose curve and lemniscate polar graphs. These are modeled in a
similar way to the guided discovery sheet they used the lesson prior.
o Students made a lot of important observations and conclusions about polar
curves in general during their exploration the day before (although they
probably do not realize that). The guided note taking is meant to help them
apply it to the two other types of polar curves.

o Students will apply their knowledge of polar graph shapes to design a
stained glass window using polar graphs.
o They will design their windows using www.desmos.com/calculator then
sketching it onto graph paper and coloring it however they would like.
o Requirements:
There must be three different types of graphs (i.e. cardioid limacon,
lemniscate, and convex limacon) with 8 graphs total.
Each graph needs to have its general form stated as well as the
adapted equation used for the design along with a reasoning as to how
their adaptions changed the orientation of the equation. (example: the
original function is r = a + b sin () and the adapted equation is r = 5 4 sin (). A negative was placed so that the orientation of that
equation would be upside-down.
o Students will do anything they dont finish as homework due the day of their
test. (Would be the 11th day of the unit)

## Explanation of Literacy Strategies/Skills

Instead of following along as the instructor lectures, students will be given 2 outlines
one on the Lemniscate curve and one on the Rose curveto use to take guided notes
with. Students have already made a lot of the necessary connections through the
exploration they did before, now they just need to realize how it can be applied. I felt like
it was important to give students a guided note sheet so that they could focus on the
material being discussed instead of worrying about what is and is not important to write
down or how the information should be formatted.

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## Polar Graph Exploration-The Lemniscate

Curve:
Sketch the graphs of the following equations as theyre shown on the board

r2

32

sin(2)

r2

52

sin (2)

r2

= 4 sin (2)

## The general form of the function is: ___________________________________________

One key factor when graphing the lemniscate
is_______________________________
The a number in the equation effects________________________________________
The b number in the equation effects________________________________________
What is special about the b number in the lemniscate curve?

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Sine Graph

r2

32

sin(2)

Cosine Graph

r2

32

cos(2)

Describe the transformation occurring between the sine graph to the cosine graph.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Is the Lemniscate Curve Symmetrical about the x-axis, y-axis, and origin? (Hint:
Pay attention to when the function contains sine or cosine.)
a. The y-axis? If so, when?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
b. The x-axis? If so, when?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
c. The origin? If so, when?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Create an example of an equation of a Lemniscate Curve. Graph it in the polar
plane.
My equation is _____________________________________________________________
In the polar plane is looks like
53

Now graph this equation in the rectangular plane. Sketch the graph in the space
below.

## Analyze the graph in the rectangular plane. Find the

a. Maximum and Minimum: __________________________________________________
b. Domain: __________________________________________________________________
c. Range: ____________________________________________________________________
d. Altitude: __________________________________________________________________
e. Period: ____________________________________________________________________
If any, what characteristics of the rectangular and polar plane relate? Why?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

## Polar Graph Exploration-The Rose Curve:

Sketch the graphs of the following equations as theyre shown on the board
r = 4 sin (3)

r = 3 sin (4)

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r = 6 sin (2)

## The general form of the function is: ___________________________________________

The a number in the equation effects________________________________________
The b number in the equation effects________________________________________
How can you tell how many petals a rose curve contains by just looking at an
equation?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
How can one tell how long a petal is by just looking at the equation?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
Sine Graph-- r = 7 sin (5)

## Cosine Graph-- r = 7 cos (5)

Describe the transformation occurring between the sine graph to the cosine graph.

55

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
Is the Rose Curve symmetrical about the x-axis, y-axis, and origin? (Hint: When
answering these questions pay attention to when the number of petals is
even or odd. Also pay attention to when the function contains sine or
cosine).
a. The y-axis? If so, when?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
b. The x-axis? If so, when?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
c. The origin? If so, when?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Come up with an example of an equation of a Rose Curve. Graph it in the polar
plane.
My equation is _____________________________________________________________
In the polar plane is looks like

Now graph this equation in the rectangular plane. Sketch the graph in the space
below.

## Analyze the graph in the rectangular plane. Find the

a. Maximum and Minimum: __________________________________________________
b. Domain: __________________________________________________________________
c. Range: ____________________________________________________________________
d. Altitude: __________________________________________________________________
56

e. Period: ____________________________________________________________________
If any, what characteristics of the rectangular and polar plane relate? Why?

## Secondary Lesson Plan Template

Topic:
Unit Test Review

Pre-Calculus

Length of class:
50 Minutes

LEARNING GOALS:
Students will review the topics discussed in this unit to prepare for an end of the unit
test.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
Students will be able to identify important functions and polar curves.
Students will be able to solve problems involving vectors.
Students will be able to convert polar and rectangular coordinates.
Students will be able to fully label a blank unit circle.
STANDARDS:
All standards covered in this unit of math so far.

57

MATERIALS NEEDED:
Activity sheets/cards for each group on each topic.

LEARNING PLAN

Launch:
o Students will be broken up into groups of four to work with for the day.
Students will be paired by mixed-ability level.

Test Review:
o Students will move with their groups around the room to different stations
and complete test review questions on the topics covered in this unit.
o Students will work through each question together, but will keep track of
their own answers on their own paper as they go from station to station.
Students will be told to keep track of the question number and answer
as theyll be given all of these questions once the activity is over so
o

## Station 1: Students will be asked to identify and match different functions to

their graphs as well as different polar functions to their polar curves. In
some cases, students will be asked to produce the graph of the function or
the function associated with the graph.
Students will need to pay attention to the functions as some in the
rectangular plane will look the same as some in the polar plane, yet
their graphs will be completely different.

## Station 2: Students will complete problems involving vectors. Most of these

will be story problems where students will need to attend to detail and make
sure that they solve the problems corrects. There will also be a few straight
conversions of the magnitudes of vectors as well as a few problems asking
for vectors to be written in component form.

Station 3: Students will review their quizzes and make any quiz corrections
necessary on the problems they missed. The quiz covered the unit circle as
well as conversion of polar/rectangular coordinates so this will serve as their
review for those 2 topics.
Differentiation: If a student did not miss any questions on their quiz
then there will be some cards/problems for them to do on converting
coordinates while their group members complete their quiz
corrections.

## The stations can be repeated to accommodate a larger class size.

Station 1A and 1B will be the same, 2A and 2B will be the
same, etc. and students will rotate within their letter.

## Explanation of Literacy Strategies/Skills

I think that the use of learning stations is the most useful strategy to review before a
large test like this. This unit covered a lot of topics that (although they build upon each
58

other) are different enough that students might feel overwhelmed. By breaking up the
information learned into smaller review groups, students can work on one aspect of the
unit at a time. By mixing the ability levels in their group pairings, students who are
struggling to understand the material can ask their peers for help while those that are
not struggling still get to review by helping others work through the problems (if
necessary.)

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